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School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

Report on Industrial Orientation
With Jurong Shipyard Pte Ltd

Prepared By: Teoh Shun Xiang Alvin (U1122542F)
Company Mentor: Mr Hoe Joo Liang
NTU Tutor: Assoc Prof Chen Chun-Hsien
Attachment Period: 20th May 2013 to 30th July 2013

Table of Contents
Table of Contents ...................................................................................................................... 2
Abstract ...................................................................................................................................... 3
Acknowledgement ..................................................................................................................... 4
List of Figures ............................................................................................................................. 5
List of Tables .............................................................................................................................. 6
1.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 7
1.1 Company Profile ............................................................................................................... 7
1.2 Organisational Structure .................................................................................................. 8
1.3 Work Nature of Attachment ............................................................................................ 9
1.4 Personal Objectives ........................................................................................................ 10
2.0 Pipe Fabrication Process .................................................................................................... 11
2.1 Pipe Drawing .................................................................................................................. 12
2.2 Cutting & Bevelling ......................................................................................................... 13
2.3 Fitting.............................................................................................................................. 15
2.4 Welding .......................................................................................................................... 16
2.4.1 Semi-automated Welding (Machine Welding) ......................................................... 16
2.4.2 Manual Welding ....................................................................................................... 18
2.5 Final Visual Inspection .................................................................................................... 21
2.6 Non-destructive Testing (NDT)....................................................................................... 22
3.0 Operations MaNagement Innovation (OMNI) ................................................................... 25
3.1 Stage 1 ............................................................................................................................ 26
3.2 Stage 2 ............................................................................................................................ 28
3.2 Stage 3 ............................................................................................................................ 29
4.0 Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 32
5.0 References ......................................................................................................................... 34

Abstract
The ten weeks that the author was attached to Jurong Shipyard (JSPL) has enabled him to
understand the duties and responsibilities of a shipyard engineer and also gain an insight into
the attractive marine industry. The following report follows the author’s ten-week attachment
at JSPL, highlighting in particular the pipe fabrication process currently adopted by the new
built workshop in JSPL as well as the WSQ Operations Management Innovation (OMNI) which
trains management level staff to employ operation management techniques and

technologies that are in line with their companies’ strategy to achieve manufacturing
excellence in their company. In the report, the adopted pipe fabrication process is elaborated
in detail while three stages of the OMNI methodology will also be discussed in detail.

 Mr Luei On Sai. NTU Mentor: For being understanding and supportive during the length of the attachment . Technical Engineers (Piping & Outfitting): For orientating the author to the different parts of a jack up rig  Mr Loi Teck Chuan. Workshop Engineers (Piping & Outfitting): For being wonderful teachers.Acknowledgement The wonderful and fruitful internship of the author would not have been made possible without the presence of the following few people whom he would like to thank. Human Resource: For her unwavering support and desire that all interns would be able to benefit and learn from their attachment  Associate Professor Chen Chun-Hsien. Engineer (Piping & Outfitting): For being approachable and kind to answer any queries that the author may have at any time  Ms Joee Ee. teaching the author about the pipe fabrication process  Mr Durairaj Ramu & Partivan. Assistant General Manager (Piping & Outfitting): For giving himthe opportunity to work as an intern in his department  Mr Hoe Joo Liang. Acting Deputy Head of Department (Piping & Outfitting): For planning his internship and allowing the author to assist him in the OMNI programme  Mr Koh Kai Siang & Mr Ho Chin Yong.

........................ 30 Figure 14: Level 3 Value Stream Map (Hot Spots Identified) .. 19 Figure 8: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding .....List of Figures Figure 1: Pipe Fabrication Process ............................................................................................................................... 30 .......................................................................... 20 Figure 9: Shielded Metal Arc Welding ........................ 15 Figure 5: Elbow Welding Machine ...................................... 18 Figure 7: Work Procedure Specification ........ 28 Figure 13: Level 3 Value Stream Map .................................................................... 22 Figure 11: Classes of Pipes (DNV Standards) .................................................................................................................................................................. 11 Figure 2: Shielded Metal Arc Welding ......................................................... 16 Figure 6: Manual Welding ......................................... 14 Figure 3: Gas Tungsten Arc Welding ................. 20 Figure 10: Acceptable Standards for Visual Inspection ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 14 Figure 4: Tack Welding ....................................................................................... 23 Figure 12: Level 2 Value Stream Map .............................................................................................................

.........................List of Tables Table 1: Table showing relevance of the different business objectives w.............................r............... 31 .... 27 Table 2: Cost Calculation of Current Input Resources of Improvement Area ....................t to the different departments .....................................

It is also a global leader in jack-up rig construction.1. Singapore has transformed from a small regional ship repair and building centre into a world premier ship repair and conversion centre. As such it is the author’s desire to gain a better understanding of the industry through his attachment at Jurong Shipyard. Introduction Over the last 40 years. With more . Jurong Shipyard Ltd was first established in 1963 as a joint-venture between the Singapore and Japan’s Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Industries Co Ltd (IHI).0.1. the building of customised and specialised vessels as well as the conversion of Floating Production Storage and Offloading unit. Singapore’s strategic geographic location along with its comprehensive and integrated marine infrastructure services ensure that the marine industry will continue to be a crucial component of its economy. As such. it is little wonder that many fresh engineering graduates choose to pursue a career in the marine and offshore engineering industry. a company listed on the SGX Mainboard. in view of Singapore's desire to become a leading international maritime hub. 1. Company Profile Jurong Shipyard Pte Ltd (JSPL) is a wholly owned subsidiary of Sembcorp Marine Ltd.

operating four graving docks with a total capacity of 1.1 million dead weight tonnage and 2. Jurong Shipyard has developed into one of Asia’s premier shipyard.than forty years of experience in the marine engineering industry. wide-ranging crane operation capacities as well as sophisticated workshops equipped with state-of-the-art machines such as plasma/robotic profile cutting machines and panel line systems. 1. repair and conversion as well as rig construction are major projects and are handled by the many departments in JSPL’s production team. It has a total land area of 68 hectares in two locations. These facilities are supported by a highly-skilled workforce.728 metres of berthing quays.2 Organisational Structure (Production Team) Project Management QA/QC HH Safety Machinery & Electrical Piping & Outfitting Docking Operation Hull Structure Jurong Electrical Automation Hull Painting Jurong Integrated Structure Design Engineering Ship building. warehouses. offering one-stop services ranging from ship building. repair and conversion to rig construction and offshore engineering. blasting chambers. .

Later on in his attachment. West Linus.3. it could render the whole vessel non-operational.Project manager are the overall coordinators for a project. This allowed him to understand its pipe fabrication process. 1. The engineers orientated him to the different parts of the rig and exposed him to their daily tasks and responsibilities. the author had the opportunity to be attached to engineers who are working on board a jack-up rig. acting as the liaison between the clients and JSPL. deciding on the work plan on the entire project as well as coordinating efforts between the different departments and each department is responsible for a different part of the project. In addition to that. Work Nature of Attachment The author was attached to the new built pipe fabrication workshop for 5 weeks where he aided the workshop engineers in their daily responsibilities. leading to monetary losses. In the marine and offshore engineering. During the course of his attachment. . the author is attached to the Piping and Outfitting (PF) department which is responsible for the fabrication and fitting of piping systems on board ships and rigs. Without a proper functioning piping system. he also had the chance to assist his supervisor in the Workforce Skills Qualifications (WSQ) Operations Management Innovation (OMNI) Programme. piping is a critical aspect of the vessel.

he also wishes to gain an insight into the marine and offshore industry as well as the roles and responsibilities that engineers play in the industry.1. the author is hoping to gain relevant working experience and understand how engineering theories learnt in school can be applicable at the workplace. Personal Objectives Through the attachment.4. Besides that. .

1016 metre Machine Welding (2D Welding) Manual Welding (3D Welding) Final Visual Inspection All Class I Pipes: Butt Weld – Radiographic Testing (RT) Fillet Weld – Magnetic Particle Testing (MPT) 5% of Class II and III Pipes Non-destructive Testing Treatment    Galvanization Blasting and Painting Galvanization and Painting Fig.2. 1 Pipe Fabrication Process .0. Pipe Fabrication Process Fabrication Materials Pipe Spool Drawings Cut and Bevel Fitting Fit-up Inspection If three dimensional welding is needed Diameter < 0.1016 metre Diameter > 0.

1. pipe fittings. Arrangement Drawings Arrangement drawings which show the comprehensive layout of equipment and pipes on the vessel are created at the detailed design stage. equipment. valves and instrumentation with controlling devices fitting types. Every diagram usually presents a singular piping system while providing information such as pipe line numbers. Pipe Drawings Pipe drawings describe the piping material. shape and location of a piping system as well as its dimensions. Arrangement Drawings and Spool Drawings. pipeline sizes as well as the overall arrangement required for the system to function properly. They are schematic single line process diagrams showing the sequence of equipment. Also. valves. equipment. machinery and tanks. notes and specifications. Computer software is used to lay out the pipes in a 3D model environment. There are three types of pipe drawings: Schematic Diagrams (P&ID). . Schematic Diagrams Schematic Drawings are created at the preliminary stage.2. size. line sizes. inline components. they display the relationship among pipes. flow direction specifications.

Cutting and Bevelling After the required fabrication material is sent to the workshop.  Dimensions of the individual pipe pieces needed to fabricate the spool 2. hull structures. they are cut to the according to the specified lengths in the spool drawings either by oxygen gas cutting or plasma arc cutting. . This information includes:  Pipe Line Number: Identification number for the pipe spool  Hull Block Number: The identification number of the area on board the vessel which houses the spool.  Fabrication Material: The material required to fabricate a spool inside the workshop.To display the relationship among pipes.  Erection Material: The material required to install the spool on board the vessel. fittings (elbows & couplings) and flanges. machinery and equipment. the pipes are sent to the Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Machine for cutting. Spool Drawings Spool drawings represent sections of the piping system to be fabricated. They show the shape of the pipe as well as all the required information of pipe pieces needed for fabrication and installation. key lines of hull and equipment are sometimes drawn in the background of pipe arrangement. for example pipes.2. There.

nitrogen-hydrogen is introduced to the cut region prevents the formations of metal oxides. 3 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding .Oxygen Gas Cutting In oxygen gas cutting. Bevelling Fig. The melted metal is then removed by a jet-like gas stream. The pipe to be cut is the other electrode. A stream of ionized gas which conducts electricity completes the circuit. Plasma Arc Cutting The cutting torch which acts an electrode in the circuit is made up of a tungsten electrode held by water-cooled nozzle. 2 Shielded Metal Arc Welding Fig. This ‘plasma gas’. supplied around the tungsten electrode. Inert gases such as argon. forming a liquid oxide which is then blown away by a gas stream. constricts the arc formed between it and the pipe. a flame is used to rapidly oxidize the metal. melts and cuts through the metal. A high temperature region (3000-5000oK) created at the arc.

the necessary fabrication materials along with the cut pipe will be brought to the fitting station. Fitting After the pipes are cut. fitters will then temporarily fit the different parts of a spool together via tack welding according to the diagram drawn in the spool drawings.3. Figure 2 and 3 shows two different types of bevel.In addition to cutting. 2. The opening at the root of the joint and the included angle of the groove is chosen such that the least weld metal is necessary to give the needed access and meet strength requirements. 4 Tack Welding . Fig. With the help of position guides. Edge preparation is especially important for thicker pipes in order to create the required geometry to provide accessibility for welding to ensure the desired weld soundness and strength. The type of bevelling depends upon the thickness of the pipe and the type of weld. the CNC machine also has the ability to prepare the edge before the pipes are welded.

the operator manually places the parts to be welded into the welding fixture. Following that. are stronger.A fit-up inspection is then conducted by the Quality Assurance Department and the client to ensure that the spool has been fitted correctly before the different parts of the spool are welded together on a more permanent basis. allow smoother flow. 2. Welded piping systems. Welding Welding is the process by which two pieces of metal are joined together by a current running through an electrode. last longer. It joins different parts of a piping system together.4. 5 Elbow Welding Machine .4. depositing the molten electrode along a line or a surface between them or at a certain point.1. 2. and stillness of the parts is kept to pre-set Fig. and also to the structures of the hull. and weigh less. motion of the torch. welding is preferred. compared to pipes that are joined by any other methods. When compared to those piping systems that involve infrequent dismantling and require strong leak proof connections. he ensures that the speed of rotation of the parts. Semi-automated Welding (Machine Welding) In semi-automated welding. require less maintenance.

Compared to manual welding. As a result. the operator removes the completed assembly from the welding fixture and the process begins again. helping to maintain weld integrity and ensuring the strength of the joint.parameters. a higher quality weld than can be accomplished manually is produced. semi-automated welding has three advantages: an increase in weld quality. This leads to an increased in both the rate and amount of output. . improved output and decreased labour costs. the process is stopped for the joint is grinded joint to remove any irregularities on the surface. When welding is completed. Automated torch and part motions in welding machines are pre-determined by electronic parameters. With the higher weld speeds provided by a welding machine. The higher rate of output afforded by the machines helps to reduce the reliance on the slower manual welders. After every pass. leading to a reduction in labour costs in order to produce the same amount of output. a semi-automated welding system can easily outpace a skilled manual welder. This eliminates the probability of human error.

2. Manual welding is done in accordance to the Welding Procedure Specification (WPS). It is a formal document clearly stating describing the welding procedures. At present. 6 Manual Welding machines. Manual Welding Despite the many advantages provided by a semi-automated system. WPS guides welders to the accepted procedures so that repeatable and trusted welding techniques are used. During the welding process. Three-dimensional welding has to be completed manually. The geometry of a particular pipe spool determines whether the option of semiautomated welding is available to it. the workshop would not be able to stay away from manual welders due to the numerous constraints of the Fig.4. . it is not uncommon for GTAW to be used to create the root pass (smooth and uniform on the inside of the joint). only two-dimensional welding can be done on the available machines at the workshop. providing guidance to the welder to make high quality welds as per the requirements. SMAW or GMAW (more economical due to the low cost of the electrode required) are then used to create the fill and cover passes.2.

7 Work Procedure Specification .Fig.

To increase the integrity of the joint. Shielding is provided by an inert gas or inert gas mixture. 8 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding GTAW welding is achieved by creating an electric arc formed between a tungsten electrode (non-consumable) and the work (part to be welded). creating a region of intense temperatures.98 Shielded Metal Arc Welding . Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) Fig. a filler metal is added to the joint during the welding process.Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Fig.

the mixture of the molten electrode and base metal solidifies. The electrodes used in SMAW are usually no longer than 0. the current running through the flux covered electrode results in the formation of an arc across the gap between its tip and the work. Besides the exterior and readily accessible internal surface areas of piping assemblies. Final Visual Inspection Following the completion of the welding of all the joints in a particular spool. deslagging is also required after each pass to remove the slag covering that forms on the weld. As the arc moves away. a final visual inspection is conducted by the client and surveyor.46 metres and therefore. welding must be stopped after the consumption of each electrode.5. where they mix together. Besides that. becoming a singular piece. under cut. the materials and components are checked for conformance to specification and defects.In SMAW. accompanied a representative from the QA department. Molten metal from the electrode travels across the arc to the molten pool on the base metal. inspection is also carried out on welded joints to ensure that there are no defects such as overlap. In addition to that. . The electrode’s tip and molten metal pool are surrounded and protected by a gaseous cloud and a covering layer of slag produced as the flux coating of the electrode melts or vaporizes. 2. lack of penetration or fusion. distortion and crack.

ready to be installed onboard. only 5% of any Class II and III that are fabricated need to be tested for and pass the NDT. they are sent for treatment before being delivered to the dock. Class II & Class III) depending on its operating pressure and temperatures. The designated piping “class” indicates the materials.If no repairs are required for the pipe assemblies. . On the other hand.6. The operating pressure and temperatures of Class I pipes are the highest and thus their requirements for NDT is the most stringent requiring all Class I pipes that are fabricated to be tested and pass the NDT. 10 Acceptable Standards for Visual Inspection 2. manufacturing and inspection requirements which shall be applied to ensure the operational integrity of piping. Fig. Non-destructive Testing (NDT) Piping systems are classified into different classes (Class I.

Non-destructive inspections include: • Dye penetrant inspection • Magnetic particle inspection • Ultrasonic inspection • Eddy current inspection • Radiographic inspection .Fig. 11 Classes of Pipes (DNV Standards) Non-destructive testing is extremely important during the pipe fabrication and installation process as it helps to detect any material discontinuity which at some later time might lead to failure of an entire piping system while under operating conditions. Interpretation of NDT results requires judgment based on past experience. Most NDT indications are qualitative.

creating a magnetic force field within it. porosity or other internal defects. with the result captured permanently on film. The item to be inspected is subjected to a current.Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) Discontinuities are revealed by applying magnetic particles onto the surface. This causes a darker spot to appear on the film. Radiographic Inspection A radiograph is photographic record of a test specimen that is exposed to X-rays or gamma rays. Any discontinuity normal to the magnetic field will create a leakage field around it. in the form of a dry powder or suspension in a liquid. some rays are absorbed while others simply pass through it. The surface is then sprayed with a fine iron powder which will align itself with the magnetic field. It is used for locating surface or near surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials. absorbs less radiation. When X-ray or Gamma radiation travels in straight lines to the specimen. indicating the size and precise position of any inclusion. . A reduced density of the which may have resulted from slag inclusion. A consequential build-up of the powder will determine the defect’s position. gas bubbles.

The training in the classroom concentrates on imparting operations management knowledge and methodology. Operations MaNagement Innovation Programme (OMNI) The Workforce Skills Qualifications (WSQ) Operations MaNagement Innovation (OMNI) Programme is a joint initiative between the Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (SIMTech). OMNI consists of two parts: classroom training and mentorship. a research institute of the Agency for Science. the mentorship provided by SIMTECH trainers will augment the classroom learning by directly applying the methodology in the participant’s company. and the Singapore Workforce Development Agency (WDA). On the other hand. Its aim is to train management level personnel on the methodology of employing operations management techniques and technologies that are in line with their companies’ strategy to achieve manufacturing excellence. having been successfully applied in numerous sectors of the manufacturing industry.3. This ensures that the company’s operations improvement are both effective (align to company's strategy) and efficient (achieve productivity gains).0. . The Operations Management Innovation methodology (OmniMethodologyTM) based on R&D has a proven track record. Technology and Research (A*STAR).

The ideals about which the company’s business strategy revolves about are determined. he managed to gain a better understanding of the functions of the different departments in JSPL as representatives from various departments across the production team presented the coursework they have done. 百战百胜. if one knows themselves and their enemies well. Over the course of the programme. they will emerge victorious in every battle. 3. operational excellence and service leadership. Doing so allows a company to see clearly what the areas to be worked on and what the areas of strengths to be maintained or even improve further. determine the potential clients and competitors of the company. The company’s strategies stemming from the various ideals are then identified and evaluated against the clients’ expectations as well as competitor’s performances to see how well the company is doing in these areas. And based on the company’s products. customer intimacy.1. there is a need to fully understand the background of the company. This is achieved by first identifying its products. .”. JSPL’s business strategy is centred about three ideals namely. “知己知彼. As the Chinese saying goes.The author was fortunate to have the opportunity to attend the course alongside his supervisor and to assist him in the tasks assigned by the SIMTECH trainers. Stage 1 Before embarking on a project to improve a company’s productivity.

The table enables one to simply show the relevance of the different objectives of the company with respect to the different departments.Attempts are then made to further define the areas of weaknesses and to account for the less than desired performances. To tackle these more defined issues. By doing so. Some of the business objectives may even not be applicable to a particular department. 3.2. it allows a particular department to focus its energies on achieving a business objective of the company that is relevant to it. Table 1 Table showing the relevance of the different business objectives with respect to the different departments . numerous business objectives are decided and clear measures to achieve set targets are implemented. Stage 2 All the business objectives of a company may not all align or be completely relevant to the different departments in it.

it also shows the different operational activities related to the department. The VSM allows one to understand how the department functions at a glance. Besides that.12 Level 2 Value Stream Map A Value Stream Map (VSM) lays out simply the flow of documents and material among the different parts of a particular department as well as related departments. These operational activities are analysed to determine issues that have possibly led to a potential decrease in the department’s productivity.Fig. . Total lead time refers to the total time taken for all operational activities to be completed while processing time refers to the total time taken for activities that create value for the client. In addition. the total lead time and processing time is also accounted for in the VSM.

the department may decide one of the operational activities identified in stage 2 to further work on. A higher level VSM zooming in further on the particular operational activity is created for further analysis. Stage 3 At stage 3. The level 3 VSM zooms in on the particular operation while zooming out on the other activities of the department. 3. enabling one to easily identify the hotspots areas (areas that could be improved) that exist during the operational activity.The business objective stated in the VSM not only provides a clear target for the department to aim at but also helps track the progress made by the department as it work towards its goal.3. . The enlarged view of the operational activity shows the different processes involved in it. In the level 3 VSM. the total lead time and processing time is only with respect to the particular operational activity and do not account for the entire process.

14 Level 3 Value Stream Map (Hot Spots Identified) .Fig. 13 Level 3 Value Stream Map Fig.

Depending on the increase in productivity as well as the capital input required to achieve it. . the department will decide if the improvement measure is worth pursuing. This allows a comparison to be made between the productivity before and after the improvement measures are implemented. the total cost of the current input resources used in the improvement area is computed.Table 2 Cost Calculation of Current Input Resources of Improvement Area To determine the cost worthiness of any measures or capital invested to increase output.

Conclusion The lucrative marine and offshore engineering industry forms an integral part of the manufacturing industry in Singapore. The process required in order to do it would be far too complex and impractical. So instead. An “industry that never sleeps”.4. To become an engineer at the shipyard requires a lot of commitment and dedication and not forgetting excellent time management skills. each piping system is divided into individual spools to reduce the complexity of the fabrication either at the workshop or on board the vessel. Later on in the attachment. work carries on around the clock at the shipyard. even during the weekdays and public holidays. One may become disgruntled about working at the shipyard really quickly if they do not learn to manage their time well as they will not be able to achieve work-life balance.0. . Inspections are also crucial during the pipe fabrication process to ensure that the pipes fabricated are according to the client’s requirements. Being stationed at the new built piping workshop for five weeks has enabled the author to quickly pick up the ropes of the pipe fabrication process as well as gain a good understanding of pipes and pipe drawings. he had the opportunity to observe piping systems that has been installed on board a vessel. causing their work performance to fall or even plummet. It is impossible to fabricate an entire piping system in a workshop and then install it on board a vessel as a singular object. when the author has the chance to board a jack-up rig that was still in construction. This affects their level of job satisfaction.

Employees at the shipyards enjoy enticing annual bonuses that continually draw fresh graduates to them. it had still been an enriching experience for him. Being a student currently enrolled in the school of Mechanical Engineering. There will definitely be difficulties or changes on site that requires the engineer's attention. and cooperation .OMNI has exposed the author to a brand new methodology to improving the productivity of a manufacturing company. there are many aspects of engineering involved. hot spot areas are identified. It is with much pity that the author would not be able to attend the rest of the course alongside his supervisor and at the time of writing. People will start to ask for solutions and that is when an engineer has to analyze the situation before giving a sound answer. It lays out simply the operations of a particular department in a company and from there. being an engineer at the shipyard is definitely one of the numerous careers that the author would have considered. Another quality present in the author's colleagues is the ability to solve problems efficiently. the author was able to get a glimpse of the life of an engineer working at the shipyard and he is very grateful for the experience. And initiatives are generated and evaluated to see if the initiative is cost effective. The author has never worked at a shipyard before and the ten weeks he spent at JSPL has been an eye opener for him. Communications is a very important skill to have and would tremendously help in problem solving with others. he had only finished stage 3 of the course. Nevertheless. In this business. During his ten weeks of attachment at JSPL.

simtech. Retrieved July 22.edu.assemblymag.d. Retrieved July 16.com/index. from http://www. Retrieved July 22. from http://pe-wsq. 2013.htm Association Of Singapore Marine Industries . 2013.jspl. from http://www.d. References ::: PE WSQ @ SIMTech :::.).asmi. from http://www.).sg/programme_SME.astar. Retrieved July 16. (n.com.sg/programme_SME. Retrieved July 15. 2013.robots.com/faq/show/what-are-the- advantages-of-robot-welding-over-manual-welding . (n. (n.php?page=about-us The Pros and Cons of Automated Welding. (n. (n. 2013. (n.About Us.edu.cfm?GPID=29 Jurong Shipyard Pte Ltd .sg/index. 2013.).d.com/articles/84103-the-pros-and-cons-of-automatedwelding What are the advantages of robot welding over manual welding?. It is definitely a skill that the author needs to improve on. 2013.).). from http://pe-wsq.d.d.astar.d.A Closer Look at the Marine Industry.).between engineers from different departments is a necessity. Retrieved July 22.simtech. from http://www.htm ::: PE WSQ @ SIMTech :::.