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You are on page 1of 31

a)

b)

PART 3

(i) Based on the equation, a table has been constructed where t

represents the number of hours starting from 0 hours to 23

hours and P represents the number of people.

t/hours

P/number of people

0

0

1

241

2

900

3

1800

4

2700

5

3359

6

3600

7

3359

8

2700

9

1800

10

900

11

241

12

0

13

241

**Based on table above, graph is generated using Microsoft Excel
**

application.

(ii)

The peak hours with 3600 people in the mall is after 6

hours the mall opens 9:30 a.m. + 6 hours = 3:30 p.m. .

(iii)

7:30 p.m. is 10 hours after the malls opens. Based on the

graph, the number of people at the mall at 7:30 p.m. is 900

people.

(iv)

By using formula ,

Thus, 9:30 a.m + 3.48 hours = 1.54 p.m.

HISTORY

George Dantzig, founder of Linear Programming.

The 1940s was a time of innovation and reformation of how products were made, both

to make things more efficient and to make a better-quality product. The second

world war was going on at the time and the army needed a way to plan expenditures

and returns in order to reduce costs and increase losses for the enemy. George B.

Dantzig is the founder of the simplex method of linear programming, but it was kept

secret and was not published until 1947 since it was being used as a war-time

strategy. But once it was released, many industries also found the method to be

highly valuable. Another person who played a key role in the development of linear

programming is John von Neumann, who developed the theory of the duality and

Leonid Kantorovich, a Russian mathematician who used similar techniques in economics

before Dantzig and won the Nobel prize in 1975 in economics.

Dantzig's original example of finding the best assignment of 70 people to 70 jobs

emphasizes the praticality of linear programming. The computing power required to

test all possible combinations to select the best assignment is quite large. However, it

takes only a moment to find the optimum solution by modeling problem as a linear

program and applying the simplex algorithm. The theory behind linear programming is

to drastically reduce the number of possible optimal solutions that must be checked.

In the years from the time when it was first proposed in 1947 by Dantzig, linear

programming and its many forms have come into wide use worldwide. LP has become

popular in academic circles, for decision scientists (operations researchers and

management scientists), as well as numerical analysts, mathematicians, and

economists who have written hundreds of books and many more papers on the

subject. Though it is so common now, it was unknown to the public prior to 1947.

Actually, several researchers developed the idea in the past. Fourier in 1823 and the

well-known Belgian mathematician de la Vallée Poussin in 1911 each wrote a paper

describing today's linear programming methods, but it never made its way into

mainstream use. A paper by Hitchcock in 1941 on a transportation problem was also

overlooked until the late 1940s and early 1950s. It seems the reason linear

programming failed to catch on in the past was lack of interest in optimizing.

"Linear programming can be viewed as part of a great revolutionary development

which has given mankind the ability to state general goals and to lay out a path of

detailed decisions to take in order to 'best' achieve its goals when faced with

practical situations of great complexity. Our tools for doing this are ways to

formulate real-world problems in detailed mathematical terms (models), techniques

for solving the models (algorithms), and engines for executing the steps of algorithms

(computers and software)."

OBJECTIVES

Objectives of this folio :

• To apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to

solve problems

• To improve thinking skills

• To promote effective mathematical communication

• To develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in

a way that increases students interest and confidence

• to use the language of the mathematical to express

mathematical ideas precisely

• To provide learning environment that stimulate and enhances

effective learning

• To develop positive attitudes towards mathematics.

FOREWARD

First of all, would like to say Alhamdulillah thank to the God, for

giving me strength and heath to do this project work.

**Furthermore,I also want to give my appreciation to the internet for
**

helping me to give me more information in depth about Linear

Programming.Without it I would have not be able to finish this folio.

**Besides, I would like to thank my Additional Mathematics teacher,
**

Pn. Aslina for guiding me throughout this project. She gives a lot of

guidance and information about this project. Without her I would be

lost to do the project since I have never done it before.

**In addition,I also want to give my appreciation to my parents for all
**

their support in financial and moral throughout this project work.

Without them standing with me, I would not have complete this

folio.

Last but not least, I would like to give appreciation to all my friends,

who have done this project with me throughout the holidays. Also

not forgotten to all my classmates and friends who are willing to

share their opinion and information.

PART 1

a) MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION

Mathematical Optimization is a branch of mathematics that focuses

on problems where scarce resources need to be allocated

effectively, in complex, dynamic and uncertain conditions.

**The program combines a solid foundation in math with special
**

sequences of courses in economics, business, and management

science.

**As a graduate, you might enhance scheduling for airline crews and
**

sports games, improve production and distribution efficiency for

manufacturing companies, increase service quality and efficiency in

healthcare administration, and develop sophisticated tools for

finance and investments.

**The mathematics portion of the plan includes combinatorics, linear
**

optimization, modeling, scheduling, forecasting, decision theory, and

computer simulation. After first year, you'll choose one of 2

specializations: Operations Research or Business.

You can gain 20 months of paid work experience through our co-op

**program, the largest of its kind in the world, or fast track your
**

degree by choosing the regular system of study.

Examples of mathematical optimization

**b) GLOBAL MAXIMUM/ MINIMUM
**

We say that the function f(x) has a global maximum at x=x0 on the

interval I, if

for all

. Similarly, the function f(x) has a

global minimum at x=x0 on the interval I, if

for all

.

**If f(x) is a continuous function on a closed bounded interval [ a,b],
**

then f(x) will have a global maximum and a global minimum on [ a,b]! (This

is not easy to prove, though).

On the other hand, if the interval is not bounded or closed, then there is

no guarantee that a continuous function f(x) will have global extrema.

Examples: f(x)=x2 does not have a global maximum on the interval

the function

,

does not have a global minimum on the interval

(0,1).

How can we find global extrema? Unfortunately, not every global

extremum is also a local extremum:

Example. Consider the function f(x) = (x-1)2, for

. The only

**critical point is x=1. And the first or second derivative test will imply
**

that x=1 is a local minimum. Looking at the graph (see below) we see that

the right endpoint of the interval [0,3] is the global maximum.

**This leads us to introduce the new concept of endpoint extrema. Indeed,
**

if c is an endpoint of the domain of f(x), then f(x) is said to have an

endpoint maximum at c iff

for all x in the domain close to c.

Similarly one can define the concept of an endpoint minimum.

The news is not too bad, though. If f(x) is differentiable on the

interval I, then:

Every global extremum is a local extremum or an endpoint

extremum.

**This suggests the following strategy to find global extrema:
**

•Find the critical points.

•List the endpoints of the interval under consideration.

•The global extrema of f(x) can only occur at these points!

Evaluate f(x) at these points to check where the global maxima and

minima are located.

Example. Let us find the global extrema of the function f(x)=x e-x on the

interval [0.1,3.5]. The function f(x)is differentiable everywhere, its

derivativef'(x)=e-x-xe-x=(1-x)e-x is zero only at x=1. Thus x=1 is the only

critical point. Throw in the endpoints of the interval x=0.1 and x=3.5, and

evaluate f(x):

**Thus the global minimum occurs at x=0.1, the global maximum occurs
**

at x=1.

**C) LOCAL MAXIMUM/MINIMUM
**

Functions can have "hills and valleys": places where they reach a minimum

or maximum value.

It may not be the minimum or maximum for the whole function, but locally it is.

**We can see where they are,
**

but how do we define them?

Local Maximum

First we need to choose an interval:

Then we can say that a local maximum is the point where:

Or, more briefly:

f(a) ≥ f(x) for all x in the interval

In other words, there is no height greater than f(a).

Note: f(a) should be inside the interval, not at one end or the other.

Local Minimum

Likewise, a local minimum is:

f(a) ≤ f(x) for all x in the interval

b)

FURTHER

EXPLORATION

LINEAR PROGRAMMING

(a):

Linear programming (LP; also called linear optimization) is a method

to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest

cost) in a mathematical model whose requirements are represented

by linear relationships. Linear programming is a special case of

mathematical programming (mathematical optimization).

More formally, linear programming is a technique for the

optimization linear objective function, subject to linear equality and

linear inequality constraints. Its feasible region is a convex polytope,

which is a set defines as the intersection of infinitely many help

spaces, each of which is defines by a linear inequality. Its objective

function is a real-valued affine function defined on the polyhedron.

A linear programming algorithm finds a point in the polyhedron

where this function has the smallest (or largest) value such a point

exist.

**APPLICATION IN REAL LIFE
**

Crew scheduling

**An airline has to assign crews to its flights.
**

• Make sure that each flight is covered.

• Meet regulations, eg, each pilot can only fly a certain amount

each day.

• Minimize costs, eg: accommodation for crews staying overnight

out of town, crews deadheading.

• Would like a robust schedule.

The airlines run on small profit margins, so saving a few percent

through good scheduling can make an enormous difference in

terms of profitability.

They also use linear programming for yield management.

TELECOMUNICATIONS

**Call routing: Many telephone calls from New York to Los Angeles,
**

from Houston to Atlanta, etc. How should these calls be routed

through the telephone network?

Network design: If we need to build extra capacity, which links

should we concentrate on? Should we build new switching stations?

Internet traffic: For example, there was a great deal of

construction of new networks for carrying internet traffic a few

years ago

HOW IT STARTED

**Leonid Vitalyevich Kantorovich
**

The problem of solving a system of linear inequalities dates back at

least as far as Fourier, who in 1827 published a method for solving

them, and after whom the method of Fourier–Motzkin elimination is

named. The first linear programming formulation of a problem that

is equivalent to the general linear programming problem was given

by Leonid Kantorovich in 1939, who also proposed a method for

solving it. He developed it during World War II as a way to plan

expenditures and returns so as to reduce costs to the army and

increase losses incurred by the enemy. About the same time as

Kantorovich, the Dutch-American economist T. C. Koopmans

formulated classical economic problems as linear programs.

Kantorovich and Koopmans later shared the 1975 Nobel prize in

economics. In 1941, Frank Lauren Hitchcock also formulated

transportation problems as linear programs and gave a solution very

similar to the later Simplex method; Hitchcock had died in

1957 and the Nobel prize is not awarded posthumously. During 1946-

**1947, George B. Dantzig independently developed general linear
**

programming formulation to use for planning problems in US Air

Force. In 1947, Dantzig also invented the simplex method that for

the first time efficiently tackled the linear programming problem in

most cases. When Dantzig arranged meeting with John von Neumann

to discuss his Simplex method, Neumann immediately conjectured

the theory of duality by realizing that the problem he had been

working in game theory was equivalent. Dantzig provided formal

proof in an unpublished report "A Theorem on Linear Inequalities" on

January 5, 1948. Postwar, many industries found its use in their

daily planning. Dantzig's original example was to find the best

assignment of 70 people to 70 jobs. The computing power required

to test all the permutations to select the best assignment is vast;

the number of possible configurations exceeds the number of

particles in the observable universe. However, it takes only a

moment to find the optimum solution by posing the problem as a

linear program and applying the simplex algorithm. The theory

behind linear programming drastically reduces the number of

possible solutions that must be checked. The linear-programming

problem was first shown to be solvable in polynomial time by Leonid

Khachiyan in 1979, but a larger theoretical and practical

breakthrough in the field came in 1984 when Narendra Karmarkar

introduced a new interior-point method for solving linearprogramming problems.

(b)

i)

(a) I.

Cost : 100x + 200y ≤ 1400

II.

Space : 0.6x + 0.8y ≤ 7.2

III.

III. Volume = 0.8x + 1.2y

(b) I.

x

0

2

4

6

8

12

14

y

7

6

5

4

3

1

0

x

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

y

9

7.5

6

4.5

3

1.5

0

II.

**(ii) Maximum storage volume
**

Method 1 – Test using corner point of Linear Programming Graph

(8, 3), (0, 7), and (12, 0)

Volume = 0.8x + 1.2y

Coordinate 1 – (8,3)

Volume = 0.8(8) + 1.2(3)

Volume = 10 cubic meter

Coordinate 2 - (0,7)

Volume = 0.8(0) + 1.2(7)

Volume = 8.4 cubic meter

Coordinate 3 - (12,0)

Volume = 0.8(12) + 1.2(0)

Volume = 9.6 cubic meter

Thus the maximum storage volume is 10 cubic meter.

Method 2-Using simultaneous equation

**Applying the value of x and y in formula, Volume=0.8x+1.2y
**

Thus, the maximum storage volume is 10 cubic meter

(iii)

Cabinet x

Cabinet y

Total Cost (RM)

4

6

1600

5

5

1500

6

4

1400

7

3

1300

8

3

1400

9

2

1300

**(iv) I would choose (8,3) , 8 cabinet x and 3 cabinet y . This is
**

because the total cost does not exceed the limit amount this is

RM1400 and the choice provided the biggest space 10m

REFLECTION

I’ve found a lot of information while conducting this Additional

Mathematics project. I’ve learnt the uses of function in our daily

life.

Apart from that, I’ve learnt some moral values that can be applied in

our daily life. This project has taught me to be responsible and

punctual as I need to complete this project in a week. This project

has also helped in building my confidence level. We should not give

up easily when we cannot find the solution for the question.

Then, this project encourages students to work together and share

their knowledge. This project also encourages students to gather

information from the internet, improve their thinking skills and

promote effective mathematical communication.

Lastly, I think this project teaches a lot of moral values, and also

tests the students’ understanding in Additional Mathematics. Let me

end this project with a poem;

**In math you can learn everything,
**

Like maybe you’ll like comparing,

You have to know subtraction,

a.k.a brother of addition,

You might say ‘ I already simplified’,

so now your work ain’t jankedified,

So now don’t think negative,

It’s better to think positive,

Don’t stab yourself with a fork,

But its better to show your work,

My math grades are fat,

But not as fat as my cat,

Let’s get typical,

And use a pencil,

Add Math is fun!

INTRODUCTION

What is FUNCTION?

In mathematics, a function is a relation between a set of inputs and a set of

permissible outputs with the property that each input is related to exactly one

output. An example is the function that relates each real number x to its

square x . The output of a function f corresponding to an input x is denoted

by f(x) (read "f of x"). In this example, if the input is −3, then the output is 9,

and we may write f(−3) = 9. Likewise, if the input is 3, then the output is also 9,

and we may write f(3) = 9. (The same output may be produced by more than one

input, but each input gives only one output.) The input variable(s) are

sometimes referred to as the argument(s) of the function.

Functions of various kinds are "the central objects of investigation" in most

fields of modern mathematics. There are many ways to describe or represent a

function. Some functions may be defined by a formula or algorithm that tells

how to compute the output for a given input. Others are given by a picture,

called the graph of the function. In science, functions are sometimes defined

by a table that gives the outputs for selected inputs. A function could be

described implicitly, for example as the inverse to another function or as a

solution of a differential equation.

2

**The input and output of a function can be expressed as an ordered pair,
**

ordered so that the first element is the input (or tuple of inputs, if the

function takes more than one input), and the second is the output. In the

example above, f(x) = x , we have the ordered pair (−3, 9). If both input and

output are real numbers, this ordered pair can be viewed as the Cartesian

coordinates of a point on the graph of the function.

2

**b) METHODS IN FINDING MAXIMUM OR MINIMUM VALUE OF
**

QUADRATIC FUNCTION

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