You are on page 1of 31

# PART 2

a)

b)

PART 3
(i) Based on the equation, a table has been constructed where t
represents the number of hours starting from 0 hours to 23
hours and P represents the number of people.
t/hours

P/number of people

0

0

1

241

2

900

3

1800

4

2700

5

3359

6

3600

7

3359

8

2700

9

1800

10

900

11

241

12

0

13

241

Based on table above, graph is generated using Microsoft Excel
application.

(ii)
The peak hours with 3600 people in the mall is after 6
hours the mall opens 9:30 a.m. + 6 hours = 3:30 p.m. .
(iii)
7:30 p.m. is 10 hours after the malls opens. Based on the
graph, the number of people at the mall at 7:30 p.m. is 900
people.
(iv)

By using formula ,

Thus, 9:30 a.m + 3.48 hours = 1.54 p.m.

HISTORY
George Dantzig, founder of Linear Programming.
The 1940s was a time of innovation and reformation of how products were made, both
to make things more efficient and to make a better-quality product. The second
world war was going on at the time and the army needed a way to plan expenditures
and returns in order to reduce costs and increase losses for the enemy. George B.
Dantzig is the founder of the simplex method of linear programming, but it was kept
secret and was not published until 1947 since it was being used as a war-time
strategy. But once it was released, many industries also found the method to be
highly valuable. Another person who played a key role in the development of linear
programming is John von Neumann, who developed the theory of the duality and
Leonid Kantorovich, a Russian mathematician who used similar techniques in economics
before Dantzig and won the Nobel prize in 1975 in economics.
Dantzig's original example of finding the best assignment of 70 people to 70 jobs
emphasizes the praticality of linear programming. The computing power required to
test all possible combinations to select the best assignment is quite large. However, it
takes only a moment to find the optimum solution by modeling problem as a linear
program and applying the simplex algorithm. The theory behind linear programming is
to drastically reduce the number of possible optimal solutions that must be checked.
In the years from the time when it was first proposed in 1947 by Dantzig, linear
programming and its many forms have come into wide use worldwide. LP has become
popular in academic circles, for decision scientists (operations researchers and
management scientists), as well as numerical analysts, mathematicians, and
economists who have written hundreds of books and many more papers on the
subject. Though it is so common now, it was unknown to the public prior to 1947.
Actually, several researchers developed the idea in the past. Fourier in 1823 and the
well-known Belgian mathematician de la Vallée Poussin in 1911 each wrote a paper
describing today's linear programming methods, but it never made its way into
mainstream use. A paper by Hitchcock in 1941 on a transportation problem was also
overlooked until the late 1940s and early 1950s. It seems the reason linear
programming failed to catch on in the past was lack of interest in optimizing.
"Linear programming can be viewed as part of a great revolutionary development
which has given mankind the ability to state general goals and to lay out a path of
detailed decisions to take in order to 'best' achieve its goals when faced with
practical situations of great complexity. Our tools for doing this are ways to
formulate real-world problems in detailed mathematical terms (models), techniques
for solving the models (algorithms), and engines for executing the steps of algorithms
(computers and software)."

OBJECTIVES
Objectives of this folio :
• To apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to
solve problems
• To improve thinking skills
• To promote effective mathematical communication
• To develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in
a way that increases students interest and confidence
• to use the language of the mathematical to express
mathematical ideas precisely
• To provide learning environment that stimulate and enhances
effective learning
• To develop positive attitudes towards mathematics.

FOREWARD
First of all, would like to say Alhamdulillah thank to the God, for
giving me strength and heath to do this project work.

Furthermore,I also want to give my appreciation to the internet for
helping me to give me more information in depth about Linear
Programming.Without it I would have not be able to finish this folio.

Besides, I would like to thank my Additional Mathematics teacher,
Pn. Aslina for guiding me throughout this project. She gives a lot of
guidance and information about this project. Without her I would be
lost to do the project since I have never done it before.

In addition,I also want to give my appreciation to my parents for all
their support in financial and moral throughout this project work.
Without them standing with me, I would not have complete this
folio.
Last but not least, I would like to give appreciation to all my friends,
who have done this project with me throughout the holidays. Also
not forgotten to all my classmates and friends who are willing to
share their opinion and information.

PART 1
a) MATHEMATICAL OPTIMIZATION
Mathematical Optimization is a branch of mathematics that focuses
on problems where scarce resources need to be allocated
effectively, in complex, dynamic and uncertain conditions.

The program combines a solid foundation in math with special
sequences of courses in economics, business, and management
science.

As a graduate, you might enhance scheduling for airline crews and
sports games, improve production and distribution efficiency for
manufacturing companies, increase service quality and efficiency in
healthcare administration, and develop sophisticated tools for
finance and investments.

The mathematics portion of the plan includes combinatorics, linear
optimization, modeling, scheduling, forecasting, decision theory, and
computer simulation. After first year, you'll choose one of 2
specializations: Operations Research or Business.

You can gain 20 months of paid work experience through our co-op

program, the largest of its kind in the world, or fast track your
degree by choosing the regular system of study.

Examples of mathematical optimization

b) GLOBAL MAXIMUM/ MINIMUM
We say that the function f(x) has a global maximum at x=x0 on the
interval I, if

for all

. Similarly, the function f(x) has a

global minimum at x=x0 on the interval I, if

for all

.

If f(x) is a continuous function on a closed bounded interval [ a,b],
then f(x) will have a global maximum and a global minimum on [ a,b]! (This
is not easy to prove, though).
On the other hand, if the interval is not bounded or closed, then there is
no guarantee that a continuous function f(x) will have global extrema.
Examples: f(x)=x2 does not have a global maximum on the interval
the function

,

does not have a global minimum on the interval

(0,1).
How can we find global extrema? Unfortunately, not every global
extremum is also a local extremum:

Example. Consider the function f(x) = (x-1)2, for

. The only

critical point is x=1. And the first or second derivative test will imply
that x=1 is a local minimum. Looking at the graph (see below) we see that
the right endpoint of the interval [0,3] is the global maximum.

This leads us to introduce the new concept of endpoint extrema. Indeed,
if c is an endpoint of the domain of f(x), then f(x) is said to have an
endpoint maximum at c iff
for all x in the domain close to c.
Similarly one can define the concept of an endpoint minimum.
The news is not too bad, though. If f(x) is differentiable on the
interval I, then:
Every global extremum is a local extremum or an endpoint
extremum.

This suggests the following strategy to find global extrema:
•Find the critical points.
•List the endpoints of the interval under consideration.
•The global extrema of f(x) can only occur at these points!
Evaluate f(x) at these points to check where the global maxima and
minima are located.
Example. Let us find the global extrema of the function f(x)=x e-x on the
interval [0.1,3.5]. The function f(x)is differentiable everywhere, its
derivativef'(x)=e-x-xe-x=(1-x)e-x is zero only at x=1. Thus x=1 is the only
critical point. Throw in the endpoints of the interval x=0.1 and x=3.5, and
evaluate f(x):

Thus the global minimum occurs at x=0.1, the global maximum occurs
at x=1.

C) LOCAL MAXIMUM/MINIMUM
Functions can have "hills and valleys": places where they reach a minimum
or maximum value.
It may not be the minimum or maximum for the whole function, but locally it is.

We can see where they are,
but how do we define them?

Local Maximum
First we need to choose an interval:

Then we can say that a local maximum is the point where:

Or, more briefly:

f(a) ≥ f(x) for all x in the interval

In other words, there is no height greater than f(a).

Note: f(a) should be inside the interval, not at one end or the other.

Local Minimum
Likewise, a local minimum is:

f(a) ≤ f(x) for all x in the interval

b)

FURTHER
EXPLORATION

LINEAR PROGRAMMING
(a):
Linear programming (LP; also called linear optimization) is a method
to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest
cost) in a mathematical model whose requirements are represented
by linear relationships. Linear programming is a special case of
mathematical programming (mathematical optimization).
More formally, linear programming is a technique for the
optimization linear objective function, subject to linear equality and
linear inequality constraints. Its feasible region is a convex polytope,
which is a set defines as the intersection of infinitely many help
spaces, each of which is defines by a linear inequality. Its objective
function is a real-valued affine function defined on the polyhedron.
A linear programming algorithm finds a point in the polyhedron
where this function has the smallest (or largest) value such a point
exist.

APPLICATION IN REAL LIFE
Crew scheduling

An airline has to assign crews to its flights.
• Make sure that each flight is covered.
• Meet regulations, eg, each pilot can only fly a certain amount
each day.
• Minimize costs, eg: accommodation for crews staying overnight
• Would like a robust schedule.
The airlines run on small profit margins, so saving a few percent
through good scheduling can make an enormous difference in
terms of profitability.
They also use linear programming for yield management.

TELECOMUNICATIONS

Call routing: Many telephone calls from New York to Los Angeles,
from Houston to Atlanta, etc. How should these calls be routed
through the telephone network?
Network design: If we need to build extra capacity, which links
should we concentrate on? Should we build new switching stations?
Internet traffic: For example, there was a great deal of
construction of new networks for carrying internet traffic a few
years ago

HOW IT STARTED

Leonid Vitalyevich Kantorovich
The problem of solving a system of linear inequalities dates back at
least as far as Fourier, who in 1827 published a method for solving
them, and after whom the method of Fourier–Motzkin elimination is
named. The first linear programming formulation of a problem that
is equivalent to the general linear programming problem was given
by Leonid Kantorovich in 1939, who also proposed a method for
solving it. He developed it during World War II as a way to plan
expenditures and returns so as to reduce costs to the army and
increase losses incurred by the enemy. About the same time as
Kantorovich, the Dutch-American economist T. C. Koopmans
formulated classical economic problems as linear programs.
Kantorovich and Koopmans later shared the 1975 Nobel prize in
economics. In 1941, Frank Lauren Hitchcock also formulated
transportation problems as linear programs and gave a solution very
similar to the later Simplex method; Hitchcock had died in
1957 and the Nobel prize is not awarded posthumously. During 1946-

1947, George B. Dantzig independently developed general linear
programming formulation to use for planning problems in US Air
Force. In 1947, Dantzig also invented the simplex method that for
the first time efficiently tackled the linear programming problem in
most cases. When Dantzig arranged meeting with John von Neumann
to discuss his Simplex method, Neumann immediately conjectured
the theory of duality by realizing that the problem he had been
working in game theory was equivalent. Dantzig provided formal
proof in an unpublished report "A Theorem on Linear Inequalities" on
January 5, 1948. Postwar, many industries found its use in their
daily planning. Dantzig's original example was to find the best
assignment of 70 people to 70 jobs. The computing power required
to test all the permutations to select the best assignment is vast;
the number of possible configurations exceeds the number of
particles in the observable universe. However, it takes only a
moment to find the optimum solution by posing the problem as a
linear program and applying the simplex algorithm. The theory
behind linear programming drastically reduces the number of
possible solutions that must be checked. The linear-programming
problem was first shown to be solvable in polynomial time by Leonid
Khachiyan in 1979, but a larger theoretical and practical
breakthrough in the field came in 1984 when Narendra Karmarkar
introduced a new interior-point method for solving linearprogramming problems.

(b)
i)
(a) I.

Cost : 100x + 200y ≤ 1400

II.

Space : 0.6x + 0.8y ≤ 7.2

III.

III. Volume = 0.8x + 1.2y

(b) I.
x

0

2

4

6

8

12

14

y

7

6

5

4

3

1

0

x

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

y

9

7.5

6

4.5

3

1.5

0

II.

(ii) Maximum storage volume
Method 1 – Test using corner point of Linear Programming Graph
(8, 3), (0, 7), and (12, 0)
Volume = 0.8x + 1.2y
Coordinate 1 – (8,3)
Volume = 0.8(8) + 1.2(3)
Volume = 10 cubic meter

Coordinate 2 - (0,7)
Volume = 0.8(0) + 1.2(7)
Volume = 8.4 cubic meter
Coordinate 3 - (12,0)
Volume = 0.8(12) + 1.2(0)
Volume = 9.6 cubic meter
Thus the maximum storage volume is 10 cubic meter.

Method 2-Using simultaneous equation

Applying the value of x and y in formula, Volume=0.8x+1.2y
Thus, the maximum storage volume is 10 cubic meter

(iii)
Cabinet x

Cabinet y

Total Cost (RM)

4

6

1600

5

5

1500

6

4

1400

7

3

1300

8

3

1400

9

2

1300

(iv) I would choose (8,3) , 8 cabinet x and 3 cabinet y . This is
because the total cost does not exceed the limit amount this is
RM1400 and the choice provided the biggest space 10m

REFLECTION
I’ve found a lot of information while conducting this Additional
Mathematics project. I’ve learnt the uses of function in our daily
life.
Apart from that, I’ve learnt some moral values that can be applied in
our daily life. This project has taught me to be responsible and
punctual as I need to complete this project in a week. This project
has also helped in building my confidence level. We should not give
up easily when we cannot find the solution for the question.
Then, this project encourages students to work together and share
their knowledge. This project also encourages students to gather
information from the internet, improve their thinking skills and
promote effective mathematical communication.
Lastly, I think this project teaches a lot of moral values, and also
tests the students’ understanding in Additional Mathematics. Let me
end this project with a poem;

In math you can learn everything,
Like maybe you’ll like comparing,
You have to know subtraction,
a.k.a brother of addition,
You might say ‘ I already simplified’,
so now your work ain’t jankedified,
So now don’t think negative,
It’s better to think positive,
Don’t stab yourself with a fork,
But its better to show your work,
My math grades are fat,
But not as fat as my cat,
Let’s get typical,
And use a pencil,
Add Math is fun!

INTRODUCTION
What is FUNCTION?
In mathematics, a function is a relation between a set of inputs and a set of
permissible outputs with the property that each input is related to exactly one
output. An example is the function that relates each real number x to its
square x . The output of a function f corresponding to an input x is denoted
by f(x) (read "f of x"). In this example, if the input is −3, then the output is 9,
and we may write f(−3) = 9. Likewise, if the input is 3, then the output is also 9,
and we may write f(3) = 9. (The same output may be produced by more than one
input, but each input gives only one output.) The input variable(s) are
sometimes referred to as the argument(s) of the function.
Functions of various kinds are "the central objects of investigation" in most
fields of modern mathematics. There are many ways to describe or represent a
function. Some functions may be defined by a formula or algorithm that tells
how to compute the output for a given input. Others are given by a picture,
called the graph of the function. In science, functions are sometimes defined
by a table that gives the outputs for selected inputs. A function could be
described implicitly, for example as the inverse to another function or as a
solution of a differential equation.
2

The input and output of a function can be expressed as an ordered pair,
ordered so that the first element is the input (or tuple of inputs, if the
function takes more than one input), and the second is the output. In the
example above, f(x) = x , we have the ordered pair (−3, 9). If both input and
output are real numbers, this ordered pair can be viewed as the Cartesian
coordinates of a point on the graph of the function.
2

b) METHODS IN FINDING MAXIMUM OR MINIMUM VALUE OF