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# Chapter 1.

SEISMIC
PRINCIPLES



-Chapter 1

SEISMIC PRINCIPLES

FIG. 1-1 COMPONENTS OF STRESS
In the above figure, the stress acting upon the faces can be resolved into
components. xy denotes stress parallel to the x- axis and perpendicular to y –axis.
The stress with the same subscripts is known as normal stress, and with different
subscripts are as shearing stress.
Strain:
Strain can be defines as the change occurred in shape and dimension due to
stress. There are certain fundamental type of strain, e.g. normal strain and shearing
strain.
Dilatation:
by .

The change in volume per unit volume is called dilatation and it is represented
Hook’s Law:

Within elastic limit, stress is proportional to strain. If we define Hook’s Law in
isotropic media, we get:
ii =  + 2 ii,

i = x,y,z

Where  and  are known as Lame’s constant.
Elastic constant:
Young’s modulus,

E = xx /xx

EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS FOR GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER

1–1

P. SEISMIC PRINCIPLES  For most materials. where wave equation comes in to remove that restrictions. we denote =.: propagation in –Z direction EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS FOR GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER Course Instructor: DR. the following relations can be obtained. Poisson’s ratio .Chapter 1. (2) Solution: ψ = ei(wt – kz z) = cos(wt-kzz) + i sin (wt-kzz) ……………………………(3) kz : wave number of Z component + : propagation in +Z direction . Rock particles deformation motion components using Laplacian transformation: ∂2ψ/∂t2 = 2ψ = ∂2 ψ /∂x2 + ∂2 ψ /∂y2 + ∂2 ψ /∂z2 …………………………. and rotational is =c along the x-axis. Prihadi S.  = yy = zz xx xx Under hydrostatic pressure. xx = yy = zz = -P xy = yz = zx = 0 Bulk modulus. E is of the order of a mega bar (1012 dyne/cm2). ii =  ..A. E = (3 + 2) ( + ) . When the disturbance () is in terms of volume change. The above is geometrical aspect of waves. K = 3 + 2 3 Above relations are strictly within static equilibrium state. 2( + ) . K = -P/ Substituting these values into the Hook’s law. 1–2 . K.(1) In one dimension Z in the second law of Newton of motion equation: 1/V2∂2 ψ /∂t2 = ∂2 ψ /∂z2 …………………………………………………. Seismic Wave Wave is a ‘disturbance’ which travels through the media. is the ratio of the pressure to the dilatation.  is also the function of time (t).

1/2 Thus. where k is wave number. He following terms are frequently used in seismic survey.A. Prihadi S.Vt). Wave length. the S wave ranges from zero up to 70% of P wave velocity. longitudinal.  = V/ Type of Seismic Waves: a) Body wave (P wave and S wave) b) Surface wave (rayleigh and Love wave) P wave is known by various name such as dilatational. P wave is defined as.or compressional.     is always larger than . 1–3 . rotational wave is the second event observed in an earthquake records. transverse. S wave is defined as. SEISMIC PRINCIPLES  Assumption: Homogeneous isotropic medium The simplest form of time variation can be expressed by sine or cosine.  = 1/k.  = B/r cos 2k (r + Vt) Where A or B/r means the amplitude of the wave (). = ½ . value increase up to maximum value. It is the first event during an earthquake recording. irrotational. Frequency. such as:  = A cos 2 k (x – Vt).  = A sin 2k (1x + my + nz .  =  + 2  S wave or shear. k = 2/ T = /V Period. If B/d =  . =   + 2  . + 2 1- As  tend to zero. 2 =2 / 2 =  x  . EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS FOR GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER Course Instructor: DR.Chapter 1.

which cancel with each other as they are out of phase. It is very seldom to get the Love wave in the course of seismic prospecting because only vertical ground motion is recorded. sum of n random signal is proportional to n because random noise is out of phase. Common depth point method is widely used and is very effective in cancelling several kinds of noise. For the interpretation purpose. Propagation of the Love wave is horizontal and transverse with the speed of S wave. The amplitude of the Rayleigh waves decreases exponentially with depth. SEISMIC PRINCIPLES  S wave does not propagate through fluids. However. there are two types of information. Whereas sum of n. 1-2 WAVE FRONTS AND RAYS Wavefronts are the expanding spheres of energy emanating from the source.Chapter 1. Approximately. Surface waves are usually found in reflection records with velocities ranging from 100 – 1. closely spaced geophones will give some extent coherent look incoherent noise or random noise. as  = 0. In case of random noise. signal and noise. the surface waves are essential to eliminate during recording and processing. Wave Fronts and Ray FIG. Coherent Noise follows across few traces. Prihadi S. Therefore. whereas incoherent noise is dissimilar on all traces. Seismic Noise In seismic records. EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS FOR GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER Course Instructor: DR. Love wave is taken up during the earthquake seismology observation. Surface wave include Rayleigh waves or Love waves known as ground roll.A. 1–4 .coherent in phase signal is equal to n. which travel along the free surface of the solid materials.000 m/sec. S/N = n / n = n Attenuation of noise is done by adding several random noise.

elasticity theory becomes more complicated without these assumptions. The elastic properties of matter are described by elastic constant formula as follows: EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS FOR GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER Course Instructor: DR. The connecting lines form a ray. that wave fronts are perpendicular to the ray at all points. and are perpendicular to the wavefronts. 1-3 SPHERICAL DIVERGENCE Elasticity Seismic exploration naturally depends on the propagation of waves in elastic media.Chapter 1. If we begin at the source and connect points on successive wave fronts by perpendicular lines. We shall consider the elastic properties of rocks as if they were homogeneous and isotropic. In seismic exploration the continuities in the measured effects serve to indicate any departures from uniform conditions which are interpreted in terms of depth. that is. Spherical Divergence 1/V2∂2 ψ /∂t2 = 1 ∂/∂r (r2 . Prihadi S. nature or attitude of geologic units below the surface. SEISMIC PRINCIPLES  Rays are lines that represent the direction of propagation of the wavefronts.A. 1–5 . Remember that when we use a ray diagram we are referring to the wave propagation in that particular direction.∂ ψ /∂r) r Solution is ψ = 1 f (r –Vt) r A : SPHERICAL WAVE FRONT B : PLANE WAVE FRONT ASSUME A ≈ B VALID FOR r LARGE OR NORMAL INCIDENCE SPHERICAL DIVERGENCE CORRECTION MADE IN PROCESSING FIG. which is a simple representation of a three-dimensional phenomenon. we have the directional description of the wave propagation.

2(1 .Chapter 1.2) E . 1–6 .2) (7) E = (3 + 2) ( + )  = (8)  .  2(1 + ) EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS FOR GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER Course Instructor: DR. (1 + )(1 . Vp =  k – 4/3 n   =   + 2   = density Transverse (Shear) or secondary wave or S-wave for which the motion of particles of the medium are perpendicular to the direction of propagation Velocity of S-wave is: Vs =  n/ = E 1 .2) (5) k =  + 2/3 = (6) n =  = E . = 2( + ) Where: E -1 2 k n E  .A. - (9) Bulk modulus Shear modulus (Rigidity) Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Lame’s constants Elastic wave is composed of several sorts: Body wave is the wave which is transmitted through the body of material and consisted of two waves:  Longitudinal wave or P-Wave for which the motions of the particles of medium are parallel to the direction of propagation. Prihadi S. SEISMIC PRINCIPLES   = k – 2/3 = E . (1 + )(1 .

FIG.A. The magnitude of the motion decreases with depth. 1-5 RAYLEIGH WAVE (GROUND ROLL)  Love wave (L-wave) are transverse waves propagated in surface. which depend on the wavelength and vary between that of transverse waves in the surface layer and that of transverse waves in the lower medium. 1-4.9194  / if the special case of  = ¼ Particle motion is elliptical and retrograde. and consisted of two waves:  Rayleigh waves (R) are waves at surface of semi-infinite elastic solid. COMPRESSIONAL AND SHEAR WAVES Surface wave is the wave at boundary. Prihadi S.) EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS FOR GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER Course Instructor: DR.Chapter 1. The ratio of velocities of longitudinal wave (P-wave) and transverse wave (S-wave) is: Vp = k/n + 4/3 =   Vs  + 2 =  (1 . SEISMIC PRINCIPLES  Motion characteristics Motion characteristics Compressional or P wave Rotational or Shear waves FIG. the velocity of R-wave is: VR = 0. that is the motion at the top of the ellipse is toward the source.) (1/2 . 1–7 . The motion is a sort of combination of longitudinal and transverse vibrations giving rise to an ellipsoidal motion of the particle.

designated Z.2 1. 1–8 .5773 : 0. the ratios of the velocities of the 3 types of waves are: VP : VL : VR = 1 : 0.3 1. the velocity ratios are:  Vp/Vs 0 1. normally incident on an interface between two media of differing velocities and densities. (A) NORMAL INCIDENCE (B) P AND S WAVES (A) REFLECTED AND TRANSMITTED WAVES ASSOCIATED WITH A WAVE NORMALLY INCIDENT ON AN INTERFACE OF ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE CONTRAST (B) REFLECTED AND REFRACTED P. V. SEISMIC PRINCIPLES  If  = 0. It is difficult to precisely relate acoustic impedance to tangible rock properties but. and a reflected ray of amplitude A1 returns to the source along the path of the incident ray. The acoustic impedance of a rock is the product of its density and the velocity of longitudinal or compressional seismic wave through it.5308 Reflection and Transmission Coefficients .Zoeppritzs Equation The relative portions of the energy transmitted and reflected are determined by the contrast in the acoustic impedances of the rocks on each side of the interface.25.A.4 2.AND S.45 0.1 1. Prihadi S. 1-6 ZOEPRITZ’S EQUATIONS The transmission coefficient is the ratio of the amplitude to the incident amplitude: EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS FOR GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER Course Instructor: DR.87 0.73 For other values of Poisson’s ratio. Consider a P-ray of amplitude A0.50 0.5  If  = ¼. the harder the rock the higher is the acoustic impedance. A transmitted of ray of amplitude A2 travels on through the interface in the same direction as the incident ray.41 0.WAVES GENERATED BY A P-WAVE OBLIQUELY INCIDENT ON AN INTERFACE OF ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE CONTRAST FIG.Chapter 1.63 0. the ratio will be Vp/Vs =  3 = 1.

Snells Law states that the angle  between the reflected ray and the normal to reflecting surface is equal to angle between the reflected the incident ray and the normal to reflecting surface. The converted rays contain information that can help identifying fractured zones in the reservoir rocks. however. of course. In this text.Chapter 1. In seismology. both reflected and transmitted Prays are generated as in the case of normal incidence. for which that angle of refraction is EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS FOR GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER Course Instructor: DR. we shall discuss compressional waves only. originally applied to light and optics. some of incident compressional energy is converted to the reflected and transmitted shear rays which are polarized in vertical plane. (b) A head wave is generated in the upper layer by a wave propagating through the lower layer along the boundary. 1-7 SNELL’S LAW AND CRITICAL ANGLE Critical Angle and Head Waves When the velocity is higher in the underlying layer there is a particular angle of incidence. Zoeppritzs equation gives the amplitudes of the four components as a function of the angle of incidence. applies equally well to seismic waves and the earth. known as the “critical angle”. c . 1–9 . Prihadi S. Snells Law Snells Law. SEISMIC PRINCIPLES  T = A2/A1 When a P-ray strike an interface at an angle. And part is transmitted at an angle that depends on the ratio of the velocities in the two layers.A. For a reflected ray. However. FIG. the reflecting surface is the boundary between two layers having different acoustic impedances. (A) SNELL’S LAW (B) CRITICAL ANGLE i r (A) Part of an obliquely incident ray is reflected at the angle of incidence.

The transmitted ray travels though the second layer with changed direction of propagation.Chapter 1. Prihadi S. 1 – 10 . 1-8 R Travel time = T(ERG) = t = ER + RG V0 V0 = 2  (X2/4 + h20 V0 t =  ( X2 – 4h20) V0 h0 = 1  (V20t2 – X2) 2 The portion of the incident energy that is not reflected is transmitted ray travels through the second layer. and is referred to as a refracted ray. passed up obliquely through the upper layer toward the surface. Reflection Travel Time The underlying principle of reflection method is as simple as that of calculating the distance of. Snells law of refraction states that the ratio of sine of the angle  to the velocity is a constant. (Sin 1)/V1 = (Sin 2)/V2 EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS FOR GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER Course Instructor: DR. SEISMIC PRINCIPLES  900. as shown in figure 1-7 (b). known as a “head wave”. say a wall by time required for en echo to be reflected back from the wall and the speed of propagation of sound waves. For a refracted P-ray.A. This gives rise to critically-refracted ray that travels along the interface at the higher velocity V2 with equation as follows: (Sin c/V1 = (Sin 900)/V2 c = Sin-1(V1/V2) This wave. Let’s calculate travel time and thickness of subsurface layer parallel to surface (see figure 1-8): E X G hO FIG.

In general. See figure 1-7 (a). ho.r (or 1. refraction will be determined by (see Fig.1 V0 cos0.V1 . Travel time = TE = X + V1 2 ho cos0.Chapter 1. V0 . + X . respectively.sin20.1 V1 V1 = X + 2 ho .1 V0 EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS FOR GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER Course Instructor: DR. Refraction In the refraction method of seismic prospecting. the refractions take place according to Snell’s law (see figure 2-2): i.A.V1) = EA + AB + BG V0 V1 V0 = 2 ho . the quantity observed is the time between the initiation of the seismic wave by an explosion and the first disturbance indicates by seismic detector at a measured distance from the shot point.1 V0 TE = X + 2 ho ( 1 .velocities of different medium In horizontal plane and discontinuity.2): FIG.1 V1 V0 cos0. 1 – 11 . SEISMIC PRINCIPLES  Sin 1 /Sin 2 = V1/V2 were the subscripts refer to layer 1 and layer 2.1 sin0. 1-9 TE = T(EABG) = f (x.1 ) V1 V0 cos0. 2) .1 cos0.2 h tan 0.the angles between the normal to boundary and the rays V0 .2 ho sin0. Prihadi S.

regards each point on the advancing subsurface wave as a source that generates a new wavefront. The position of the wave front at a later instant then is found by constructing a surface tangent to all secondary wavelets.A. 1 – 12 . illustrated in figure 1-13.  V21 – V20 ho = 1 I V0 V1 . Prihadi S.1 V0 ho = I V0 = I V0 2cos0. It explains one of the most important mechanism by which a propagating seismic pulse loses energy with depth. which radiate in all directions. from electromagnetic waves to seismic waves.1 2 V1 . Huygens principle. 2  V21 – V20 Huygens Principle This principles states that every point on the primary wave front surface is a source of secondary wavelets.Chapter 1. EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS FOR GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER Course Instructor: DR. This concept is a very powerful tool for understanding all types of wave propagation. SEISMIC PRINCIPLES  Thickness ho can be calculated as follows: Intercept time (I): I= 2 ho cos0.

A. from which waves. diffracted events are frequently observed on seismic records but not always recognized. Prihadi S. spread out in all directions paths which are rectilinear as long as the velocity is constant.Chapter 1. 1-13 HUYGENS PRINCIPLE Diffraction When seismic waves strike any irregularity along a surface such as a corner or a point where there is a sudden charge of curvature. 1-14 EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS FOR GEOLOGIST AND ENGINEER Course Instructor: DR. Figure 1-14 illustrates a buried corner at A. SEISMIC PRINCIPLES  Spreading primary wavefronts Secondary wavefronts FIG. The amplitude of a diffracted wave falls off rapidly with distance from the nearest point to the source. 1 – 13 . the irregular feature acts as a point source for radiating waves in all directions in accordance. FIG. exited by radiation downward from a source at the surface. A diffracted wave reaches the surface first at a point directly above the edge because the path is the shortest at this point.