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PROGRAM KERJASAMA

AKADEMIK
PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT
TOPIC: TYPES OF HARDNESS TEST
(ASSIGNMENT 1)

Module: PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

Code: BTM 2413

Prepared for: MR. UMAR PATTHI

Name: AHMAD ZAHEER BIN HAMZAH

ID No: TA 14024

1

13 REFERENCES 14 2 .1 BRINELL 6-7 3.1 MICRO HARDNESS 11 6.11 5.1 BARCOL IMPRESSOR 9 .1 PORTABLE TESTER 12 .HARDNESS TESTING PAGES 4 1.TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENTS INTRODUCTION .1 ROCKWELL 5 -6 2.1 VICKERS 8 4.

3 Clamp N6 Intest Hardness Tester N7 Portable Hardness 13 13 Table 3.1 Hardness Test Brinell Tester Machine Brinell Hardness Test Vickers Hardness Test Barcol Impressor Tester N4 Portable Testing 7 7 8 11 12 Figure 6.1.1.1.2 Figure 6.1.1 Tester for Tooth Flanks Formula of Vickers 8 Table 4. 3 .HARDNESS TESTING Among many types of materials testing methods.1 Figure 1.1 Figure 4. The many methods regularly practiced in hardness determination of metals range from loads starting from grams in Micro hardness testing up to 3.1. Suitable selection of hardness testing methods together with the applicable hardness tester model can accurately measure the hardness of softest alloys up to the hardest sintered materials.1.1.2 TITLE Rockwell Tester Machine Rockwell Superficial PAGES 4 5 Figure 2.2 Figure 3.1.1. reliable and yet diversified methods.1 Hardness Test Range of Application 10 INTRODUCTION .1 Figure 6.1.1 Figure 2. hardness testing is one of the most popular.1.000 kgf for Brinell Testing of heavy castings.LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES FIGURES / TABLES Figure 1.

II. providing high accuracy. scratching. For selection of the suitable hardness tester for your application. wear or abrasion. Portability or table top/ floor configuration of the hardness tester.1 ROCKWELL The Rockwell Hardness test is a hardness measurement based on the net increase in depth of impression as a load is applied. Budget 6. Accuracy of Results 4. L. and corresponding multiplicity of hardness measuring instruments. the following criteria are to be considered: 1. Below are some ways to measure hardness: I. data processing of test results. Modern electronics has played an important role to improve hardness testing technologies. M. machining. graphics. together with the lack of a fundamental definition. VI. IV. Adaptability of the hardness tester to shape and dimension of the work piece 5. Hardness has been variously defined as resistance to local penetration. The multiplicity of definitions. but rather 4 . Test Load 2. Hardness Scale 3. indicates that hardness may not be a fundamental property of a material. III. Hardness numbers have no units and are commonly given in the R. statistical analysis. V. Rockwell Brinell Vickers Barcol Impressor Portable Tester Microhardness 1.There are so many hardness testing methods and scales that require finding the most suitable hardness tester to meet every hardness testing application. and much more. E and K scales. and yielding. The higher the number in each of the scales means the harder the material.

a composite one including yield strength. Upon removal of the major load. work hardening.2 mm tip radius. The hardness number may then be read directly from the scale. the dial is set to zero and the major load is applied. modulus of elasticity. the depth reading is taken while the minor load is still on. Figure 1. true tensile strength. and others.1. the depth of penetration of an indenter under certain arbitrary test conditions is determined. The indenter may either be a steel ball of some specified diameter or a spherical diamond-tipped cone of 120° angle and 0. The type of indenter and the test load determine the hardness scale (A.1 Rockwell Tester Machine Figure 1. A minor load of 10 kg is first applied.1 BRINELL 5 .1. which causes an initial penetration and holds the indenter in place.2 Rockwell Superficial Hardness Test 2. In the Rockwell method of hardness testing. called Brale. B. Then. C).

Brinell tests are frequently done on large parts.1 Brinell Tester Machine 6 . Brinell testing is typically done on iron and steel castings using a 3000kg test force and a 10mm diameter carbide ball. Therefore. Figure 2. Therefore the typical range of Brinell testing in this country is 500 to 3000kg with 5 or 10mm carbide balls. Brinell values are considered test force independent as long as the ball size/test force relationship is the same. nearly all metals can be tested using a Brinell test. the Brinell test is frequently use to determine the hardness of forgings and castings that have a grain structure too course for Rockwell or Vickers testing. The oldest of the hardness test methods in common use today. By varying the test force and ball size. A. Aluminium and other softer alloys are frequently tested using a 500Kg test force and a 10 or 5mm carbide ball. These low load tests are commonly referred to as baby Brinell tests. It's common in Europe to perform Brinell tests on small parts using a 1mm carbide ball and a test force as low as 1kg. J. Brinell invented the Brinell test in Sweden in 1900. In the USA. In Europe Brinell testing is done using a much wider range of forces and ball sizes.1.Dr.

Figure 2. particularly those with extremely hard surfaces the surface is subjected to a standard pressure for a standard length of time by means of a pyramid-shaped diamond. Vickers hardness is a measure of the hardness of a material.5 7 .1. It is permitted the establishment of a continuous scale of comparable numbers that accurately reflected the wide range of hardness found in steels.1 VICKERS It is the standard method for measuring the hardness of metals. The diagonal of the resulting indention is measured under a microscope and the Vickers Hardness value read from a conversion table.2 Brinell Hardness Test 3. calculated from the size of an impression produced under load by a pyramid-shaped diamond indenter. The indenter employed in the Vickers test is a square-based pyramid whose opposite sides meet at the apex at an angle of 136º. and the size of the impression (usually no more than 0. The diamond is pressed into the surface of the material at loads ranging up to approximately 120 kilograms-force.

Aluminium Alloys Soft Metals Plastics Fibreglass Sheet.1 Formula of Vickers Hardness Test Figure 3. The Vickers number (HV) is calculated using the following formula: HV = 1. The applied load is usually specified when HV is cited. Tanks. 4.1 Vickers Hardness Test 4. aluminium profiles. Table 3. 5. 6.mm) is measured with the aid of a calibrated microscope. plastic extrusions. portable hardness tester that is used by industrial and commercial customers. 3. NFPA1932.854(F/D2) F being the applied load (measured in kilograms-force) and D2 the area of the indentation (measured in square millimetres). Official Barcol Impressor scale. Surfaces Fire Department Ladders Composite Materials 8 . and related materials.1. the Impressor is a proven device for field testing of fire ladders after being exposed to high.1. The Impressor has been a standard in the industry for testing raw material or field testing of final products. such as fibreglass panels. Compliant with the National Fire Protection Association.1 BARCOL IMPRESSOR The Barcol Impressor is a simple. for testing of: 1. 2.

2 oz. copper. adjusting wrench and two spare indenter points. The hardness reading is instantly indicated on the dial. Lead Portable: The Impressor is a convenient tool for testing the hardness of aluminium. GYZJ 934-1-0-1 A variation of the 934-1 that has a "flat bottom" shaped support leg. and some of the harder plastics and fibreglass. No waiting. Approximate range 25 to 150 Brinell (10 mm ball 500 kg load). TYPE RANGE Soft metals such as aluminium and its alloys. pre-loading or separate measurements. 2 lb. brass and other materials including plastics and fibreglass. The instrument is designed for use on fabricated parts and assemblies as well as on raw stock. Laminates 9. and comes complete with carrying case. Light weight: The impressor weighs only 1 lb. 8oz. can be used in any position and in any space that will allow for the operator's hand.7. This unit meets American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard D2583. Rubber or Leather 8. This is used to sit on top of the crest the round rung of a 9 . aluminium alloys. copper. GYZJ 934-1 brass. Easy to use: No experience required. which is divided into one hundred graduations.

Table 4. Micro hardness tests can be used to provide necessary data when measuring individual microstructures within a larger matrix. linoleum and leather.ladder such as a fire department ladder. and the Knoop Hardness Test uses a narrow rhombus shaped diamond indenter. GYZJ 935 For the softer plastics and very soft metals. or when determining the hardness gradient of a specimen along a cross section.1 Range of Application Figure 4. or testing very thin foil like materials.1 MICRO HARDNESS Micro Hardness Testing of metals. or less. while the Vickers Hardness Test employs a diamond with an apical angle of 136°.1. composites and ceramics are employed where a 'macro' hardness test is not usable. The term Micro Hardness Testing usually refers to static indentations made by loads of 1kgf.1 Barcol Impressor Tester 5.1. The Baby Brinell Hardness Test uses a 1mm carbide ball. The smaller the force applied the higher the metallographic finish required. The test surface usually must be highly polished. 10 . GYZJ 936 For extremely soft materials such as lead.

Portable testing devices have been developed that permit in-situ hardness measurements thus offering quick and economical supplements to conventional. Pictures below shows the range of application for portable tester: Figure 6. require the test piece be brought to the testing device. Brinell or Vickers machines.1. to 120 kgf. There are two different physical methods particularly recognized in the practical field and which are accepted tools for many applications.1 PORTABLE TESTER Conventional hardness testers.Microscopes with a magnification of around 500x are required to accurately measure the indentations produced. while ASTM E 10 is the standard for Brinell Hardness Testing. Vickers and Knoop hardness test are defined by standards ASTM E 92 (for indentation forces of 1 kgf. but this is not always possible.1 .).) and ASTM E 384 (for indentation forces below 1 kgf. stationary testing machines. 6.N4 Portable Testing Clamp 11 . like Rockwell.

HBT and Ball  Indentation Hardness Testing (ISO 2039-1) 4 different models for different sample sizes: . Superficial Rockwell. Read-out in HRC Figure 6.N6 Intest Hardness Tester    Portable hardness tester N6 for hardness measurement of bores and internal diameters Possible sample dimensions: Ø36 to 110 mm dia. HVT.0-235 mm (N4B) .2 .1.0-335 mm (N4C) Figure 6.N7 Portable Hardness Tester for Tooth Flanks  Portable hardness tester N7 for hardness measurement of tooth flanks and gears 12 . Portable hardness tester N4 for Rockwell.0-20 mm (N4E) .1.3 .0-145 mm (N4A) .

worldoftest.htm  Copyright October 2002..hardnesstesters.astm. AMES Portable Hardness Tester. All Rights Reserved. Retrieved Mac 2015 from http://www.calce.com/  Copyright 2015 Electro Arc Manufacturing Co.  Read-out in HRC Max.umd.edu/  Copyright 2010 AMETEK.htm  Copyright © 1996 . Material Hardness.com/definition/775/microhardness 13 .htm  Copyright Copyright © 2015 Janalta Interactive Inc.700 mm (N7P) REFERENCES  Copyright © 2001 by CALCE and the University of Maryland. ASTM International.org/Standards/A1038.com/barcol.corrosionpedia. Applications Brinell Hardness Testing.2015 ASTM. Retrieved Mac 2015 from http://www. Retrieved Nov 2014 from http://www.amesportablehardnesstesters. Retrieved Mac 2015 from http://www. Retrieved Mac 2015 from http://www.com/  Copyright © 1999-2015 Qualitest International Inc. Retrieved Mac 2015 from http://www. tooth measurement width: .net/article/ecndt02/109/109.ndt. Retrieved Mac 2015 from http://www.140 mm (N7F) .

pg (94-225) 14 .umd.html  Copyright 2011 by Wilson Hardness an Instron Company.wilsonhardness. Material Hardness.edu/TSFA/Hardness_ad_. (pg83-225).com/Products/RockwellTesters/RockwellBRIRORHardnessTe ster. Engineering Materials.aspx  Copyright of German Malaysian Institute (2008). Copyright © 2001 by CALCE and the University of Maryland. Rockwell BRIRO R Hardness Tester from http://www. Retrieved Mac 2015 from http://www.calce.