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Material science is the study of exploration and research of different
materials. Research on things such as, density, elasticity, conductivity, or
chemical compound
Material engineering is the study of characteristics and uses of various
materials such as metals and etc.

2. Describe and illustrate two types of point defects namely interstitial
andsubstitutional defect.

3. Describe briefly polymorphism with respect to metals?
Polymorphism is the ability to of a solid material to exist in more than
one form or crystal – structure.

4. Differentiate between material's toughness and hardness.
Material toughness is the ability of material to absorb energy before
Material hardness is the ability that enables it to resist plastic

Explain and differentiate the following strengthening mechanisms in terms ofits dislocations interaction at microstructural level: . i) ii) Insufficient design: This kind of design flaw usually occurs because the designers and tool builders never used the product-a situation that is common in large corporation. 7. A crankshaft in a diesel engine fails. 6. Insufficient properties 9. 8. Ultimate tensile strength Is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before breaking. In addition.5. Young’s modulus Is a measure of stiffness of an elastic material. several other cracks appear at other locations in the crankshaft. Discuss about the type of failure mechanism and the failure mode that you would expect. The fracture surface is smooth. Examination of the crankshaft reveals noplastic deformation. Yield strength Is defined as the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically.

3 mm thick hot-rolled strips of 1080 steel are heat-treated inthe following conditions. a steel sample is not isothermally . (ii) Strain hardening    Is the strengthening of a metal by plastic deformation    Occurs because of dislocation movements within the crystal structure of the material (iii) Solid solution hardening    Metal can be strengthened by alloying element going into solution in a host metal    Solubility is depends on nature of individual elements 10. water-quench. Annealing (iv) Heat for one hour at 860 °C. (ii) Heat for one hour at 860 °C. reheat for one hour at 350 °C. quench in molten salt bath at 260 °C and hold for one minute. give the name of this heat treatment? Martempering (v) Heat for one hour at 860 °C. water-quench. air-cool. air-cool. (i) Heat for one hour at 860 °C. hold for one hour. water-quench. water quench. give the name of this heat treatment? Austempering (vi) Heat for one hour at 860°C. reheat for one hour at700°C. (b) In industrial heat-treating operations. Thin pieces of 0.    It is based on the observation on how easily dislocations can traverse grain boundaries and travel from grain to grain.(i) Grain boundaries strengthening    Is a method of strengthening materials by changing their average grain size. Using your knowledge of the IsothermalTransformation (IT) diagram determine the microstructure of the steelsamples after each heat treatment. quench in molten salt bath at 700 °C and hold for two hours. and give the name of this heat treatment? Tempering (iii) Heat for one hour at 860 °C. quench in molten salt bath at 350 °C.

11. (a) Classify two (2) major groups of wrought aluminium alloys. They are generated from percentage transformation-vs logarithm of time measurements.transformed but is continuously cooled from austenitic temperature to room temperature at different cooling rate. (d) Explain the advantage of martempering process on plain carbon steels. and formability. . Explain two (2) differences between Continuous Cooling Transformation diagram and Isothermal Transformation diagram for eutectoid plain-carbon steels. Isothermal transformation diagrams are plots of temperature versus time.  Supporting diagram for phase diagram  Give information that is not available in phase diagram  Shows structural change with respect to cooling time A continuous cooling transformation (CCT) phase diagram is often used when heat treating steel These diagrams are used to represent which types of phase changes will occur in a material as it is cooled at different rates.    Carbon steel    Iron steel (b) Based on your answers of (a). is the process of hardening the surface of a metal object while allowing the metal deeper underneath to remain soft. describe the available grades of wrought aluminium alloys in each classification. Case hardening. Increase toughness. ductility. and are useful for understanding the transformations of an alloy steel that is cooled isothermally (c) Name and describe one (1) of the surface hardening process for low carbonsteels which can be applied to bolts and nuts.

(c) Draw a schematic diagram of the effect of aging time on the strength of a percipitation-hardenable alloy that has been solution heat-treated and quenched. (a) Explain four (4) advantages of glass-fibre-reinforced plastics. . 12.  corrosion resistance  low weight-to-strength ratio  high strength  lower cost (b) Describe the effect of glass fibres arrangement and volume of fibreglassreinforced plastics on the strength of composite materials.

   Two chlorine atoms will each gain one electron from the magnesium atom.ion. The higher the volume fraction of reinforcement the higher will be tensile strength of the composite. Long or even continuous. your specimen may slip or even break inside the gripped area Specimen Alignment.Short. Describe two (2) factors to be considered during tensile tests procedure. The atoms become ions    The attraction between the oppositely charged ions forms the ionic bond between magnesium and chlorine  Calculate the atomic packing factor for an FCC unit cell. Give one (1) example for each factor. By not choosing the correct set up. Face and grip selection is a very important factor. Vertical alignment of the specimen is an important factor to avoid side loading or bending moments created in the specimen 14. unidirectional arrangements of fibers produce anisotropic properties. Describe with the aid of sketches the ionic bonding between a magnesium atom and a chlorine atom. Randomly oriented fibers having a small aspect ratio--typical of fiber glass—are easily introduced into the matrix and give relatively isotropic behaviour in the composite.    A magnesium atom will lose 2 electrons to form a stable 2+ ion.    A chlorine atom will gain 1 electron to form a stable 1. . 13.