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• Brick making in India is as old as the Indus Valley Civilization
• Many historical monuments: Nalanda, Sarnath, Qutub Minar, etc
show the use of bricks

Southern peninsular states with
brick kilns
Northern mountainous cities
with brick kilns
Gangeticplain states with brick

LOCATION OF BRICK KILN INDUSTRIES IN INDIA The Gangetic plains have the maximum number of brick kilns in the country and these kilns make 65% of the total production capacity .

000 registered/unregistered brick kilns in India • Annual production rate= ~240 billion bricks /year • Annual Consumption rate=~170 billion bricks/year • Projected rate by 2030=500 billion bricks • Growth rate=5-10% annually .45.PRODUCTION RATE: GLOBAL AND INDIAN PERSPECTIVE • India is the second largest producer of bricks in the world after China with an 10-11% share in the market • There are 1.


• Material Procurement: Clay is mined from open pits and stored in the open. • Moulding: The tempered clay is mostly rolled in sand (to prevent the clay from sticking to the mould) and slapped into wood or metal moulds. Open storage helps to make the clay soft and removes unwanted oxides. This clay is then mixed with water to get the right consistency (either manually or by animal driven pug mills) for moulding. • Preparation & Tempering: To rid of clay lumps and stones the raw material is reduced in size by either passing through size reduction machines or manually. . In India primarily surface soil is used for brick production.

• Drying: The moulds are emptied into the drying area (in open or under drying sheds) where the bricks are arranged in a herring bone pattern. They are turned over every two days to ensure uniform drying and prevent warping. Drying period continues for two weeks after which the bricks are ready to be burnt. Fire holes left to ignite the kiln are later sealed to keep the heat inside. This is maintained for a week. . • Firing: The green bricks are arranged in a kiln and insulation is provided with a mudpack. Firing like other operations also depends on the knowledge and experience of the brick maker.

Bull’s Trench Kiln • An oval or circular trench is dug (6-9 metres wide. 2-2.5 metres deep and 100-150 metres in circumference ) • A tall exhaust chimney is constructed in the centre • Half or more of the trench is filled with green bricks which are stacked in an open lattice pattern to allow airflow. green bricks are stacked at one end of the brick pile and cooled finished bricks are removed from the other end for transport • In the middle fuel is inserted through access holes in the roof above the trench for firing . The lattice is capped with a roofing layer of finished brick • In operation.

. The fugitive dust emissions are mostly siliceous except • for coal crushers where there are coal fines .POLLUTION FROM BRICK KILNS SOLID WASTE The major solid waste generated is coal dust .5 tonns per day which goes on accumulating on or around the brick kilns. Brick kiln emissions consists of mainly coal fines and dust • particles. The amount of ash generated is about 1 – 1. AIR POLLUTION • Use of thermally low efficient kilns and poor grade coal result in particulate and • gaseous emissions.Its quantity depends upon the amount of coal other fuel used and their ash content.

Environmental Impacts: Air Pollutants • The dangerous pollutants emitted by brick kilns are numerous and varied • These emissions are produced from the burning of the fuels as well as from the bricks themselves as they are heated • These emissions can be extremely unhealthy to kiln workers as well as the surrounding flora. fauna. and residents .

Environmental Impacts: Air Pollutants • Nitrogen oxides are produced by the burning of hydrocarbon fuels and cause acid rain as well as local air pollution • Sulfur dioxides are produced by the heating of the clay and the burning of any oils or coals as a fuel source • Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are produced when hydrocarbon fuels are burned and CO causes local air pollution while CO2 causes global warming .

even toxins such as dioxin can be released if waste compounds are used to fuel a kiln • Particulate matter is produced by the firing of the bricks themselves and from the burning of heavy fuel oil.Environmental Impacts: Air Pollutants • Other organic compounds. coal. which reduces waste and increases efficiency . and waste materials • Many of these problems could be greatly remedied and reduced by the use of better technology.

• Planned dispersion to control local air quality e. provision of taller chimneys . • Improve combustion: • Energy efficiency measures (by improving kiln design and kiln insulation) • Use of Fly ash • b)Measures to control or reduce the impact of the emissions.g. gravity settling chamber.g.Ways to Increase Energy Efficiency and Reduce Waste • a) Measures to reduce generation of pollutants at source or energy efficiency measures. • To use an device to remove pollutants from the stack gases e.

boiler ash . • Promoting use of perforated of hollow bricks. to reduce this wastage following steps can be taken • Promoting deep mining of clay for brick making instead of surface mining.Ways to Increase Energy Efficiency and Reduce Waste • Use of good quality agriculture soil in large quantities for brick making is also an area of concern. • Promoting use of waste materials like fly ash.e. in brick making. . we currently use only top surface i. 3ft to 10ft) for brick making.stone dust etc.

Vertical Shaft Brick Kilns • VSBK save between 30 and 50% more energy than traditional brick kilns • Because of its roof VSKB can operate in all weather conditions year round instead of only 6 months per year • Because of energy efficiency and improved combustion air flow efficiency the amount of suspended particulate matter in the emitted flue gases and other pollutants are greatly reduced .

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT • Air pollution • Loss of soil fertility • Other environmental impacts .

The level of particulate matter in the air is about three times higher in areas with brick kilns compared to areas without kilns.Air pollution The main environmental impact of brick kilns is air pollution due to fugitive and stack emission. .


Top soil is removed from the land and it takes between 25 to 30 years for those lands to be fertile as earlier. Burning soil decreases the soil pH making it acidic. . increase sand and decrease the clay content.Loss of soil fertility Erection of brick kilns in the agricultural lands is leading to serious loss in agricultural productivity.

. In short term the vegetation process hampers. and long term impacts are ozone depletions. plants fruits falls down etc. • The effects of brick kilns have both long term and short-term impacts in the environment. land fertility decreases etc. • Black smoke produced by the brick kilns ultimately moves away the species which are involved in pollination process.Other environmental impacts • Disruption of irrigation schemes is caused by the extraction of soil for brick making. crops production decreases. global warming.

Projected Increase in Building Area in India . resulting in a continuous increase in demand for building materials.MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN INDIA • Building construction in India is estimated to grow at a rate of 6. • The building stock is expected to multiply five times during this period.6% per year during the period 2005 to 2030.

Brick Kiln Technologies currently prevailing in India .

• Most of the brick kilns in India are non-mechanised except few mechanized / semi-mechanized units contributing to less than 1% of the total production. . In recent years use of mechanical excavators for clay winning is becoming common.

The selling price of fired bricks vary greatly across the country. the highest price of Rs 8-12/ brick is realized in West Bengal and some of the Southern States. .Industrial and economic condition • Fuel and operation are the two most important cost components of brick production and together accounts for almost 70% of the cost of production.


stimulate the local economy. . and lend to sustainable development. preserve property values.MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES USA Scenario Managing design through the use of brick and masonry in specific districts and land uses is becoming a popular method to ensure smart growth.

Building Codes and Zoning Ordinances • Because of the aesthetic qualities of brick and masonry. these codes indirectly manage design by requiring aesthetically appealing structures that are built to ensure the life safety of citizens. • Zoning ordinances that require a specific percentage of masonry ensure a standard of good design throughout specified land uses. These ordinances set a clear minimum requirement for all developers creating a level playing field for builders. .

PUDs allow for variations in the code such as setbacks or lot size in exchange for the inclusion of requirements such as architectural standards .Planned Unit Developments A Planned Unit Development (PUD) encourages creativity in design of development on a small scale.

RECOMMENDATION FOR IMPROVEMENT • Effective Protection of the Environment • The Brick Industry extracts and consumes clay. . Its production process is energy intensive and gives rise to atmospheric emissions. This potential for environmental impact emphasizes the importance of effective regulation and responsible environmental management. It makes use of considerable volumes of water.

.Reducing the Impact of Extraction Research undertaken by London Economics for the DETR in preparation for the introduction of the aggregates levy assessed the environmental impact of clay extraction as small compared with other minerals.

for example a simple mobile phone on a kiln makes communication between firemen and their families possible . mechanical pug mills and mechanized brick-molding machines instead of treating the clay by foot and molding the bricks by hand. a dialogue with brick workers (firemen. molders and kiln owners) can bring small but crucial improvements. Technical improvements: some of these innovations require technical improvements such as better air quality through chimneys and ventilation.  Better working conditions for workers: significant improvements are possible with a practical approach like introducing Child-care-centers on brick kilns rather than leaving the children play in the mud.

The cost of energy and the need to reach targets prescribed in the industry’s climate change agreement are key influences in this respect • Regulatory control including process guidance noted prescribing limits for hydrogen fluoride and particulates emissions • Major capital investment in the technology required to ensure compliance • Investment in research and development to achieve compliance through process modification rather than end-ofpipe solutions . hydrogen fluoride and particulates. Continuous improvement in performance has been achieved through: • A constant drive towards increased energy efficiency.Controlling Atmospheric Emission The main emission resulting from the production process are carbon gases.

‘Managing Water Use and Benchmarking in the Brick and Heavy Clay Sectors’ • The range of guidance and advisory notes on aspects of environmental management produced by other organizations in partnership with the Industry . However.An Integrated Approach to Environmental Management Brick factories. the Industry’s recognition that a responsible approach to the environment extends well beyond simple compliance is demonstrated by: • The major contribution to the development of the Industry’s BREF note made by the UK industry • The increasing numbers of Industry sites with accredited ISO 14001 or EMAS systems • The input made by brick manufacturers in the BCC Guidance on Introducing and Environmental Management System which assists the spread of best practice throughout the industry • The effective application within the Industry of techniques to reduce water use and effluent levels reflected in the Enviro-wise publication. all of which are already subject to UK Integrated Pollution Control or Local Air Pollution Control. will become installations under the new EU integrated pollution prevention and control regime.


aspx • Final Shakti Sustainable Energy Foundation and Climate Works Foundation (2012).gobrick.aspx • Manufacturing of Brick: www.ft.ecobrick. Monitoring of brick kilns & strategies for cleaner brick production in MANAGEMENT AT WIENERBERGER and SUSTAINABILITY .brick by brick" on www. Islamabad by Sameer Maithel (March 2013)) • Energy Efficient Improvement in Indian Brick Industry: http://pscst. Evaluating Energy Conservation Potential of Brick Production in India: A Report Prepared for the SAARC Energy the heart of practices on"India brick industry: Calls to improve working conditions" BBC report 2014An article "Brick industry and social improvements" • • Brick Making in India: • Journal of Environmental Research And Development January-March 2008 • An article "An Overview of the American Brick Industry" on www.poverty.gobrick. Brick kilns performance • An article "UK building sector revives .REFERENCES: • Indian Brick Sector: http://www.comA report named "brickclaySummaryReport" by british geological survey(www. .