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Modern Construction

(1) Metal standing seam





(1) Greenhouse glazing and

(1) Concealed membrane 110



Site-based method

Aims of this book


Prefabricated methods

Greenhouse glazing

Structural joints

Sealed and ventilated roofs

Modern roof glazing

Parapet upstands

Roof openings

Capped systems

Balustrades and plinths



Capped systems


Ridges and valleys
(1) An overview of
roof systems



Rainwater outlets
(2) Silicone-sealed glazing

Eaves and parapets

Penetrations for pipes and ducts

and Rooflights



(2) Profiled metal sheet

Silicone-sealed systems

(2) Exposed membrane


Profiled metal decks


Polymer-based membranes


as substrates

Use of capped profiles

PVC membranes


Profiled metal roof sheeting


FPO (TPO) membranes


Sealed and ventilated methods


Twin skin construction

(3) Bolt fixed glazing


Generic structural

Parapets and upstands


support methods

Ballasted roofs

Eaves and parapets

Supporting brackets

Ridges and valleys

Bolt fixings

(3) Planted

Arrangement of bolt fixings

Planted roof components

Glazed units

Soil depth

(2) Working with
manufacturers, fabricators
and installers


(3) Performance testing
of roofs

(3) Composite panels



Mechanically fixed method

Single wall composite panels
Twin wall panels

Water penetration tests


Wind resistance tests


Base of glazed roof

Impact resistance test


External and internal folds

Dismantling of sample

Parapets and valley gutters

Small glazed rooflights

(4) Bolt fixed glazing : Pitched
roofs and rooflights


(4) Rainscreens

(5) Bolt fixed glazing:

Panel arrangement

Davits and monorails



Trolley systems


Monopitch ridges and verges

Twin wall roofs


Davit systems

Roof geometry

(6) Bonded glass rooflights 96


Roof soffits

Generic conical rooflight

Trolley systems

Generic rectangular rooflight
(5) Metal canopies
Bolt fixed panels


Generic monopitch rooflight
Glass roof decks

Fixed metal louvre canopies
Electrically operated louvres

(7) Glazed canopies


System assembly
Four edge restrained canopy
Bonded glass canopies

Roof junctions
Rainwater outlets
Balcony planters

Larger rooflights
maintenance systems:

Bonded fixing method


Air infiltration test

(4) Roof-mounted



4 TIMBER 5 128 PLASTIC (1) Flat roof : Mastic asphalt coverings CONTENTS (1) GRP rooflights 130 6 160 FABRIC 162 174 REFERENCES (1) ETFE cushions 176 Photo references 194 194 Eaves and upstands Cushions Authorship 195 Warm and cold roofs Verges Air supply Bibliography 196 The material Abutments The material Index 198 Warm roof build-up Sliding roof panels Fabrication Solar protection Durability Upstands (2) GRP panels and shells 168 Eaves and verges Smaller panels and shells Penetrations Larger panels and shells Gutters and rainwater outlets Performance in fire (2) Single membrane : Cone-shaped roof 182 Fabric roof principles (2) Flat roof. Bitumen-based sheet membranes 136 Fabric types Comparison of types The material Thermal insulation Roof build-up Acoustics Solar protection Durability Fixing methods Performance in fire Parapet upstands Condensation Junction with tiled roof (3) Single membrane : Eaves and verges Barrel-shaped roof (3) Pitched roof :Tiles 142 Membrane roof fabrication Plain tiles Membrane roof edges Interlocking tiles Suspension points Ventilation Membrane folds Eaves Ridges Verges Hips and valleys Abutments (4) Pitched roof : Slates 148 Roof folds Vents Monopitch ridges Dormer windows Abutments (5) Pitched roof : Metal Standing seam cold roofs Eaves and valley gutters Ridges and abutments Penetrations Metal tiled roofs 154 188 .

Bolt fixed glazing systems for rooflights and roofs follow principles used in wall construction.This has considerable advantages for glazed roofs. Each set of three double page spreads explains a specific form of construction which is accompanied by drawn and annotated details. METALS CHAPTER The Metals Chapter discusses the use of metal sheet in roofs both as a substrate and as a watertight covering. a waterproof membrane can be formed in different materials. that can inform a design at a more detailed stage. but are usually fixed with pressure plates on the two sides parallel with the line of slope.There is an increasing tendency to conceal roof gutters and pipes and to integrate them into the depth of the roof construction. INTRODUCTORY ESSAYS These essays discuss two issues related to roof design: design development. Access systems for cleaning and maintaining roofs. timber. from metal to glass. metal sheet can be used in standing seams. built examples by high profile designers are used to illustrate specific principles. profiled sheet and rainscreens. inclined metal roofs and fabric structures. as well as equipment mounted on a roof for cleaning facades beneath. AIMS OF THIS BOOK Modern Construction Roofs is a textbook for students and young practitioners of architecture. Stick framed rooflights and glazing systems are related to those used for walls.When used as a substrate.Themes of each chapter from the MCH are developed to provide detailed design guides for facades. materials and fittings. The six chapters examine roofs from the standpoint of the primary material used in their construction. Bonded glass decks and rooflights are a development of glass block details. In addition to cradles hung from the roof on fixed jibs or moving on tracks. The higher levels of safety used in abseiling make it easier to clean roofs and facades of complex geometry without the need for highly visible ladders and cradles. craftsmanship. roofs. An additional volume of details brings together drawn technical information. Solar shading devices formed from metal are also discussed.Throughout the book. building assembly. in the form of profiled metal decking or composite panels. has developed considerably over the last 10 years. Books in the series discuss component design. as well as students of structural and environmental engineering who wish to broaden their study beyond the information provided in the Roofs chapter of the Modern Construction Handbook. plastics and fabrics. It shows the principles of the main roof types used today and illustrates this through typical generic details. GLASS CHAPTER The Glass Chapter sets out the use of the material as both rooflights and as large glass roofs. together with a built example. Used as a covering material. Finally in this MCR_ 4 . and provisions for maintenance access. concrete. as well as structural and environmental issues from the MCH.MODERN CONSTRUCTION SERIES The series is based around the Modern Construction Handbook. which are also discussed. As is the case in the Modern Construction Handbook the techniques described can be applied internationally. the use of abseiling has increased in popularity since the 1980's.

in addition to the more traditional single membrane finishes. paving slabs or timber decking. assemblies and details shown in this book describe many of the building techniques used by the building industry today.INTRODUCTION chapter. thin planting and metal sheet. Flat timber roofs.When the membrane is applied directly to the concrete. focusing on those that use point fixings with a minimum of support structure. This book explains the principles of accepted building techniques currently in use. references to national legislation. glazed canopies are discussed. allowing more visually delicate support structures to be used for these panels. In addressing an international readership. the increased use of metal sheet on timber roofs has led to an increase in more complex geometries that do not need to follow the principles of those traditional lapped roofing materials. but this book does not necessarily endorse or justify their use since techniques in building are in a continual state of change and development. Building components and assemblies from many different countries are often used in a single building. such as metal standing seams.Their advantage of high thermal insulation and lightness in weight is making them an increasingly preferred option for roof structures. MCR_5 . Construction can also be finished with another roofing system. are applied. good construction practice will always uphold these codes as well as assist their advancement.The components. QUALIFYING COMMENTS The building techniques discussed and the built examples shown are designed to last for an extended period with a relatively high performance. such s planting. CONCRETE CHAPTER Roof decks constructed in concrete are covered with a variety of waterproof membranes and finishes. are set out here. thermal insulation and finishes. PTFE membranes can be stretched over supporting structures. lightweight material with a watertight finish on its outside face. typically stainless steel cables with tubular steel supports. codes of practice and national standards have specifically not been included. Building codes throughout the world are undergoing increased harmonisation because of increased economic and intellectual globalisation. Some of the examples shown are highly developed applications of the techniques described. buildings for exhibitions and for temporary use are included since the techniques used have proven to be reliable in both short term and long term. TIMBER CHAPTER Timber roofs are a traditional form of construction that use mainly tiles. Since building codes are written to protect users of buildings by providing for their health and safety. air supported types and smaller scale canopies. In recent years. FABRIC CHAPTER The Fabric Chapter discusses tensile roof structures. All these types are explained in this chapter. PLASTICS CHAPTER GRP panels have the advantage of providing well insulated translucent panels that are more economic than those in glass. PTFE sheet is also used to form inflated 'air pillows' that are supported on an aluminium frame. slates and shingles in housing projects. Glass reinforced polyester (GRP) can produce opaque roof forms that are free of joints. building regulations.They are much lighter than glass. or rainscreens in other materials. forming continuous roof structures such as shells and domes that form a monolithic. However. All these types are discussed in this chapter.

INTRODUCTION (1) An overview of roof systems Metals Glass Concrete Timber Plastics Fabrics (2) Working with manufacturers. fabricators and installers (3) Performance testing of roofs Air infiltration test Water penetration tests Wind resistance tests Impact resistance test Dismantling of sample (4) Roof-mounted maintenance systems: Davits and monorails Trolley systems Davit systems Monorails Trolley systems MCR_ 7 .

Some move away from the traditional roof with a beneath. both technically facade designs. particu- completely concealed as flat roofs. rather than the use of traditional now increasingly considered to be a part of roof taken down over the walls. rather than dark colours that imitated traditional materi- a completely visible envelope design which is facade design taken over the roof. with In some recent projects. approaches are taken in sculptural forms ing on steel sheet. riages. particularly at high level. New York City. but roofs can be submerged in late 1970's. materials roof design. rainscreens. or else and use it to cover the complete external associated with consumer products. they are envelope. By the 1980's some build- both in their appearance and their technical where wall and roof are combined in a sin- ings even imitated the forms of train car- performance. Architect:Tom Wiscombe / Emergent. so that the principles of a ous roof forms without affecting the its increased visibility of roof designs. which and detailing used on both walls and roof. with the the roof a strong 'linear' texture that formed sheets. membranes and fabric structures are finding combined the long span capability of profiled The increased technical performance and their way into facade design. Both als such as tiles and slates. such as assume that the surface of the roof will um sheet instead of steel sheet (with its in covered sports halls.This makes large lets become blocked.This is very much a principle of the larly cars. such as parapet gutters. profiled metal sheet roofs had a result of these mixed methods of assembly. water during rain. roof systems are influencing cladding and profiled metal that followed greater experimentation. walls and roofs and unitised panels are being absorbed into slope. By the seam systems has become slightly blurred as surface. Bolt orientation of the profiled sheet which fixed glazing.Where roofs were once considered designs take the idea of the roof as a com- central ridge led to the use of brighter to be either of traditional appearance. Since the introduction of 'zip up' sheeting. A roof has to be com- added curved eaves and pressed metal cor- This new 'hybrid' system has a lining panel pletely sealed in areas where water can col- ners to provide concealed gutters that gave system which can be fixed from metal lect.The increased performance of gle design. An essential change in recent years that has become submerged in a thin film of water increased flexibility) led to more adventur- affected roofing systems in all materials is the running across it. single layer membrane colours in paint-based finishes which are with tiled and slated pitched roofs. By the early 1990's profiled metal the same construction methods. Even pitched roofs together with the increased use of alumini- roof spans. However.The gradual forming a continuity with the façade have a limited application on roofs.The increased reliability of jointing platforms required at all. with some second line of defence used in facade design waterproofing performance. with polished stainless steel roof roofing systems in all materials has led to Increasingly. polymer roofs were using standing seam joints. as pletely watertight. much easier to con- MCR_ 8 . being incorporated into roof design. and facade techniques are horizontal lines rather than the traditional and visually. with some being hung down from assumption that rainwater will be expected an important part of the design of industrial roof level without any scaffolding or access to remain on the roof if the rainwater out- buildings. while ETFE cushions. sheet with the visually refined and very long term reliability of roofing materials of all types has led to a much more ambitious design approach.An overview of roof systems Light Wing. an essential dif- water tight standing seams which are Metals A development in metal roofs over the 'zipped' together by machine on site. the dif- ference between facades and roofs as that past 10 years has been to improve the visual ference between profiled metal and standing facades have rainwater running across their appearance of all metal roof systems. or galvanised coat- as visually important as the external walls. silicone bonding allows rainwater to drain easily down the are taking on a single structural form.

The innovative design and construction of this roof
canopy was a result not only of digital technology,
but of an equally innovative use of teamwork,
where individuals and groups are brought together
for a specific project.The working method was as
important to the design team as the aspects of
design and fabrication.

struct since scaffolding is not required.

to metal roofing systems.They do not use

to achieve the same visual effect. Although

the outer seam as a first line of defence

such panels are a kind of 'virtual' metal roof

in development since the 1980's, with panels

against rainwater penetration but rather as a

rather than being formed entirely from

that provide an internal ceiling finish and

protection to the membrane beneath

metal, they can deal with varying methods of

outer roof covering in single panels which are

against the effects of the sun and to avoid

translucency and transparency in a single

semi-interlocked, with either a lapped metal

maintenance staff walking on the exposed

metal layer that can reveal its depth both

joint between panels or a metal capping that

membrane.This is becoming a visually more

from inside the building and from outside. A

clips over a standing seam-type joint. Com-

appealing alternative to smooth pebbles,

future development of metal rainscreen pan-

posite panels have still not reached the level

which also have the disadvantage of collect-

els might be to use them in conjunction with

of technical ambition of their counterparts in

ing dirt and dust from which vegetation can

a translucent roof such as GRP panels filled

facades.The joint between panels would be

grow. Metal rainscreen panels are required

with translucent thermal insulation, with var-

ideal to serve as drainage gutters to be set

to be sufficiently rigid and resistant to impact

ied amounts of daylight, allowing GRP panels

or even as a second line of defence to an

damage. Composite sheets with a plastic

to be in different colours, to which they

outer seal, as used in curtain walling, with a

core and thin metal outer facings are popu-

would otherwise be susceptible to colour

drained and ventilated slot in the joint where

lar in this regard since they achieve high lev-

fading without the perforated or slotted

water would be released at the base of the

els of flatness and are flexible enough to

metal panels.They could also be used with

roof. Some attempts have been made in this

withstand foot traffic, usually when alumini-

polycarbonate sheets or plastic-based glazing

direction, but much development is needed

um sections are silicone-bonded on the

in acrylic, for example, where the punched

to move this metal system away from an imi-

underside of panels.

metal panels allow a diffused light but where

Composite roof panel systems have been

tation of profiled sheet metal into a complete

A new development is the use of metal

the aging effects on the materials would be

system in its own right. A modest but useful

rainscreens in a mixture of opaque and per-

much less apparent and may even contribute

method of using composite panels is as an

forated or slotted, panels, which may also be

to enhancing the coloured effects.This alter-

insulated structural deck to a separate water-

used in soffit (upside down) conditions. Here

native to a glass roof would allow such roof

proof membrane set on top.While lacking

the panels are more than a semi-decorative

build-ups to be non-linear, even curving in

visibility of the panels, it is very adaptable and

covering to an economic roof covering,

two directions, in the manner of tensioned

economic, with thermal insulation not only

forming part of the expression of the build-

single layer fabric membrane roofs.

filling the voids between peaks and troughs

ing envelope in forming a continuity

of the metal sheet on its underside but also

between different parts of a roofscape, rang-

developments. Since they can also be used

providing structural stability.These composite

ing from covering air extract terminals,

as solar shading, they often can be consid-

roof panels have also been used in facades,

rooflights and gutters to forming a continu-

ered to be small roof structures in their own

where long span cladding panels are required

ous smooth continuation of the facade

right, being able to exploit folding geome-

which are difficult to obtain specifically from

below. Metal rainscreen panels can also

tries, as experiments for future building

proprietary cladding systems.

accommodate complex geometries without

envelopes.The use of CNC-based cutting

having to make individual composite panels

machines, as well as the increasingly eco-

Rainscreen panels are a recent addition

Metal canopies are undergoing major

MCR_ 9

An overview of roof systems
Bruges Pavilion. Belgium. Architect:Toyo Ito & Associates.

The design of the
structural composite
panels, or 'sandwich'
panels, underwent
much development in
the workshop.The
extensive use of prototyping allowed an
ambitious design to be
developed for a relatively small building.

nomic stamping tools to make individual patterns in punched sheets, makes specially pat-

Glass systems have developed consider-

have been in use for the past 25 years, the
issue of the water tightness of the horizontal

terned and cut panels for each project easier

ably over the past 25 years in order to

joint has been undergoing continual devel-

to obtain in different materials.

address the issue of improved weather tight-

opment. Glazing bars have been used to

ness. So-called 'patent' glazing originally

support glass down the slope of the roof

has influenced all types of metal construction

referred to patented systems for greenhouse

where they do not impede the passage of

is the increased quality of the finishes.The

glazing with metal glazing bars and clips that

rainwater. Horizontal joints have been sup-

quality of powder coating has improved

secured the glass quickly and reliably.The

ported with stepped joints where water

enormously, with greater durability and

term patent glazing is still used but these are

running off the top of the upper glass down

colour-fastness, so that it competes strongly

now usually thermally broken and hold dou-

onto a lower glass.The glass is traditionally

with the more expensive PVDF finishes. Con-

ble glazed units.The outer seals are able to

secured with clips and is sealed with a pro-

sequently, the main constraint in the design of

remain watertight at much higher wind pres-

prietary sealant.This joint is difficult to seal

metal roofs in any of these systems is that

sures from wind driven rain, and are drained

reliably in order to achieve water tightness

metal sheet is produced in widths of around

and internally ventilated in the manner of

for higher wind pressures, and is difficult to

1200mm or 1500mm, but is usually available

facade systems. Rainwater penetration of

adapt to a drained and ventilated system.

in long lengths where coil material is used,

joints in glazing systems has long been asso-

This issue has been resolved over the past

that is, where the metal is rolled into a long

ciated with a pressure difference between

20 years with the development of silicone

coil in the factory. Most metal panels in

the external air and the air pressure inside

bonded glazing that was originally used in

facades are made from coil material, where a

the glazing system if it is completely sealed. A

glazed curtain walls. In the new method, a

similar constraint applies in material width.

lower pressure inside the system than out-

metal channel is set along the top and bot-

Thicker plate, at 4mm thickness and above, is

side drew water in through joints which

tom of double glazed units, with the units

made in flat sheet form, at around 1000mm

resulted in leaks through both glazed roofs

being set flush with one another along the

x 2000mm in size, with larger sheets being

and glazed walls.This issue has long been

horizontal joints.The units are then secured

more difficult to obtain easily in large quanti-

resolved by draining away any water that

with metal clips within the depth of the joint

ty.Working with the width of the coil in

passes through the outer seals in drainage

to provide a mechanical restraint.The hori-

forming joints, and allowing for the folding or

grooves set adjacent to the edges of the

zontal joint between units is then sealed

turning of the material at the joints, is the

double glazed units, beneath the pressure

with silicone.The aluminium frame onto

main constraint, but the material can be

plate that holds the glass in place.Water is

which the glass is fixed has ventilated

curved and folded economically to achieve

drained at the bottom, where air is allowed

drainage channels to take away any water

almost any form required, in a durable mater-

to enter into the area in which the drainage

that passes through the outer silicone seal.

ial, with finishes that will retain their crisp

chamber is located to ensure there is no

With the development of silicone bonding

appearance up to around 25 years.

pressure difference between inside and out-

techniques in recent years, the double glazed


unit can also be bonded to aluminium pro-

A change over the past 10 years which

Although drained and ventilated systems

MCR_ 10

files which are mechanically fixed with

Mercedes Benz Design Center, Stuttgart, Germany. Architect: Renzo Piano Building Workshop

Like a twin wall
facade, this roof
design incorporates
both glazing and
solar shading.The use
of internal shading
allows daylight to be
directed within the
space, allowing daylight to be reflected
off the internal shading to adjust the
quality of daylight.

screws to a supporting frame.The joint

glass forming a continuous rooflight with the

held in a perimeter frame that supports the

between the glass units is then sealed with

supporting structure and solar shading,

cables in the form of a ring beam.Where the

silicone in the same way as the previous

where required, set outside the glass.Where

rooflight is surrounded by an opaque roof,

example. An alternative approach has been

a rooflight is seen mainly from outside, and

where it forms an opening in a concrete

to introduce horizontal glazing bars with

the structure is set on the inside, the

roof deck for example, the ring beam is not

pressure plates that are shaped to allow as

rooflight is seen in terms of its volume,

visible, but where it forms a complete roof,

much water to drain down the roof as possi-

almost as a solid block of glass without visi-

the resulting perimeter structure can be

ble, and accepts that the same water will be

ble structure.The preference for the uninter-

visually dominant, so this approach is highly

trapped behind the upper edge of the pres-

rupted plane of glass with a certain reflectivi-

dependent upon the visual elegance of the

sure plate.This small amount of rainwater

ty is developing alongside the preference for

perimeter structure when this structure is

will evaporate, and any small amounts of

transparency in rooflight design.Where bolt

exposed. Bolt fixed rooflights are moving

water that find their way through the outer

fixed glazing for rooflights was preferred

away gradually from a dependence on the

seal will be drained away within the system.

originally for its greater transparency as a

X-shaped cast bracket, which is very charac-

Both the recessed fixing method with a sili-

result of its frameless, point fixed, design, this

teristic of the technique used to date,

cone seal, and the modified pressure plate

method is now being used more for the

towards more flat plates and welded brack-

system have been proved very reliable in

uninterrupted planes and modelled forms of

ets, which are both more economic and

their performance.

glass it creates.This is seen in the technical

ensure more visual emphasis on planes or

development of the systems, where the bolt

forms created by the glass than on the fixing

applied more slowly to new roof designs

fixing supports only one side of the double

system of brackets and bolts.

than its use in facades.The technical success

glazed unit, with the outer sheet of the dou-

Bonded glass rooflights are a recent

of bolt fixed glazing is in part dependent on

ble glazed unit having no bolt fixing penetra-

development in glazed roofs, where double

high levels of workmanship on site to form

tion, and consequently no visible fixings on

glazed units are bonded directly onto a light-

the joints between glazed units.This led to

the external face of the glass.This takes bolt

weight metal frame that has no visible fixings

some difficulties in the early application of

fixed glazing a step further towards a glazing

on its external face. But where bolt fixed

bolt fixed glazing in roofs but this has been

system with no visible fixings.

glazing can conceal the fixing bolt within the

Bolt fixed glazing for rooflights has been

subsequently solved. An advantage of bolt

The use of bolt fixed glazing to provide

double glazed unit on one side, structural sil-

fixed glazing over framed systems is their

greater visual transparency has led to an

icone glazing has no visible structure at all,

ability to be fixed from either inside or out-

increased use of cable net supporting struc-

with supporting glazing bars being concealed

side.Where framing glazing has the support-

tures. Cable nets for bolt fixed glazing com-

within the width of the joint behind the

ing extrusions on the inside, even if the glaz-

prise cables, usually in a rectilinear grid of

external seal.This has led to greater freedom

ing bar extends to the outside of the roof,

stainless steel cables where bolt fixings are

in the forms used for rooflights in this tech-

the grid of metal framing remains visible.

set at the intersection points of the cables.

nique, where the position of the glazing bars,

With bolt fixed glazing the rooflight is seen

The effect of these structures is like a tennis

and how they intersect, does not have to be

increasingly as an uninterrupted plane of

racquet, where visually lightweight cables are

considered in rooflight design.The conical-

MCR_ 11

particularly as between strips of membrane. capping pieces or a close is still required to span movement joints and way as standing seam metal roofing. surface are derived in part from examples of als. the waterproof mem- Some manufacturers offer upstand angles in required in this glazing system. Asphalt. are which will no doubt lead to more refined glass floor decks and staircases used in build- becoming more economic. or large where thermal insulation is fixed above. asphalt sheet. Polymer materi- roof edges. mainly thermoplastics and elastomers. which can be used to glass dominates rather than any visible grid of slabs are set onto the insulation. these waterproofing layers. which are welded membranes are increasingly being used on ty of the material used. Most bonded glass torch-on membrane sheet rather than in liq- branes are set to become visible finishes in rooflights with a gently sloping. visually exposed poly- . so that very brane in order to keep its temperature cool the same material as the membrane. which suit well a structurally being easier to apply on site.An overview of roof systems International Port Terminal. is beginning to be used as a ued use of glass alone. suffered with straight and crisply formed joints that decks and foam insulation-clad roof decks traditionally from an inability to take up can form a visible self finish to a roof. or polymer modified translucent plastics rather than in the contin- smooth or level substrate can be formed. typically sculptured forms can be made. A solution to this problem branes which are kept concealed due to an absence of glazing bars and cappings has been the 'inverted' roof configuration. being an active part of the visual design. can be formed in the same way ers will assist in this change. with some buildings conceal the exposed roof membrane. shingles. Bonded tion of polymers into asphalt to provide this membrane pieces to be joined with standing glazing has encouraged the use of structural greater flexibility has led to the material seam joints in order to visually refine the laps glass beams.Where a mer-based membranes. a well estab- together in the factory to form a membrane unusual substrates such as folded steel sheet lished material for concrete decks. radiused forms in order to fix them) are not rather than below. beams when accidental damage occurs.Waterproof years have focused on increasing the flexibili- as fabric membranes. allowing 15 years.There is effects of the sun.This taking the membrane down the facades to technique may well find a development in form a complete building envelope. which is lead- balustrades to be used at roof edges rather set to continue with the greater reliability ing to roofs being covered in a few of these than using a parapet as a visual barrier to and understanding of the behaviour of glass materials as a self-finish.This arrangement of bolt fixings that would be interface with other materials. Japan. polymer materi- their own right rather than being concealed. where the and relatively constant.The introduc- development also allows joints between required with other glazing methods. with foam-applied thermal insulation or with material in its own right rather than imitating a board-material finish with thermal insula- the appearance of traditional roof tiles or tion beneath. However. Pebbles or paving for PVC membranes. or from solar gain when exposed to the membranes. Architect: Foreign Office Architects. Roof mem- glazed rooflights. with an where there is a strong modelling of the Concrete Developments in waterproofing mem- MCR_ 12 On pitched roofs. while providing an innovative topography of the external roofscape. where a parapet wall will not be ings that have been developed over the past als have the advantage of increasingly being required to conceal the roof behind. their poor visual aspect are now capable of (which require relatively simple. but planar uid applied form. shape rooflight described in Chapter 2 has a movement from either the building structure appearance similar to that of fabric 'tent' painted top which is shown formed in metal. But asphalt direct rainwater across the roof in the same framing members.The increased use of glass beams is able to be exposed to sunlight.Yokohama. The innovative use of a folded steel plate structure allowed the roof structure to be completely visible within the building.This change from roof mem- but could also be made in cast glass.The more refined fixing techniques which can also be used on metal and timber that are being made available by manufactur- branes for concrete roofs over the past 25 roof decks.

optimised for struction immediately behind the internal fin- ate climates. As require- next 10 years. slated and movement and higher temperatures combined with an external wearing surface that Timber shingled roofs use two lines of defence can be walked upon without reasonable risk Timber-based roofs have developed against rainwater penetration.Tram Station. Cold roofs. thin planted roofs have evolved that the roof construction. lation ducts and boiler flues did not. In practice. minimum. roof structure seen either from inside or have become more complex. As encountered with planted roofs has been lated. but not with the high levels of thermal ments for thermal insulation increase in insulation required in recent years with the order to reduce energy consumption within past 20 years on more lightweight buildings need to reduce energy consumption within buildings. Irrigation devices Most of the effort in ventilating pitched are hung from their top edge. with electroni- roofs of this type is in trying to retain the from outside the building. mainly in semi-rural areas. and the breather membrane or roofing that is both economic and able to deal with a need for complex and expensive structure felt that is set above the thermal insulation.The the building structure. slates or shin- to form both wall and roof in a single system ings. until recently. as the weight of soil and drainage required to have undergone much development in order will the currently dominant requirement to grow vegetation which increases the cost of to properly deal with the needs of ventila- imitate traditional lapped construction. without the gles.This allows planted roofs to be through the roof such as pipes and ventila- Planted roofs have been in use for the An interesting development in pitched used on lightweight roofs in all materials. this is difficult to always the design of pitched roofs for dwellings in weight of soil and water can be reduced to a achieve. This folded concrete deck provides a roof canopy that has a strong visual form that is not visually weakened by the typical demands of waterproofing and rainwater drainage.This. Most techniques and protection for.This tion ducts. where venti- required to accommodate more structural suit the vegetation for different times of year. and can be used have the least visual impact on its surround- void between the roof tiles. play a part. Some manufacturers substitute for tiles in certain areas of a require only 50mm of growing medium to prefer to have no ventilation within the roof pitched roof (which also imitate the appear- produce a roof covered in low height vege- construction where it cannot be easily pro- ance of traditional tiles and slates) will proba- tation. of membranes. tion. so that the ishes.These will no doubt influence the needs of the vegetation. Architect: Zaha Hadid Architects. A difficulty at ceiling level with the roof void being venti- construction will increase correspondingly. as will the use of tiles as solar drainage layers in polystyrene which hold a barrier on the inside face of the wall con- collectors for hot water systems in temper- controlled amount of water. variety of fixing angles. France. metal shingles MCR_ 13 . in part. a waterproof membrane are set to develop along these lines over the of tiles and slates are based on long tradi- or breather membrane beneath. Over the past 20 tion to avoid condensation occurring within increasing use of photovoltaic panels as a years.The use over the past 20 years to improve their ther- outer layer is the outer line of defence to. is due to better designed vided by using a high performance vapour bly increase. Membranes are cally controlled valves that irrigate roofs to appearance of traditional roofs. roof forms will no doubt change. with the insulation set of interstitial condensation within the roof tion on concrete roof decks. Manufacturers also provide roofs has been the use of metal shingles. but warm roofs a result. particularly around penetrations the years to come. for maintenance access. where the of damage.Where shingles or tiles to support the vegetation.This technique has been popular where the increasingly higher performance vents to technique is a hybrid of lapped tile roofing external appearance of a roof is intended to ensure that air can be drawn through the and standing seam facades. Strasbourg. Modern tiled. continue to be used. both visible and concealed mal insulation performance. the requirements for the avoidance rather than their more established applica- buildings.

and integrated to imitate the appearance of glass rooflights more difficult in larger scale factory-based rooflight and electrical lighting installations as flat sheet materials. which are usually concealed. or edges. copper or zinc. mild steel. which are often paint- an internal decorative and an external weath- cal. Japan. which polymer materials are seen as eco- can be moulded to very large single forms Metal shingles are economic to fabricate. Architect: Masaki Endoh and Masahiro Ikeda. allowing the used as translucent rainscreen panels with machinery costs reduce. An essential difference between plas- rainwater will pass through the joints. This fixing method secures the shingles on all revival in roof design.Where metal roofs require cover strips from aluminium. ensuring that colour fading is far where two-sided finishes are required. tiles can be formed to a curved buildings which could not otherwise have the tions between components. and as composite pan- methods where repeatability of large num- can give plastics a language all of their own. are folded over into a seam on their sides 30 years ago. In external enveloped are demonstrated in and flashings at interfaces to deal with junc- addition. only when more complex geometries of metal. even in a lighting or graphic displays set beneath the milling and cutting machines which are well soffit condition. A greater erproof finish are required. allowing an interac- double curves. twin layer construction of high tion between designer and fabricator that is levels of thermal insulation. fading or of yellowing in transparent / translu- one side only as a result of using single-face cent rooflights. nomic substitutes.This is partly due the case with opaque rooflights where both not rectilinear. as is and lower edge. Some panels have been This may change over the next 10 years as sides while retaining a visual lap.Working with plastics and composites is ing in metals gives a certain visual richness yet to be explored in this technique. where mock-ups can be produced that imitate similar forms. and without the need for traditional roofing elements. if the shingles are less pronounced than it was.This is gradually changing as plastics are bers of identical components still dominates Examples of the moulding ability and flexibili- no longer seen as economic substitutes for production methods. this is not shape in a press to give a very textured budget available for such work in other mate- required in plastics.The fixing method usually fol- outer plastic skin. but new forms of easily and economically.The complexity of detail- facade with a 3-dimensional quality that has rials. with the language of both tensile structures and plastic-based forms. and the possibilities are in their own right.This innovative use of an economic material allows 3D forms to be created economically. particularly CNC shingle to be fixed in any position. shape has undergone the beginnings of a nificant amount due to the costs involved.The top edge or edges are based finishes on opaque panels.An overview of roof systems Natural Ellipse. which less durable than either glass or metal. for tic-based materials and metals is that plastics are drained in a ventilated cavity behind.This perception will change without the joints required in sheet-based since they can be cut easily from sheet metal. but are set at 45° to the verti- to the coatings used. still undertaken in relatively small-scale work- that is not present in plastic-based materials shops. Moulded items are bonded together used in bonding are superior to those used back to back where components or panels MCR_ 14 Fabrics The use of woven textiles made from . els. ty of the material is seen in consumer prod- Plastics Translucent plastics are used mainly both other materials but as construction materials Glass reinforced polyester (GRP) is a ucts and vehicles. Earlier examples of plastic material that is growing in popularity but is beginning to find their way into building con- rooflights suffered from the effects of colour restricted to having only a finished surface on struction.Tokyo. The membrane covering of this building mixes the methods of concealed polymer membranes. Smaller scale fixed with nails or screws with the shingle acceptance of plastics as durable and capable polymer-based components have yet to use immediately above being lapped over the top of being moulded economically to complex injection moulding techniques due to any sig- of the nailed fixing in the manner of tiling. for example.The essential difficulties for adapted to working with plastics and com- lows rainscreen principles by assuming that plastics remains in their perception as being posites.The materials and finishes moulds.

Alternatively. where wall and roof is could lead to ever new roofing techniques. The use of polycarbonate panels provides a visually lightweight canopy that appears to float above the surrounding space.The concern with and application. maintain the pressure required to give them have developed from early examples of making them more attractive for roofs to structural stability. so that it is foil which is both very durable when com- nologies. over a More translucent insulation materials reduce internal screen walls in a variety of twin roof supporting structure that may use a mast to the amount of light transmission lost through or twin wall applications. membranes on roof decks in concrete. Switzerland. earlier examples and developing them. duction of double layer membrane roofs will fixed to a permanent air supply that periodi- Tension structures that imitate the geometry no doubt change their use from purely cally refreshes the cushions with more air to of traditional tents from around the world weather barrier to a thermally insulated roof. with air cushions that can be used in tures stretch a single membrane sheet. brane to cable and restraint of cables to method of insulating membranes is to fill the which do not require any supporting struc- adjoining structure.This is usually successful. Architect: Mario Botta.Tent-based struc- internal spaces than shelters for sports stadi- grow. gives the roof an elegant.The design life of these roofs is gradual- rely on electrical machinery to retain its ly increasing as both a result of observing structural integrity. Like sheet plastic support the tent. Fabric membranes are currently limited MCR_ 15 . Most coat- small 'cushions' or 'pillows' filled with air to membrane.The intro- translucent panels. and also high- glass sheet and plastic sheet finding a com- than relying exclusively on washing the mem- ly transparent. conjunction with external solar shading or is waterproofed on its external face. this method has been adapted as than the PVC/polyester type. Although inflatable struc- by the width in which they are manufactured.The use of fabric is set to canopies of 35 years ago. Lugano. similar to those used in polymer ings aim to reduce surface friction as low as provide an insulated fabric membrane roof. polymers is relatively new to building con- The large scale nature of most membrane formed from a mixture of transparent and struction and its use has been focused on its roofs also makes cleaning difficult. in the imitation of a to form an economic and highly translucent be liberated from the design language of glass traditional tent. it is ideal for roof design.While this can be a disadvan- bined language in a single roof rather than branes by hand in regular cleaning mainte- tage in rooflights where some amount of being entirely different solutions for a single nance. metal possible to reduce the amount of dust and The most visually striking examples use ETFE and timber. bearing in solar shading is usually required. with more complex geometries to ing developments in the connection of mem- double layer membranes. Loadbearing air cushions. could see a convergence of tech- dirt that accumulates on roofs. building envelopes. roofs. as tures are used in temporary or seasonal roof though ETFE/glass fibre sheet is much wider well as an improvement in the performance enclosures. which ums and semi-open courtyards in buildings. durable quality.The combining of these tech- mind that most fabric roofs are difficult to many facades and is finding use in complete nologies in less rectilinear-based roof designs access on a regular basis for washing by hand. are in their early stages of development are stretched over more sculptured support- to form an inflatable roof. expressed as separate roof elements. and cables to hold the these roofs. application to create tent-like roof forms. membranes gap in a double layer membrane roof with air ture. with waterproofing membranes.This has led to some interest- thermal insulation material that would suit rooflights. cleaned efficiently by natural rainfall rather pared to other polymer fabrics.The joints in the of the protective coatings applied.These panels are inflated. ETFE cushions are just beginning to membrane in position. and we are likely to see ing frames. with research being undertaken materials. which are derived more from the this approach is that it relies on a constant much of this development in roof structures established language of building construction supply of air to hold the roof in place rather and self-supporting envelope structures in than from the masts and cables of tent-based than by a supporting frame which does not the coming years. An alternative form curved roofs.Bus Station. The crisp assembly.

and the lat- who can be approached at an early stage of also provide useful information at an early est improvements will be offered by installers the project to request general technical infor- stage about the relationship between sup- during the tender stage. Lapped tiles. While this design approach has been used on larger-scale projects. tally different from established systems. specialised roof structures that can provide team prior to tender. ticularly where drainage outlets are closely Roofs and roof coverings are installed in Roofs made primarily from metal. with even metal shingle roofs being Timber roofs usually use well established commonly used in rooflights. Architect: Shuhei Endo Architect Institute. while overcoming condensation prob- to ensure their long term performance as ensure that they can be accommodated. since the techniques which are usually undertaken by fabricators. fabricators assem- like to develop the system further before range of manufacturers. which focus on reliability. or the rela- these items. who are based in steel fabrication. advice. This building uses a roof structure which is continuous with the external walls to create a single 'wrap' for the envelope. ceeds to the detailed design in a variety of through framing members and through joints ways depending on the material used. Biwa-cho. par- lems associated with these developments. glass. where traditional techniques are still project within the budget allowed. mock-ups and testing is increasing information is needed in order to proceed to which can could be incorporated into the towards that of facades. If the proposed system is fundamen- with proprietary membranes. of glazed curtain walling. and its attendant loads. or double layered roofs. which are usually sealed one or two manufacturers are usually invited der. fabricators and installers Atelier and House. where soil depth. with movement joints and typical junc- a mixture of manufacturers' proprietary at an early stage to see whether they would tions being detailed in a similar way by a components or systems. rainscreens.This is par- established at an early stage in order to allow used.Where the roof design varies little porting structure and glazing. As roof design approaches the visual com- mation.The exception is in blies and installers' work on site in fixing tender. Japan. for example. leading to negotiations for the con- planted roofs. Some large cur- provided as tested systems. profiled metal and composite Companies that fabricate unusual glazed and shingles are undergoing constant devel- panel systems are made by manufacturers roofs. require little visual continuity with the facades beneath. its use in smallscale buildings is innovative. for unusual designs. at an early stage. while in their range of details. for the design team. except on smaller pro- manufacturer or fabricator can undertake the medium. the design way rainwater outlets at the edge of roofs. and are well defined ceiling layout below. the roof is either large in relation to the size range of manufacturers whose systems could of the envelope. Flat systems.Working with manufacturers. prietary planted roof systems to be used. particularly in plexity of facades. particularly where tender with a drawn solution that will suit a overall structural design for the building. and concrete roof decks require close coordina- and ever increasing amounts of thermal insu- where detailed design and testing is required tion with the rainwater drainage system to lation. involved are well known.Traditional techniques are largely ticularly important in the case of mixed sys- for a minimum of two or three different pro- absorbed into manufacturers' proprietary tems. economy where there are fewer precedents. part of the completed building. little additional providing structural loading information design. the amount of detailed from these standard systems. then consultation with manufacturers before ten- Concrete roofs. or where the roof forms a be used. the design team pro- ing is required. can opment in the building industry. plastic and fabrics are manufacturer/fab- team will need to consult manufacturers at rather than visible outlets in accessible roof ricator based. Having established the general an early stage if an outer layer of solar shad- decks. slates Standing seam. makes this requirement for coordina- appearance of a roof. need to be jects.The increased use of 2- primarily manufacturer/installer based. Shiga Prefecture. as penetrations tion more acute. con- Glazed roofs usually follow the standards coordinated with the facades or with the crete and timber are. However.The choice of specif- Metal roofs are mostly proprietary sys- MCR_ 16 . made by manufacturers with the tain walling companies have branched into capable of being fully designed by the design exception of rainscreen panels and canopies.They are usually tems. Most roofs are based on manu- tract at a point when it becomes clear which tively thin depth of an equivalent growing facturers' systems. (in the case of bolt fixed glazing) are less systems.

Asphalt-based materials are membranes. Negotiation of costs at supplier helps the design team to understand should be grasped from the outset. It is impor- early stage of the project. usually bid to install tial design. or installers. the properties of each material. making themselves more available to develop more modest budget. with the development of new systems in If a suitable method can be agreed for bring- tems. nature of the work. with the required design without adding significant workshop. installation and off-site fabrication can then structural shells. mainly in metals.This can assist the contractor when ion roofs can be designed by the design team of the system which the design team would entering discussions about the merits of the with the assistance of structural engineers like to modify can be accommodated with- setting up a temporary workshop on or near specialising in these tensile structures. and determine the forces that would be quality offered. and the sen at an early stage due to the specialist A visit to the factory of the proposed system working methods associated with each. as opposed to transporting assem- allows the design to develop rapidly without ject. already well developed and can be detailed In general. they are usually designed for The ability to negotiate costs for the supply be optimised by the design team to achieve each individual project and fabricated in the of a system to site assists in this matter.The tics and fabric membranes. can be made at an early stage in con- closely linked to the design team. Fabric membrane roofs and ETFE cush- involving specific manufacturers. where supporting structure can their experience in previous projects. can provide information at an early stage about the suitability with confidence by the design team ready for roof systems is not as flexible as with facade of a design for ease of construction as well as tender. and hence the width of able to respond at an early stage of a project. structural engineer can proceed with an ini- in terms of complexity and scale as well as Contractors. together an early stage is advisable in plastics for this both how components are made and the with an idea of how the materials are trans- reason. It also helps to see whether any part roof. manufacturers are ambitious designs can be realised within a ponents. which out adding significant extra costs to the pro- the site. a system which is already specified by the be developed in parallel with the fabric design team. but this situation is quickly changing associated costs of bringing materials to site. for example. with smaller manufacturers offering most materials. constraints under which they are manufac- ported to site and assembled as a complete GRP roofs are made as proprietary sys- Above all. with approximate sultation with fabricators. who may be Fabricators are becoming more ambi- When the design team better understands reluctant to produce a detailed geometry tious both technically and in terms of visual the materials with which they are working. blies over long distances from a factory. that the design will suit two or three tender- of a particular system which has been adapt- ers.The amount of on site Where plastic-based roofs are made as their systems with architects and engineers. become more MCR_ 17 . plas- the quality of construction is enhanced as a applied to the supporting structure.The design team usually ensures the tender being restricted to the installation time to the construction period on site. material available to form a seamed mem- and if appointed early on. then more mixture of panels and specially formed com- performance of facades. Neeltje Jans. such as nosings and gutter sections. but a preferred contractor may be cho- ed by the design team for a specific project. systems. particularly if they are also general building contractors. working with manufacturers of Installers. an essential understanding of tured. Once the material tant to visit their facilities at an early stage of costs being provided by manufacturers for and budget have been matched. Architect: Oosterhuis Associates The external membrane uses a spray-applied polymer-based coating which mixes the visual language of asphalt and liquid-applied roofing membranes with the technology of polymers to create an innovative appearance that is set to develop in the coming years. a specialist the project to establish their capability both the supply of the materials at an early stage. glazing. As roofs move increasingly ing certain materials to site and lifting them individually designed systems which are a towards the visual complexity and technical onto the roof easily.Saltwater Pavilion. Holland.They are usually result. ic tile or slate or shingle is usually made at brane. choice of material.

A test that is particular to roofs. which en on site.The hose is con- The test chamber is pressurised with an nected to a centrifugal fan which can either both in the systems used. Testing of water tightness of mock-ups has problems inherent in the system. wood chamber enclosure. and allowing as possible. usually with plywood pressurise the test chamber and ensure that sheets which are sealed at the interfaces with the chamber has been properly sealed.This is usually undertaken on up. A grid of stand the load to protect building users one joint.This is the mock-up and with the floor slab or deck done before testing commences. since the overall effects of move- water spray nozzles is set above the mock-up beneath when they are at possible risk.Performance testing of roofs The testing of a roof system is undertaken typically with a small test panel that contains the full range of joints that comprise the system as well as the maximum span that the system can accommodate. typically for single membrane edges in a way that simulates the structure corresponds to half of the design pressure roofs on a flat roof deck in either concrete. from ment under full design wind load cannot be in order to simulate rainfall onto the roof. finishes and that passes through an opening in the ply- since their performance is well established colour. of materials. In addition.The pres- Mock-ups for performance testing have the added benefit of revealing the installation MCR_ 18 The largest external component in the Air infiltration test . nically from standard systems.The roof mock-up is set 1500mm to flat roofs where there would be standing 2000mm above the ground level to allow the In order to establish the rate at which air water in the event of blocked outlets. and test mock-up panel is set at the same angle glass spheres is provided for the soft body is not undertaken in facades. particularly with air infiltration through the system. the ventilation and drainage in the case of glazed testing is an aero engine with propellers effect of a falling object onto the roof is test- roofs. Concrete. for determined unless a full panel is tested.Where a range of angles are mobile platform or temporary scaffolding level anticipated in the event of rainwater encountered.This is done in order to steel or timber. and airtight when the various design loads tions of framing members.The A canvas bag filled with small diameter example. the most vulnerable. glass and plastics.This test is usually undertak- usually supported on a steel frame at its 'pulse' which is held for 10 seconds.The space beneath the for the roof system. This is to ensure that adequate weatherproofing can be provided while the system experiences maximum deflections from both positive and negative wind pressures. is the flood test. the mock-up is applies to pitched roofs only at gutters or cally on a concrete slab.Test rigs determine the panel or set of joints that covers an area suf- supply air to. Roof structures are usually tested in the design team to see how the roof will chamber which is able to be clamped shut a specialist laboratory when they differ tech- appear before proceeding with the work in during the testing. visible joint widths. and underside to be inspected easily. and set typi- filtrates through the assembly. outlets being blocked and left standing for up extreme. which is typically dropped from a An area of roof is filled with water up to a installation. or tower set next to the test sample. and as industry- The workshop usually has at least one wide specifications. timber and regard to visual crispness of assembly.The mock-up can unusual combination of standard systems.The roof sample is first subjected to a single positive pressure drainage points. particularly beneath to provide as air tight an enclosure until recently been restricted mainly to if some innovation is involved. flatness supply is provided usually by a flexible hose fabric do not usually require test mock-ups.The air metal.There is little point in testing a panel which acts as a generator for the wind pres- ed when it is considered essential to with- 300mm x 300mm in size that includes only sures applied to the test mock-up. at which it is to be used in the completed impact test. used in the building. roof is then enclosed. or extract air from. higher buildings adjacent to the roof. as well as internal are applied to the mock-up. A door is provided into the facades. angles are taken to form the mock- to several days. the test ability of the mock-up to remain watertight ficiently large to provide full structural deflec- chamber. or have an the workshop or on site. also be used to establish an accepted level of air supply in order to establish the amount of Testing is usually restricted to systems in quality of construction.

25mm.These two tests are required. typically a static air pressure.The bag is dropped from a water is sprayed from nozzles onto the roof is then applied to the roof mock-up and held height of around 750mm to simulate an mock-up at a rate of at least 3. ensures that all parts of the roof sample are sample are recorded. Readings Water penetration tests are taken digitally at a distance from the test These tests are conducted both under chamber. any assembly would not fail under these impact 400mm from the face of the sample.The airflow test is positions where the deflectors are most criti- the roof assembly. is fitted with an air supply to provide both positive and negative air pressures on the internal face of the roof sample panel.The under- the mock-up deflects within the limits set out how to resolve the matter.The roof sample is first sealed with tape to determine chamber leakage. and at tive wind pressure for 10 seconds. the pres- vas bag 400mm in diameter.4 litres/ m for 10 seconds at different pressure deflec- impact energy of around 350 Nm in a safety /minute. A positive pressure around 50kg.The test across the sample for 15 minutes. failure occurs in a seal in 1. els to establish that the complete roof 700mm apart.0 times design and outside. this dis- engine to provide the same 600 Pascal pres- negative wind pressures establish whether mantle assists the design team to understand sure difference across the sample. and are fixed at around After a period of up to 5 minutes. inside the chamber. to a mass of the static air pressure water penetration test.Typically. sure in a safety test. at the design wind pressure mock-up for a second round of testing if checked to ensure that no water drops are (typically 1400 Pascals). to withstand wind blowing across the sample. with a 50% mock-up is dismantled to ensure that the or face of the mock-up is checked for any pulse held for 10 seconds in order to estab- mock-up was built exactly in the way it water penetration. would be applied on the roof of the finished 2 same pressure with a propeller-type aero These two sets of tests for positive and Dismantling of sample When the tests are complete. In the first test. where air is corresponding to 600 Pascals is applied drawn out of the test chamber. After a an object falling on it is simulated with a can- dynamic air pressure.The test is performed on joints and pan- on a grid so that nozzles are no more than 100% of the positive design wind pressure. sure inside the chamber is now increased to visible as a result of penetrating the roof repeated at 1. is in the design. with no significant a positive pressure 'pulse' of 50% of the posi- glazed or plastic-based rooflight. exceed fixed to the inside face of the roof sample. typically. Readings are taken at 50%.5 times the design wind pres- a difference of 600 Pascals between inside assembly. which is capable of being fully sealed.The water spray nozzles are set out tions.The transducers are set by applying Impact resistance test The ability of a lightweight roof. pressure transducers are wind pressure to examine what would happen in the event of failure if this limit is not fixed rooflights should not. such as at the centre of framing mem- in a rooflight. a 'zero' level for the test. which.The differ- cal.The test chamber. telescopic gauges that measure deflections. or the centre of panels.The interi- starts again from the beginning. usually to an accuracy of 0. and measurements of airflow are taken.1 m3 per hour per m2. sure transducers are set to zero to establish glass balls already described. where an aero engine recovery period of up to 5 minutes.Transducers are the 2. that is. for Wind resistance tests In these tests. but this occurs usually when ence between the two readings indicates the bers.This process is repeated sprayed with water. MCR_ 19 .The test is repeated at the lish a 'zero' level for the transducers. A pressure differential for negative wind pressure. ed.The pressure is then increased to a maximum of 2. the roof building. filled with the blows air onto the sample. In the event of a test failure. or a glass panel may break repeated with the tape removed. 75% and test.0 times design wind pressure is exceed- air infiltration rate through the roof sample. and prepare the side of the mock-up. in reached.This remaining (or permanent deflections) in the energies.

8. 6. 2. 1 10 10 5 9 2 4 5 3 Section 1:25. MCR_ 20 Davit Roof finishes Facade Solar shading panels Cradle Monorail Bracket supporting monorail Beam supporting monorail Safety line for harness Cable . 5. 7. 4. 9.Roof-mounted maintenance systems : Davits and monorails Details 1. 10. 3. Davit supporting cradle in two positions.

con- design. rarely. with details that would weather well with either davits. Most facades are cleaned nance.1 1 1 3 5 4 5 Plan 1:25. stone and timber dominating architec- equipment. Davits are moveable and has been a greater requirement for cleaning walkways set at each floor level. usually with a minimum of visible presence of a monorail or trolley system is crete. Davits are very ago were detailed with low levels of mainte- required to be integrated into the roof useful for roofs where the permanent visual nance envisaged. as either plinths in the form of short MCR_ 21 . Facades would be cleaned only discussed here. lightweight and mobile to be handled by one for cleaning access. glass and facades (discussed In Modern Construction is usually hung on cables from a davit at each composite materials in facade design there Facades) are often provided in the form of end of the cradle. holding one or two persons. are roof-mounted and are positions near the roof edge. with the use of brick. Building facades 30 years tems. With the increased use of metal. Facade cleaning systems for twin wall Davits are usually made of mild steel or or two people when they are moved into Davit systems A davit is a jib or scaffold-shaped frame position and fixed for use. partly buildings having a mixture of these systems at their base. Davits are usually dropped into position onto a set of bolts from which a cleaning cradle is hung.Windows in mason- tems mounted at roof level. however. monorails or trolley sys- with the passage of time.This makes them sufficiently to admit fresh air for ventilation and partly on a single roof.With the increased use of sealed facades without openable windows came an increased requirement for cleaning equipment.These roof-mounted types are not the preferred solution to facade mainte- tural design. A single projecting up from the roof surface. typically cleaning cradle. Davit supporting cradle in two positions. with larger aluminium tube and are moved with wheels ry walls were detailed to be openable. Most sys- when in use are secured to bases in fixed and maintenance.

7. or garden. or as a recessed box below the cradle is fitted with an electric winding moved to its next position by descending to level of the roof finishes where the bolts are mechanism and rubber fenders to avoid its lowest level and disconnecting the cables. Monorail supporting cradle from balcony. 2. Cables. 6. 9. the cradle is MCR_ 22 While this is a relatively slow process not be visually desirable.The davit system is the facade.Typical cleaning cradle. new pick-up position for the davits as they available.There is no The davits are then unbolted and lowered roof terrace. 3.The cradles usually have wheels the ground. 4. Davit Roof finishes Facade Solar shading panels Cradle Monorail Bracket supporting monorail Beam supporting monorail Safety line for harness Cable 5 5 5 Section 1:25. 8. In the event of a moving the davits again. cleaned by a cradle that is raised and low- allowing it to be raised up the facade. secured to the top of the post. 5. columns.The arm of The electrical power supply for the cradle the davit can be swung outward once it is motors is from points either at roof level or involving erecting davits. at the base of winch allows the cradles to be lowered to mounted on the roof. where a permanent cleaning system would are moved to each new fixing point on the When one vertical strip of facade is roof. as on an accessible direct contact with the facade. Example B Plan and section 1:25.The ered from a pair of davits. 10. concealed from view.Various proprietary systems of most commonly used where the roof is which enable them to be moved to suit each winch motors and lifting equipment are used as an accessible roof terrace. a manual system in the permanent and visible cleaning system being to the cleaning cradle below. setting up the cables fixed in place. cradle by a power cable. all with different safety features.The cables are connected to the cradle. this method avoids a are lowered down the facade to be attached power supply failure. winding mechanism at the level of the davit. adjacent base positions for re-connection.The davit is lifted into position. . secured to the end of at the base of the facade. supplied to the and cradle. then disconnecting the parts and the davit arm before it is lifted into position.Roof-mounted maintenance systems : Davits and monorails 6 Details 1. from their bases before being moved to the usually by a person pulling it up with a rope whose function is to support the cables only.

The monorail is set around 500mm beyond the edge of the roof to allow the cradle to hang slightly forward of the facade.The monorail is a visually strong element that is integrated into the overall design for the edge of the roof.The rail is usually made from mild steel which is Section 1:25. painted or enclosed in a decorative metal cover. Monorails In the monorail system.Typical cleaning cradle.7 6 10 5 3 4 5 Elevations 1:25. usually in folded aluminium sheet. from which a cleaning cradle is hung from a cable at each end. a continuous single rail is fixed at roof level. An alternative to cantilevered fixing brackets is to cantilever the edge of the roof out by around 500mm as shown in (B). MCR_ 23 . typically on brackets cantilevered from the roof structure as shown in (A). Monorail supporting cradle from beam.

Example A . Monorail supporting cradle from cantilevered brackets. As each ver- panel to allow for movement of the mono- tical strip of facade is cleaned. set horizontally. Sets of wheels fixed cleaning system at roof level.This joint is either left moved along the facade. From wheeled pulleys which travel inside the below. usually when it is at open or closed with a flexible seal. Cleaning with harness on platform. is usually formed as a roof level. just below the level of the mono- EPDM sheet. or under electrical underside of a balcony or slab soffit. the power for larger installations. Where cantilevered support arms are used rail. MCR_ 24 Section 1:50. As with the monorail can be concealed with cladding davit system. cables are connected from panels set on either side of the rail. the cradle can these can be castings or standard structural be moved when at the bottom of the facade steel sections to suit the design. typically roof level. A gap of around 20mm is provided connected to the cleaning cradle.The mono- if maintenance personnel are assisting at rail. which is between the monorail and the adjacent set at the bottom of the facade. only a single continuous groove is visi- monorail.When manually operated. the cradle is rail itself when in use.Roof-mounted maintenance systems : Davits and monorails 2 7 6 9 10 5 2 3 Section 1:40. are operated either by sliding the cleaning Where the monorail is hung from the cradle beneath manually.The cables are lowered down and ble.The monorail offers a visually dis- channel-shaped section that allows a pair of creet method of providing a permanently wheels to run inside the rail.

Davit Roof finishes Facade Solar shading panels Cradle Monorail Bracket supporting monorail Beam supporting monorail Safety line for harness Cable 10 5 1 3 Section 1:25. 8. 5. MCR_ 25 . Section 1:50. 2. Details 1. 7. 10. 4.1 2 1 1 2 3 5 3 Plan 1:25. Davits supporting cradle. Davits supporting cradle. 6. 9. 3. Davits supporting cradle.

5 1 1 5 8 1 8 Elevation 1:100.Roof-mounted maintenance systems :Trolley systems 9 1 9 1 5 8 5 Elevation 1:100. MCR_ 26 5 . 8 Section 1:50.Trolleys supporting cradle.Trolley on vertically-set rails.Trolley supporting cradle.

as well as the visual presence of the to the cleaning cradle.Trolley systems are ically mounted on wheels and are secured to trolley is usually controlled from within the well suited to being mounted on sloping or a continuous track.Trolley sys- bring it to rest at roof level. the trolley. path. and sure. Trolley systems The arms are sometimes telescopic trolley itself. 1 5 Trolley Roof finishes Facade Solar shading panels Cradle Monorail Horizontal rail supporting cradle Vertical rail supporting cradle Cable 1 1 5 3 9 5 1 Section 1:250. 6.The effects of the weather. allowing it to move both vertically curved roofs where they climb steep slopes. 9. moving the arms. typically up to around 45°. may be set vertically as (D). as roof-mounted rails. monorail is a much less practical solution for are usually raised or lowered to bring the but their dominant appearance may deter supporting cleaning cradles. which may be beneath cradle. as (C). or and horizontally.The cradle can be MCR_ 27 . 2. or has a either the facade or. a horizontal ing panels in front of the facade. safety at roof level is a critical con- from a roof which is either sloping. 5. for example. 3. 8.The arms accessible.Details 1. solar shad- sideration.Trolleys on vertically-set rails. Example D 1 3 9 1 1 5 5 5 3 3 Section 1:250. As the trolley is controlled Where a facade is required to be cleaned (hydraulically operated) in order to reach remotely.Where roofs are required to be stepped profile in elevation.Trolley on vertically-set rails. 4. ly has arms which project out over the edge which are fully accessible to building users the cradle can be offset from its supporting of the roof which support a cleaning cradle due to the presence of rails.Where the trolley difficult to handle on sloping roofs. rails are mounted above the roof.Trolleys are typ- raising and lowering the cradle itself. or a dedicated cables by the use of counterweights attached from cables fixed to the ends of the arms.The trolley usual- This system is not usually suited to roofs Where facades step in at a lower level. 7. it is usually con- tems are better adapted to reaching facades houses the motors for moving the equip- cealed behind a screen or in a small enclo- from a sloping roof and where the facade ment along its rails. allowing it to be protected from the itself is of complex geometry.The trolley itself can be seen from below. Davits are usually cradle in and out from the facade and to this solution in practice.

Roof-mounted maintenance systems :Trolley systems Details 1. 5. 7. working on the same track. 3. 5 Trolley Roof finishes Facade Solar shading panels Cradle Monorail Horizontal rail supporting cradle Vertical rail supporting cradle Cable 1 2 3 7 Elevation 1:100. to cleaned and maintained from a single clean- suit different facade geometries beneath.This method is useful in facades scopic arms that can be adjusted both in which either step outwards as rise up or are length and height to suit the facade being inclined outwards through their height. ing cradle. 4. are roof form a single and continuous form. but more than one may allows complex facade and roof forms to be be required. the trolley rails can be concealed restrain them.Trolleys with wheels. As the trolley moves around its circuit it balanced by a counterweight at the other is able to reach all parts of the facade. 6. 2. A single trolley is usually provided mixture of a trolley system and cradles for a single building. In the example above a trolley is set MCR_ 28 . the cradle tinuous loop to suit the shape of the build- swings away from its cable. 8. 9.Trolley with reach over adjacent facades.The end of the arm which keeps the cradle level trolley is able to reach the facades with tele- and stable. that in a gutter at roof level where facade and move on a raised portion of roof deck. It is set on a track that forms a con- vertical position to the horizontal. As the arm moves from a louvres.The movement is ing. Example C moved by an arm fixed directly to the sup- behind a parapet formed by solar control porting cables. also used.With facade and roofs of complex Not all large-scale trolleys require tracks to geometry.The cleaned.

2 1 2 3 3 Elevation 1: 250.. MCR_ 29 .Trolley with reach over adjacent facades. 1 9 7 2 3 5 Elevation 1: 100.Trolley with reach over adjacent facades.

. 6 5 9 5 9 5 5 Section 1:25. Cradles hanging from trolley and monorail. Cradle hanging from trolley. Cradles hanging from monorail.Roof-mounted maintenance systems :Trolley systems 5 6 9 6 9 9 5 5 Section 1:25. MCR_ 30 Section 1:100.

5.Trolleys on vertically-set rails. 4. Cradles hanging from trolley. 5 5 5 Plan 1:25. Trolley Roof finishes Facade Solar shading panels Cradle Monorail Horizontal rail supporting cradle Vertical rail supporting cradle Cable 5 1 8 1 5 8 Section 1:100. 9. MCR_ 31 . 3.Details 1. 7. 2. 8. 6.

1 METAL (1) Metal standing seam Site-based method Prefabricated methods Sealed and ventilated roofs Roof openings Ridges and valleys Eaves and parapets (2) Profiled metal sheet Profiled metal decks as substrates Profiled metal roof sheeting Sealed and ventilated methods Twin skin construction Ridges Openings Eaves and parapets Ridges and valleys (3) Composite panels Single wall composite panels Twin wall panels Ridges Verges Eaves Parapets and valley gutters (4) Rainscreens Panel arrangement Parapets Monopitch ridges and verges Roof geometry Roof soffits (5) Metal canopies Bolt fixed panels Fixed metal louvre canopies Electrically operated louvres MCR_ 33 .

Holland. timber boards or ply- presence as the facade beneath.The use of a single sheet metal pro- required for visual reasons. However. Arnheim. due to the time in preference to profiled metal sheet where timber substrate. uninterrupted joint lines that allow where the sheet metal is folded to a specific such conditions. or where com- sheet metal used.The standing seams allow the technique to small-scale applications.This gives the roof surface a visually crisp appearance with very few visible fix- In this traditional method of forming linear or curved section which are set at Site-based method This method of fixing sheet is well suited 450-600mm centres down the slope of the roof.Typical roof assembly with acoustic layer 1 3 4 2 Standing seam roofs are increasingly being The traditional method of forming a make the use of prefabrication both unnec- used for industrial and commercial buildings standing seam roof is to set the sheet onto a essary and uneconomic. Typical roof assembly with acoustic layer 6 1 3 11 2 3 4 4 11 2 5 Isometric view of roof assembly Museum. often with as much architectural rolling machine.This is because seam joint. Architect: Mecanoo architekten Cross section1:10. it to be made a visible part of the building profile either in a factory or on site with a design.Metal 01 Metal standing seam 1 Long section1:10. and to fold the long edges needed to make special junctions and edges concealed fixings and low roof pitches are of the metal upwards to form a standing on site. plex geometries are used. Sheet metal is laid along to be used on very low pitch roofs. corresponding to the width of the ings.The main secured with a clip-based fixing system wood sheet is used to form a continuous advantage of standing seam roofs over pro- rather than onto a continuous substrate.These applications the length of the roof from top to bottom. substrate. MCR_ 34 . Standing filed metal roofs is that almost no fixings pass Both types are discussed in this section. or supporting surface.The folded metal is then standing seam roofs. this method is increas- file and angle support clips used in prefabri- standing seam roofing is both economic and ingly giving way to prefabricated systems cated methods is usually too inflexible for has crisp. seams are formed by timber strips of recti- through from outside to inside the construction.

4. ters'. 2.The standing Sheet metal is fixed to the timber the space below the roof. 14. External wall Outer sheet fixing bracket Curved eaves sheet Structural frame Ridge piece Metal flashing Rooflight Pipe or duct penetration Parapet flashing 1 1 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 Cross section1:10. 17. 13. helping and an outer (upper) sheet supported on per roof either by folding the metal over to reduce the cost of the supporting struc- brackets set onto the structural deck. 10 Outer standing seam sheet Inner lining sheet Fibre quilt thermal insulation Vapour barrier Purlin or structural beam Secondary purlin Folded metal gutter Folded metal drip Metal fascia panel 10. In a venti- wood or timber boards. 16.This is particularly seam joint is formed by folding the metal upstand strips either by clips. which avoid useful where acoustic ceilings are used. Profiled metal sheet is over the timber battens. Rainwater is avoided being drawn through order to avoid rainwater passing through the the joint by capillary action by one of two fixing penetration. in it. 6. require support at supporting the outer sheet to a set of metal Prefabricated methods The most common configuration of pre- MCR_ 35 . Typical roof assembly without acoustic layer Long section1:10. typically reinforced concrete or pro- ventilated. as a series of linked 'gut- mechanical fixing through one side of the its underside. 18. a small gap is left between the 400-600mm centres. where the joint is either sealed or are increasingly being replaced by profiled deck. 5. 3. as it metal sheet are lapped over the next to form but not rainwater. In a sealed joint the seam is metal sheet. typically ply- alternative configuration is to fix the brackets metal over a timber roll or section. Eaves with curved gutter 11 1 3 4 7 5 12 13 Details 1. as in a traditional lead or cop- ning capability than plywood sheet.The fixing is applied to the side which is above the level of the water draining down has the adjacent sheet lapped over it.Timber-based substrates fabricated standing seam roofs is a structural methods. 11. or by a perforated sheet that has a paint coating on formed. 7.Section 1:10. Because the roof is penetration of the sheet metal. 15. with together to form a seal. 8. Typical roof assembly without acoustic layer with the sides of the sheet folded up and lated joint.Timber-based substrates. Successive strips of folded sheets to allow air to pass through increasingly being used as a substrate. 12. provides a self-finished soffit (underside) to a continuous sealed surface. 9. the standing seam between each gutter sheet. effectively. An itself to form a thin seam. or by forming the ture. which has a much greater span- filed metal sheet. with insulation set on top pressed tight.

This fixing method gives very on the warm (in winter) side of the thermal standing seam sheet to any length required. set most countries.The result of uneven thermal expansion. Roof penetration 4 1 2 5 17 11 3 10 4 2 13 5 purlins. 1 3 11 Outer standing seam sheet Inner lining sheet Fibre quilt thermal insulation Vapour barrier Purlin or structural beam Secondary purlin Folded metal gutter Folded metal drip Metal fascia panel 10. Eaves with exposed gutter Section 1:10. lengths of sheet metal forming the roof sur- tional vapour barrier is set on top of the Support brackets are usually T-shaped face can result in 'oil canning'. A metal liner sheet is set below the arrangements for road transportation in joints are crimped to form a seal. 16. brackets are usually made from extruded ally. For larger projects. 6. humid countries an addi- the profile being formed from metal coil. 15. 7. 5. where part of insulation where the risk of interstitial con- and are fixed either to the structural deck or the metal surface appears to be crinkled as a densation is from the outside as well as the to purlins with self-tapping screws.Metal 01 Metal standing seam 15 1 1 16 11 11 3 7 3 1 4 2 4 3 10 2 10 4 5 2 5 Section 1:10. External wall Outer sheet fixing bracket Curved eaves sheet Structural frame Ridge piece Metal flashing Rooflight Pipe or duct penetration Parapet flashing Section 1:10. 9. 8. 11. thermal expansion is accommodated by aluminium in order to provide a profile that allowing the long lengths of metal sheet to roof pitch can go down to 1°. A vapour barrier is set sheets are formed on site with a rolling joint and across the roof. Finally the standing seam or alternatively by curving the sheets in the For both construction configurations the MCR_ 36 Standing seam sheets can form shallow . 14. with the sheet into account any structural deflections that tion and sufficiently precise in section to itself fixed rigidly in only a few places along would further reduce this angle. Monopitch ridge Details Section 1:10. its length. can be made up to 40 metres in length. 13. smooth and straight joints. In hot. with long sheets ed trays which are then fixed onto the sup- curves by gently bending the metal on site. 4. after taking is both thick enough to form a rigid connec- slide over the support clips. Metal sheets retain a given standing seam profile in place. 17. Folded eaves 1. but the long insulation. Junction with rooflight Section 1:10. usually purlins to support thermal insulation quilt. long with a 'zip up' tool that travels along the between the purlins. but Metal sheet is formed in long lengths of fold- road transport is difficult. (longer than a trailer length) requiring special port brackets. 18. 2. 3. 12. Gener- inside. sealing the joint as between the insulation quilt and the liner tray machine that can form the profile of the it moves along.

Ventilated roofs have which allows air to pass across the inside two sheets together along the fold line. Concealed eaves gutter Section 1:10. above a closed ventilation on the underside to avoid corro- setting it level with the roof finish and form- ceiling. valleys and perimeter gutters face of the zinc while using a continuous to allow air to pass through the construction substrate material beneath.1 15 1 18 11 3 3 4 7 4 2 13 10 2 10 Section 1:10. Small geometry. as in a pitched roof where the Unlike other metals.This second method avoids the MCR_ 37 . to give a smooth appearance. so that the rooflight projects up around metal sheet. Sealed and ventilated roofs The choice of a sealed or ventilated roof to ensure that the roof build-up remains dry.Ventilated roofs are also suitable sion from water vapour trapped inside the ing a gutter around the edges of the where the external roof form has a complex construction.Ventilation is essential if the thermal inside the construction is released by slots pressed metal upstand around the opening insulation is set some distance below the for passive ventilation at the ridge and eaves. where the material is roof form can be free of the constraints of replaced on larger applications by a plastic- mechanically formed with small local folds. zinc sheet requires 150mm above the level of the roof. but this method is being sheet in the factory. Sharp folded corners are made by welding the same geometry.Ventilation for zinc roofs has rooflight. slots at ridges.This allows the thermal insulation traditionally been provided with open joint- radius curves are formed by crimping the to be set horizontally beneath. Parapet gutter at abutment Section 1:10. or by insulation is set horizontally. while the ed timber boards. Sealed roofs use sealing strips in the standing Roof openings configuration depends upon both the metal seam joints to make them both airtight and Rooflights are set into standing seam used and the nature of the construction watertight.Verge Section 1:10. Parapet gutter at abutment 10 10 1 1 15 7 11 3 7 3 4 4 2 2 5 5 factory. Moisture vapour that builds up roofs in one of two ways: either by forming a beneath. making the entire roof construction follow based woven mat set onto a substrate.

standing seam roofs use simplified flashings. Abutment with masonry wall 10 3 8 5 2 15 1 3 13 2 need for rooflights to appear as projecting ing is bonded to the metal sheet roof cover- terminated to avoid the need for visually box-like forms in an otherwise smooth. At the penetration. 15. Shadows from the sun cast across the the roof sheet immediately below it.The usually welded to the pipe. the alignment of the sides the flashing forms a standing seam with the adjacent joints running down the roof.The base of the 'skirt' flash- joint. Curved ridge Museum. 3. In (A) a folded or curved metal sheet is ridge will reveal any waviness in the line of tions for small ducts and pipes through the set over the gap between the two sides of the top of the roof. 2. Although this around its edge. In (B) a gutter is often welded at the joint between of the upstand to avoid rainwater from pene- sharp ridge line is formed as a standing seam one length of folded sheet and the adjacent trating the joint.Metal 01 Metal standing seam Details 1. 16. 8. Arnheim. or strip. tom of the standing seam is closed with a metal tray forming a continuous gutter. 5. con- ing and sealed. In tinuous roof plane. 13. 9. then a metal flashing is fixed with the base of the skirt flashing are out any break in the material. 11. 17. Standing seams that clash (C) the ridge is treated as a soft fold. If the rooflights are set bond and seal. 14. being lapped under the stopped and closed above and below the may appear to be the most straightforward standing seam roof on its top edge. 7. with- into the opening. Holland.The gap between the top and bot- of the standing seam roof into a folded around the projecting pipe and a flashing. Penetra- ods. typically with a silicone-based bulky filler pieces being seen from below. Architect: Mecanoo architekten 1 12 4 Section 1:10. the roof on the level of the top of the stand- An upstand is formed as a continuous skirt ing seam. with the seams meeting the ridge being sheet in order to avoid the possibility of a MCR_ 38 Valleys are formed by lapping the ends . 4. folds over the top formed metal filler piece. External wall Outer sheet fixing bracket Curved eaves sheet Structural frame Ridge piece Metal flashing Rooflight Pipe or duct penetration Parapet flashing Section 1:10. 6. 12. 18. and its bottom edge lapped over the top of ridge piece is as critical as in versions (A) Ridges and valleys and (B) in order to create a straight ridge Ridges are formed by a variety of meth- line. Outer standing seam sheet Inner lining sheet Fibre quilt thermal insulation Vapour barrier Purlin or structural beam Secondary purlin Folded metal gutter Folded metal drip Metal fascia panel 10. of the ridges to form.

When additional closer pieces are used. are usually designed to be drained and venti- If the roof is ventilated. allows the passage of air into the roof void Parapets are formed by taking the side without the need for ventilation slots. Curved ridge 15 Detail C 1 14 1 3 3 4 4 2 2 5 water leak in the gutter. gutters are being integrated rainwater penetration. Ridge with recessed flashing Detail B Section 1:10. Ridge with flashing Section 1:10. the gap formed lated to the exterior. to allow roof. Expansion joint Detail A Section 1:10. with a gutter set at the edge of the flashing and second line of defence against adjacent areas of roof. and the line of water- between the top of the gutter upstand and proofing continues up the external wall to the underside of the standing seam roofing the underside of the standing seam roof. the depth of thermal insulation to be such as bull nose profiles. terminated with a rubber-based seal bonded MCR_ 39 .The reduced thermal roof. being set into the outer face of wall up to the parapet coping. thermal insu- Eaves and parapets to the top of the external wall. Abutment with masonry wall 1 14 10 3 8 4 2 Section 1:10. the metal panels increased.14 15 1 1 3 3 4 2 2 5 5 5 Section 1:10. A parapet Eaves are formed in a similar way to a coping is set into this seal as an overcloak lation set below it is often thinner than the valley. visible of the gutter that is adjacent to the external from below. insulation can be improved upon by using into roof forms in order to avoid a weak either higher performance insulation in that visual line formed by a gutter which is not area. Because of the reduced roof depth at gutters. where it is the roof. Increasingly. or by deepening the structure of the continuous with the smooth lines of the roof beneath where this is possible.

or as a single layer structural When used as a substrate.9mm thick sheet is used. 17. 19. a light- seam roofing. makes it able to be used as both a sub- roofs can go down to a 1° pitch. 18. depending strate material for a finish in a different mate- on the geometry of the roof. Steel is galvanised the material. but much deeper sections are used for are typically an additional layer of profiled geometries. profiled metal sheet can both span with an overall depth of 50mm is used typi- roof is required. 9. for aluminium a tural supports. membranes (mainly elas- MCR_ 40 .5 metres between primary struc- years roof pitches have greatly reduced to used for the outer skin.Metal 02 Profiled metal sheet 1 3 4 6 5 Isometric view of roof assembly Details Long section and cross section1:10. 2. Most profiled sheet is laid to a and coated. 7. 3.The lightweight finishes used between supports and form complex cally. Profiled sheet metal decking is chosen where a lightweight spans. 16. straight. with a depth up to around 200mm.Where standing sheet can be cut to form complex geome- rather than as a roofing material. such as ite roof decks when filled with concrete.5 metres to around 6. 1 1 3 3 4 4 6 6 5 Outer profiled metal sheet Inner lining sheet Fibre quilt thermal insulation Vapour barrier Purlin or structural beam Profiled metal structural deck Folded metal gutter Folded metal drip Metal fascia panel External wall Outer sheet fixing bracket Curved eaves sheet Structural frame Ridge piece Metal flashing Rooflight Pipe or duct penetration Parapet flashing Vented filler piece The main advantage of profiled metal sheet has an advantage where the interior finish is The deep sections are also used in compos- over other metal roof types is the ability of designed to be in a different material. 6.7mm thick are around 3. 13. 14. 4. metal standing seam (discussed in the structural deck and waterproofing layer that metres. since the suited to long. It is this flexibility of being both spans above 3. 5. or gently curving create a 3-dimensional form. 11. 8.Typical roof assembly 1. painted coating applied during manufac- minimum pitch of around 4°. with its high projecting folds. For the material to span economically up to dry lining or decorative boarding. sheets of 0. profiled metal Profiled metal decks as substrates Where profiled metal is used as a deck and weatherproof material. usually for 0. 10. typically supported by a steel frame to weight build-up is usually applied.This self-supporting ability of make the roof as flat as possible. combined with its weather resis- visual reasons. Standing seam or coated. 15. rial set onto it.0 sheet. In recent a steel profile. previous section). ture. while aluminium is mill finished tant. is tries. 12.

MCR_ 41 . Even simple rectilinear sun off the membrane and allow mainte- openings have few standard profiles to close nance access without risk of puncturing the off the gap between the flat flashing and the profiled metal roofs can be used as a roof membrane. rigid enough to span across the peaks of the profile without members to be curved. A limi- joint. weathertight roofing that can be left exposed to the effects of the rooflights. sun without damage. edges. Shiga Prefecture. ture beneath requires only a few structural the profiled metal deck. Curved eaves with concealed gutter Atelier and House. the deflecting significantly when it is walked upon When used as a finish material. Biwa-cho. A a continuous weatherproof skin with the enough to avoid capillary action through the single layer membrane is then set onto this ability to be curved in one direction.This simple jointing system provides insulation. usually an elastomeric membrane tation of the material is that openings for large areas of reliable. profiled metal sheet provides standing seam roofs. and junctions with other that can be installed quickly. called material is lapped on all four sides like metal for maintenance access. Duct/pipe penetration 10 Section 1:10. A typical insulation which would otherwise cause its curved easily. one of the main advantages struction. and most framing Profiled metal roof sheeting can be straight. Sometimes a thin layer materials are not easily integrated into the of smooth pebbles is laid on top to keep the profile of the sheet.The laps are made long wise stretch the joints in the membrane.The closed cells of the material gaps between the peak and trough of the covering in either sealed or ventilated con- ensures that any water vapour trapped in profile. Used as roof sheeting. However. where the supporting struc- build-up is of closed cell insulation set onto deterioration.Ventilation is used mainly where a the construction is not absorbed by the of profiled metal sheet is its ability to be timber supporting structure is used. which would other- 'roof sheeting'. where Sealed and ventilated methods In common with standing seam roofing.1 8 4 2 12 7 3 2 13 Section 1:10. Architect: Shuhei Endo Architect Institute 17 1 3 2 tomers) and light planted roofs. Japan.

A vapour barrier is set as well as a pad to seal the screw fixings on tion on timber pitched roofs. but ventilators are often pro- ty to conceal the supporting structure within are also required to be weathertight. with nylon washers or material from moist air in the void that by the insulation quilt. where the outer skin. An outer metal sheet is sup- liner tray and the thermal insulation. 3. and an inner Because the inner lining sheet presents a This construction method contrasts with lining tray. 16.This gives vapour barrier is provided on the warm (in breathing through the ribs of the profiled a smooth finished appearance to the inside winter) side of the insulation. 5. 10. 19. perforated tion. In recent years the Z- topics in this section deal with the use of layer of acoustic insulation beneath. 6. Abutment with masonry wall Section 1:10. 17. between the sheet. Folded metal valley gutter Section 1:10. 13. in addition to fixing the sheets to the supporting structure.5mm thick.This helps to keep the insulation com- face of the roof. particularly in noisy internal and inner sheets to provide a thermal break struction. 7. lining are combined into a single panel which MCR_ 42 . pletely dry. Sound is allowed to be absorbed partly typically 1. the thermal insulation usually fills the voids in between the inner range of section types. Prefabricated valley gutter 1 3 3 11 11 Details 1 19 2 2 5 Detail A 5 13 1. shape section has developed into to a wide profiled sheet as a sealed roof covering. 18.The following between the thermal insulation and the thin the outer roof sheet. 9. min- hard surface under the roof. 4.This helps to reduce sleeves between the purlins and the outer would otherwise be trapped within the con- reverberation. 8. 14. In sealed roofs. is fixed to their underside. Outer profiled metal sheet Inner lining sheet Fibre quilt thermal insulation Vapour barrier Purlin or structural beam Profiled metal structural deck Folded metal gutter Folded metal drip Metal fascia panel External wall Outer sheet fixing bracket Curved eaves sheet Structural frame Ridge piece Metal flashing Rooflight Pipe or duct penetration Parapet flashing Vented filler piece the timber is ventilated to avoid rot in the tion. 11. which supports the thermal insula- composite panels.The purlins eral fibre thermal insulation quilt and inner sheets are used to improve sound absorp- are usually Z-shaped galvanised steel types.Metal 02 Profiled metal sheet 10 1 1 15 5 8 3 3 7 5 4 4 13 13 Section 1:10. A vided at the ridge and eaves to allow some the depth of the roof construction. ported on metal roof purlins.This is discussed further in the sec- environments. 12. and outer skins. 15. Sheets are fixed with Twin skin construction Profiled metal sheet roofs have the abili- self tapping screws which. 2.

the top and bottom edges are sealed with butyl the thermal insulation quilt is usually 150- cover strip between wall and roof is folded sealant strip. visible from below the roof.1 14 1 3 2 11 2 7 5 3 5 10 3 13 13 3 10 Section 1:10. ment with an adjacent wall as in (A).Two strips are normally used. Self tapping screws that hold curved line. Sheets are normally lapped beneath the profiled sheet.These sheets can generated inside the building.The void beneath is filled with along the top edge of rooflights. gle seal of butyl tape set at the centre of the Where a pitched roof meets an abut- Laps between profiled sheets along their lap. a continuous ridge sheet.The supporting roof struc- 150mm over one another. while laps used to seal the gaps in the profiled sheet ture. A flashing pro- one at the end of the external lap and the of 0.25 W/m2K. while the other pro- pitched roof use a folded metal strip to form vides a vapour barrier that avoids moisture. jecting from the wall is lapped over the out- other at the top end of the internal lap. 200mm thick in order to achieve a U-value up the wall and is fixed to it. Eaves with exposed gutter Section 1:10. a gutter is required ing in the joint. from condens- be folded on a straight line or formed to a standing seam roofing. Monopitch ridge Section 1:10. Closer strips are remains visible. Folded eaves Section 1:10. along which the sheets in place clamp the two sealed thermal insulation in addition to that used water running down the roof is directed to In common with rooflights fixed into MCR_ 43 . with a layer of dry lining. In common with standing seam roofs. Ridges at the junction of a double Openings the lap between sheets. is either left between sheets on their side edges are where it meets the ridge cover strip set on exposed on its underside or is concealed made with a single lap of profile. Abutment with vertical roof panel 10 3 5 1 11 3 1 4 2 10 11 5 4 3 3 2 5 11 13 13 is fixed onto a supporting structure which surfaces together. with a sin- top of the profiled sheet.The outer seal provides protection against capillary action of rainwater being drawn up into side of the ridge strip in order to direct rain- Ridges water over it and down onto the roof.

2.Metal 02 Profiled metal sheet 16 1 1 4 2 5 4 3 2 3 7 13 13 10 Section 1:10.These are formed to usually welded to form a single upstand collar between gutter and coping. 3. between them.The gutter can be formed in front counter flashing is welded or bonded to the al. the vertical sheet that forms the seal of proprietary systems. or upper part of the pipe. a slope. 1 3 5 2 2 4 5 3 4 2 13 4. 15. Curved pieces are MCR_ 44 . 16. 12. However. formed from a single folded sheet to avoid forming the wall beneath. 8. gutter that allows wall and roof to be contin- sheet and rooflight. and is lapped under sharp edges are also manufactured as part through the roof are sealed with a flashing.The gutter can be concealed for small rooflights since they carry little rainwater and so do not need to be very uous. 14. and along the bottom edge. 6. Outer profiled metal sheet Inner lining sheet Fibre quilt thermal insulation Vapour barrier Purlin or structural beam Profiled metal structural deck Folded metal gutter Folded metal drip Metal fascia panel External wall Outer sheet fixing bracket Curved eaves sheet Structural frame Ridge piece Metal flashing Rooflight Pipe or duct penetration Parapet flashing Vented filler piece the sides.The gutter is which can be lapped into the profiled sheet onto the adjacent roof sheets. 17.Verge Details 1. Eaves with semi concealed gutter Section 1:10. leaving only a 50mm gap between roof above the roof level. 18. many profiled be concealed by setting the profiled sheet which laps down over the flashing to protect metal roofs are used in conjunction with close to the rooflight and concealing the gut- it from rainwater running down the pipe walls in the same material using a concealed ter. 13. have flash- tinuing the line of the gutter up to a parapet sharply curved termination to the roof ings lapped down from the rooflights and coping with laps over the top. alternatively. Rooflight formed as profiled sheet Section 1:10. a external wall is formed in a different materi- smooth fold in the roof. Manufacturers provide standard Eaves and parapets Parapets are formed by creating a gutter curved pieces to different radii in profiled metal sheet that allows the same material to big. 9. then con- form a gently curved edge or. Rooflight formed with upstand Section 1:10.The sides of rooflights parallel to the at the base of the profiled sheet. 10. Eaves pieces with Penetrations for small ducts and pipes the possibility of leaks. 19. so that the parapet forms a visual break of the metal sheet as in a parapet detail. filed metal sheet are often used where the sheets together to form a continuous Also in common with standing seam roofs. 11. above the roof. Parapets in pro- different angles by welding two profiled around the pipe and fixed to the roof deck. 5. 15 1 13 10 7.

with the resulting gap pieces are increasingly being made with a between the folded ridge sheet and the pro- continuous smooth appearance. But between the gutter and the underside of the where standing seams can be cut down to roofing sheet. Biwa-cho.14 14 1 1 3 3 4 5 4 2 5 13 Section 1:10. to facturer's system. usually forming part of the manu- the vertical edges of the profiled sheet. Ridge with flashing Section 1:10. Ridge with flashing Section 1:10. Parapet gutter 18 1 Atelier and House. Ridges and valleys These folds in metal roofs are formed Valleys are also formed in a similar way to that discussed in standing seam roofs. filed sheet being usually sufficient to provide ventilation into the construction.The gaps between the ridges and troughs of the profiled sheet are filled with a proprietary metal MCR_ 45 . and instead a folded ridge piece is fixed to the upper surface of the profiled sheet. using the same methods discussed in the with a ventilation gap provided in the gap previous section on standing seam roofs. but these require this filler piece. form a flat ridge without a projecting ridge piece. this not possible in profiled sheet. Architect: Shuhei Endo Architect Institute 3 10 3 7 4 5 usually made by crimping the material along filler piece. Japan.Ventilated roofs do not give a characteristic appearance. Shiga Prefecture.

The second composite roof face and edges used in wall panels to pro- mined by the U-value required. depending has yet to be commercially available in a els. typically a single layer membrane. Panels with rainscreen covering at step in roof 1 Details 1. 16. 14. metal sheet. where the principles of the panel which is bonded to a foam-based over profiled metal roofs is the speed of composite wall panels would be applied to insulation that fills all the voids in the profiled erection on site. 2. 6. Metal fascia panel External wall Outer sheet fixing bracket Panel 1 Panel 2 Ridge piece Structural frame Pipe or duct penetration 2 Section 1:10. lation and inner sheet are combined into a A development in composite roof panel Single wall composite panels single panel.Their main advantage with integral gutter. and manu- panel type. 10.The first is a development of profiled on the geometry and required appearance technically reliable system. 13.Metal 03 Composite panels Section1:10. single wall panels. Panels are usu- MCR_ 46 This panel type has a single sheet of pro- . 3.These panels would have the smooth The depth of the thermal insulation is deter- metal sheet roof. but they are usually a little roof panels. more expensive than an equivalent profiled roofs.The filed metal sheet bonded to a layer of foam nomic and very elegant. 7. typically an elas- face up to receive a separate waterproofing a connected grid of drainage channels that tomeric type that requires no upstands or layer.The could form a crisp joint line between panels. where outer sheet.These are used in pitched roofs construction which has been slow to appear and have an appearance very similar to that commercially is the truly interlocking panel filed metal on the lower loadbearing face of of profiled metal roofs.The insulation is laid panels would form gutters that would create an independent membrane. 11. 15. 5. providing a smooth. Pipe / duct penetration 15 1 1 2 16 3 5 2 3 5 There are two types of composite panel membrane is then typically finished in rain- This development of composite panel design used for roofs: twin wall and single wall pan- screen panels or smooth pebbles. 12. special joints between sheets. consists of pro- vide a construction that would be both eco- facturers are often flexible in this regard. 2 3 3 5 1 Metal rainscreen panel Single layer membrane Composite panel Folded metal coping Purlin or structural beam Secondary purlin Folded metal gutter Folded metal drip 9. 8. 4. making for use in (nominally) flat sheet. flat upper surface. thermal insu- of the roof.The joints between upper face of the panel is waterproofed with type thermal insulation.

The membrane is often pro- in the composite panels. the other. tional length of membrane is then bonded to the top of the upstand and is mechanical- thermal insulation. A separating layer is usual- panels are joined in the same way.This to occur freely in both the membrane and The membrane sheets are usually joined at parapet flashing is then protected by a fold- the composite panel substrate.The sheets of the fold in the roof. or by using bonding strips in the At parapet gutters.Typical panel to panel junction School of Decorative Arts. An addi- larly around roof penetrations such as duct MCR_ 47 . France. well insulated roof can be pro- same material that form part of the propri- in the same insulation material as that used vided without the need for complex junc- etary system.1 2 3 5 Section 1:10. typically formed in composite and the insulated panel to allow movement foam insulation applied by injection on site. with the ly fixed or bonded to the top of the adjacent ly set between the waterproof membrane gaps between panels filled typically with a external wall. Parapet edge Detail A 4 2 3 1 2 3 5 5 ally set butted up to one another. the upstand being tions that would be needed with twin wall tected with a lightweight covering of smooth bonded to the composite panel beneath. At ridges and folds in the roof geometry.Typical panel to panel junction Section 1:10. where a lightweight. wall panels or glazed curtain walling. Nicholas Michelin Section 1:10. Architect: Labfac / Finn Geipel. waterproof membrane are bonded or torch material is bonded along the joint to provide welded together by lapping one sheet over a weathertight seal. Limoges. particu- protect the membrane from the effects of the supporting structure beneath. with the gap between panels filled with foam-based direct sunlight. and a strip of the same ed metal coping set onto it as shown in (A). an upstand is formed Single faced composite roof panels are well adapted to complex roof forms.The use of a separate waterproof pebbles that can be walked upon for mainte- The outer edge of the upstand is sealed and membrane on a substrate that is easy to nance access without puncturing the surface. stiffened with a metal strip fixed to the form into a smooth continuous surface Metal rainscreen panels are also used to underside of the composite roof panel or allows junctions to be formed easily. panels.

Metal rainscreen panel Single layer membrane Composite panel Folded metal coping Purlin or structural beam Secondary purlin Folded metal gutter Folded metal drip 9. Panel 1 13. 3. which laps over the adjacent panel. Pipe or duct penetration 13 12 5 Section 1:10.These horizontal joints are also pet gutter are fixed rigidly to reduce the raised edges are butted together and sealed sealed with butyl tape to avoid capillary amount of structural movement that would with butyl tape. and to pre- otherwise damage the membrane. the gutter in order to closely follow its shape. separate components of profiled metal sheet ribbed appearance to the roof that is visually formed and sealed on site. Panel to panel junction at fold Section 1:10. as (C).With the first uninsulated edge projects down to form a upper surface gives a watertight finish. while a membrane bonded to the ner of profiled metal decking. Com- method.The second method has an uninsulated rib of the outer sheet projecting from the panel on MCR_ 48 .This method gives a distinct visual appearance of wider joints. A metal capping is action from rainwater outside. which is fixed over this joint to provide a weather- vent the passage of water vapour into the typically bonded to the base and edges of tight seal which sheds water onto the panels joint from inside the building. 2. panels have raised edges on their lap joint very similar to that used in profiled posite panels forming a valley gutter or para- long sides running down the slope. 7. Metal fascia panel 10.The metal roofs. 4. 5. Both methods have method of setting lengths of composite panel roofing. where an together.Metal 03 Composite panels 1 2 3 5 Section 1:10. Folded metal gutter set between panels 1 2 3 3 5 openings and pipe penetrations. where waterproof membranes are well suited due Twin wall panels This panel type. Panel 2 14. Outer sheet fixing bracket 12. which combines the one long side. Ridge piece 15. Panel to panel junction Details 6. 8. as (B). or a single lap of profile in the man- lapped joints on their short edges. External wall 11. Panels with rainscreen covering 1. 3 5 Section 1:10.This gives a continuous to the ease with which they can be cut. Structural frame 16. Gutters can be has two joint types: a double seam with a no different on its outside face to profiled formed by using the rapid site assembly cap on top in the manner of standing seam metal roof cladding. either side of the joint.

Insulation is injected into 'peak' on the roof panel and is then sealed Alternatively. and a folded closer strip is has visible fixings which are difficult to con- applied to the internal face of the joint to MCR_ 49 . As fold of the ridge flashing on site.14 3 3 5 5 7 15 15 10 Section 1:10. Parapet gutter Section 1:10. Abutment with vertical roof panel 3 3 4 3 5 5 10 Ridges Ridges for twin wall composite panels ceal. Eaves with exposed gutter Detail D Section 1:10. with the panels form the wall construction. 15 Verges Verges between composite panels and are formed by fixing a metal flashing over The gap between the panels is filled with the adjacent wall construction is formed the junction between the panels. the metal flashing is glazed panels is closed by adjusting the angle of the sealed against the inner face of the compos- into the top transom of the glazed wall. Alternatively. a Z-sec- which sits onto the top of the profiled upper of the adjacent panels. tion closer piece is fixed and sealed to pro- sheet. the gap between the roof panel a flat flashing over the joint to give a smooth barrier.This inner trim is made either flat or and the wall construction is filled with ther- curve across the ridge line. Ridge with flashing Section 1:10.Where composite is profiled to match that of the panels onto al fibre quilt or. so that precise positioning is essential to the overall visual appearance of the ridge.The angle between the meeting ically fixed to adjacent roof purlins and walling is used.The flashing thermal insulation on site. more frequently. typ- of the closer piece. Manufacturers often make these same foam-based insulation used to manu- metal strip is sealed to the top of the last profiles as part of their proprietary system. or by folding ite panel to provide a continuous vapour with ridges. a flat ridge flashing is used the gap to provide a U-value to match that against the wall panel. facture the panels.The ridge flashing profiled to suit the composite panels used.Where glazed curtain construction.The gaps are then closed with a pro- The inner face of the panels forming the filed sheet and the flashing is fixed to the hip filed filler piece as used in profiled metal roof ridge is sealed with a folded metal sheet. mal insulation. a folded which it sits. with either miner- with a folded metal closer.

Metal 03 Composite panels 3 3 3 5 5 10 15 15 Section 1:10. 16. 11. 12. then the overhang- the wall construction to the supporting Eaves structure. or by a metal support prefabricated to form part of the overall folded to be sealed onto the composite roof arm set onto the top of the composite pan- composite panel system. it does not require any penetration through If the verge overhangs the external wall instead of meeting it directly. 6. inwards. 10. but can be fixed through to the ing verge follows the same detailing princi- These are formed in a similar way to ples. 3. 4. An essential advantage with a folded metal closer strip to provide a of the metal support arm on the roof is that vapour barrier. or by folding the top edge without any break in the thermal insulation. 5. 9. since they form part of flashing that is set behind the vertical panel.Verge with parapet upstand 10 3 5 provide a vapour barrier between the insula- panel in the same way as for the eaves els 'peaks' and cantilevering out to support tion and the inside of the building. 15. then the profiled metal panels. Since an advantage MCR_ 50 . the underside of the composite metal roof in panel either by folding it outwards and seal- order to provide a continuous weather seal ing it. Folded metal gutter Folded metal drip Metal fascia panel External wall Outer sheet fixing bracket Panel 1 13. as in (D).The Verges that terminate in a parapet use a roof panels which do not usually require a Parapets and valley gutters Unlike eaves gutters. Monopitch ridge Section 1:10. If sealed. If the eaves void is ventilated. Panel 2 Ridge piece Structural frame Pipe or duct penetration 4 Section 1:10. Metal rainscreen panel Single layer membrane Composite panel Folded metal coping Purlin or structural beam Secondary purlin 7.The gutter is usually or onto it to avoid a thermal bridge. and is primary structure. detail.The gutter is closed panel. Prefabricated valley gutter Details 1. by lapping the edge fixing to pass all the way through the wall edge of the verge is sealed to the edge of roof panel over a gutter. 14. 8. parapet gutters are gutter is supported by either a bracket thermally insulated.The inner face of the joint is sealed the top of the gutter. beneath the gutter that is fixed back to the the external envelope. 2. then the void created by the overhang can be either ventilated or sealed. up the underside of the panel. while the wall beneath is sealed to against the underside of the composite penetration through the building envelope. thus reducing the risk of any rainwater the roof.

The The tops of parapets are closed with a gutter shape. this advantage gutter being filled to capacity in the event of space behind. event that the rainwater outlets become that settles on horizontal surfaces. from a minimum 0. Panel to panel junctions Section 1:10.7mm thick steel sheet or Valley gutters are formed in a similar way. Nicholas Michelin Isometric view of roof assembly Section 1:10. which might occur in the of the wall (into the gutter) to avoid dust.The void immediately beneath the coping is faced with MCR_ 51 . Architect: Labfac / Finn Geipel. Limoges.Verge Detail C 3 12 13 5 Detail D 10 15 12 13 of composite panel construction is the prefabricated gutter being critical to avoid thermal insulation to avoid a thermal bridge increased speed of construction on site over water penetration in the event of the valley occurring through the coping into the air other metal roofing methods. from blocked and the entire gutter becomes filled being washed down the face of the external with water up to the level of the outer (top) wall during rain.14 3 School of Decorative Arts. with the seal between roof panel and 3mm thick aluminium sheet. Seals are provided to avoid any plete weathertight seal.The coping is usually made face of the composite roof panels.The top of the cop- water from penetrating the seals and passing ing is usually inclined towards the inside face into the building. longer to fix and the panels themselves. would be lost if the gutters took much a blocked rainwater outlet. is formed to pressed metal coping that is folded down provide continuity in the thermal insulation over the face of the external wall and the from roof panel through to the adjacent inside face of the parapet to provide a com- parapet wall. France. in cross section.

to be accom- sealed. Closed cell thermal radiation) as well as from the worst effects insulation is usually set on the outside face of of windblown rain. rainscreen panels are used in a con- In contrast. metal rainscreens for roofs protect waterproofing membranes on roofs. developed from its use in external walls. lightweight. the rear face of the cavity being expected to drain onto the waterproofing gutters. figuration that allows most of the windblown vary considerably from the configuration pebbles and gravel are obviously not suited rain that reaches a metal panel facade to used in external walls. parapets and ridges. and has thermal insulation and the inner face of the the visual language of the external walls. backing wall. crete block backing wall. Rainscreen panels pro- MCR_ 52 Although metal sheet is used. Joints between metal falling onto a metal rainscreen roof is not rainscreen panels is well suited to these panels are left open jointed. A place. with a cavity between the vide a lightweight covering that forms part of tively new in roof construction.The main function of the rainscreen allowing roofs to take on the visual charac- commonly used alternative is of a bitumen- panels on roofs is to protect the membrane teristics of external walls and become a based paint on a reinforced concrete or con- from the effects of the sun (heat and UV 'facade' in their own right. on an insulated. In metal rainscreen panel. Firstly. so that only a usually drained away on the outer layer of roofs which form a visible part of the design. such as behind. Rainwater is drained away in the cavity pitch or curved section. metal and plastic composites are becoming increasingly . as shown in (A). most of the rain to sloping or curved roofs. unless the roof has a relatively steep These panels allow traditional roof elements. typically with a single layer membrane layer beneath as if the panels were not in modated within a smooth. small amount of rainwater passes through it. Rainwater is still which are usually visually dominant. panels. Although smooth pebbles are also used to facades.Metal 04 Rainscreens 1 2 Detail A 3 Detail B 4 5 Isometric view of roof assembly Section1:25. continuous finish.The use of metal drain down its face.Typical cross section 3 1 2 4 5 The use of metal rainscreen panels is rela- the backing wall.

which maintains the flatness associated In practice. 15. 1 2. risk of water penetration through mechani- resulting from regular maintenance access is Framed panels can reach the maximum sizes cal fixings. depending upon the manufacturer. Since pan- MCR_ 53 . 4 6. in a flat grid are set onto metal Z-sections. roof panels cannot be secured easily of 1200mm or 1500mm metal coil. Panels dented from foot traffic during maintenance 3000mm.The size of metal rainscreen panels is restricted more by the panel width that can be walked upon for maintenance access then screw fixed to the Z-section with Panel arrangement Rainscreen roof panels are typically brackets that avoid the screw fixings being seen at a distance where this is a visual than by the sheet size available. or requirement. In such materials a thin layer to avoid the pattern staining or denting that ered with a waterproofing membrane to of plastic is faced with two thin sheets of alu- can reveal the frame behind during the life- reduce the number of fixing penetrations minium which are bonded to the plastic cycle of the roof. 11. in lengths from 2400mm to in the same plane in this configuration. supporting framing beneath to stiffen them. panels may only be around which are either bonded to the top surface with composite metal materials. Japan.The maxi- arranged either as panels laid in a flat grid. 3 4. 5. 8. work. Com- lapped over the top of the panel beneath. or are set above the membrane usually avoided by using these composite already mentioned.These pads are usually cov- sheet materials. 10.Typical long section 1 2 3 4 Shimosuwa Municipal Museum. Lake Suwa. 2 3. Unlike rainscreen panels for mum size of metal sheet is usually in a width as lapped panels. 5 Metal fascia panel External wall Outer sheet fixing bracket Panel 1 Panel 2 Ridge piece Structural frame Pipe or duct penetration Section 1:10. Architect:Toyo Ito & Associates 9. where the bottom edge is walls. 16. Panel to panel junction 1 3 2 4 popular. Panel to panel junction Detail C Section1:25.The 'oil can- 600mm wide if they do not have additional of the waterproof membrane to avoid any ning' effect of depressed or dented panels. but care must be taken on support pads. as they are less likely to become 1200mm wide. through this layer. 13.The rainscreen panels are sheet core. 7.Details 1. 12. 14. on a hook-on type support system while posite sheets are typically 1000mm to Side joints remain open jointed and are set being set near a horizontal plane. Metal rainscreen panel Single layer membrane Closed cell thermal insulation Structural deck Purlin or structural beam Secondary purlin Folded metal gutter Folded metal drip Section 1:10.

7. Screw heads are difficult to extending from roof down to the external edges down to form a tray. 4. Structural frame 16.This allows the screw fixings to be con- and regularly for maintenance access. Parapets are formed only by a gutter form a rim around the panel. External wall 11. 3. be made without either element being visi- cult to accommodate. screw cealed from view. 5. Panel 1 13. Screws are usually formed by using the same rainscreen panels of bracket are bonded or riveted to the sides left as a self-finish. Consequently. Outer sheet fixing bracket 12. though such systems An alternative fixing method for panels is Parapets An advantage of rainscreen panels for ble. Short lengths for maintenance access. A coping is then access to screw fixings beneath. 2. as shown in (B). and have a particular as elsewhere on the roof in order to provide of the tray beneath the projecting panel rim.The waterproof The panels are then screw fixed at the brack- of roof panels. then scratching of the that also provides the necessary upstand Holes are drilled at the corners to allow panel is likely as a result of removing panels height for the parapet itself. Ridge piece 15. Panel 2 14. eaves. the wall construction or against the side of passing the screw through the hole in the MCR_ 54 the sealed roof deck. Concealed fixings are more diffi- cent panels. Pipe or duct penetration Section 1:10. appearance when viewed as a complete set a continuity of appearance. Metal fascia panel 10. then outwards to coat in a colour that matches the panel. Concealed parapet gutter with cantilevered edge 1 3 4 9 5 10 els must have the ability to be removed easily rim. Detail D Metal rainscreen panel Single layer membrane Closed cell thermal insulation Structural deck Purlin or structural beam Secondary purlin Folded metal gutter Folded metal drip 9. 10 Section 1:10. monopitch ridges are likely to appear over the next 10 years as to set screws in each corner of the face of and verges can have a similar outward demand for this roof system increases. even if this is achieved. Concealed parapet gutter 6. while allowing each roof fixings in all panel corners are most com- panel to be removed without affecting adja- parapets is that the gutter and upstand can monly used. 8. the panel onto a support rail system. and wall. which is closed off with . Countersunk screws have the membrane beneath is then sealed against ets to the supporting rails or Z-sections by least visually obtrusive appearance.Metal 04 Rainscreens 1 1 1 2 3 2 4 5 10 Details 1. as appearance of an uninterrupted panel layout Panels are made usually by folding the shown in (C).

the wall order to conceal the coping flashing. the coping extends drains through slots or perforations. provide a watertight enclosure that is con- A seal between the external wall and MCR_ 55 . which is fixed in front of the below. panel at its edges onto the membrane independent of the external wall beneath. would be too much for curtain wall systems. underside of the roof deck. same material and finish as the adjacent rain- linked directly to a fascia panel.1 2 3 4 9 10 10 Section 1:10. as shown in (D) are a common detail for roofs where the expected structural movements are higher screen roof panel construction.The external formed by sealing the waterproof mem- than the modest movements allowed with wall beneath is typically sealed up to the brane against the side of the roof deck to curtain wall facades. Unlike parapets in profiled metal or uncovered. there is no need to leave the gutter This allows the roof deck to deflect and parapet. Monoridge with cantilevered edge 1 3 9 2 4 5 10 a folded metal strip. resulting in a thin visual edge to the top of the wall. In (E) a screen panels.The metal sheet or composite metal panels being a perforated or slotted metal cover in the rainscreen panel at the edge of the roof is used. as is the case with other metal move under normal structural loading with- composite panels. the vertical fascia panel roof systems. Since rainwater runs off each curved panel is shown which is structurally then finished with another rainscreen panel. In other and water underneath the gutter cover would deflect with the roof. to amount that types of metal roofing. roof were rigidly fixed together. in the case of profiled The parapet gutter can be covered with tinuous with the external wall beneath. Monoridge with curved fascia panel Detail E Section 1:10.This coping line can be concealed from view in rain- whose movements are very restricted. set vertically.Water running down the out affecting the wall beneath. If wall and can extend up to the top of the wall in membrane is drained directly into the gutter. The depth of the roof construction is over the top of the wall.This is Monopitch ridges and verges These ridge types.

An alternative panels that are turned in either one or two equipment and duct outlets for mechanical MCR_ 56 Although most rainscreens are set at . some angled upwards slightly to avoid an upstand els can be fixed down at their corners on a can be up to 1000mm above the roof deck that extends above the line of the rainscreen curved roof to create a set of gently curved in order to accommodate mechanical plant roof panels. from reinforced concrete slabs amounts of rainwater are flowing along this do not require any joints between panels to timber shell structures. 3. 8. Alternatively. 4. 10.Verge with projecting fascia panel Section 1:25. Roof geometry An advantage of rainscreen panels is Although the drawn examples here show lightweight roof configurations to suit the roof edge to prevent rainwater from their ability to form complex geometries the lightweight nature of the metal rain- spilling off the roof. edge of the roof. different angles to create a facetted roof sec- roof) than EPDM sheet.Metal 04 Rainscreens Details 1. 2. If large amounts of water that would become difficult and expensive flow are expected then the roof can be for roofs with complex geometries. Verges are similar to monopitch ridges. 6. 11. 5. uinely curved roof finishes. 14. 12. Since the panels screen panels. 9. and if relatively small are not required to be waterproofed. Flat pan- around 100mm above the membrane. 7.Typical section with rainscreen panels draining directly to membrane 1 2 1 3 15 2 the underside of the roof is provided by two solution is to introduce a gutter at the edge directions. 16. as shown in (F). 15. but differ in that they require an upstand at tion. 1 2 3 4 9 10 Metal rainscreen panel Single layer membrane Closed cell thermal insulation Structural deck Purlin or structural beam Secondary purlin Folded metal gutter Folded metal drip Metal fascia panel External wall Outer sheet fixing bracket Panel 1 Panel 2 Ridge piece Structural frame Pipe or duct penetration 10 Section 1:10. pan- can also be used.The upstand can be low if from flat panel components. 13. Folded metal sheet verge upstand without it becoming visible. they can be used. Panels are increasingly being twist- layers of EPDM sheet with flexible insulation of the verge to give greater height to the ed in two directions in order to create gen- quilt set between them. but is less flexible in the and without breaking the continuous line of els can be set flat but with each panel set at longitudinal direction (along the length of the rainscreen panels. any compatible roof substrate the verge is flat.

typically sive structure.12 13 2 3 4 Shimosuwa Municipal Museum. or alternatively to form to sheet metal have increased considerably MCR_ 57 . Japan.The framework is fixed at its base cealed from view and is chosen for its per- to pads or Z-section profiles in the same formance rather than for its visual qualities. or for an expensive water- of cold formed steel sections or aluminium proofing layer. a roof can become a sin- screen to these items. making this a roofing rainscreen panels to provide weather pro- When mixed with perforated or slotted method set for new developments. Panel fixing Section 1:25. make it Roof soffits Metal rainscreen roof panels can also be an economic and easy to use system for roofs of complex geometry. set above its external walls siderable visual impact on a roof.This allows a complete soffit to the underside of a roof.The range of used as soffits panels to either an overhang- colours for composite sheet and for coatings ing eaves or parapet. Architect:Toyo Ito & Associates Section 1:10. in the past 10 years. access both on the roof. since the membrane is con- extrusions. Rainscreen as a separate and distinct element. which can have a con- gle visual entity.Typical section with rainscreen panels draining from panel to panel 1 1 4 ventilation within the building. tection for equipment as well as a visual panels and louvres.This can panels set 1000mm above the roof are fixed be achieved without the need for an expen- to a secondary support framework. way as the rainscreens set close to the roof The easy removal of panels for maintenance membrane. Lake Suwa. and into the ceiling void from the soffit panels beneath.

the sheets are fixed try. sometimes called cassettes. In common together is by riveting them together. A compressible polymer joints between panels being sealed with sili- form part of an entrance.The sealed outer weathertight seal. An inclined glazed wall meets a with countersunk rivets fixing the edges of ed edges. Panels can be individually folded solar shading to a facade. An alter- silicone seal around 10mm wide between MCR_ 58 .Metal 05 Metal canopies 2 1 6 3 Section 1:25. Instead. Canopy edge The Giovanni and Marella Agnelli Art Gallery at Lingotto. In (D) a similar sheet to different shapes to form a canopy of com- layer of the canopy comprises metal panels material is set between the riveted panels to plex geometry. Italy. each panel being made from metal are difficult to achieve where a high weath- a complete form made from metal coil. associated with metal panels.The generic done either by butting flat sheet together technique for metal canopies is usually none example here follows this principle.The folded edges form the surface to seal (E) used in the generic example shows found in GRP membranes and tent struc- which the silicone sealant adheres.This is membrane beneath.Turin. the metal canopy at mid-height which might each sheet in place. In (C). In practice. seals (C) and (D) move towards larger metal panel sizes. leaving composite panel and rainscreen panels with a with other canopy types. or of these. Canopy assembly Example B 1 6 6 3 3 Metal canopies use all the techniques avail- tures. but with the more durable finishes native method of joining metal panels able to metal: standing seam. profiled sheet. and riveting the two sides together as (C). sheet which is folded at its edges to form a ertight performance is required.There has been a gradual which are folded to form an overall curved provide a seal. the which imitates the homogeneous forms tray. However. but instead a method suited to In generic example (A) the metal canopy by folding the sheets down and riveting the small-scale construction of complex geome- also serves as a sealed roof to part of a underside as (D). metal canopies are a hairline joint between the sheets. the preferred expected to be fully watertight. Architect: Renzo Piano Building Workshop Section 1:80. or may serve as sheet is set beneath the sheets to provide a cone sealant.This method uses metal panels with fold- glazed wall. even profile.

Flush either mild steel or aluminium sections. vantage in increased cost as well as a greater canopy. and this is usually ver-grey colours match well with silver a supporting structure.This provides a reli- accepted visually as part of their appearance. 4. In generic example (B) set of assembly techniques available to the sheet. Aluminium joints in silicone tend to give the canopy sur- minium sections are usually preferred for panels are typically either PVDF coated or face an homogenous appearance. to greys. made from 1200mm x 2400mm colour consistency. with its use of anodised aluminium as a finish on assembly of panels which is characteristic of greater durability. to black.The metal. Mild steel is galvanised. 11. the edges are welded and ground characteristic soft edge. Alu- The supporting structure is made from smooth shaped pressed panels. 8. coloured panels to give an overall appear- able seal that maintains its weather tightness If much thicker sheet is used. 6.1 6 Details 1. on the individual application. giving it their durability but mild steel is often used polyester powder coated. and the complete panel is coated to Metal panels can bring together the full MCR_ 59 . 9. 7. can be natural. which material. there is a disad- ance of a single colour for the complete in the long term. can result in a gentle oil-canning effect the silicone used to seal the joints can be material within a single assembly. rang- panels. particularly when recessed joints are difficulty in working the sheet to form used between panels. anodised or sheet has increased in recent years as a metal and also one of the advantages of the cromated (similar to anodising) depending result of greater reliability of the finish.Typical louvre sections Sections 1:10.With folded around their edges. Extruded aluminium louvre blade Mild steel box section Mild steel tube Structural pin connection Mild steel I-section Bolt fixed metal panel Aluminium sheet Mild steel or aluminium support frame Thermal insulation Silicone seal Glazed wall 3 3 Section 1:25. while steel sheet is more the appearance of concrete than of for its greater rigidity.Typical louvre sections Detail H 5 Detail J 5 1 1 panels which are fixed with brackets back to smooth and consistent. Metal panels of until recently has suffered from uneven large size. Canopy edge and support Isometric view of assmebly: Electrically operated louvres Sections 1:10. 2. but they look ing from white.This can detract from the crisply fitted painted. 3. 10. usually polyester powder coated only. Some sil- smooth.This gives panels their applied in a variety of monotone tints. shown in (B). while aluminium. 5. or both.

painted on site in a colour sheet forming the top of the canopy glazed wall framing. enhances the becomes a vapour barrier on the internal the underside of the canopy on its internal overall appearance. 11. 9. Any excess rainwater that is blown based backing rod is used to support the sili- double glazed units above. However.The use of counter- folded under the bottom transom.The it passes it from outside to inside. as where the edge of the MCR_ 60 . 3. 4. Small on site must be of the highest quality to nal side of the wall is lapped up the internal amounts of rainwater that find their way into ensure a durable weathertight seal. where a thermal insulation within the canopy is con- sheet on the exterior face of the wall is reliable silicone seal between double glazed tinued in order to meet the thermally broken glazed into the top transom of the wall units is the norm.This method uses the applica- tinuous seal with the glazed wall above.The metal tion method of bolt fixed glazing. where a foam- transom where it forms a continuity with the below. 2. 5.The metal sheet into the joint drips off the top of the tran- cone applied from the outside.The metal sheet forming matching that of the panels. rather than the full weather face is taken as close to the glass as possible barrier used on the external face of the before being folded back to align with the canopy. 6. 7.Metal 05 Metal canopies Details 1. side of the wall. 10. 8. Extruded aluminium louvre blade Mild steel box section Mild steel tube Structural pin connection Mild steel I-section Bolt fixed metal panel Aluminium sheet Mild steel or aluminium support frame Thermal insulation Silicone seal Glazed wall Plan and section 1:200.The metal ventilated internal drainage system of the sunk screws. workmanship forming the top of the canopy on the inter- som pressure plate and capping. transom.Where face of the glazed wall framing where it is the transom are taken away through the this is difficult. In generic example (B) the glazed wall above the canopy is sealed to it by extending the metal sheet forming the external gutter The glazed wall on the underside of the Metal canopies are increasingly using a up into the bottom transom (horizontal glaz- metal coping is joined in a way that disturbs single seal between panels to form a weath- ing bar) of the glazing system to form a con- the line of the canopy as little as possible as ertight joint.Typical canopy asembly a single consistent colour.

usually follows the form of the outside of the reflected off its surfaces down to the space With flat panels. so that the structure and void are at provided by an elastomeric or thermoplastic metal panels can move with thermal expan- the external temperature. Louvre blades are set typically at 45° Bolt fixed panels In (B) the canopy forms part of a glazed Arrangements of metal louvres are used to the vertical in order to block the passage wall. and is thermally insulated.Typical louvre panel Detail K Electrically operated louvres Plan 1:80. An alternative is els are not able to be very rigid due to their systems destined for use in point fixed glaz- to form the insulation with the shortest dis- geometry or manufacturing method.The use of oversized holes or slotted tance between the glazed walls above and ond line of defence for weather tightness is holes in the metal panel ensures that the below.The and below where small amounts of water rainwater outlet can be finished to match that penetrate the outer silicone seal are the adjacent metal finishes so as not to as canopies to provide solar shading while allowed to drain to the outside. as shown MCR_ 61 .The insulation of direct sunlight but allow the light to be on the canopy edges in generic example (A). a sec- ing. and metal / compos- ture at a similar temperature to the internal ated from folded strips of aluminium or mild Metal panels can be bolt fixed. waterproofing sheet at their top and bottom Gutters and rainwater outlets can be Fixed metal louvre canopies ends are fixed into the glazing system above formed in sheet metal as shown in (B).The ends of the sion without bowing or bending.Typical louvre panel 5 Detail G Detail F 1 5 1 panel has a small edge return. detract from the overall visual form of the still allowing daylight to pass through the canopy. Junction of louvre panel and frame.5 1 1 1 2 1 1 Section 1:10. solution is usually preferred. canopy. such as minimum 3mm canopy to keep the voids within the struc- beneath the canopy.The warm roof waterproof membrane. or where pan- ite sheet can be bolt fixed using proprietary temperature of the building. Louvre sections are cre- thick aluminium sheet. Section 1:25.

Extruded aluminium sec- fixed louvre assembly can be made without port cleats to which it connects are fixed tions require end caps. the aluminium spring from points below the roof. enhancing its appearance.Turin. An elliptical section will span typ- to the flat frame with pin connections. and factory. supported by tube sections that typical of this type of steel construction. requiring restraint along their extrusion. where the elliptical section are supported at centres to suit their struc- steel frame on site. or es a mild steel frame fabricated from box tubes have tapered ends shown which is are welded and ground smooth. 5.Two to reflect daylight in a way that reveals its 3- ically 1500mm for a 75mm to 100mm deep flat plates are welded to the ends of the dimensional form. 10. but these have limited stiffness profile has screw ports that form part of the sections are shown bolted together to form and stability.The caps are screwed to the ends. 11. Aluminium extrusions can be vre panels. as shown in generic example (B). then fixed to the supporting mild minium sections. and a single plate forming a cleat is Sections are either a half ellipse as (H) or a span 2500mm. Flat louvre arrangements speed and related loads. 9. and these are either fixed with counter- The supporting structure in (B) compris- bolts to form a visually crisp connection.The sunk screws into the wall of the section. depending upon design wind fixed to the underside of the flat frame and full ellipse as (J).The fork provide much less visual vibrancy when ends. 3. 8.Metal 05 Metal canopies Example A Details 1. 6. Italy. usually for visual rea- visible fixings. into which are set lou- length to hold their straightness in length. 4. shown in (K).Typical metal canopy Example A The Giovanni and Marella Agnelli Art Gallery at Lingotto.The steel tubes are fixed is most commonly used. 7. prefabricated and finished in a Greater stiffness is provided by extruded alu- made in lengths up to around 6000mm. together with face-mounted or countersunk sons. a ends of the tubular supports and the sup- viewed from below. 2. as a flat frame structure. Architect: Renzo Piano Building Workshop 11 11 9 7 steel sheet.When fixed at their the base support below the roof.Where end sections.The box aluminium louvre panels are fixed to the MCR_ 62 . section while a 250mm deep section will tubes. mainly for its ability tural depth. 11 Extruded aluminium louvre blade Mild steel box section Mild steel tube Structural pin connection Mild steel I-section Bolt fixed metal panel Aluminium sheet Mild steel or aluminium support frame Thermal insulation Silicone seal Glazed wall 7 7 9 8 7 7 8 Plan and section 1:20. into which the screws are fixed.

Plan and section 1:20. rather than through the arrangement of gears. giv- to the cleat bracket with a countersunk bolt.The sliding rods are connected 1500mm between supports depending on angle. 100mm deep. Sliding arms typically support Louvres are typically a maximum of thermal movement. the sliding arms move to allow for access for cleaning the glass the connection of moving parts. As 6000mm size which are fixed into the sup- Electrically operated louvres the sliding aluminium rod moves. Louvres can be solid or perforated to the steel I-section. Louvre canopies are also used for hori- MCR_ 63 . A 100mm deep I- zontal and inclined glazed roofs. shown in below and the louvre assembly itself. Nylon sleeves and washers are used at motor. elevation 1:100.Typical metal canopy Example A 7 11 11 8 Joint types 1:2 Detail C 7 11 11 Detail D Detail E the two diagrams of (F) and (G). the alumini- porting I-section frame. Louvre blades are 75mm-100mm in at each end of the louvres are fixed to a the design of the glazed roof below. supporting flat frame with brackets that are metal. and as it turns.The louvre panel is fixed Louvres are fixed by steel pins into a up to a 6000mm length of louvre blades.The louvres set of controlled louvres of 6000mm x are also fixed at their centre in section.The dis- typical proprietary systems but blades up to supporting frame of aluminium I-sections. to 1500mm. section. sliding aluminium section at each end of the ing an overall square shape (in plan) to each profile. tance between the moveable louvre panels 300mm wide can be made as a single extru- The single tube is powered by an electric and the glazed roof below is made sufficient sion. with a around 10% void to a maximum of 50%. requiring support at 1000mm nylon spacer between them to allow for though the latter is difficult to fabricate. excluding up um louvres move together. as shown in (F) and (G). from around 6000mm long for those 75mm to panel is supported on these brackets. opening and clos- section will span typically 1000mm - to 90% of solar heat gain when set at a 45° ing together.Typical metal canopy Example A 7 8 9 11 Plan.The aluminium louvre different percentages of solid to void. to avoid the need for regular lubrica- welded to the sides of the bottom flange of tion.

2 GLASS (1) Greenhouse glazing and Capped glazing Greenhouse glazing Modern roof glazing Capped systems (2) Silicone-sealed glazing and Rooflights Junctions Use of capped profiles Rooflights (3) Bolt fixed glazing Generic structural support methods Supporting brackets Bolt fixings Arrangement of bolt fixings Glazed units (4)Bolt fixed glazing: Pitched roofs and rooflights Base of glazed roof External and internal folds Small glazed rooflights Larger rooflights (5) Bolt fixed glazing: Twin wall roofs (6) Bonded glass rooflights Generic conical rooflight Generic rectangular rooflight Generic monopitch rooflight Glass roof decks (7) Glazed canopies System assembly Four edge restrained canopy Bonded glass canopies MCR_ 65 .

Typical cross section. Section1:25. a traditional greenhouse enclosure. but has poor oped from greenhouse glazing. Greenhouse glazing. Howev- another was used. 1 3 4 4 2 7 8 Greenhouse glazing thicknesses being used typically. air ing bars set at around 600mm centres in es. Isometric view of roof assembly Detail A Detail D Section1:25. Abutment.Glass 01 Greenhouse glazing and Capped glazing systems 2 3 1 1 Section1:25. glazed roofs to replace earlier systems devel- However. For large for agricultural use. Typical ridge section. Greenhouse glazing. this design thermal insulation. as shown in (A). are set sealed and watertight glass roof systems order to keep the glass as thin as possible.The use of single glazing.The lapped set typically at 3000mm centres with purlins glass results in water being drawn up running between them to support the glaz- nal walls have been adopted. make it ideal without being impeded by glazing bars. with glass thicknesses from 4mm to 6mm that also support the glazed wall. but very poor for the method of lapping glass sheets over one greenhouses an additional aluminium or use in general building construction. the concept of greenhouse glazing has ally. Greenhouse glazing. used to support the glazed roof. Typical section. Since The glazing can be used in a pitched This glazing system is still used in green- thermal breaks and high air infiltration rates rainwater needs to run down the slope roof as well as a vertical wall to form the (by curtain walling standards).Trusses are MCR_ 66 An essential component of greenhouse . A er. since their purpose is to greenhouse glazing used thin steel or cast being a very neat and economic solution for absorb the heat from the sun rather than iron sections to support glass sheets on their its purpose. ing bars at 600mm centres. years. 3 4 2 3 Section1:25. excluding it. the glass is lapped with no seal. Greenhouse glazing. over the last 20 between the sheets by capillary attraction.Traditional secondary issue in greenhouses.Tradition- steel frame is used to support the glazing. with glaz- typical structure is of lightweight metal truss- been developed into the highly insulated. with no Curtain walling principles used in exter- vertical edges to form a pitched roof. complete weather tightness is a houses for agricultural activities. on steel or aluminium box section columns used in contemporary buildings. as a reliable method of constructing which can cause water leaks and staining.

while the structural mullion extends on the inside ing. Greenhouse glazing. Ridge 3. but includes the condensation chan- clips that snap onto the glazing bar. serves as a drain for moisture inside the Ventilation in greenhouse glazing is pro- Unlike curtain walling based systems. Stuttgart.The condensation channel also which suits certain agricultural applications. with a pressure plate on the at the edges. mak- ness of the glazing bar is provided by the water that passes through the outer seal dur- ing it very economic. where building that has condensed within the fram- vided at the eaves and at the ridge. 2. 5. 1 Section1:5. Greenhouse glazing.The strength and stiff- channel beneath of the glass to drain away with no seal between the glass sheets. Greenhouse glazing. but not very airtight. minium sections are separated from the allow the bottom of the glass sheet to lap glass by extruded rubber-based seals which over the top of the sheet below on the hori- The horizontal joint between lapped MCR_ 67 . Detail C 6 6 3 1 Glass to glass junction. greenhouse glazing has only clips Modern greenhouse glazing is made from are held in place on their sides by support- either side of the control bar. which corre- coloured seal. since high thermal insulation is not them in place with continuous aluminium outside the face of the glass. as (B). 6. 4. Single glazed sheets outside. or bars and which press against the glass to sponds to a mullion in glazed walls. Extruded aluminium glazing bar Extruded aluminium sections Single glazed sheet Double glazed unit Aluminium clip-on capping Polycarbonate sheet Aluminium gutter Concrete base Section1:5.Valley Section1:5. Eaves Detail F Greenhouse details 1. Architect: Auer und Weber Section1:5. or are enclosed as (C). Some provide both a cushion for the glass as well greenhouse glazing bar has a condensation greenhouse systems still have lapped glass as a water and air seal.The alu- seals are deep enough and soft enough to nels to avoid water from dripping below.The rubber required. 7. central flat bar that extends beyond the glaz- ing rain. Greenhouse glazing. allowing it extruded aluminium sections with no thermal ing them on the glazing bars and securing greater freedom to extend both inside and break.4 4 4 4 2 7 Section1:5. 8. Greenhouse glazing. Detail B 6 3 1 8 glazing that has been retained in modern glass sheets is sealed with either a clear are held in place on the aluminium glazing glazed roofs is the glazing bar.The with continuous aluminium clips. controlled ventilation. Polycarbonate to glass junction Detail E 5 6 3 4 6 1 1 Amazonian House. Condensation channels are either open opening lights are used for more closely face of the glass. typically silicone sealant. ing line either inside or outside the glazing.

locations to encourage natural cross ventila- same aluminium profiles to be used for both tion. which drains greater control of the internal temperature carbonate sheet and the multi-wall type.The increased weight of double glazed double glazing and polycarbonate sheets. Greenhouse glazing can accom- horizontal joints are usually sealed with sili- 45°. A down the slope of the roof to the eaves.Thermal breaks are twin wall sheet has thicknesses with are simi- is drained at its gable ends if the ridge can still not required. ranging be set level to allow the water to drain sion for slot ventilation at the ridge and eaves from around 24mm to 32mm.The snap- aluminium sections that hold the glass with gutter. or for agricultural buildings. Capped glazing. A condensation channel set into the modate double glazing units. as files to a box section used at junctions units over single glazed sheets results in big- shown in (E). the glass often over- on glazing clips or screw-on types in use usu- the same clips used for the glazing bars laps the concrete ground slab. Since each ridge ished floor is provided. while short length extrusion can suit only one roof pitch.Where the green- the increased glass depth. beneath it. typically 22°. but there is a larger provi- lar to those of double glazed units. Capped glazing. Capped glazing.Glass 01 Greenhouse glazing and Capped glazing systems 6 1 4 2 6 1 2 1 2 1 2 6 Section 1:10.These range of roof pitches. cone to provide an air seal. Eaves with glass to glass fold Section 1:10. 30° and concrete blockwork edge is provided to ter- MCR_ 68 . Capped glazing. Eaves with profiles at fold 1 Section 1:10. allowing the freely. a brickwork or joints to hold the lapped units in place.The glass simply overhangs the ger glazing bars to support them. Ridge 2 8 8 6 4 5 1 1 7 zontal joints. but the sys- Gutters are formed by fixing gutter pro- Ridges are formed by special extruded edge of the roof to drain rainwater into the tem remains essentially the same. Capped glazing. manu- house glazing has no floor.Valley gutter 2 Detail J 1 4 Section 1:10. where a fin- ally have a stepped profile to accommodate which meet at the ridge. as is the case in aluminium clips are used along the horizontal facturers offer ridge profiles to suit a limited many agricultural applications. as shown in (D). Eaves gutter Section 1:10. At ground level. Greenhouse sys- glazing section is drained either into the glaz- The main reason for this is usually to provide tems can also accommodate both flat poly- ing bars that intersect with it.

as well as for applications where a flush joints in silicone based systems. as system. are also formed from extruded alu- reasons: to understand how glazed roofs large glass units in place in capped systems. without the need to of insulation. where the depths ture might be required. at the bottom MCR_ 69 . 11. 10. with ther- Capped systems The system shown in (G) comprises glazing bars which are assembled on site in a Modern roof glazing Systems for glass roofs use the principles of greenhouse glazing.With greenhouse glaz- are designed for much larger glass units. 6. 2. minium sections. ing. Pressure where glasshouse roofs are set next to one house glazing is useful for the reader for two plates rather than clips are used to hold another. while this section focuses on pres- increased rigidity. An additional upstand is often glazing system is required that is minimal in ter type is discussed in the next section of added to the aluminium section for both its components and its overall assembly this book. 12. principles of glazed curtain walling. Extruded aluminium glazing bar Transom Single glazed unit Double glazed unit Ridge bar Pressure plate and capping 7. 4 Insulated gutter Insulated flashing Rooflight Thermal insulation Pressed metal flashing Concrete base Pressed metal trim Detail K 4 6 1 5 1 2 2 1 8 12 minate the glass above ground level. Section 1:10. an upstand or downstand formed within the gutter extrusion performs the same function of providing sufficient stiffness to bear the and ventilated systems are used. tems are usually insulated. green- mal breaks and double glazed units. or 'capped' systems. together with the inner lining. with no thermal insulation provided. Capped glazing. with the glass being secured have evolved from a simple mass produced and toggle-type plates are used to provide in the same way as the glazing bars. 4. Although not useful for most applica- Valley gutters. Drained could otherwise be susceptible to damage. The base of the curtain wall. but incorporate the grid of members that resemble the mullions and transoms of stick glazed curtain walling. 9. Gutters in other roof sys- as well as where an uninsulated glass struc- sure plate based.Typical profiles Capped glazing details Isometric view of roof assembly 1.This lat- shown in (F). 5. 13. 8. where it weight of a gutter filled with rainwater.Detail H Detail G 6 6 4 3 4 6 1 1 1 2 1 Section 1:10. use thermally broken glazing systems which provide a rigid gutter. Parapet upstand. 3. which occur typically tions in general building construction. Capped glazing.

The glass is set the internal drain in the glazing bar is contin- horizontally-set glazing bar. In smaller roofs passage of water down the roof. holding in principles of greenhouse glazing. 4. Capped glazing. 8. A strip be a reinforced concrete slab at roof level. Abutment Section 1:10. the those running along the roof. follow the main . 10 7. A small amount of condensation channels immediately beneath of the roof. Parapet upstand 4 Section 1:10.This from pitched to vertical wall. may have an addi- without eaves. Capped glazing. and the system is blown away by the wind or else evaporates.Glass 01 Greenhouse glazing and Capped glazing systems 6 4 4 4 9 1 1 2 5 11 2. Junction with rooflight Capped glazing details 1. 5. Extruded aluminium glazing bar Transom Single glazed unit Double glazed unit Ridge bar Pressure plate and capping 6 Section 1:10. 9.Water that is require a method of allowing the water to ing bar is usually made deeper to take the able to find its way through the outer seal run over the junction. Insulated gutter Insulated flashing Rooflight Thermal insulation Pressed metal flashing Concrete base Pressed metal trim 6 1 1 2 Section 1:10. Glazing drips into an internal channel where it is step at this point. Capped glazing. ing bar and is secured with a continuous drained at the base of the wall. 6. rainwater is with chamfered edges that allows rainwater provision can also be made by setting the allowed to run on down the wall to the base to pass over it easily. like glazing bars. as shown. Capped glazing. or chosen profile of the typical glaz- pressure equalised. 3. As with glazed curtain walling. as shown in (H). 10. or place the top and bottom edges of the glass. Other sys- ventilated inner chamber to drain water MCR_ 70 Ridges. internally. Some systems use a higher structural loads of the ridge. Ridge 1 6 11 2 4 4 10 5 1 1 of the extruded profile. ertight seal. 13. 12. without a pressure plate bars that intersect with the ridge profile are drained away safely to the bottom of the on top that would otherwise impede the notched at the top to allow the drained and roof. where the roof angle changes tems use a pressure plate and cover capping tional condensation channel. section. but this is soon onto rubber-based air seals fixed to the glaz- uous with the vertical wall. which could Any water that penetrates the outer seal is pressure plate of extruded aluminium. sure plate and the glass to provide a weath- roof project above the surface of the glass. At the 'fold' point of the roof water is left trapped on the top edge of this the glass. 11. typically at the eaves. drained away through the internal drain in of extruded EPDM is set between the pres- While glazing bars running down the the glazing bar.The box glazing bars are drained and ventilated. Capped glazing.Typical profiles 6 Section 1:10.

Drops of water that find their way secure the glass at the ridge. as shown cent construction at the base of the roof in in (J). are very different to greenhouse glazing. their the downstand insulated flashing and the function is to conceal the drainage slots and insulated gutter. as is the case with curtain walling. Capped glazing. at both valleys and eaves.This seal is required to be screw fixings in order to provide a consistent fully watertight if the gutter becomes visual finish to the glazing bars. If a downstand flashing is used to sepa- points. Parapet upstand 1 2 6 1 2 4 9 6 2 10 4 1 13 2 12 internally down the glazing bars that follow the relatively high level of thermal insulation that terminate at flashings and gutters allow the slope down the roof. blocked and water in the gutter fills to the Gutters. Glazing bars MCR_ 71 . General principle Section 1:10. Instead of lapping the glass into the gutter. for example. Ridge 11 6 6 4 4 1 1 Amazonian House. then two layers of onto the outer (top) surface of the down- caps are not an essential part of glazed flexible membrane seal are used between stand flashing. the gutter top of the gutter during a storm. Capped glazing. Capped glazing. Stuttgart. shown in profile (or downstand flashing) is clamped (K). A specially made V- and to avoid a thermal bridge across the sys- the internal drain to release water at these shaped continuous pressure plate is used to tem. with a similar rate the roof from the gutter.Section 1:10. are insulated in order to provide a conti- into one side of the horizontally-set glazing nuity with the thermal insulation of the adja- bar at the base of the pitched roof.While cover ier to install the gutter. Junction with rooflight Plan and section 1:100. Capped glazing. Architect: Auer und Weber Section 1:10. Regular downstand flashings. to make it eas- into the drainage chamber are drained out shaped cover cap set on top. An insulated gutter is used to maintain order to avoid a thermal bridge. roofs.

suit pitched roofs. is mainly because the rainwater running double glazed unit both keeps the glass at a down the roof cannot pass the horizontal fixed distance apart as well as having desic- box or fin removed in order to fix it directly glazing bars which project above the surface cant within it to absorb any residual mois- to a steel support frame. Architect: Gehry 3 8 Silicone-sealed systems continuous around its perimeter. they can- gap at the edge of the unit usually used to 15mm to 20mm wide. Square hollow sec- of the glass. within the seal.The recessed plates are secured to an the gap formed by the recessed channels of glazing bar. As with capped systems. small amounts flush with the surface of the glass. as of rainwater that pass through the outer sili- clamped in place with short lengths of pres- in a regular double glazed unit. and with a backing not reliably be used on (nominally) flat roofs. bond the unit together and to seal the edges strip or 'backing rod' behind it to form a where the roof pitch is usually 3° to 5°. described in the MCR_ 72 In (A) the glazing bar has its structural . Junction with adjacent roof Cross section 1:10. silicone seals are very aluminium channel which forms an integral abutting glazed units. and are clamped to the reliable but are dependent upon good work- part of the double glazed unit and which is glazing bar with self tapping screws.This behind the spacer.The short cone seal are drained away in the condensa- sure plate that are recessed below the outer lengths of pressure plate are then set into tion channels set below the glass. typically manship on site. continuous finish ture within the sealed cavity between the tions are shown here. an all-alu- required for flat glazed roofs is achieved with glass sheets. Germany. as shown in a silicone seal between glass panels that is set is bonded to each glass sheet and also pro- (B).The adjacent spacer in the back edge to the silicone seal. Berlin.The recessed aluminium channel minium glazing bar can be used. Junction with adjacent roof Detail F Detail E 3 3 4 Cross section1:10.The glass is vides the edge seal to the completed unit. typically previous section. In practice.Glass 02 Silicone-sealed glazing and Rooflights 4 3 1 Cross section1:10.The extrud- at 300mm centres.The gap between the ed aluminium channel is recessed into the glazed unit is sealed with silicone. so the condensation chan- While capped systems.The smooth. Corner 4 DG Bank. Alternatively.

Glazing channel 8. Mild steel support frame 4. An advantage of this system is the abili- a flat surface between the two meeting glass uninterrupted by visible glazing bars. while the glazing bar forming carried away in a gutter. angle of the clips that hold the inner EPDM unlike capped systems. Silicone is rarely used to make a and valleys are treated as simply folds in the wall in the same system with a simple 'fold'. Adjacent opaque roof 10. Concrete base 9. can be used in all directions across a roof. Detail C 4 4 4 2 2 Long section1:10. with rainwater usually or with two glazing bars meeting as shown allowed to run off the edge into a gutter. or down to the sure plate are folded to form the required base of the glazed wall below the glazed angle. but in practice as a secondary chamber to support the the ridge is the same as that used elsewhere glazed rooflights require regular cleaning to inner air seals. Panel to panel junction 1. Double glazed unit with recessed edge 5.Typical assembly 3 Plan 1:50. Silicone seal 7. In (C). Insulated metal panel 6. rather than being as (D). with some modifications to the maintain their crisp appearance.The edges of roofs are also a single specially formed glazing bar. in (D). present no barrier to the passage of water.Section1:25. as (C). Corner Details Extruded aluminium glazing profile 2. and the silicone is chamfered to form systems is of continuous glazed surfaces roof. forming part of line without the assistance of an additional glass rather than being directed into gutters a larger glazed roof.The across its surface. treated as folds. Silicone-sealed glazing bars on the roof. Horizontal panel to panel junction 2 4 3 3 3 nel is often not used in practice but serves required angle. sure plate can be folded in the factory to the down the vertical glazing. since the glazing bars seal in place. sharp angle between the two double glazed surface of the glazing. Rubber-based glazing profile 3 Plan 1:5.Typical layout 3 Plan 1:5. since rainwater runs without reducing its weather tightness. requires the edge of the double Junctions Since the advantage of silicone-sealed The folded corner is formed with either MCR_ 73 . Pressure plate and capping 3. Dust that is carried metal angle bedded into the silicone.The short lengths of pres- down off the roof during rain is washed alternative method of forming a roof edge. ridges ty of the roof to be continuous with a glazed panels.Typi- units as it is very difficult to achieve a straight across the complete sealed surface of the cally the wall is not very high. the recessed lengths of pres- either just below the roof.

Where a glazing channel is used. the outer glass is cantilevered to meet the adja- (E). in order to match with the silicone aluminium angle to be bonded in its usual seals.The gutter is still sealed to the glazing bar the glazed unit. other colours and patterns are increas- nates in a glazed wall can meet an adjacent position adjacent to the glazing bar. and avoiding a thermal double glazed units.The advantage of bridge that will result in condensation occur- required to be separated from the glazing the glazing channel is that it can be set flush ring in temperate climates. with a The base of the glazed roof that termi- recessed length of pressure plate. stops at the glazing bar to allow the recessed colour. Horizontal panel to panel junction without capping Detail B Section 1:5.The glass is levelled on cantilevered edge to form a continuity of following the line of the internal face of the metal shims (short lengths of metal strip) thermal insulation. while the inner glass glass. Horizontal panel to panel junction without capping Section 1:5. typically for structural reasons. inside the from extruded aluminium.Vertical panel to panel junction with capping Section 1:5.The opacifying of the glass is done ter. Junction with adjacent roof Detail G 4 6 4 6 1 6 7 3 4 glazed unit to be coated or 'opacified' to the thermal insulation is lined with a vapour then a separate flashing can be used.They can be glazed into the system painted mild steel.Thermal insula- they are seen from the underside. Prefabricated gutters are used where double glazed unit sits in a profile formed cent glazed unit at the corner. with the finished internal level to provide a MCR_ 74 . fixed to avoid the frame behind being visible through barrier.While black is often the preferred continuous seal.Glass 02 Silicone-sealed glazing and Rooflights 6 4 4 1 1 1 3 3 6 1 Section 1:5. concrete roof slab with either a metal glazing Where a gutter is required. Corner Detail D Section 1:5.This is often achieved by stepping um sheet. typically a 3mm thick folded alumini- the glazing bar but independent of the gut- the glass.Where the gutter is then sealed with silicone. with the outer glass extend- by screen printing on the internal face of the with a flexible EPDM gasket to provide a ing to meet the corner.The inner face of structures. stainless steel or tion is bonded to the outer glass along the building. Horizontal panel to panel junction with capping Detail A Cross section1:5. as in (F). as (G). or in an upstand and flashing unit is secured in the same way.The glass ingly being introduced in glass manufacture. while the gutter is fitted to the glazing bar as shown in as (F). an insulated channel.

checked for compatibility. 4.The roofing metal panels and glazed panels in a single kets. 6. As with gut- often for visual reasons. Capped glazing. nal insulation and a single layer membrane. an EPDM membrane extends down ily formed junctions with adjacent areas of used as an extra seal at folds. icone sealed glazing such. are formed in the same way. 4 3 rarely presents any difficulty. to which an aluminium flashing can be fixed.The vertical glazing next section) is its ability to be mixed with allow rainwater to pass down it unimpeded bars (forming the mullions) are fixed to capped glazing. Alternatively. Although this mix is done with continuous pressure plates that are the upstand to protect the joint. Capped glazing. Horizontal panel to panel junction without capping Details 1. roof system of flush silicone joints and while the capped system follows the folds The metal flashing extends down the face of capped profiles. the glazing can terminate in a horizontal glazing bar. Cover caps are also mitred to give a membrane and the EPDM are always roof using a reliable drained and ventilated crisp appearance. but in practice this system. 8. A drained and ventilated (pressure equalised). 3. Butyl tape is ters. 10. Parapet upstand 4 4 4 3 3 Section 1:5.Typical profiles 4 9 4 9 3 Typical long section 1:25. 2. 9. 5. Since both systems are by any projecting glazing bars. 7. it does allow for eas- mitred and sealed at the folds. and for a mix of the pressure plate and the outer EPDM gas- bonded to the membrane. as edges of roofs concrete upstand is shown in (F) with exter- the same glazing bar can be used in a mixed and ridges. 4 Extruded aluminium glazing profile Pressure plate and capping Mild steel support frame Double glazed unit with recessed edge Insulated metal panel Silicone seal Glazing channel Concrete base Adjacent opaque roof Rubber-based glazing profile junction with no visible horizontal glazing bar. set between from the horizontal glazing bar where it is roof in different materials. MCR_ 75 .Typical cross section 1:25. while silicone- more easily fixed to a horizontal glazing bar over fully bonded glazing (discussed in the sealed glazing is used on horizontal joints to than a glazing channel. Junctions in sil- brackets that are secured to the upstand. A downstand flashing is Detail H The most common application of this method is where capped profiles are used Use of capped profiles An advantage of silicone sealed glazing for the vertically-set glazing bars running down the slope of a roof.

Long section 1:10. profiles of the capped system and onwards down to the base of the roof. secured by self tapping screws that are the level of the adjacent roof.Glass 02 Silicone-sealed glazing and Rooflights 4 4 3 3 3 Long section 1:10. with any the extruded aluminium glazing bar. as shown capped and silicone sealed glazing is in tem. where strips or bands of pletely independent of the rooflight. the short lengths of pres- ent material. a metal rainscreen is shown. ed into adjacent areas of opaque roof. individual rooflights give a visual continuity to the rooflights sure plate holding the glass in place are are formed in upstands that sit high above across the roof.Traditionally.Typical profiles 6 4 9 6 9 3 The internal drainage of the mixed glaz- porting structure. combined with a steel sup- roofs. running across the EPDM gasket. use a sili- MCR_ 76 The edge of the rooflight is formed with .The condensation channel and inner air seal can also be a single layer membrane roof is sealed into Rooflights A useful application of combining the edge of a capped glazed rooflight by clamping the membrane into the glazing sys- formed in a single EPDM extrusion. Large numbers secured to a supporting structure behind. A of these traditional individual rooflights lack a capped glazing profile. In this case. Edge of rooflight 4 9 3 Cross section 1:10. as shown in (H). but with a supporting structure glazing are combined with a roof in a differ- onto the membrane to both protect it and behind. In (J). com- in (H). without the use of any aluminium sealed rooflights. while the joints hollow box section is shown in (H). In (J). In recent years this has changed with rooflight (at 90°). usually gle layer membranes and rainscreen panels water that penetrates the silicone sealed for larger glass panels where the supporting with capped and silicone sealed to provide glazing being drained along the internal con- fin or box profile to the aluminium extrusion individual rooflights that are visually integrat- densation channels before draining into the would be visually too deep or too wide.The the visual elegance of continuously glazed within the rooflight. but set extrusion. Edge of rooflight. is used as an alternative to the increased use of the combination of sin- ing system works in the same way.

Section 1:5. into which the openable light is brane is tucked under this flashing and is set.The single layer mem- sub frame. Germany. Double glazed unit with recessed edge 5. Insulated metal panel 6. Junction of 2 rooflights with opaque roof 2 2 2 4 9 3 3 Section 1:5. Rubber-based glazing profile top edge of the rooflight (running parallel with the roof slope) has a capped profile to allow water to drain around the sides of the rooflight as shown in (K). with the use of an additional water off the edge. Open- 1. Glazing channel 8. Horizontal panel to panel junction with capping 2 4 4 3 DG Bank. Mild steel support frame 4. Silicone seal 7. Concrete base 9. shown in (J). Architect: Gehry Cross section 1:10. can be incor- glazed into the edge of the profile to drain porated easily. Berlin.This lowest edge of the rooflight able rooflights.The condensation channels in all profiles are set at the same level to ensure that any water that passes through the outer seal is drained through a set of linked channels to the bottom edge of MCR_ 77 . Edge of rooflight Detail J 9 4 6 Detail K 2 9 4 10 10 3 cone-sealed profile to allow water to run the rooflight where it is released above the Details down to the bottom edge of the rooflight roof level of the adjacent membrane. clamped down with the pressure plate that extends the full width of the rooflight. Pressure plate and capping 3. as shown in the previous sec- has a silicone sealed edge with a drip flashing tion on capped glazing systems.The Extruded aluminium glazing profile 2. Adjacent opaque roof 10.

which can include a the aluminium mullions. bolt fixed glaz- evolved further into double glazed units ing has become increasingly popular for MCR_ 78 . ture at the top and bottom of the wall.While the roof is completed. Architect: Asymptote. the idea of frameless glazing has glass roofs.The L-shaped patch used in modest rooflight applications. but these fixed glazing for facade construction devel- tem.This has limited the this glazing method has been developed and use of glass beams to modest applications in is still in use. walls. Netherlands. Corner Detail V3 This method of glazing for roofs has been being bolted directly to a supporting struc- glazed roofs in mainly commercial and public adapted from the technique used for glazed ture without patch fittings at all. were soon overcome with a mixture of lab- oped from patch plate glazing in the 1960's. roof glazing systems are usually as bolting the glass to the supporting struc- replacing cracked or damaged beams once designed for individual applications. In contrast to this. as well uncertainty surrounding the difficulty of trusses. Bolt transparency than an equivalent framed sys- silicone seals between glazed units. Horizontal panel to panel junction 5 5 Detail V2 4 1 1 8 8 5 9 8 8 Hydrapier. there is supporting structural system such as cable fittings bolt the fins and glass together. 5 7 Section 1:10. The patch plate method of frameless During the early 1990's doubts were oratory testing and a better understanding where single glazed sheets of glass are bolted glazing is not used very often in roofs. where glass is fixed at points with spe- enhances the essential concept of frameless cially designed bolts rather than with a frame glazing which is to provide greater visual raised over the reliability of the waterproof supporting the perimeter of the glass.This further buildings.While manufacturers offer propri- are used to stiffen the glazed walls to replace applications. since of the workmanship required with silicone together with mild steel brackets.While glass beams have been etary systems for walls.Glass 03 Bolt fixed glazing Cross section1:10. Haarlemmermeer. Glass fins the glass fins become glass beams in such jointing.

10. Because the bracket is welded.Typical assembly Detail V1 Plan1:10. so that beams.Triangulated truss- be welded to each side of the tube shown in number of beams are required to support es. Where glazed walls are usually struc- For (nominally) flat roofs. a mild steel bracket can beam by a short bracket. In (A) a supporting rooflight. only half the at oblique viewing angles. In the case of a short bracket bolts are supported on each side of the order to maintain the sense of transparency attached to a beam. Brackets are can- ferred. but tend to be visually adjustment for tolerance between fixing of achieved by setting the beam in the middle heavy. always in tension. 9. 8. 4.This is port for the glass.Section1:50. as (D).This method provides The cable trusses. which in practice pression to transfer the loads to the main glazed roofs is by trusses. 3. 5. as in a shown in (A) and (B). Bolt fixing 3 3 8 8 8 5 5 1 3 3 Generic structural support methods tilevered from the beam to support the the edge of the glazed roof to form a tensile edge of the panel above as well as one side supporting structure like a tennis racquet. 6. but they require a ring beam around is taken out in the position shown in (E) at All these supporting structures require MCR_ 79 . steel sections or detract little from the increased effect of building structure. usually formed as open trusses in attached. provide both structure and sup- (E). as (C). purlins that span across the roof opening. 11.Vertical panel to panel junction Detail V4 5 3 3 3 2 9 3 8 3 5 Details 1. of the panel next to it.Typical assembly Mild steel connector Mild steel support frame Double glazed unit Silicone seal Bolt fixing Support bracket Concrete base Stainless steel cable Mild steel tension rod Mild steel plate Adjacent external wall Plan1:10. are often pre- the supporting structure and the glass panels of alternate glass panels. transparency. require turally supported by either top hung or bot- greater visual transparency than (A) but an equivalent surrounding structure in com- tom supported methods. the support of requires larger brackets. but large span roofs require deeper brackets to which the bolt fixings are beam is set under each glass joint. In (B). the most common The single tube section shown in the Supporting brackets arrangement of supporting beams is as diagrams would suit only a short span. 3 Plan 1:50. 2. the the same three panels of glass. Cable trusses. 7.

11. which is currently the most com- . 2. ponents that form the complete assembly. A slotted or oversized hole is cut for this application would be made from a into the supporting bracket and the bolt sup- steel mould which is expensive to manufac- method. as well as at the flush with the outer face of the glass. In (G) the flat monly used bracket support methods. A polished stainless steel finish is tolerance. and each bolt needed to make this method economic. A single made in two places. the bolt fixing. usually in MCR_ 80 Bolt fixings The essential component in this glazing fixed type. is made typically in porting the glass is fixed to it. Here the adjustment for tolerance is tersunk device within the depth of the dou- welded to the top of the beam.This can produce an awkward In (H) the beam becomes a cable truss. 2 4 Mild steel connector Mild steel support frame Double glazed unit Silicone seal Bolt fixing Support bracket Concrete base Stainless steel cable Mild steel tension rod Mild steel plate Adjacent external wall 4 3 3 1 5 5 8 9 8 8 Section 1:10. 6. either a disc on each side of the glass to appearance when seen from below the roof. many variations on of the glass. In (F) a channel-shaped bracket is cable. it easy to clean and maintain. but these are the most com- mostly used on the outside in order to make set at each end of the bracket. 7. face fixed disc type is set forward of the face bracket is used to make the adjustment for There are. 10.Glass 03 Bolt fixed glazing Details 1. of course.Vertical panel to panel junction Section 1:10. An oversize hole in the junction of the bracket and the cable clamp. and the the channel bracket. 5. so a large quantity of cast brackets are stainless steel. Junction with adjacent roof Section 1:10. 4.The countersunk fitting is set bracket. and consists of several com- be off-centre from the bracket. may be in a different position in relation to its Adjustment is made in the same way as (F). at the junction of the ble glazed unit. where a supporting bracket in either mild clamp the glass or double glazed unit togeth- but this is certainly one of the most econom- steel plate or a casting is clamped to the er.The casting bracket.The bolt may ture.The bolts supporting the glass are these types. is bolted to bracket and the bolt fixing.Typical assembly Detail W1 2 3 3 3 3 2 the connection between the bolt and the either mild steel or aluminium. Horizontal panel to panel junction 8 Elevation 1:100. In the face bracket is replaced by a casting. or alternatively is angled to form a coun- ic solutions. The part that passes through the glass has neighbour. typically mild steel plate. 8. 9. 3.

With bolt of the glass.Vertical panel to panel junction Detail W3 8 4 4 1 4 2 monly used fixing. fixings in these positions. Horizontal panel to panel junction at edge 8 Section 1:10. Horizontal panel to panel junction 4 4 5 1 5 5 5 2 2 4 8 8 Plan 1:10. par- needed on the underside of the cross- thread in the shank can be either left ticularly given that the material cost of glass shaped bracket. the inner disc screws over exposed. glazed unit to rotate up to around 12° fixed roofs is dependent upon the position under wind load and associated structural of the fixing bolts.The threaded a way that reduces the span of the glass by the beam beneath.These can be individually MCR_ 81 .This allows the double position of support brackets is as shown in Arrangement of bolt fixings The arrangement of brackets for bolt (K). whether flat or pitched. Stiffening fins are usually threaded discs or nuts. In (K). rectangular shaped tant from the edges of the glass as in (L). a Where the glass fixing bolts are equidis- deflections.The visible to be thinner. Flat plates can be used.This swivel joint is essential in double glazed units are arranged with sup- cross-shaped bracket allows four glass con- avoiding the over stressing of the glass under porting beams set in the direction of the nections to be made with a single bolt con- full wind load that would otherwise result in long side of the panel. subject to structural requirements. as in (J). or be covered with threaded increases dramatically with the increase of the threaded shank that forms part of the sleeves and stop ends.This thickness (the relationship between glass outer disc until it is tight up to the inner face bolt type is used regardless of the orienta- thickness and cost is not linear). as shown in (J).Section 1:10. Bolts are positioned in nection between this support bracket and breakage of the glass unit.The is carrying a high load of glass to a single bolt fixing to a support bracket with either reduced glass span allows the glass thickness point on the beam.The cross-shaped bracket shank is then used to clamp the complete pushing them away from the edge. the most economic into the building is able to rotate about a ball bearing where it meets the inner face of the double glazed unit. Corner Detail W4 Section 1:10. making it more economic.The threaded shank projecting tion of the roof.

inner the outer seal from inside the roof to out- has projecting flaps on each side to form a sheet.The double glazed units are first fixed side. and the edges are not set bracket. but it is often economic and adjusted to form even joint widths support external sun shading and mainte- to make them as castings. the around 28mm. as (M). which is deemed close to the manship. In the event ations in glass panel size. the may provide additional protection to water entire double glazed unit is visible from both penetration between the silicone and the outside and inside. stainless steel brackets common joint width (in elevation) that the internal supporting structure. Haarlemmermeer. Although an visual finish. Netherlands.Glass 03 Bolt fixed glazing 3 3 8 9 9 8 8 3 8 2 Section1:50. these brackets are used to 'fir tree' section which prevents any water Glazed units In common with other glass roof types. Joints of 20-28mm are nance equipment. while maximum practical joint width for the adhe- the broken pieces of the heat strengthened sion of silicone sealant in a regular double made as an outer silicone seal with an inner or fully toughened outer sheet come to rest glazed unit.The gasket on top of the damaged. and pro- can be buffed or polished to the preferred allows for both structural movement and the ject through the joint. additional lip around the projecting plate Unlike capped roof glazing systems. though around 20mm is the most in the form of flat plates that are welded to ets require painting. inner laminated sheet remains intact. Mild steel brack- used. 3 4 2 8 welded and ground. but intact. Vertical panel to panel junction Hydrapier. slight variations in the size of the glass panels. in practice it has been found that the inner glass of a double glazed unit is usu- behind pressure plates that conceal any vari- this detail as shown in (M) performs well if ally made from laminated glass. If required. is used where brackets penetrate backing rod of extruded EPDM. MCR_ 82 Seals between double glazed units are . which have a more between all the units.These brackets are usually reliably refined appearance. Architect: Asymptote.Typical assembly Section 1:10. Joint widths up to the seal is applied to a good level of work- of a double glazed unit being broken.

This is Details the glass creates a slightly wavy line. or a baked-on established in glass manufacturing. visible to particularly important in the case of argon the eye when it spreads beyond the face of filled cavities. 11.This slightly uneven appearance of mal insulation. this is done after heat treatment. control coatings or low emissivity (low e) Mild steel connector Mild steel support frame Double glazed unit Silicone seal Bolt fixing Support bracket Concrete base Stainless steel cable Mild steel tension rod Mild steel plate Adjacent external wall MCR_ 83 . 9. between it. 7. 2. the edge of the glazed unit can be concealed The drilling of the glass itself is now well by the use of edge 'fritting'. 5.This EPDM gas- which the bolt fixings are attached.This is mainly where either heat strengthened or fully toughened. 3. 4. 6. the rooflight glass can be seen at close prox- Where coated glasses are used. 1. 10. with both screen printed edge in black.The circular sleeve bonded to In the manufacturing of double glazed coatings. 8. which ensures float glass and laminated glass being drilled that the edge of the unit. before any heat treatment to make them has a crisp black edge. to ing the inner face of the seal. are made ket also serves as an inner air seal. the glass is sealed around it to maintain the units. and pro- by cutting holes in the glass around 10mm vides a crisp appearance of sharp lines in the larger than the metal circular sleeve that fits interior face of the glazed roof.Detail H Detail E Detail F Detail J Detail G Detail M Detail K Detail N Detail L Detail A Detail B Detail C Detail D that penetrates the external seal from reach- Isometric view of roof assembly The holes in double glazed units. such as solar imity. where the gas improves ther- the spacer. as shown in (N). the butyl seal between the spacer and sealed cavity of the double glazed unit.

Supporting structures which are facetted two vierendeel trusses linked together. 7. then hairline joint visible at the junction. with the visually successful types using a al transparency offered by bolt fixed roof factory if required.Typical assembly 4 5 1 5 5 The generic support structures described in visual consistency regardless of where the welded. Circular hollow sections and box sections are preferred for their MCR_ 84 The 'ladders' are bolted or welded being jointed. 11. steel plate is welded to each end of the tube forms as shown in (P). 2. If additional stiffness is avoids the bolts being visible. Additional joint a minimal appearance and avoiding ed rather than by optimising the position of structural stability is provided by folding. Panel to panel junction 5 2 4 Section 1:25. with painted. welds which form a visible ring around the supporting members to maximise visual curving or ribbing the surface the surface of joint. Panel to panel junction 2 2 Details 1. big . Struc- the structure.These long members.This joint method also allows a faster transparency through the structure. then an inner sleeve is inserted the previous section suit a range of roofs in a glazed roof is viewed below the roof. giving the the demands of the form that is being creat- cross bracing is typically added. 8. 2 Mild steel connector Mild steel support frame Double glazed unit Silicone seal Bolt fixing Support bracket Concrete base Stainless steel cable Mild steel tension rod Mild steel plate Adjacent external wall Plan 1:10. 9. with tures for arches or curved surfaces are usual- avoids the need to deepen the structure the additional benefit that steelwork can be ly made with as little structural depth as pos- with trusses that significantly reduce the visu- installed with a fully painted finish from the sible. 3.Glass 04 Bolt fixed glazing : Pitched roofs and rooflights Section 1:25. If wall of one of the hollow steel sections. whether pitched or (nominally) ladder principle as shown in (P) is actually edges of joints are welded together and flat. 6. 4. a mild single 'plane' of structure formed in 'ladder' glazing. leaving only a supporting structures are dictated more by required in part or all of the structure.Typical assembly Section 1:10. An alternative fixing method is to or curved to form complex geometries the short cross members welded to the bolt the sections together.The between the sections being jointed and the single plane. 5. 10. also as shown in (P). A rectangular hole is cut into a together to form the complete structure.This installation than if welding were used.This method require a slightly different approach. In this method.

The rectangular hole is then cov- of the glass is optimised to reduce the glass essential feature of junctions in bolt fixed ered with a thin metal plate which is either to an economic thickness. (S2) and (S3). Junction with adjacent wall Detail T4 2 11 4 Section 1:10.The posi- rooflight. A v-shaped mild steel bracket is the edge of the glass is cantilevered from the panels. sets of silicone seals only. and a surrounding reinforced con- end plates to fix the two steel sections tions of the bolt fixing in relation to the edge crete slab is shown in (S1). bolts are fixed through the described in the previous section). In (R). since the corners of panels are fixed set at 90° to the brackets in (Q). which is less steel bolts are aligned in elevation with (in a different material) meets it with two preferably as close to the glass joints (in ele- adjacent brackets in (Q). In (S3). between two double glazed units or an addi- deck. Italy. Base upstand Detail S1 5 5 2 Plan 1:10. Architect: Renzo Piano Building Workshop.The adjacent roof or external wall back to the supporting structure.Section 1:75. bolt fixings glazed roofs at their perimeter is that there bonded to the surrounding metal or is are set mid distance between two horizontal is no mechanical connection between the screwed into the surrounding wall of the ladders. An together.This might correspond to a joint double glazed unit and the adjacent roof hollow section. Junction with adjacent wall Detail T3 2 5 4 7 Base of glazed roof enough to pass a hand through.Turin. or parapet. or alternatively The structural form of the 'ladder' usual- Junctions of the bolt fixed glazed roof.The stain- bolt fixing. a low pitched In (Q) the bolt fixings for the glass is fixed to roof meets a reinforced concrete upstand MCR_ 85 . Accessing a tubular supporting structure with mild the inside of the hollow section from the steel brackets fixed to the main tube (as rectangular hole.Typical assembly Conference Bubble. edge of the glass unit. since the glass is bolted tional bolt fixing to secure a large double some distance away from the corner. In (Q) and (R) the struc- with EPDM seals which are bonded to the ture is set in line with the joints in the glass. Plan 1:10. or vation) as possible. and ly corresponds to the layout of the glass glazed unit. Lingotto Factory Conversion.

which typically line of defence to the flashing above. typically 20mm wide to external folds and internal folds respectively. It can be either concealed tion. edge of the double glazed unit which is match visually with the other seals between While the joint is formed in the same way as sealed to an aluminium flashing. supporting steel structure is fixed to the This combination provides an inner. while in (S2) of the joint. 10 3 3 Mild steel connector Mild steel support frame 3. and has a folded edge in order to bond that form ridges and valleys are formed as The base of the glazing has a cantilevered it with a silicone seal. 2. Concrete base 8. Internal fold Detail T2 forming part of a concrete roof deck.The void between the two flash- edges to ensure that the joint is not wider bonded with silicone to the bottom of the ings is filled with closed cell thermal insula- than adjacent joints. second edge of the concrete slab. Mild steel plate 11.The forms a continuous ring beam around the outer flashing is set on the outer face of the opening to carry the load of the glazed roof. proofing membrane.Variations of this principle stepped beyond the edge of the unit to in a PVDF or polyester powder coated finish. Stainless steel cable 9. Bolt fixing 6. External and internal folds Changes of direction in bolt fixed roofs . double glazed unit. or air seal. while in (T2) the internal of the waterproofing membrane that extends the upstand is concealed by an accessible fold has the inner laminated glass extending MCR_ 86 timber deck. as in (T1) and (T2).The up the face of the upstand across the top. Silicone seal 5. is set on the inside face inner metal flashing onto the waterproof the double glazed units are stepped on their of the glass. Adjacent external wall 1 1 4 4 5 3 2 3 Plan 1:100. Internal fold Details 5 1. usually cavity completely. Mild steel tension rod 10. which is continuous with the water- trates the outer seal is drained away on the an inner extruded EPDM baffle.Glass 04 Bolt fixed glazing : Pitched roofs and rooflights Elevation 1:10. sometimes as injected foam to fill the With an external fold the outer glass is by the interior finishes or be coated. as (T1). are shown in (S1) and (S2). glass.This folded aluminium strip is membrane. with an outer silicone seal and flashing. Base upstand 5 4 Detail S2 5 3 5 2 1 3 5 5 4 2 1 7 2 Sections 1:10. Penetration of plate through glass joint Section 1:10. In (S1) an all- maintain a constant width through the depth This aluminium strip is bonded to the edge metal upstand flashing is used. An additional the glass units. Double glazed unit 4. Any rainwater which pene- other joints. Support bracket 7.

This is done to struction.Typical glass fixing arrangements 5 Detail Q 4 1 1 4 3 3 5 beyond the outer glass to perform the same function.This is both diffi- inner metal panel. External fold Detail T1 4 10 5 10 3 Plan 1:100. channel must be connected to a flexible seal while in (T4) a bolt fixed roof meets an such as an EPDM strip to allow the bolt MCR_ 87 . Glazing channels can also of the double glazed unit and is sealed cult to seal and difficult to give a smooth. In continuous appearance as seen from inside tion) in order to seal the gap but the glazing (T3) the roof meets a metal rainscreen wall. the brackets are ments in a typical single rooflight. be used (as described in the previous sec- against the adjacent wall construction.This method is described in the previ- roofs.The joint width both externally and external wall clad in terracotta panels.Where these brackets occur at fixed glazing assembly mixed with gutter ele- external walls in other materials as (T3) and external and internal folds. In (U) an outer seal is formed be continuous as the roof perimeter turns avoid a complicated junction of the bracket against an external roof panel in a different from roof to external wall. A second inner seal is made with an ed aluminium closer is bonded to the edge meeting at the same place.Typical glass fixing arrangements 3 Detail R 2 Elevation 1:10.Plan 1:100. Support brackets for external shading Small glazed rooflights An essential aspect of small rooflights is internally is made to match the width of and for rope fixing points for abseil-based the greater number of interfaces with sur- adjacent joints in order to allow the same cleaning are sometimes designed to pene- rounding construction and other materials extruded EPDM gasket to be used as an trate through the joints between the glass than is usually the case with large glazed inner seal. the (T4) are similar to flashings at the base of usually designed so as to avoid penetrating glazing is sealed against the adjacent con- the roofs. External fold Plan 1:100. as (S3). an insulat- together with the four corners of a joint panel.Where small rooflights have a bolt Junctions of the edge of the roof with ous section. with which these joints can the joint at the corner itself. Concealed framing connection Section 1:10. In (T3). as (U). the building. joints.

Italy.The visible area of silicone ly-set units and around 2000mm x 2500mm top of the rooflight are supported by two behind the glass can be concealed with silk high for vertically-set units. intersecting in the centre. a small the corner and at the base of this typical metres high and 8.The absence of steel tubes spanning maximise the effect of the bolt fixed glazing. nuity of the glass and its reflections obscure are small. In plan in hollow mild steel sections.The bolt fixings in the centre of the all rooflight joints. across the centre of the top of the rooflight Stainless steel cables are often used to increases its visual transparency.The four colour. Junction with another material 3 5 Section 1:10.Turin. Architect: Renzo Piano Building Workshop. external corners are formed by step- stainless steel cables are commonly used.0 metres wide. structure. A modest rectan- cable trusses spanning diagonally from the screen printing. In (V1). lightweight rooflight of 3500mm x 3500mm in plan is small rooflight as shown in (V3). 7 fixed glazing to move independently of the bolt fixings are secured to a cross-shaped ners of meeting double glazed units in bolt other materials making the junction. the conti- is assumed that these structural movements of a clamp bolted to the supporting cables. together with made from a mild steel tube supporting (V4).0 .Glass 04 Bolt fixed glazing : Pitched roofs and rooflights Section 1:10. Junctions at increase transparency. as shown in behind. In (U) it bracket which is in turn bolted to two halves fixed roofs have a wide sight line. A vertical mild steel rod forms the central the effect of the fritting and silicone seals In small rooflights the supporting struc- vertical element in the truss. ture is made visually lightweight in order to (V2). or 'fritting'.The top of the rooflight requires ping the edges of the double glazed unit in This rooflight size suits glass sizes which are four glass panels in order to span from side order to maintain a constant joint width for around 2000mm x 2000mm for horizontal- to side. Although external and internal cor- generic rooflight shown in (W1) and (W2) MCR_ 88 Larger rooflights For bigger rooflights up to around 5. Lingotto Factory Conversion. Base upstand junction Detail U 5 Isometric view of roof assembly 3 Detail P 2 Conference Bubble. usually in a black gular steel frame forming the edges of the corners.

5. Mild steel plate 11. 9. Bracket support 2 7 3 can support stainless steel cables spanning greater visual transparency than the all-tube both vertically and horizontally to which bolt solution. which provides MCR_ 89 . as in (W4). Adjacent external wall joint.The cross-shaped bracket is fixed to a meeting at a central vertical tubular post. Bracket support 2 5 5 5 3 3 5 Long section 1:10.The principle of this medium size tion of the bolt fixing and the support brack- generic rooflight can be adapted to suit a et.The secondary trusses both stiffen the modest sized rooflights have their adjust- main trusses and provide a fixing point for all ment for fixing tolerance made at the junc- bolt fixings. the bolt fixings ed by a set of secondary steel cable trusses are secured directly to a channel-shaped set at 45° to the diagonal geometry bracket welded to the main supporting steel (orthogonal with the glass).The main stainless steel cables of fixings and cross-shaped brackets can be the truss span across the diagonal corners. or with a cable truss. 4. 7. All bolt fixings in these (W2). 3.The increased span is assist- the tubular steel structure. Stainless steel cable Mild steel tension rod 10. For glass joints set directly in front of small rooflights. as in described in the previous paragraph for (W3).The glass units set horizontally can be range of individual designs of similar overall supported at their corner fixings by either a dimensions. fixed.Section 1:10. 6. Base upstand 3 4 4 Detail S3 Section 1:10. Mild steel connector Mild steel support frame Double glazed unit Silicone seal Bolt fixing Support bracket Concrete base 8. Bracket support 5 3 3 3 2 4 Section 1:10. as shown in tube. 2. grid of steel tubes immediately below the 4 3 Details 1. as clamp which is bolted to the cable.

Both use the same structural principle of a tubular steel frame with stainless steel cables stretched between them. and the circular rooflight has a radius of 9.The square example is 8.Two generic examples are shown here for a square-shaped rooflight and a circular-shaped rooflight. but the position of the structure in relation to the bolt fixed glazing is different for each rooflight.0 metres for the inner glass roof.0 metres across its inner glazing.These examples aim to show a visually lightweight solution that Section 1:25.Glass 05 Bolt fixed glazing :Twin wall roofs 8 2 8 5 5 3 8 4 1 4 3 2 Elevation 1:25.Typical assembly Bolt fixed glazing can be used as solar shading in twin wall rooflights.0 2 metres x 8. both of a 8 medium size.Typical assembly suits the quality of visually transparency that can be achieved with bolt fixed glazed roofs rather than more conventional framed solu- MCR_ 90 .

3. 4. and the glazed units are square shaped to keep the examples as generic as possible.The outer glass can be either screen printed with dots or patterns to provide shading. Both examples have an inner sealed rooflight and an outer layer of open jointed glass solar shading pan- 3 3 els. A crossshaped support bracket has been used in each rooflight. 9. 2. 10.The inner glass in each example comprises sealed double glazed units. 5.Section 1:25. 6. linked by diagonal members. Mild steel connector Mild steel support frame Double glazed unit Silicone seal Bolt fixing Support bracket Concrete base Stainless steel cable Mild steel tension rod Mild steel plate Adjacent external wall 8 2 8 3 3 Plan 1:25.Typical assembly 3 2 4 8 8 tions that detract from the thin joint lines of this roof glazing method. 7. or have a solar control film set next to the PVB interlayer within the laminated glass. one set inside the other.Typical assembly Details 1. The square rooflight has two rectangular frames. 8. 11.The inner roof is hung MCR_ 91 .

12. 3. 11. 6.Typical assembly MCR_ 92 2 12 12 . 9.Typical assembly 2 3 3 3 2 12 Plan 1:80. 4. 8 3 3 Mild steel connector Mild steel support frame Double glazed unit Silicone seal Bolt fixing Support bracket Concrete base Stainless steel cable Mild steel tension rod Mild steel plate Adjacent external wall Single glazed solar shading glass 3 7 2 11 Section 1:80. 5.Glass 05 Bolt fixed glazing :Twin wall roofs 12 2 12 8 8 3 3 3 3 3 3 8 Details 12 1. 8. 10. 2. 7.

Typical assembly 3 3 3 3 12 12 Elevation 1:80.Typical assembly 12 12 12 12 2 2 12 12 8 3 2 12 2 3 3 7 11 Key plan 1:200.Part plan 1:80.Typical assembly MCR_ 93 .Typical assembly 12 12 2 12 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 7 Section 1:80.

The rooflight has solar shading on its roof and on three vertical sides. so that the supporting structure is entirely outside the building.The external sun shading is 3 fixed in the same way.The vertical parts of the inner sealed rooflights are set out in the same way. so that from outside the Section 1:25. 2 3 3 8 4 3 3 4 2 Elevation 1:25.Glass 05 Bolt fixed glazing :Twin wall roofs 3 3 8 Plan 1:25.Typical assembly from steel cables which span from side to 2 3 side in both directions.The outer shading is tilted out of plane in relation to the inner cube. but with the outer glass fixed above the supporting cables.Typical assembly building the supporting structure is seen only through the shading. Penetration of primary structure fixing bracket through joints bewteen glass panels. Cross-shaped bolt fixing brackets are set at the intersection of these cables. With this construction method the inner and outer cable structures do not need to MCR_ 94 . forming a rectilinear grid of cables.

5.Typical assembly Details 1. with individuals wearing harnesses which are secured to the upper cables. The circular rooflight has an outer shad- top of the glass is cleaned by passing the rope of the person's harness through the ing set on top of the inner sealed rooflight open joints between the glass shading to provide partial solar shading.Where the panels. 9. 1.The MCR_ 95 . a structural tube is allows a single line of cables to be used. 7. itself. Elevation 1:25. which also serve as a fall arrest cable.Where there is not sufficient wind load that are higher than those per- space for a 600mm to 1000mm gap for missible in a rigid.Typical assembly 3 Mild steel connector Mild steel support frame Double glazed unit Silicone seal Bolt fixing Support bracket Concrete base Stainless steel cable Mild steel tension rod Mild steel plate Adjacent external wall 2 3 8 8 9 2 2 3 follow the same geometry. 4. framed system.Plan 1:25. where they would have to be formed into Cleaning and maintenance is undertaken on both rooflights by walking on the glass (more rigid) trusses if a framed system were used. the framed rooflight system allows the glass circular rooflight has a gap of only 600mm panels to experience deflections under around its edge.Typical assembly 3 11 3 Section 1:25. removed when access is required. 10.This maintenance access.Typical assembly Section 1:25.The gap is 20mm-25mm which is square rooflight has a gap of approximately sufficient for a rope and securing hook. 8. 2.0 metres between the two skins of glass to The use of bolt fixings instead of a provide maintenance access for cleaning. 3. 6. 11.

The glass glass is glued to a supporting frame. Simi- flat section.The structural frame comprises box The use of silicone sealed rooflights.The glue (D) laminated glass sheets are used to form is levelled on blocks set onto the horizontal is also the external seal. Glass to glass junction 3 3 Section 1:5. In (C) a flat monopitch rooflight is circle. the glass provides its own tube sections running horizontally to form a step further to become a full bond without support.Glass 06 Bonded glass rooflights Section 1:25.This technique is use- a glass roof which can be walked upon. Junction with upstand Key plan 3 3 3 5 The method of silicone bonding glass to alu- minium frame. it joint. the horizontal metal sec- be very difficult to fabricate. and in rooflights must also take heavier traffic loadings and be tion projects out to form a flashing over the which are walked upon. In silicone bonded rooflights. In (B) a rooflight. In (A) a generic conical rooflight has curved double glazed units bonded to an alu- MCR_ 96 Generic conical rooflight tional inner metal upstand can be provided with another silicone seal if there is risk of future flooding from blocked rainwater out- . upstand in which the rooflight is set. In horizontally set tube section. the rooflight from one double glazed rooflight. An addi- is an external glass floor. can be taken a porting structure.Typical assembly Type A 6 6 3 Section 1:5. where cappings would lar to a glass floor used inside a building. held in place by thin cussed in an earlier section. Silicone bonding avoids cover minium framing is well developed for use in caps which would have to be curved both In (A) a lightweight steel frame is used glazed curtain walling to provide visually vertically and horizontally. At the base. dis- rooflight is bonded together without a sup- sections set vertically. Junction with adjacent material 1 3 Section 1:5. which would be to support double glazed units that form a smooth glass facades with no visible cappings. where the rooflight weathertight. and the silicone is applied to the ful for small rooflights. as (E). extremely difficult to fabricate.The glass panels are supported on the need for the mechanical restraint of pres- bonded to a frame to provide a small steel flat sections which are welded to the sure plates.

Section 1:10.The glass is bonded to another steel flat design and the local building codes. 6. groove on the two sides of the panel form- At the top of the rooflight. In avoids the need for specially made corner sealed to another material set above it.The metal cover flashing providing both a protection to this is typically formed from a single piece of alu- a supporting frame.Base upstand. but this additional safety feature membrane for the roof slab is continued up The fold forms an edge to make a silicone is dependent upon the individual rooflight the upstand and is bonded to the base of seal. allowing the form of to the outside of the glass at the corner. Details 1. but this obtrusive bolt fixings. 7.The metal cover is folded inwards at its junction are required on the outside of the glass. 8. Mechanical restraint is seal and a means of concealing the closed minium or stainless steel that is welded and provided at the corners in the form of pres- cell thermal insulation set on top of the ground smooth.The double glazed units at waterproof membrane. 4. 5.This example aims to show how the glass is the rooflight to be seen more clearly. the horizontal section that supports the set below the metal cover. and is insulated with inject- sure plate clips. Junction with adjacent material. Architect:Toyo Ito & Associates 7 5 lets. the corners. additional restraining clips pieces but it does form a visible fixing.This provides lat- glass. for example. In (E) the waterproof with the double glazed unit.The glass The use of silicone bonding in this Generic rectangular rooflight In (B) a rooflight is constructed without ing the corner in order to receive the clip. ed foam or mineral fibre quilt to provide a the corners are fabricated with a recessed continuity of thermal insulation. at modest size of this rooflight allows the hori- MCR_ 97 . 3.The some countries. with rooflight avoids the need to use visually An alternative method is to fix the metal clip only a small pointed metal cover. Silicone bond Mild steel support frame Single glazed laminated glass panel Silicone seal Concrete base Insulated metal panel Folded metal flashing Reinforced concrete support frame Detail F Plans 1:5. with the metal ing an additional inner seal. a metal panel is used to seal the pointed form. Glass to glass junction 3 3 4 6 2 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 Detail E 3 Pavilion. 2.This provides a complete seal from the eral support to the glass unit as well as mak- glass to the roof membrane. can be continued almost to the top. as shown in (F). London.

Typical assembly 5 Plan 1:5. metal flashing below with silicone. Any water an outer corner piece of folded aluminium Closed cell thermal insulation is applied to that passes through the outer seal is drained which is silicone bonded either to the face of the outside of this membrane.The corners of ing. to which the and up the face of a folded aluminium sheet The outside face of the glass is sealed to the pressure plates are fixed.The waterproof membrane for The glass has a specially shaped groove in the the adjacent roof extends up the upstand at its base is bonded to an inner metal angle. Section. pressure plate which hold the glass in place. shown in (G). or by adding a layer of decking MCR_ 98 . Elevation 1:25. to the silicone seal in order to avoid any or accessible roofs this can be avoided either The inside face of the double glazed unit At the base of the rooflight the glass thermal bridges that would cause condensa- by setting the rooflight on the outer edge of units are seated on aluminium or mild steel tion to form on the inside face of the fram- the upstand to create a flat appearance to sections which are in turn supported on ing in temperate climates. In highly visible the inside face to provide a second seal. Although thermal the flashing.Glass 06 Bonded glass rooflights Section 1:5. Corner joints have that forms a complete weathertight seal. depth of the double glazed unit. or is folded at 90° to pressed aluminium flashing is fixed to protect beneath. Glass-to-glass both the membrane and the thermal insula- Small rooflights can have upstands as joints between horizontally-set units have a tion.These metal brackets are fixed to the uations.Typical assembly Type B Plan 1:5. the continuity of insulation is essen- the rooflight are stiffened by short lengths of adjacent roof deck. bond it to the side of the unit.Typical assembly Detail G 7 4 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 7 5 Section 1:5. and an outer to the external face of the roof membrane the adjacent glass units.The insulation forms a continuous layer flashings which can appear to be large in silicone seal with an aluminium angle set on from the junction with the roof insulation up relation to the area of glass.Typical assembly 7 3 3 Plan. A concrete upstand is tial to avoid the effects of thermal bridging. Typical assembly zontally-set glass to span from side to side brackets to the required height of the flash- insulation can be difficult to install in such sit- with no additional support.

Single glazing is used. as well as preventing to locate it evenly on the ring. (G) shows a metal panel forming the edge but is supported on its underside. since double timber boards. they are the glass on impact. the situ- circular rooflight is formed by a circular ring closed cell insulation set onto the roof mem- ation is made difficult.The accessible roof decks have been in use over with other rooflights. 2. 6. 3 7 7 3 3 7 3 5 5 Section 1:25.Typical assembly Type C Section 1:5.Where opening formed in a different material. Previously used only inside sibility of any falling objects from penetrating frame in a bed of silicone with spacer blocks buildings for walkways and stairs.The tinuity of thermal insulation is provided by black coloured edge 'fritting' is used. 3. Decking is usually in between glass and frame is then sealed with nal decks. with the flat ring is sealed with silicone. both to avoid the pos- circular double glazed unit is set into this ring the past 10 years. However. 8. double of aluminium fixed on Z-shaped brackets brane that extends up to the silicone seal. Detail where the glass is exposed to the outside.The sur- tems. Silicone bond Mild steel support frame Single glazed laminated glass panel Silicone seal Concrete base Insulated metal panel Folded metal flashing Reinforced concrete support frame 4. The glass used is laminated. glazed roof decking is in development and Generic monopitch rooflight The monopitch rooflight (C) provides a will no doubt become much more common which are fixed to the concrete upstand beneath.Typical assembly Details 1. allowing visually simple method of closing a roof of the silicone seal around the glass. 7. A vertical metal flat section is Glass roof decks over the next 10 years. continuous seal around the rooflight. manufactured as proprietary sys- the form of open jointed concrete slabs or silicone using a polymer backing rod. rounding waterproof membrane is lapped glazed units are difficult to use as a result of up the edge of the vertical ring to provide a solar gain around the edge of the unit. 5. in common screwed to the Z-sections and the junction Rooflights formed as (nominally) flat.Key plan 1:25.The con- heat to enter but not to escape.Typical assembly to conceal the upstand.The joint now being used as fully waterproofed exter- damaged glass from falling immediately into MCR_ 99 .

also provides sufficient bear- glass deck and the adjacent roof finish mate- aged joint. Both panel size and overall glass 1200mm in size. spanning the as (K). 5.The supporting structure has to provide a beam instead of laminated glass.Glass 06 Bonded glass rooflights Detail L Type D 3 4 4 1 3 1 2 2 2 2 5 10 10 9 Key Plan :Typical assembly.The metal shoe is bolted back to the densation channel is set below the glass to full load. as shown in (J). which are laminated minium as (L).The gap between the edge of the seal.The ends of the tions for the glass build-ups. thickness are determinants in the overall a glass beam set in the centre. avoiding collapse of the beam. ing for the two glass sheets that meet on rial is made with a silicone seal as shown in top. or any water that passes through a dam- mately 60mm. the remaining two glasses will take the design.The glass is set into a series depending upon the individual design. 2. a steel flat is welded to the top of the rigidity of the glass deck and its associations full length of 6000mm. 6. Stainless steel is used where frame and the top of the glass is sealed with together. In the event of one glass being bro- corrosion is an essential consideration of the silicone of a different type.Where steel plate is used 1500mm. made from either mild steel or alu- bonded on its underside.The supporting structure or reinforced concrete catch any water that penetrates the silicone overall thickness of the beam. MCR_ 100 Typical glass deck panel sizes range from . Detail H Detail K 3 3 Detail J 3 2 Details for glass deck 2 8 1. An additional con- ken. to suit the 1000mm x 1000mm to 1500mm x rooflight with glass panels 2400mm x individual design. A gap between the glass. 3. 4. Silicone bond Structural glass beam Single glazed laminated glass panel Silicone seal Concrete base Insulated metal panel the space below. each 19mm thick. given below. of approxi- floor slab.Typical vertical deflec- mately 600mm. The details here show alternatives for both steel beam and glass beam supports to bearing. Each glass has 20-25mm (L). but the beam depth will vary bearing for the glass deck.The glass beams are supported by a metal shoe of extruded aluminium angles to which it is glass beams here comprise three layers of support. Detail H shows a typical between the glass decking sheets. Its depth is approxi- beam to form a T-section that gives enough vertical deflections. with a 15-20mm joint width the glass panels.

Architect:Toyo Ito & Associates 5 3 range from 0. the sec- while walking on the glass. or mild to 'frit' or screen print the top surface of the MCR_ 101 .2mm to 2. under full design load is dependent upon the least one of the glass beams to be drilled in specific design application. Folded metal flashing Mild steel plate beam as alternative support 9. the same principles apply of es of interlayers have been ignored for clari- using a metal shoe.Typical laminated order to bolt the metal component to the glass build-ups for the range of panel sizes beam. plan 1:25. 8. Both methods require at ing visibility through the glass from below. Folded aluminium decorative cover 10.Section.Typical assembly 3 3 2 5 2 5 7.0mm. London. which has the added benefit of reduc- acceptable amount of vertical deflection floor construction. in the glass for this reason. An alternative method is manner of timber floor construction.The drilling of glass is a ty: well established technique developed mainly for bolt fixed glazing. 15mm+12mm+12mm = 39mm thick Glass decks usually have an additional 15mm+15mm+12mm = 42mm thick layer applied to the top surface of the glass 15mm+15mm+15mm = 45mm thick to increase its friction which reduces the possibility of a building user from slipping At the junction of glass beams. as in (K). Steel aluminium support ‘shoe’ 3 Pavilion. Carborundum is ondary glass beam is fixed to the primary sometimes added to the top surface of the beam by either a mild steel shoe. though the steel cleats in the manner of steel framed glass.When bolting a glass beam to a steel just mentioned are as follows.The thickness- beam.

for this scale of con- ing steel frame. the usual slotted connections used in bolt upper end back to the building structure. Because of the reflective qualities are visually stronger than relative small scale of the construction.The visible bolt con- The bolt fixed example shown in generic example (A) shows a glazed canopy fixed to MCR_ 102 In generic example (A) the metal frame . 3. 7. hole. can has been in the use of frameless glazing tech- be one or two storeys high. that is. and clamped glazing using being fixed directly to the supporting struc- struction. typically using in frameless glazing. 4. 8.This use of high levels of fixing preci- stand wind loads which are both positive sion. with onally-set rod with a pin connection.The other end rhythm of the glazing bars. typically. parency. Both bolt fixed glazing and clamped glazing fixed glazed wall or glazed roof construction.Typical assembly Example A 6 6 6 2 2 Details Section 1:10. 6 3 3 3 1 1 2 1 2 2. the framing is more visually dominant. the rod being fixed at its design. allow- is supported by a diagonally-set rod hung at canopies. with bolt fixed glazing This gives a visually refined appearance. In framed glazing ing tolerances in relation to the glass. where the glass surface and its both steel and aluminium. the comprises horizontally-set tubes fixed at one the supporting structure and the visual canopy frame can be built to very close fix- end to the building structure. 5. The horizontally-set tube is fixed to the diag- techniques are used. Cast mild steel or stainless steel angle bracket Single glazed panel Mild steel or aluminium tube Support bracket Bolt fixing Steel strut secured to primary structure External wall Building structure An essential development in glazed canopies the side of a flat roofed building. a support- the curved support arm for the bolt fixing a 12mm diameter bolt. section 1:25.The tubular be controlled much more carefully in small- niques to create an effect of increased trans- metal structure shown can be fabricated in er-scale canopy construction. particularly those of traditional ing the bolt fixings to be secured without an angle of 30°.Glass 07 Glazed canopies 8 7 2 2 6 Plan. 6. that might between glass and supporting structure. laminated glass beams as a supporting struc- ture with a precisely positioned threaded since the glass canopy is required to with- ture fixed with stainless steel clamps. which is much more difficult in large and negative. Bolt fixing details 1. A rod is used rather than a cable. for both downdrafts assemblies due to the difference in position and updrafts of wind.

A more typical tolerances needed both during construction avoid any visual deflection along the front canopy design would slope back to the as well as to accommodate structural move- edge of the glass.These types are visually in order that the glass will hold together as a order to conceal dust that would accumu- more refined than the traditional hex head single piece if broken. glass. or simply a degree of opacity in drawn example. straight edge. Silicone seal 17.The slight difference in alignment sheet to glass sheet along the length of the between hole and bolt fixing is concealed by canopy. or of the slotted hole junction.The glass is made sufficiently thick to water over its front edge. Connection at top of strut Plan 1:10. Extruded aluminium glazing bar 10. Architect: Auer und Weber / Schlaich Bergermann und Partner 2 9. Laminated glass beam 18. the first attached to the glass using the method the disc-type fixing in the drawing.The canopy as type. Steel connector rod secured to primary structure 5 nections for the supporting structure to the glass are typically dome head. which could otherwise building and drain into a gutter that is either ment are provided by oversize holes in the result in a very 'wavy' appearance from glass visible or is concealed within the facade.Typical glass panel 8 7 8 5 5 2 7 6 6 Train Station. Heilbronn. In common with the inner glass of over- 2 5 also be coloured or patterned by a screen printed process in order to provide solar specially machined shape. Silicone sealed joint 14. which leaves the thread of the bolt an object falling onto the canopy from shown in (A) drains forward and discharges exposed on one side. as shown in the head glazed rooflights. which may be greater ball bearing joint inside the assembly which junction between the bolt fixing and the sup- than that required for safety in order to allows it to swivel up to around 12° in order port bracket to which it is fixed. typically as a result of late on top of the glass.The glass may to accommodate structural movement in In the generic example. Germany.The small dimensional above. resulting in achieve a crisp. each bolt fixing is MCR_ 103 . Single glazed panel 16. Aluminium pressure plate and capping 12. Silicone bond 15. Counter- deflection of the glass under its own weight described in the first section on bolt fixed sunk fixings are also used but this results in usually becomes the deciding factor in deter- glazing in this chapter. Even if the safety criteria is met.The bolt fixing has a the fixing tolerance being moved back to the mining glass thickness. Insulated metal panel 13. Single glazed sheet 11. flat head. laminated glass is used shading.Plans 1:5.

Glass 07 Glazed canopies 3 3 7 Plan 1:5.The bolt fixing is made from ings usually require some buffing after manu- polished stainless steel as is usually the case is to clamp the glass sheets together as facture to remove the rough edges and for all glazed roofs and glazed walls that use shown in the photographs of a canopy at uneven pitting as a result of the sand casting this technique. but this example the discs are set at the inter- ished to either a brushed finish. Bolt fixing details 6 8 3 3 1 5 5 7 2 2 the supporting frame. the results usually look steel bracket and the mild steel frame to glazed is clamped using a technique similar very uneven. with approximately 12mm thick from the corners. In the generic example. Bolt fixing details Section 1:5. In the casting either has a light buff or is pol- trast between the two types of metal.The glass size here is 1500mm x when compared to placing the fixing away is assumed that the supporting frame of 1500mm. other than for the section of four panels. combination of materials gives a visual con- clamps set in the joints between the glass.The threaded shank of welded tubes is in painted mild steel and laminated glass used. that the curved support arm is of polished is determined for each application. is set between the stainless und Weber / Schlaich Bergermann. If stainless steel is used. but this reduces the very reflective. it design. which is shown as a cast steel bracket.The finish is attempted. A separating pad. bolt fixing castings avoid corrosion between the two metals. Bolt fixing details Section 1:5.This sheets are bolted together with disc-shaped smooth. As a result. which bolt fixing itself. then painted. that used for glazed walls (as described in are either lightly buffed. is a matter of individual size of each glass panel that can be used is highly reflective. Cast- stainless steel. the casting is usually buffed frame is also made from stainless steel. but the glass thickness the bolt fixing is then fixed to the connector. such as a Heilbronn Train Station in Germany by Auer method normally used. or a fully polished finish. which is not the choice of materials. By fixing the clamps on all MCR_ 104 An alternative to drilling the glass sheets .When a semi-smooth nylon washer. or fully polished.The glass mild steel is used. If The bolt securing the arm to the supporting Modern Construction Facades).

In this exam- is to use the more established method of underneath.Details 1. 11. the glass bolt fixed solution. 2.Typical assembly Long section 1:10. 5. But this increase in mate- down the roof. the distance between clamps is the same. 16. 4. 15. and are rial cost is compensated by the saving made discharge freely from the roof and is termi- calculated for each application. the glass clamps are hung from a cable glazing bars which capture the glass with open. as used in the bolted fixed canopy cover caps are set in the direction down the glazed canopies. 4 7. 8. serving as water spouts that freely dis- structure which is secured to a tubular mild pressure plates using the technique charge the rainwater to the ground below.Typical assembly 3 1 1 2 5 four sides. 18. 3. 9. It is assumed that The glass size shown for the drawn MCR_ 105 . but this Four edge restrained canopy An alternative to the bolt fixed method 5 edge of the canopy to avoid a sheet of rainwater falling onto building users passing allows larger panels to be used. which usually makes the glass the slope of the roof have silicone seals generic example (B) is 1700mm wide x thickness greater for the clamped solution which are flush with the top surface of the 1000mm long in 12mm thick glass. 13. 17. steel supporting frame. the distance between fixings slope of the roof. 10. example. 6 7 4 Cast mild steel or stainless steel angle bracket Single glazed panel Mild steel or aluminium tube Support bracket Bolt fixing Steel strut secured to primary structure External wall Building structure Extruded aluminium glazing bar Single glazed sheet Aluminium pressure plate and capping Insulated metal panel Silicone sealed joint Silicone bond Single glazed panel Silicone seal Laminated glass beam Steel connector rod secured to primary structure 3 8 2 5 5 Cross section 1:10. 14. but the ends of the gutter are ple. In (B) the top in not having to drill the glass to receive the nated without a gutter at its lowest point of the glazing is terminated in an insulated bolt fixings.The rainwater is allowed to sizes are for indicative purposes only. depending on the size of the glass. 12. Because the glass is described in the second section of this chap- This avoids the need for rainwater pipes that fixed at the corners rather than away from ter. As with than that which would be required for the glass in order to allow rainwater to run all these examples of glazed canopy. Some- metal panel which is sealed by a flashing to times a gutter is provided along the bottom the external wall above. 6. while joints running across increases. away from the corners. Glazing bars with pressure plates and often do not suit the visual qualities of the edges.

An L-shaped of glass. Since three thicknesses of glass are order to allow for structural movement in bracket is set either side of each glass beam usually required for structural safety.The cantilevered from a supporting floor slab or are bonded to the top of the glass beam.The use of silicone as a bonding mate- gant connection within the assembly. tilevered from mild steel brackets which are sufficient bearing for the two abutting sheets and have a sliding connection at the top in bolted to the building structure. canopies using and the beam is clamped in place by bolts bearing of the glass is a minimum of 10mm.This The joint between the glass sheets is sealed nique developed for rooflights of similar con- technique is now well established. the the rooflight frame. Glazing bar Example B 9 11 10 Section 1:100.The beams are can- beams being made wide enough to provide fixed rigidly at the bottom of the steel beam. Junction at edge 9 9 13 Plan 1:10. and fixing with a sealing silicone rather than the bond- struction. allowing ing silicone used between beams and flat the bracket to be exposed visually as an ele- sheet. In generic exam- canopies already constructed. Generally. Junction at top and bottom 12 12 9 13 9 13 Section 1:10.The laminated with metal brackets back to the building ple (C) a series of laminated glass beams are glass sheets forming the top of the canopy structure or to the external wall above. the canopy . glass structures where glass beams are bond- though much longer spans have been MCR_ 106 In the generic example (C). this captured glazing technique use the tech- that pass through holes in the glass. and that the top end is fixed with no visible metal fixings. that requires no additional support.Glass 07 Glazed canopies Section 1:10. tolerances achieved are very close. Key section 9 9 13 the sloping rafters are supported at their ed to glass sheets to give a canopy structure achieved in bonded or 'structural' glass base on a beam. the rafters forming the sloping beams are shown reinforced concrete wall.The rial allows the canopy structure of glass Bonded glass canopies The most recent development in glazed canopy here is shown projecting 1500mm beams and sheets to form a rigid structure canopies has been the use of all-laminated from the edge of the adjacent glass roof.

Junction with structure 15 15 15 14 17 Details Section 1:25.The fixings or glazing bars used in other glazing applications. which would required. By increasing the number vertical face of a parapet upstand.The use of coloured interlayers top of the glass. 17. but five inter- this outer seal to form a second line of bers to take full visual priority over the bolt layers have been used successfully in some defence against rainwater penetration. 9. 8. 5.Train Station. otherwise cause breakage of the glass as a laminated beams can also be varied from MCR_ 107 . allowing gradual fabricate this material with specific shading immediately below the glass is ventilated to changes in tone and colour from beam to coefficients.Typical assembly 1. Example C 2.The vertical edge of the nated glass has led to the increased use of used to change the tone within the same adjacent gutter. or g-values. 15.The range of interlayer colours in laminated glass is set to develop over the coping. An addi- visual benefit of having no visible metal fix- recommended by glass manufacturers is usu- tional second silicone seal is provided behind ings allows the translucent structural mem- ally four in a single lamination. 15 18 17 10. is fritted with an opaque screen print available has increased dramatically over the next five years as interlayer manufacturers to conceal the silicone seal below. 18.The effects. 6. Architect: Auer und Weber / Schlaich Bergermann und Partner Section 1:10. the same colour can be form a glass coping.The number of interlayers used in ing. is sealed to tures rather than fully transparent ones. 13. where it passes over the techniques. 17 Cast mild steel or stainless steel angle bracket Single glazed panel Mild steel or aluminium tube Support bracket Bolt fixing Steel strut secured to primary structure External wall Building structure Extruded aluminium glazing bar Single glazed sheet Aluminium pressure plate and capping Insulated metal panel Silicone sealed joint Silicone bond Single glazed panel Silicone seal Laminated glass beam Steel connector rod secured to primary structure is sealed against a metal flashing forming the result of thermal stress imposed by heat beam to beam.The glass from the sun. 11. 14. 3. where their use as a method of solar control shad- the top of the coping below.The void past two or three years. 16. from one interlayer to four interlayers in is shown continuing over the upstand to The use of coloured interlayers in lami- successive beams. 7. in order to promote avoid a heat build-up between the glass and beam and from sheet to sheet.The maximum number of interlayers the glass with a compatible silicone. 4. 15 12. Heilbronn. Germany. formed either in sheet metal bonded glass canopies as translucent struc- colour to give a range of graded visual or in a single layer membrane.

cills. cills. penetrations Corners MCR_ 109 . penetrations Corners (3) Planted System assembly Framing profiles Opening lights Parapets.3 CONCRETE (1) Concealed membrane System assembly Framing profiles Opening lights Parapets. cills. penetrations Corners (2) Exposed membrane System assembly Framing profiles Opening lights Parapets.

with an overall siderably easier.Traditional bitumen roofs are be folded through 90°. Modern bitumen-based membranes that but will soften again if heated by the effects are concealed beneath roof finishes are typi- This has been achieved by replacing the thick of solar radiation. One of the limit- required. usually slabs.This is typically between the bitumen and the reinforcement often allows the material to two layers. each 3mm thick with reinforcing pebbles/paving. Expansion joint in concrete slab 4 5 4 7 2 2 1 1 1 3 3 3 Materials zontal roof to a vertical parapet wall. 2-way drain outlet Detail L 2 Detail A 1 Sections 1:10. As it cools it to make a 90° turn from roof to wall. there have been considerable efforts Bitumen has traditionally been used as a pass through a maximum of 45° in a single made by manufacturers over the past 20 waterproof layer. bitumen membranes mixed with synthetic rubber to give flexibility still applied in hot liquid form on site. reduce the material required while enhanc- hardens. but are concealed by smooth pebbles. well as the sharp fold in the material.This bedded between the layers.When the material membranes in thermoplastics and elas- creates a weakness in the membrane which turns through a right angle from the hori- tomers. it can costs. making its use con- layers bedded into the material.Concrete 01 Concealed membrane 1 5 5 4 2 1 2 3 1 Section 1:10. where angle fillets are not the bitumen to accommodate both small thickness of around 20mm. usually with thermal insulation set dimensional stability and tensile strength. Junction of external wall and roof slab 3 1 Isometric view of assembly 3 3 Section 1:10. which ial through a right angle. forming an impervious membrane. together with their competitive might otherwise be damaged during the life MCR_ 110 . as ing factors with bitumen is folding the mater- With the development of much thinner ing its properties of strength and flexibility.This allows usually laid in two layers. amounts of movement at these junctions. to form onto a concrete roof slab. For this reason 45°angle fillets are used years to make the bitumen layers thinner. keep the material cool. in order to cally a combination of bitumen-based sheet 2-layer method with a mixture of thin layers. applied while hot in liquid fold. For this reason. paving combined with a reinforcement to give reinforced with an elastomeric sheet.

A poly- Structural joints The main advantage of concealed mem- MCR_ 111 . ered by a protection layer. which uration. Junction of external wall and roof with slot drain 4 4 8 3 2 1 3 3 1 3 Section 1:10. ed. 14. Japan. In the open joint version. Section 1:10. 5.Yokohama. with paving or added for vulnerable locations such as at gut- order to allow external walls to be complet- smooth pebble ballast on top to hold the ters and at upstands. with closed cell. 4. 13.When an area is completed. 10. and partly because the the building is finished. while paving ingly being laid flat with no fall. is cov- such as paving with sealed joints. 7. men is used where the roof finish is sealed.Section 1:10. 8. 2. drain.40mm deep. usually Paving slabs or blocks are bonded to the screeds laid to falls and thick layers of bitu- paving. Architect: Foreign Office Architects. 6. Expansoin joint in concrete slab Detail B Section 1:10. An outer protective layer is main areas of roof are waterproofed in ester filter sheet is set on top.This is partly because bitu- the need to protect the membrane. usually reinforced or of flat roofs create difficulties in level changes in 'inverted' roof configuration with either made sufficiently thick to avoid cracking both across the roof which can be difficult to open joints or sealed joints in the top layer in the screed and the sealed paving above.The more traditional methods of that covers the thermal insulation. brane.This avoids mm . Typically upstands are formed before the rigid thermal insulation set on top. onto which is laid a minimum 65mm slopes required to create falls in large areas Concealed membrane roofs are typically sand/cement screed. 12. 9. 3. the bitumen membrane with its pro- men bonds more reliably to a concrete slab has attendant risks of being damaged before tection layer has a drainage layer on top. 30 exposed membranes. Pebbles Concealed membrane roofs are increas- deck is waterproofed and finished. 1.40mm diameter. 11. bonded to the concrete slab. where a slight fall is the already completed upstands. the mem- screed with mortar and grouted. unlike of flat roof being bonded continuously to slabs are around 600 x 600mm in size. In the sealed joint config- always required. than to a thin screed. with areas are 20mm . the roof insulation in place as well to walk on. Junction of external wall Waterproof membrane and roof with overflow Thermal insulation Concrete deck 1 Paving slabs Smooth pebbles 2 Parapet coping Rainwater outlet Slot drain Opening for overflow Reinforcement at fold if required Proprietary movement joint 9 Balustrade Pipe or duct Filter sheet 4 1 2 1 3 of the building. Expansoin joint in concrete slab 3 Detail C 4 Details 1 1 3 3 International Port Terminal.

Concrete 01 Concealed membrane 4 4 2 1 7 2 2 3 1 1 3 Section 1:10. Low parapet Detail D 1 3 10 2 6 Section 1:10. reliable details that membrane. Proprietary metal-based expansion joints . Rainwater outlet 2 Detail H Section 1:10.The material used between wall and roof and the membrane formed by stopping the material each side of for the reinforcement is either the same continuing up the wall. Proprietary expansion joint 4 5 4 4 11 1 2 1 1 3 3 3 branes is their ability to span movement itself. as used in the glass the membrane dipping down into the gap widths between around 10mm to 50mm are joints of bolt fixed glazing. Reinforcement is sim- the joint and setting a rubber-based strip that bitumen based material. is allowed to move without being stretched The reinforcing membrane is sometimes are used to form part of the visible finishes. or increasingly. The top of the joint is finished as level as Junctions between concrete roof slabs maximum 45° folds that are usually allowed As the gap between the slabs varies with possible with the adjacent areas of roof to structural movements. S-shaped cover that folds back over this groove at the edge of the slab unless expansion joint assembly is fixed on top of MCR_ 112 in traditional bitumen-based membranes. and the require no upstands to form the junction. Sealed paving 1 Section 1:10. with a rubber-based strip fold- dips into the gap between the slabs as (A). It can be difficult to drain water from membrane to the metal assembly.The metal folded. either flat and the membrane below with a foam backing the seal is formed by bonding a strip of bonded on one side only. rubber-based strip. ed through the 90° corner rather than the linking the membranes into a continuous seal. the rubber-based strip allow water to drain freely from the roof. In this case forced with an additional layer. a ilarly applied. separated from typically with sealed roof finishes. significantly.The gap between the rainwater outlet. dipped into the joint. Open jointed paving 3 4 1 Section 1:10.The joint is protected and rein- folded down into the gap. crete slabs with simple. with Expansion joints between concrete slabs of backing rod or tube. or formed as a rod. reinforcement cover is filled with a foam and walls are treated in a similar way. held in place by an additional protec- water at this lower level can discharge into a joints and expansion joints in reinforced con- tion sheet on top.

5. are also turned through a full 90° as shown in the open jointed arrangement of paving slabs is formed with rubber-based strips.The membrane is insulation. 6.The mem- drawings. to the inside face of the parapet even if this faced insulation to protect the junction has no direct benefit to the passage of heat between the top of the metal facing to the precast concrete slabs. strip of pebbles is shown. 8. An additional assembly to provide a complete seal across For this reason. 9. 7. In (D) an structural movement is expected.This avoids staining Joints between concrete panels. requirement is to keep the waterproof coping. Rainwater outlet Detail J Section 1:10. thermal insulation is applied metal flashing to cover the top of the metal the joint. 10. as (B) and (C). 4. A foam backing rod is set on top of struction. which still dips down into where there is a risk of damage during con- the joint. 14. Section 1:10. such as MCR_ 113 . Door sill Detail E 4 5 4 1 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 the membrane. 3. which runs horizontally to form a full damp proof course underneath the drained to the sides of the movement joint. Junction of external wall and roof slab 7 4 5 4 2 2 1 1 5 2 1 1 3 3 3 Details 1. but an angle fillet is required by shown. the dipped membrane and is covered with a bed of compatible sealant to ensure that any water that penetrates the movement joint is In (D) a low parapet wall is terminated by a concrete or stone coping. 12. Proprietary movement joint Balustrade Pipe or duct Filter sheet Section 1:10.This ensures that the membrane pro- The waterproof membrane is then formed membrane as well protected from the vides a continuous waterproof layer at the up out the base of the movement joint effects of the sun as elsewhere on the roof. where only negligible through the building. A reinforcing strip is usually the rainwater from the parapet coping. 2. Plinth 1 Waterproof membrane Thermal insulation Concrete deck Paving slabs Smooth pebbles Parapet coping Rainwater outlet Slot drain Opening for overflow Reinforcement at fold if required 11. junction with the external wall.Section 1:10.The waterproof membrane extends up the height of Parapet upstands In forming parapet upstands. an essential the upstand. 13. with rainwater draining at the level of brane forms a continuous lapped joint some manufacturers to limit the angle of any the membrane. a with a foam backing rod being provided added where a 90° fold is made. fold to 45°.To assist with the drainage of across the rubber-based strip. and the insulation itself.

The thermal insulation extends across shown stopping at the edge of the opening. membrane.Concrete 01 Concealed membrane 12 4 5 4 1 5 2 2 1 2 1 3 3 Section 1:10. In (E) the paving is shown usually omitted around the base plate to the roof level and is formed to cover the continuing up the parapet upstand. An additional mem- complete plinth. Alternatively. Junction of external wall and roof slab Section 1:10.The each situation. with that shown in (J) is shown Plinths which are formed as short drained at both the level of the sealed . set loose laid on top of the insulation in the detail. Base of balustrade Section 1:10. the waterproofing is ber-based seal is bonded to the top of the trolley. and is supported from with the protection layer. Base of balustrade Section 1:10. polyester filter sheet. Detail (G) shows a rail sup- sill to the external door shown in the detail brane is then laid on top of the base plate porting an I-section that would support an covers the opening. termination of the membrane varies with by the bolts securing the base plate. Pipe penetrations Detail F 13 13 4 5 4 5 2 2 1 2 2 1 3 3 of the roof level paving where it meets the waterproof membrane. Since the give a more reliable seal. the the penetrations in the membrane formed bridge through the roof construction. If the membrane a similar way to a parapet upstand. then this is membrane is folded up through 90° from brane beneath.The to drain through the pebbles to the mem- has an additional protection layer.The balustrade base columns for the support of roof-mounted parapet upstand by allowing rainwater run- plate is bolted through the membrane to mechanical equipment are waterproofed in ning off the inside face of the parapet coping the concrete slab below. is wrapped Balustrades and plinths The balustrade post shown in (F) is fixed to a base plate which is set onto the finished MCR_ 114 Rainwater outlets The rainwater outlets shown in (H) and around the balustrade post below the level (J) are set at the level of the waterproof of the paving. base plate to provide a secondary seal to the complete plinth to prevent a thermal As can be seen from these two details. a rub- air handling unit or a rail for a cleaning cradle the base of the opening.

Section 1:10. 4.The geot- increasingly to drain roof terraces into exter- formed.Yokohama. Pipe penetrations 1. but the parapet wall that is visually unappealing. the rainwater outlet the enclosing sealed sleeve. 10. Pipe penetrations Section 1:10. 6. Slot drain Opening for overflow Reinforcement at fold if required Proprietary movement joint Balustrade Pipe or duct Filter sheet International Port Terminal. 9. 3. 5. since rainwater is 2-way outlet is fixed in two parts in the bonded to the top of the base plate. In (J) the rainwa- out the need for a visible opening in the a metal sleeve is bolted through the mem- ter outlet is fixed in the same way. a metal flashing is welded or extile sheet is wrapped around the outlet to nal rainwater pipes fixed to the facade. MCR_ 115 . 2.The brane and a reinforcing rubber-based disc is cover is much lower. 11. Architect: Foreign Office Architects. In (N) rainwater drainage system. In (J) the filter sheet is tucked down into wall and the edge of the paving slab to allow the pipe flashing detail allows the pipe to be the edges of the rainwater outlet. 12. with- trating pipe or duct as shown in (M). In (H) the base of the rainwater outlet up the paving slab immediately above to is fixed to the concrete slab. 14. both thermally insulated and independent of its concealed position. Because of rainwater to drain into the outlet. or to mechanically fixed and sealed to the pene- avoid dirt and debris being washed into the a void immediately behind the facade. Where a concrete upstand is the part already fixed and sealed.The waterproof remove any debris that might collect in the ing an upstand around the opening. 5 4 2 2 1 3 3 Penetrations for pipes and ducts paving and the level of the waterproofing requires regular visual inspections by lifting layer. 7. In (M) (H). Japan. Detail M 13 Waterproof membrane Thermal insulation Concrete deck Paving slabs Smooth pebbles Parapet coping Rainwater outlet 8. 13. A pipe is set into this sleeve and is sealed with not through its full height as is the case in 25mm gap is shown between the parapet a tension clip at the top of the sleeve.The drained only at the edges of the cover. and same way as the outlets in (H) and (J). similar to the balustrade detail men- the rainwater outlet is bolted down onto The rainwater outlet in (L) is used Penetrations are sealed by either form- tioned earlier. duct. or by membrane is dressed down into the top of gap between the rainwater outlet and the forming a metal collar around the pipe or the rainwater outlet and the upper part of thermal insulation adjacent to it. Pipe penetrations Detail N 13 13 5 5 4 2 2 4 2 2 1 1 3 3 3 3 Details Section 1:10.

Bonded method. or roof and rooflights. after continued across the joint at the junction of their bitumen-based predecessors. less susceptible to thermal movement than tial strength to the membrane and damage some other materials. Upstand for balustrade 11 10 7 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 Exposed membranes have been used for flat been replaced.The weakness of these materials was weight nature. they MCR_ 116 The introduction of polymer-based . ments as well as deflections in the building punctured by foot traffic during mainte- though the same principles of waterproofing structure. but patched up where leaks occurred since it elements would sometimes result in the this has changed in recent years as mem- was considered to be a major undertaking roofing sheet splitting or tearing. This section con- accommodate thermal and structural move- of reducing risk of the membrane being siders their use in concrete construction. Junction of external wall and roof slab Section 1:10. interfaces between would occur as before. they are often used in con- als was typically a result of a lack of flexibility partially overcome by introducing added sac- junction with lightweight roofs such as pro- of the membrane that could not easily rificial layers. First which time the roof covering should have the two materials. In practice these roofs were between the roof deck and the adjoining roofs which are not visible from below. rainwater to penetrate the roof construc- and regular finishes. It was still commonly the case 30 years ago for exposed membranes on concrete wall and roof.This material was the roof membrane where the roofing sheet ing materials that were more flexible than expected to last around 10-15 years. Although this had the advantage filed metal deck and timber. Because of their light- Damage to the bitumen-based roof materi- tion. allowing branes are produced in increasingly smooth to install a completely new roof covering. Bonded method. Bonded method. Rainwater outlet Section 1:10. Although concrete roofs slabs are nance. Pipe penetration Section 1:10. Bonded method.Concrete 02 Exposed membrane 11 1 2 3 Natural Unit / Studio House. would often result in damage to membranes provided economic waterproof- based sheet materials. for roofs to be made from bitumen or bitumen- example. Section 1:10. this method did not add any substan- can be applied to these other materials. Architect: Masaki Endoh and Masahiro Ikeda.The structural movement introduced in the 1960's and 1970's.

Bonded method. forward in forming reliable weathertight roof delivered to site. filed metal decks in addition to the concrete sheet materials. As a result there is now a Single layer membranes are made from Both elastomers and thermoplastics can decks discussed here. Elastomeric materi- sheet. Rooflight Section 1:10.Section 1:10. typically EPDM. Concrete deck 4. plasticised PVC (PVC-P). Rainwater outlet 8. made in the older-generation bitumen-based ings where mechanical ventilation equipment Developments in these materials has led to materials to make them more flexible. allowing the them to take up shapes precisely. Bonded method. sometimes factured in the limited colours of black. Bonded method. Both thermoplastic wide range of exposed membrane materials either elastomeric materials. EPDM is manu- components and assemblies. polymer modifications were also of penetrations.While both material types were glued. als are very popular in the US while thermo- there is an increasing use of hot air welding MCR_ 117 . Bonded method. grey detailing of junctions to be relatively straight- pre-formed in the factory before being and white. Junction of external wall and roof slab 1. and EPDM membranes can be welded available to suit different budgets and individ- or from thermoplastic materials. External wall 12. Junction with rooflight Details Waterproof membrane 2. typically together to form a continuous waterproof ual roof designs. Thermal insulation 3. Pipe or duct 11. Paving slabs 5. Opening for overflow 9. bonded or secured ments. As a result of these develop- very practical on roofs with a large number be mechanically fixed. allowing ance of a synthetic rubber. Balustrade 10. typically in commercial build- with ballast to the concrete deck beneath.The increased flexibility of 3 Polymer-based membranes The main advantage of the polymer- plastics are preferred in Europe. Parapet coping 7. in is regularly being modified or replaced dur- them being used on timber decks and pro- order to compete with the polymer-based ing the lifetime of a building. Smooth pebbles 6. EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer) is a flexi- the new sheet materials allowed for greater based sheet materials is their ability to be ble and elastic material that has the appear- amounts of movement between adjoining cut and formed to complex shapes. Single layer membranes are membrane. 12 11 1 1 2 2 3 3 Section 1:10. Low parapet Section 1:10. Roof fold 6 1 1 2 2 1 11 2 3 became much more widely used in the 1980's and 1990's.

Roof overflow Section 1:10. 5. 1 Waterproof membrane Thermal insulation Concrete deck Paving slabs Smooth pebbles Parapet coping 2. applied from The PVC used in membranes is plasti- Membranes are reinforced with glass fibre sheet or polyester fabric. Rainwater outlet Opening for overflow 9. Pipe or duct 11.These layers a range of tools that are either hand held or cised (PVC-P). but softens when heated. Bonded method. Gutter Details 1. PVC-P membranes MCR_ 118 . has high tensile strength to PVC membranes PVC (polyvinyl chloride) roof mem- flexible and allowing strips or sheets to be resist wind loads the mechanically fixed branes have been in use since the 1960's as a welded together to form a continuous method is used. welding. Bonded method. a jet of heated air is used to soften the substrate. Bonded method. sealed on top with a were first developed in Europe in the late rial greater flexibility. Bonded method. the materials and weld together. which avoid the need for flame 1960's and were used in the US from the low levels of shrinkage. Balustrade 10. Pipe penetration 8 10 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 2 11 3 3 3 methods.The glass fibre fully automated. External wall 12. making it brane structures. Bonded method. frames and rainwater drainage components.The PVC-P is rigid at normal external tempera- woven polyester fabric. unlike the unplasticised PVC are bonded into the material. Plasticisers and filler a vapour barrier set on top. that can be both slow and can damage adja- ly reinforced with glass fibre to give it The material experiences only very small cent work during their application. 6. or uPVC) used to make window provides dimensional stability. Junctions of external wall and roof slab Section 1:10. 8. 4. with thermal in recent years. used in tent mem- tures. Rooflight 2 Section 1:10. making it more tion. 3. PVC sheet material is usual- stable and does not creep visibly with age. 11 1 7. and has become widely used seams or visible joints. In hot air increased rigidity that is easier to bond to amounts of movement under full wind load.Concrete 02 Exposed membrane 1 11 11 1 2 2 3 3 Sections 1:10. stable for bonding to the substrate. Roof fold Section 1:10. A typical build-up for a sin- very lightweight and relatively economic membrane without the need for standing gle layer membrane is a concrete deck with roofing material. Membranes in this material material in PVC-P is added to give the mate- insulation above that.The material has very single layer membrane. and is dimensionally techniques or adhesive bonding methods 1970's onwards. depending on the applica- (PVC-U.

Ballusted method. Upstand for balustrade 5 5 4 11 4 4 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 Sections 1:10. FPO (TPO) membranes A recent development in thermoplastic 3 3 Mechanically fixed method This fixing method is suited to applica- those used in glazed curtain walling systems to hold the glass in place.These are sheet for increased dimensional stability and cally fixed through this barrier to the deck set at centres to suit the design wind loads. the insulation with an outer single layer membrane. Ballusted method. Ballusted method.and mal insulation layer. unless PVC-P which is self- layer of glass fibre sheet is usually laid onto in thicknesses from 25mm to 100mm.5mm .5mm thick. polyester fabric to give greater tensile beneath. Membranes can also be secured by membrane types are polypropylene.The pressure plates are fixed by bolts strength of the vapour barrier to which the at centres along their length to the substrate membrane is itself bonded through the ther- below. Ballusted method. similar to Bonded fixing method The build-up of materials is the same as MCR_ 119 . Junction with rooflight 7 5 4 1 1 2 5 2 4 3 2 3 11 3 Section 1:10. while EPDM membranes are typically 1. Ballusted method. Pipe penetration 10 5 11 5 5 1 2 4 4 1 2 1 2 2 11 3 3 are typically 1.Section 1:10.0mm thick. Bars form strips of tions with high wind uplift forces. Fire retardant is added to provide with the design wind loads.0mm 1. Rainwater outlet Section 1:10. extinguishing when flame is applied. greater flexibility than PVC-P membranes.They have from expanded polystyrene board.The point fixings rather than by pressure plates. A separating made in panel sizes of 1200mm x 2400mm fire resistance. vapour barrier is loose laid on the concrete 50-75mm diameter rigid plastic discs are but still require reinforcement in glass fibre deck and thermal insulation is then mechani- used to hold the build-up in place.3. Junctions of external wall and roof slab Section 1:10.The spacing of the fasteners varies The closed cell rigid insulation is typically strength. Ballusted method. Eaves Section 1:10. which is typically made polyethylene-based materials. Ballusted method. as bonded pressure plate to hold the roof build-up in systems tend to be limited by the bonding place.The membrane is mechanically fixed with pressure plate bars. Low parapet Section 1:10.

used. and with pressure plates to the concrete deck around openings such as rooflights.The fixing membrane. 2 3 3 Sections 1:10. Some cally fixed to parapet upstands. Joints between the where the roof surface is seen from points brane sheet of the roof.Concrete 02 Exposed membrane 6 1 11 1 2 12 2 3 3 Section 1:10.The membrane is then bonded to membrane can either be bonded directly to the insulation with a continuous layer of the concrete deck to form a concealed bonding adhesive on its underside. Mechanical fastening method. Roof fold Waterproof membrane Thermal insulation Concrete deck Paving slabs Smooth pebbles Parapet coping 7. Pipe penetration 10 11 11 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 that for the mechanically fixed system.The pressure plate In the exposed membrane configuration the Bonded membranes have a visually Parapets and upstands Membranes can be bonded or mechani- forms a junction between the membrane vapour barrier is usually bitumen-based and smooth appearance.This fixing method still used. It can be more difficult sure plates are applied horizontally on the risk of vapour passing through the roof struc- to achieve the bonding required for high upstand when its height exceeds around ture from inside the building. Mechanical fastening method. 9.The thermal wind uplift conditions. a felt backing layer is usu- the membrane. 5. 12. or be in the exposed configura- systems still bond the membrane at points method that is used on the main area of tion discussed here. Low parapet Section 1:10. 11. depending on the specific material insulation is then bonded to the vapour bar- individual design. 2. Architect: Masaki Endoh and Masahiro Ikeda. rier. 4. Junction with rooflight 1 Natural Unit / Studio House. Junctions of external wall and roof slab Section 1:10.The beneath. MCR_ 120 . Details 1 2 1. Insulation can also be mechanically fixed requires mechanical fixing at the edges. 8. making it suitable sheet forming the upstand and the mem- is bonded to the deck. Mechanical fastening method.With mechanical fixing the pressure ally used to overcome any roughness in the the wind load and the proprietary system plate can be fixed either to the upstand or substrate that would puncture the material.When bonded directly to only rather than across the entire surface of roof is usually continued on these vertical the concrete deck. to the flat roof area. but this is dependent upon areas. 6. 3. but this is a matter of 500mm. 10. Intermediate pres- vapour barrier sheets are lapped to avoid any around the building. Mechanical fastening method. Rainwater outlet Opening for overflow Balustrade Pipe or duct External wall Rooflight Sections 1:10. Mechanical fastening method.

Mechanical fastening method. Mechanical fastening method.8 11 1 1 11 2 2 3 3 Section 1:10. MCR_ 121 . Rainwater outlet 7 1 1 2 3 2 3 3 3 Section 1:5. to a depth dependent upon both the weight required to avoid wind uplift as well as to satisfy visual requirements. Mechanical fastening method. Mechanically fastened pressure plate fixing Section 1:5. Mechanical fastening method. A typical build-up consists of a single layer membrane welded together to form a continuous sealed sheet. which is loose laid onto 3 3 a concrete deck. Junctions of external wall and roof slab Section 1:10. Pipe penetration 10 Section 1:10. Mechanically fastened point fixing Ballasted roofs Concealed membranes which are ballasted use a top layer to weigh down the membrane and insulation rather than use 1 1 2 2 mechanical fixing or bonding methods. A backing felt is used where the concrete is considered to be too roughly finished for the membrane to be laid directly on top. Roof overflow Section 1:10. Smooth pebbles are spread on top.Thermal insulation is loose laid onto the membrane with a filter layer set onto the insulation.

5. Filter sheet 11. Section 1:10. Planted roofs water and modest amounts of watering dur- Heavy planted roofs require regular mainte- are of two types: light planted and heavy ing maintenance at specific times of the year.This edges or by individual paving slabs that allows the soil depth to be much less than avoids the need to walk across the planting. Light planting. providing a planted used as substrates. Detail A Pipe / duct Supply pipe Rainwater outlet Wall cladding 1 Detail E 10 3 1 10 5 3 4 4 7 7 15 8 9 9 15 Section 1:10. Rainwater outlet. often form the roof of underground struc- although profiled metal decks are commonly roofs have drainage layers beneath the tures such as car parks. Light vegetation 8. Light planted roofs have plants and flow- automated irrigation system. usually from no significant strengthening to receive the MCR_ 122 . Light planting. 14.They are not usually used ety of plants. nance. Maintenance access is growing medium that hold water and release roof at ground level. 1 1 10 14 10 3 3 5 5 1 4 4 10 7 3 7 8 4 8 7 9 8 9 9 Concrete decks used for planted areas can ers that require little maintenance and do pipes set into the soil that provide a trickle be waterproofed with either a concealed not usually have an irrigation system to sup- water feed to the soil at specific times which membrane or an exposed membrane as dis- ply water at controlled times. 15. provided by paved paths or by areas planted. such as a thin concrete shell. 7. Section 1:10.Concrete 03 Planted Details 1. provided by the pebble strips at the roof it back to the plants when required. 10. Drainage layer Waterproofing layer Thermal insulation Vapour barrier Concrete deck Smooth gravel Coping 12. where the soil was expect- Light planted roofs have resilient plants that require little or no irrigation. Unlike other concrete roof types. 6. 4. that which would be required for older land- Heavy planted roofs permit a wide vari- scaping methods. 3. planted roofs are not always insulated as they weight deck. cussed in the previous sections. Upstand. Eaves and parapet junctions. but are concrete roof deck. 13. shrubs and trees to grow on a ed to hold all the water.The reduced depth on a roof accessible to building users. and that will grow in a thin layer of soil or organic Both light planted and heavy planted growing medium. Light planting. Heavy vegetation Soil / growing medium 9. These lightweight planted roofs suit a light- of grass. 2. Due to the size and of soil allows planting to be considered for seen from vantage points around the build- intensity of the planting they require an concrete roof structures that would require ing. relying on rain- may vary during the course of the year.

Light planting. planted roofs provide a limited amount of suit the nutrients. where it meets an upstand. In terms of drainage it this is reduced due to the varying amounts and pH values required by the plants chosen. The drainage layer beneath the filter cally a top layer of planting. 12 1 1 4 1 3 3 5 6 3 5 8 9 4 5 7 7 8 9 7 8 9 added weight of soil.This sheet is lapped up the sides of the gle proprietary system.Section 1:10.The root barrier is some- and fine particles into the water drainage sys- times bonded to the waterproofing layer. to the Planted roof components Both light planted and heavy planted roofs have a similar build-up. water retention. Excess water is MCR_ 123 . a drainage layer growing medium. Light planting. Pipe penetration. 2-way outlet. Prefectural University. comprising typi- The essential requirements for stabilising level of the planting. Soils used are aimed to be in a typically polystyrene egg-crate shaped is set thermal insulation if required. soil aera- planting. which is bonded to the con- To prevent the passage of organic matter rainwater drainage provision. Light planting.Tokyo. is estimated by manufacturers of proprietary of water held within the soil. Section 1:10. Architect: Riken Yamamoto and Field Shop.Water is retained in profiled troughs and moisture mat. a filter sheet is set underneath the plant- usually when the complete build-up is a sin- ing. Light planting. Section 1:10. Rooflight upstand. with a growing and maintaining plant growth in planted medium or soil beneath. Beneath this lowest layer tion and drainage. and below this. Although relatively low in weight but are balanced to tray that releases water back to the planting. which forms the expected on a planted roof. Cill junction. in practice meability (from the drainage layer below) sloping concrete roofs. soil porosity. vapour per- This method also performs satisfactorily on thermal insulation from the soil. Japan. tem. planting. A root barrier Both the soil mix and the soil depth deter- systems that 50% to 90% of rainfall is is set beneath the insulation to protect the mine the amount of plant growth that can be retained in planted roofs. but this varies con- waterproof membrane. Detail D 1 1 3 3 4 4 7 7 6 6 9 9 Section 1:10. siderably with local climate conditions and bottom layer. crete roof deck. A filter layer is set roofs are the provision of nutrients in the sheet retains water that drains through the underneath.

Cill junction. In warm roof construction. it insulation to protect the waterproof mem- medium and drainage layer. Section 1:10. Heavy planting.Planter edge. Heavy planted roofs have a drainage trays. rainfall. a weighing a minimum of around 70kg/m of ered by proprietary waterproofing manufac- root barrier is set immediately below the roof area.The mat is made from a durable fibre that retains moisture and nutrients as well as serving as protection to the In inverted roof configurations. Cill junction. temperate climates.The soil depth. in excess of water stored here. In this configuration a tem to provide a reliable water supply cov- roots. drainage layer. Heavy planting. Heavy planting. Pipe penetration. making it efficient can cause lightweight planted roofs to 'float' brane forming the lowest layer.This layer in mild. roofs and on sloping roofs with a pitch up to MCR_ 124 2 . waterproofing. permitting the soil to absorb the tion within the building envelope. A vapour water storage. water barrier is set between the thermal insulation 150mm. In inverted roofs.Water is stored in the growing turers not to affect the waterproofing layer. Light planted during rainstorms if this layer is not properly prevents planting roots from damaging the roofs can be grown on both nominally flat secured. Although the ponding is often consid- ed roof configurations. positioning the insula- deeper drainage layer to provide greater aeration.The egg-crate form allows the thermal insulation. Section 1:10.Concrete 03 Planted 2 10 2 3 10 3 5 6 5 4 4 7 6 8 7 8 9 9 Section 1:10. In drier months. Heavy planting. layer to catch water that runs off the membrane and the drainage layer above. the weight of soil and vegetation is made suffi- Soil depth cient to avoid wind uplift and the possibility The soil depth in light planted roofs of the insulation floating on the water during root barrier beneath. requires an automatic irrigation sys- diffuses up through the soil to the plant and the concrete deck. Detail B Section 1:10. 2-way outlet. It is not used in invert- ranges from 50mm to around 150mm. A moisture mat is often set under this moisture mat is set between the waterproof erage of the complete roof. 12 2 2 2 10 10 3 3 3 4 4 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 drained away through gaps between the the waterproof membrane is set on top of 25° to 30°.

Heavy planting. providing a trims. Smooth pebbles merged in water. (C) and the drainage layer. Detail F Section 1:10. particular- Eaves can be formed by metal edge MCR_ 125 . 6. 10 3 4 4 3. usually from a minimum 3mm thick at a height between 50mm and 150mm continuity from the roof membrane to the folded aluminium sheet or stainless steel above the planting level to avoid flood dam- flashing at the top of the upstand or to the angle. Rainwater outlet.The water- metal coping is used.The waterproof mem- highest finished roof level in order to avoid (D) respectively are formed by extending brane is bonded to the base of the metal planting being damaged should flooding the waterproof filter sheet and root barrier angle as shown in (E). (B). Heavy planting. Overflows Irrigated heavy planted roofs are usually Roof junctions At upstands and eaves the same princi- Light vegetation Heavy vegetation Soil / growing medium Filter sheet Drainage layer Waterproofing layer Thermal insulation Vapour barrier Concrete deck Smooth gravel Coping Pipe / duct Supply pipe Rainwater outlet Wall cladding thermal insulation. 11.The filter sheet is folded up the inside age to both the planting and to the interior adjacent wall construction. Section 1:10. 9. Heavy planting. 3 4 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 9 8. of the soil or growing medium. high walls and fine particles from being washed down into some overflows are set at the level of the rooflights shown in details (A). and typically either paving turned on edge (the same paving used for provided with overflow outlets so that. Heavy planting. Upstands for face of the angle to avoid organic matter and of the building. Low parapet. 6 7. in the ples apply to planted roofs as discussed in adjacent access paving) or a metal sheet to event of the rainwater outlets being blocked. trol equipment does not cause the roof to proofing extends a minimum of 150mm flood with water. the previous sections on concealed mem- match that of the parapet coping where a a high rainfall or failure of the irrigation con- branes and exposed membranes. 2 10 2 3 10 4 3 5 6 4 5 7 6 8 15 7 8 9 9 Section 1:10. 14. Detail C 2 10 14 Details 1.Section 1:10. provided there is no risk of membranes and sheets are concealed with them being pushed over the edge. Overflows are set typically above the level of the planting.When the roof is laid to falls. parapets and door sills.The visible can be used. 13. 2 3 10 4. Upstand. 10. 12. 2 2. where the edge is ter- result in landscaping being temporarily sub- up to a minimum of 150mm above the level minated by a paving slab. 5. 15. Rooflight upstand.

In (H) and (J) larger rainwater outlet points to avoid damage to at roof level into curtain wall facades. perimeters. then the water is drained by an internal waterproof tray into the transom that the roof can be experienced visually vertical edges of the rainwater outlets as (F). Vegetation barriers are provided at roof A glazed balustrade is shown behind the Balcony planters Planting troughs with automatic irrigation planters. with river planter is sealed. (H) and (J). which is dressed into penetrated these planter seals to drain by a safety line to an anchor point or a latch the base of the outlet. Pebbled strips with a mini- planter is integrated into a balcony. indicating that the planter would be maintained from the facade cleaning system.The planters caused by plants.The drainage MCR_ 126 . Many planted roofs have low parapet or eaves edges so Rainwater outlets The filter layer is dressed up around the its top edges. A fall arrest An access cover is provided for maintenance curtain wall system.Concrete 03 Planted 16 17 18 16 17 Plan. 1 18 18 16 2 5 9 17 17 17 6 7 Example G ly during maintenance work. section. upstands. typi- washed pebbles of 16mm to 32mm diame- either from the planter (as a result of dam- cally by a water supply pipe of small diame- ter. Balustrades are provided for building users in conditions with low parapets. such as harnesses worn purposes. allows any water that by maintenance personnel.The from the outside of the building. below. which is drained and system is provided. way cable. which is attached waterproof membrane.The are drained internally in the same way. elevation 1:10. but should any water leak planters water is supplied at one end. through its pressure equalisation chambers. where it drains to the outside. In all mum width of 300mm are used.Water drains at the level of the ventilated internally. In (G) a small suitable for much larger plants. age) or if water penetrates the seals around ter set into the roof finishes. Small balcony planter. as versions of this planter are shown that are the adjacent construction that would be shown in (G). duct penetrations and and a drainage system can be incorporated typically cleaning cradle.

requiring large numbers to be fabricated at the same size to make them economic. Large balcony planters.The boxes are set into a metal frame provided within the curtain walling system and are sealed with silicone around their edges. 6. and is set either within the facade panels or directly in front of the facade. 15. 18. 2. 7.Example H Sections 1:10. 16. MCR_ 127 . Light vegetation Heavy vegetation Soil / growing medium Filter sheet Drainage layer Waterproofing layer Thermal insulation Vapour barrier Concrete deck 10. sealed shell. 17. 5. Planter boxes are made from glass reinforced polyester (GRP) which is moulded to form a single. 4.Tokyo.This material is very resilient and can be moulded by hand to suit individual project requirements. Smooth gravel Coping Pipe / duct Supply pipe Rainwater outlet Wall cladding GRP planter Glazed external wall Glass balustrade Example J 1 2 16 18 18 5 6 1 7 9 2 16 17 17 5 7 6 9 pipe is typically of 50mm diameter for such installations. 3. 12. 13. a metal strip is set on top of the planter to conceal the GRP from view. 11. In this example. 14. Planter boxes made from thermoplastics are much more expensive to manufacture. Prefectural University. Details 1. Architect: Riken Yamamoto and Field Shop. 9. 8. Japan.

4 TIMBER (1) Flat roof 1: Mastic asphalt coverings Warm and cold roofs The material Warm roof build-up Solar protection Upstands Eaves and verges Penetrations Gutters and rainwater outlets (2) Flat roof 2: Bitumen-based sheet membranes The material Roof build-up Solar protection Fixing methods Parapet upstands Junction with tiled roof Eaves and verges (3) Pitched roof : Tiles Plain tiles Interlocking tiles Ventilation Eaves Ridges Verges Hips and valleys Abutments (4) Pitched roof : Slates Roof folds Vents Monopitch ridges Dormer windows Abutments (5) Pitched roof : Metal Standing seam cold roofs Eaves and valley gutters Ridges and abutments Penetrations Metal tiled roofs MCR_ 129 .

on the warm (in winter) side rating layer beneath the asphalt. the asphalt is set Flat timber roofs are described as being in the timber. with a sepa- either 'warm' roof or 'cold' roof configura- the insulation. (B) the waterproof layer is set directly onto timber deck. 'Lake' asphalt is ber deck. Holland. In both warm is protected by a waterproof layer set onto and cold roofs. as roof. maintained at near internal temperature In a mastic asphalt waterproofed warm The material Asphalt is manufactured from bitumen Mastic asphalt. A vapour barrier is set beneath directly onto the timber deck. A separation layer is set between the vide stability at the relatively high tempera- beneath the timber deck.The roof build-up is not required form that might damage the internal con- used in some parts of the world. thermal insula- of the insulation. thermal insulation is set on top of the waterproof covering on flat or sloping roofs. In the warm roof as (A). Eaves Saltwater Pavilion. Neeltje Jans. the vapour barrier avoids the its upper face. which is a to be ventilated as the timber structure is struction of the roof. A vapour barrier is set passage of damp air up into the thermal which is blended with limestone powder and between the thermal insulation and the tim- insulation where interstitial condensation can fine limestone aggregate. In the cold roof configuration.Thermal insulation is set this. with a dry wall or internal tion is set on top of the timber deck. with an asphalt layer on top of has polymer additives in some types to pro- the timber deck.Timber 01 Flat roof : Mastic asphalt coverings 9 9 12 12 1 3 3 4 10 4 4 6 6 2 2 7 7 8 8 Section 1:10. In the mastic asphalt bility of the material at low temperatures. Drain outlet at parapet wall Section 1:10. which lining board set below this. MCR_ 130 . tion. 12 11 1 1 13 5 3 12 4 6 6 2 2 7 Warm and cold roofs that avoids the possibility of rot forming in cold roof configuration. in the voids asphalt and the thermal insulation. Expansoin joint 8 Section 1:10. naturally occurring material from Trinidad. A vapour tures experienced when exposed to the between the timber joists and air is allowed barrier is set between the thermal insulation effects of the sun. Architect: Oosterhuis Associates. as well as providing flexi- to circulate in the void to provide ventilation and the timber deck. used to form a continuous conditions.

Falls are formed struction. Rooflight 11 9 12 1 1 1 5 5 3 3 4 4 6 2 2 6 7 7 8 8 8 which allows it to take up movements in the timber deck is set to continue. a higher melting between the roof and supporting wall in keep the roof clear of standing water. typically reinforced concrete decks. 3.The was used more commonly 25 years in sheet materials is at upstands. the boards are usually tongued and grooved and around 19mm at upstands. 7. but its use as an exposed done where slight lateral movement in the a part of the traditional use of exposed membrane is discussed here since this appli- roof deck is expected that cannot be asphalt roof coverings. called firring pieces. 11. the use of order to better accommodate the relative Although completely flat roof decks are used this material is set to continue. 4. Rooflight 9 9 12 5 1 1 3 11 4 4 6 Section 1:10. 10. mainly a con- lack of flexibility in the mastic asphalt. Asphalt is applied in a hot liquid a result of additives which make the material form on site. Plywood decks are usually WBP grade ago. particularly as substrate. on top of the MCR_ 131 . 12. 5. A minimum fall of single layer sheet membranes.The junction fall is still observed as a rule. or setting flat or angled but its use as an exposed membrane on a fixed into the upstand or onto its surface. allowing it to form a homoge- more flexible than was previously the case. so the minimum 1:50 cation is much more common in timber con- accommodated by the asphalt. where a ble.This is for single layer membranes. and its popularity is being challenged by separate upstand fixed to the roof deck and at least 19mm thick. 6. Mastic asphalt is laid on rigid sub- between the top of the asphalt upstand and by either tilting the supporting timber joists strates. roof penetrations and changes in between a mastic asphalt covering and those thick to provide as rigid a substrate as possi- level. the external wall is sealed by a metal flashing beneath the deck.Section 1:10. point and UV resistance. flexibility. is often formed 1:50 (2%) is used to avoid ponding and to greater strength. 8. neous material at complex junctions such as The essential difference for timber decks Warm roof build-up Where timber boards are used instead of plywood sheet. which have rather than the wall. Mastic asphalt Plywood sheet or timber boards Separating layer Rigid thermal insulation Freestanding timber upstand Vapour barrier Softwood joists Dry lining/drywall internal finish Metal flashing Fascia board External wall Expanded metal lathing Rainwater outlet Section 1:10. 9. this has not been cealed membrane. High parapet wall 2 2 7 7 8 8 Section 1:10. However. 13. Low parapet wall Details 1. strips. 2.

25 W/m2K. In order to achieve a U-value of 0. Roofing felt is com- dimensional stability under such conditions. In tion thickness of 100mm . varying slightly between the mate- in the factory to a sloping angle. In the exposed membrane An alternative vapour barrier is of a layer of polyurethane foam. a comparatively long period after being laid. set on passage of water vapour through the barrier. As manufacturers as an alternative method of mastic asphalt retains a high temperature for mal insulation layer in order to isolate the creating a roof fall.Timber 01 Flat roof : Mastic asphalt coverings 9 12 1 5 1 3 4 4 6 2 2 9 11 7 7 1 1 8 3 4 6 Section 1:10. called 'tapered' insulation.150mm is joists. is offered by some liquid-applied mastic asphalt laid onto it. It also helps underside of the thermal insulation.When asphalt is laid A vapour barrier is provided on the MCR_ 132 A separating layer is laid onto the ther- . asphalt from movement. around 12mm thick.25W/m2K. Rainwater outlet 2 Section 1:10. 2-way drain outlet 6 2 Section 1:10. the thermal expected. Eaves 7 1 9 8 3 4 Section 1:10. on the are both compatible and which maintain to restrain the asphalt in cold temperatures.Thermal insulation which is pre-formed the warm roof configuration. an insula- relation to the direction of the structural give a minimum U-value of 0. or else a proprietary metal lined Polyisocyanate foam materials and cork laps around 50mm between sheets. mainly at joints. in the insulation materials used are those which the substrate or structural deck. form as a composite of cork board with a separating layer.The profiled shape of the firring pieces is dependent on the direction of the fall in fibre underlay. loose laid with monly used. sheet with metal foil tape to seal the joints. sometimes insulation is of a type suitable for having hot rials used. warm (in winter) side. Asphalt is usually applied in two coats to All laps and joints are fully sealed to avoid the typically in a proprietary composite sheet an overall thickness of around 20mm. sheet are commonly used for this reason. Sheathing felt is used typically. Expansoin joint 1 1 3 7 3 12 4 13 4 6 6 2 10 2 7 11 joists. Thermal insulation is usually provided to an alternative insulating material. set on a glass also used in the warm roof configuration as exceed around 5°. Extruded polystyrene is configuration the slope if the roof does not asphalt.

Where the order to break up the top surface of the chippings to be removed easily at a later upstand is formed in lightweight concrete bitumen.This allows the which the asphalt will bond. or metal laths and sheathing Upstands At upstands. If the upstand to be waterproofed in In warm roof construction.14mm stone the substrate. Pipe penetration 9 12 1 1 5 3 4 6 2 2 9 11 7 12 1 5 8 3 4 6 2 Section 1:10. a protective MCR_ 133 . block. overall thickness of around 20mm.The chippings are usu- metal lathing. then formed directly against concrete blockwork. is fixed to the face of the asphalt has been laid. 13. also laid in two coats to an protection for asphalt. 8. 7. sheathing felt is fixed to inverted roof configuration discussed in the sive.The first coat is very above the finished roof level. where the asphalt is usually Solar protection felt is used as described.When the ally bonded to the asphalt after the asphalt primed in bitumen. Low parapet wall 7 8 12 1 5 Details 3 11 6 4 2 7 8 1. If the upstand is surface is usually applied to all exposed areas thin in order to key in the substrate. in a concealed or the asphalt surface with a proprietary adhe- forming an upstand. 6. the material asphalt extends a minimum of 150mm is laid in three coats. or at a steep slope. as mentioned earlier. Expanded to around 30°. 5. stone chippings two further separate coats are applied to then the thickness is usually only around or thin paving slabs which are bedded into give an overall thickness of around 20mm. 9. 12. 2. 10.This helps to reduce the effect of date for repair and maintenance work. A single layer of 10mm . 11. cement render. the set vertically. 3. sand is rubbed into the has cooled. Mastic asphalt Plywood sheet or timber boards Separating layer Rigid thermal insulation Freestanding timber upstand Vapour barrier Softwood joists Dry lining/drywall internal finish Metal flashing Fascia board External wall Expanded metal lathing Rainwater outlet directly onto concrete. 4. In 13mm. As with upstands in other materials. typically at 150mm centres. High parapet wall Section 1:10. with a solar reflective paint. often a separate upstand fixed Concrete chapter. with a bitumen solution to pro- sheathing layer. which provides a 'key' to finished top surface while it is still hot in vide only a limited bond. the roof slope can go up chippings are used as permanent surface to the roof.Section 1:10. the surface is faced with either a sand gradual crazing of the surface caused by the effects of the sun.

Where a timber with a GRP or aluminium trim in order to between the asphalt and the metal trim. Upstands to bottom of the asphalt. built to a formed also strengthens the junction. At upstand is used which is separate from the support the bottom edge of the asphalt. as used with other forms of upstand. an upstand is formed on the thermal insulation on the roof deck is set edge becomes vulnerable to damage and roof a shown in (D) so that the upstand is MCR_ 134 .The asphalt is usually bedded in height of around 50mm to suit the expected ing it to absorb more movement between expanded metal lathing fixed over sheathing flow from the roof. then the material increases 25mm away from the upstand. is formed with an angle fil- zontal areas of asphalt. stop the asphalt at the edge of the roof and of the asphalt is turned into a chase. or horizontal groove. or is formed by a groove being cast into a Verges can be formed by creating an terminate in a metal strip so that the asphalt Eaves and verges Trims to verges and eaves are formed cannot be seen from below. but the set on the roof. between blockwork courses. Step in roof Section 1:10. the junction with a timber or metal-clad wall main upstand (discussed earlier) the adjacent Some installations use no trim at all. Alternatively. the top felt.Timber 01 Flat roof : Mastic asphalt coverings 1 3 9 4 1 2 12 1 7 2 1 1 5 8 3 3 3 4 4 6 2 4 6 6 2 2 7 7 8 8 8 Section 1:10. a metal flashing can be set under the upstand and roof. A single 90° internal fold can result in a above the finished roof level.The junction of wall and roof. folds.The asphalt is failure of the material. an alu- let. An alternative detail is to wall and roof deck. Balustrade Section 1:10. allow- upstand.The 45° angle fillet continued up and across the top of the asphalt upstand as shown in (C). or strengthen the junction of vertical and hori- gutter. to 20mm. Rooflight 1 1 12 3 1 3 3 4 4 6 6 6 2 2 7 10 7 8 8 8 11 asphalt is higher. In masonry walls. where the material folds through two 45° rooflights are formed to a height of 150mm minium or GRP edge trim can be used. but in practice it can be difficult to achieve a reliable seal reinforced concrete upstand. Pipe penetration Section 1:10. as used on the general areas of vide a slot for additional asphalt in order to When the asphalt edge is terminated by a roof.This is to pro- can result in a visually uneven appearance.

5. and the vide additional strength to the joint. Parapet Section 1:10. MCR_ 135 . as (E). by 150mm to create a collar round the can be laid to suit a complex geometry material.The insulation is separated from the insulated metal panel can then be mechani- the outlet at the level of the structural deck. An alternative method of seal- gutter at the base of the tiled roof. in order to avoid 6 2 Saltwater Pavilion. bedded in upstand around the penetration which can the tiled roof. creating a low upstand in timber sections apron flashing around it to protect the top Where the gutter is formed as a parapet which are fixed down to the structural tim- of the asphalt. expanded metal lathing with sheathing felt be insulated to the top of the opening. 10. the ber deck. 2. An beneath. A verge or fascia can also be formed by Gutters can be formed to any shape Rainwater outlets are formed by setting visually crisp edge as seen from below. to the duct The asphalt is stepped down with 45° folds to dip down to the level of the deck to pro- or pipe creating the penetration. 9. timber sections in order to allow the asphalt cally fixed and sealed.Section 1:10. 7. 4.The top of the asphalt collar has an without the need for joints in the material. 11. edge of the rainwater outlet. 8.The asphalt is dressed up ing a roof penetration is to form a complete asphalt is carried up over the tilting fillet of across the top of the low upstand. An edge tional secondary seal. 3. 6. or bonded. Architect: Oosterhuis Associates. formed typically with metal grating and cover is fixed down onto trim is usually introduced on the edge of the either EPDM or metal sheet. 12. Mastic asphalt Plywood sheet or timber boards Separating layer Rigid thermal insulation Freestanding timber upstand Vapour barrier Softwood joists Dry lining/drywall internal finish Metal flashing Fascia board External wall Expanded metal lathing Rainwater outlet supported by the roof only.The sheathing felt extends up to the roof to terminate the asphalt and provide a ondary seal to this penetration. forms a sec- this. Penetrations Gutters and rainwater outlets the possibility of rainwater penetration as a Penetrations through an asphalt covered result of structural movement between the roof are formed by extending the asphalt up created within the timber deck since asphalt roof and the wall. Neeltje Jans. An addi- down into the rainwater outlet. Holland. Parapet 9 9 11 12 11 4 1 5 1 3 4 3 4 6 2 7 7 8 8 Details 1. 13.

their application is discussed as Bitumen sheet membranes are econom- The material Exposed Membranes in the Concrete chap- ic. 5. which is suit the specific conditions of folds and joints to reduce their overall cost. Bitumen- or with TPO (thermoplastic polyolefin) poly- where the detailing is similar. 6. 3.The addition of these polymers raises based sheet is generally less robust than the past 25 years to compete with the newer the melting point which ensures stability in membranes described in that section. 8. but bitumen- based membranes have developed over the mers. or concealed membrane configura- of low pitched roofs. Rainwater outlet 6 6 Section 1:10. and is typically mixed with ed roof'. 13. Bitu- roof design for relatively small-scale applica- roll form in widths of around 1000mm. deck types. as is often used in SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene) polymers tion as described in the Concrete Chapter housing and in school buildings. membranes. Although other occurring within the structural deck. 12. Low parapet wall 12 Section 1:10. or designs with a complex geometry black in colour. 9.Timber 02 Flat roof : Bitumen-based sheet membranes Isometric view of assembly 9 7 1 1 10 3 2 3 4 4 5 2 6 5 Section 1:10. 4. typically exposed and visible material on a relatively be applied in a similar way to those roof formed in elastomeric and thermoplastic lightweight deck. In this membranes can also be used with concrete membrane materials are used on flat timber section the material is considered as an and metal decks.The principles of detailing in that section decks. which helps waterproofing layer in a warm roof. Mem- elastomeric and thermoplastic materials by hot weather as well as increasing the flexibili- MCR_ 136 Bitumen-based sheet is manufactured in . 1 1 Bitumen-based sheet Plywood sheet Rigid thermal insulation Vapour barrier Softwood joists Dry lining/drywall internal finish Metal flashing Timber upstand External wall Angle fillet Proprietary skirt flashing Rainwater outlet Paving bonded to bitumen-based sheet 3 3 4 2 5 5 6 5 This section discusses flat timber roofs that branes applied to concrete decks are usually increasing their flexibility and making them use a bitumen sheet-based membrane as a laid in hot liquid form and are reinforced to thinner. 10. which together provide an economic can be similarly applied to timber roofs. 11. Bitumen-based a common combination. and are often used with timber roof ter. requiring less material. and the principles here can roofs as both warm and cold roofs. 2. 1 8 10 3 4 2 7. Rooflight Details 1. is men-based sheet can also be used in 'invert- tions.

the joints brane and thermal insulation to release gases making the material gradually more brittle between plywood boards are usually taped into the isolating layer which are formed as a which eventually results in cracks. result of bonding the bitumen to the insula- mer additives reduce this effect. requiring boards. bitu- insulation securely in place. since the smooth substrate. depending on the proprietary system used. no additional solar protection. A loose laid per- Roof build-up Where plywood is used to form the forated isolating layer is set onto the thermal insulation which is used to allow the mem- men-based sheet is slowly oxidised by heat. Low parapet wall Detail A 7 7 3 1 10 8 1 1 10 3 3 4 4 2 2 2 5 5 9 5 6 6 Section 1:10. 10 3 2 5 9 6 ty of the material at low temperatures (usu- around 25 years. the barrier reinforced upper face to provide greater older-type bitumen-based membranes.Section 1:10. France. SBS- being often bitumen-based as part of a pro- dimensional stability and resistance to acci- modified sheet is usually covered with stone prietary system. MCR_ 137 . A vapour barrier is set Bitumen-based sheet often has a glass fibre material provides better UV resistance than onto the prepared timber deck. them from the effects of the sun.Architect: Dirk van Postel. Low parapet wall with drain outlet 7 1 12 3 1 Pavilion. a thin layer of bitumen bonded to the thermal insulation through life of the material. where this is not tion. as well as a polyester rein- chippings or solar reflective paint to protect such as polyurethane is bedded in hot bitu- forced core to increase tensile strength. particularly On timber boarded decks.TPO-modified sheet can be liquid form to seal the joints between the ally in winter in temperate climates) and exposed to the effects of the sun. the bitumen setting to form a enhancing the fire resistance of the material. applied typically in thick the holes in the isolating layer. Burgundy. Expansion joint Section 1:10. Rigid closed cell insulation dental damage. structural deck of a timber roof.The bitumen-based membrane is then the TPO additives which help to increase the as practical a method. men onto the vapour barrier to hold the These sheet materials are typically around 4mm thick. which can now be up to is laid onto the deck. Even with these additives.The poly- to provide a continuously smooth surface.

be provided with a solar protection layer In the bonded method. these coatings have the additional brane adheres to the substrate.The use of bonding avoids the need alternative to the characteristic black colour tools. A tool that provides hot air to roof below that which would otherwise be plied from a small canister as part of a hand- the edge of the material is used that allows the case. Bitumen-based sheet is laid on top and either a coating of fine stone chippings or by typically by either torching. 9. either hand-held or wheeled. the sheet is With the mechanical fixing method no during manufacture as part of a proprietary applied cold onto the substrate. Laps are sealed with aluminium solar reflective paint applied to the mechanical fixing methods. which has the effect lapped by around 100mm to ensure a water hot air welding of laps and joints is being of reducing the surface temperature of the tight seal. for larger for a flame that can damage adjacent finished of bitumen-based sheet. 4. Low parapet wall 4 2 Detail B Section 1:10.With torching. Section 1:10. the benefit of reflecting heat. being either poured and spread in place or fastened through the insulation layer into the MCR_ 138 . 11. Bitumen-based sheet Plywood sheet Rigid thermal insulation Vapour barrier Softwood joists Dry lining/drywall internal finish Metal flashing 8. which provides a visual cylinder set onto the roof to a variety of together. Like elas- tection. the adhesive adhesive is required. 7. 12. 10. 3. bonding or is rolled into place. 13. Sheets are tomeric and thermoplastic membranes.Timber 02 Flat roof : Bitumen-based sheet membranes 7 1 7 1 10 1 3 3 4 2 9 5 9 6 12 1 3 Section 1:10. a adhesive. Door threshold 9 5 1 6 Section 1:10.Torches are usually gas fuelled. 6. Membranes can also scale applications. Timber upstand External wall Angle fillet Proprietary skirt flashing Rainwater outlet Paving bonded to bitumen-based sheet 3 4 2 5 6 Solar protection Resistance to UV radiation is provided by Fixing methods Bitumen-based membranes are fixed spray applied to the substrate / structural deck. but torching is sometimes used to visible surface of the bitumen-based sheet. 2. Solar reflective paint gives the roof held tool. As flame is used to melt an adhesive layer on seal the laps of bonded membranes to allow a result of providing this additional UV pro- the underside of the sheet so that the mem- them to be installed more quickly. 2-way drain outlet Detail C 1 Details 1. work. the membrane being bitumen-based membrane system. sup- introduced. or are supplied from a large gas the material to melt locally and be sealed a metal appearance. 5.

or render. Expansion joint Section 1:10. Above this level the wall is are fixed within the area of the lap in the fixed to the face of the upstand. membrane as shown in (B) terminating which is either bedded into a groove formed against the bitumen paint finish of the exter- in the joint between courses of blockwork. Low parapet wall Isometric view of assembly 7 7 1 3 1 10 4 3 9 4 2 2 5 5 6 6 Section 1:10.The mechanical fasteners panels. depending on the configuration of the provide added protection to the membrane deck or substrate with the insulation set on external wall.The coping or the metal strip is sealed against the wall Parapet upstands Upstands in bitumen-based sheets are MCR_ 139 . with the folded metal flashing such as aluminium. the bitumen-based sheet is shown finished roof level. (A). is laid onto the structural as (B). then brane is made continuous with the water- top of the membrane is protected with a pressed in place with a roller tool. nal face of the blockwork wall. as (B) where a con- to high parapet walls can be formed by ter- the deck. A vapour barrier. Upstands top. the membrane continues up the full shown in (C). Mechanical fixings are covered by height and extends across the top of the waterproofed with bitumen paint and an strips or are lapped over the top of the fix- wall underneath the coping.The ings. Eaves Detail D 7 1 1 1 1 10 7 3 3 3 4 4 2 2 5 6 5 5 6 6 9 timber deck with disc-type fasteners. Laps formed by either fixing the sheet to the ply- can be made from any impervious and between sheets are usually torch sealed to a wood face of a timber framed upstand as durable material.The insulation is mechanically fixed to meets a masonry wall. as sheet through the insulation into the deck upstand.Typically. overhanging on both sides to with sealed laps. concrete walls are beneath.The roof mem- external panel-based finish. with the bitumen-based sheet laid crete block wall is clad in timber rainscreen minating the membrane 150mm above the onto the insulation.Where a timber roof deck as it folds over the top of the wall.Section 1:10. A pressed metal coping is width of around 150mm. or to the face of the thermal insulation shown in (B). the laps being sealed by torching.With a low waterproofed with a different method. proof seal of the external wall.

The vapour through a full 90° fold in a junction where The roofing felt.Where an expansion damage and to ensure that rainwater run- plete seal from bitumen-based membrane joint is formed. Pipe penetration Section 1:10. Burgundy. A the membrane.The roofing felt or on one side of the movement joint to open gap between the tile and the roof mem- breather membrane under the roof tiling is and close as a result of structural movement. the membrane is folded at the sheet is taken over the top of the timber Junction with tiled roof The junction of a flat roof and a tiled MCR_ 140 .The continuous barrier. brane by capillary action. 12 1 1 3 3 4 10 2 5 6 with silicone if a concrete wall is used. A metal flashing extends joints are formed in the same way as other bottom top row of tiles are kept clear of this down from the vapour barrier and is lapped upstands.Where the membrane ing to an area of flat roof at the top of the meets a rooflight upstand the bitumen-based pitched roof. Step in roof Section 1:10.Where a bitumen- terminated against the underside of the based membrane forms a waterproof cover- upper timber deck. so that rainwater can- vapour barrier continues up the full height of base layer and membrane up 150mm above not track up into the roof construction.Architect: Dirk van Postel. A 45° angle fillet is used to the finished roof level. with an additional metal drip is sometimes used to give a visu- avoid turning the bitumen-based sheet reinforcing layer to strengthen the junction. the membrane is separated ning down the tiles cannot run back up the the roof tiles beneath. of barrier beneath the thermal insulation is significant structural movement can be the tiled pitched roof extends down over turned up so that it terminates against the expected. Rainwater outlet Pavilion. or breather membrane.Timber 02 Flat roof : Bitumen-based sheet membranes 7 11 1 1 1 3 3 3 1 10 4 4 2 2 5 5 5 6 6 6 Section 1:10.The pitched roof is formed by extending the edge to form a drip. ally sharper edge to the roof. but the membrane continues over junction in order to avoid the possibility of over the top of the tiling to provide a com- the top of the upstand. France. the top of this membrane to provide a com- edge of the membrane drip to provide a Upstands for perforations and movement plete weather tight seal across the roof.

4. Angle fillet 11. shallow slopes of bitumen-based roofs. Step in roof 1 3 7 4 2 5 1 1 1 3 10 5 3 3 6 4 4 2 2 5 5 5 6 6 Details 1. running off the edge of the eaves is collected rainwater from running over the edge of the where required.The membrane as well as forming a drip at the metal strip that seals the gap between glaz- vapour barrier under the thermal insulation top of the external wall. and MCR_ 141 . typ- the wall below. Softwood joists Dry lining/drywall internal finish Metal flashing Timber upstand External wall 6 10. Bitumen-based sheet Plywood sheet Rigid thermal insulation 7.The gutter is tucked up Verges typically extend along the edge of full seal. 5. and that no water is allowed to verge. Proprietary skirt Section 1:10. 6. Rainwater outlet 13. Paving bonded to bitumen-based sheet Isometric view of assembly 7 13 1 4 8 3 3 4 2 2 5 6 5 6 upstand to form a continuous seal with the behind the drip to ensure that all rainwater are formed with a low upstand that prevents vapour barrier on the inside of the building. A GRP or metal is fixed to the top of the sealed upstand. 8.The rooflight run behind the gutter and down the face of the top of the upstand. Pipe penetration Section 1:10. bitumen-based membrane that provides a Eaves and verges The eaves detail shown in (D) is formed with a folded drip formed in the same way as described for the junction with the top of a pitched roof. 2.The edge of the rooflight is continued to the edge of the roof to strip of membrane is lapped over the edge typically includes a drip to avoid water run- ensure that the timber sections forming the trim to provide a complete water tight barri- ning back up into the joint between upstand edge of the eaves are kept dry and ventilat- er. An additional sealing ing and upstand. as well as providing reinforcement to and rooflight.Section 1:10. where staining can occur edge trim is set at the edge to terminate the ically with a continuous timber glazing bar or from the dust washed off the flat roof. as well as the vapour barrier by the gutter. 3.The vapour barrier insulation is kept continuous between wall extends up the side of the timber upstand and roof to avoid thermal bridging that but it is not necessary to extend it to the reduces the thermal insulation value of the edge of the roof due to the extra layer of external envelope.The thermal strengthen the joint. Vapour barrier 9. Balustrade flashing 12. ed within the roof void beneath.The membrane is continued up over beneath the thermal insulation.

as well as mica. able in sizes that are difficult to achieve in blown rain. 6. In the clay type natural colour. 4.The battens are the horizontal.5° above the direction of the slope.Their rafters (sloping timbers) or full timber truss- around 35mm on their top edge. which forms a second aggregate and Portland cement which are line of defence and full weathertight barrier the most common being around 260mm x mixed together and then cured in tempera- to the roof. but large interlocking tiles are avail- tecting the roofing felt from direct wind- clay is mixed with additives such as quartz. Monopitch ridge Section 1:10. 16. oxide. 14. Plain tiles crete tiles over clay tiles is that some con- examples. 12. called the appearance tends to imitate those of tradi- es. 2. iron oxide and crystalline aluminium clay. . years but they are actually expected to last 35° above the horizontal. Clay tiles are fired in a kiln at around tiles are used in roof pitches down to 35° Many tile shapes and profiles are available 1100°C to make the material both rigid and above the horizontal. Eaves Detail E Section 1:10.5° above the horizontal. that is. 3.The design life for tiled roofs in are used on pitched roofs ranging from verti- crete interlocking tiles can be used for pitch- both clay and concrete types is around 30 cal tile hanging to pitches as low as around es as low as 12. 11. 8. with grooves and complex laps can be used tens set horizontally.The tiles provide the first line of defence 'head lap'. Plain tile Interlocking tile Softwood battens Softwood counter battens Roofing felt Gutter Softwood rafter Vapour permeable membrane Thermal insulation Vapour barrier Softwood joist Metal flashing Ventilator Fascia board External wall Ridge capping 16 2 5 3 7 15 Clay tiles for roofs are most commonly made tional clay tiles in both shape and variety of against rainwater penetration as well as pro- from clay or concrete. In common with clay tiles. Both tile types are fixed to timber bat- for around 100 years. Abutment 15 12 Details 1.Timber 03 Pitched roof :Tiles 7 8 7 1 5 1 5 10 9 3 9 10 13 11 4 6 11 3 4 6 12 13 14 14 15 Section 1:10. 10. 5.Interlocking tiles. 15. Eaves 15 Detail B Section 1:10. Plain tiles. An advantage of con- which have been developed from historical resistant to moisture penetration. concrete plain protecting the felt from accidental damage. the effects of the sun. 7. Concrete tiles are made from fixed onto roofing felt.Tiles are lapped by a minimum of ture-controlled chambers in the factory. 13 1 5 3 7 9. and are head MCR_ 142 Plain tiles Plain tiles are made in a variety of sizes. 13. Interlocking tiles. at right angles to in down to a minimum pitch of 22. Plain tiles.The roofing felt is set on timber 160mm. when hung vertically. Plain tiles.

Section 1:10. like plain tiles. sides. with joints staggered achieved.Valley gutter Section 1:10. which are covered by the two of rainwater up through the tile by capillary 300mm x 270mm which. with any water that passes through size of visible tile is around 170mm x 300mm. crete are also made in different profiles and only at their edges. has a MCR_ 143 .Tiles are butted up to one the required arrangement of tiles is overall effect of draining the tile on all four another on their sides.This interlocking of tiles. Monopitch ridge 15 12 4 2 12 3 8 14 13 2 12 3 7 6 10 9 8 4 10 15 lapped by a minimum of around 65mm tiles that lap over it. usually the horizontal. the smallest sizes.The typical 100mm head lap and 30mm with nails fixed through two holes at the top grooves serve as drips to avoid the passage side lap give a typical visible tile size of of the tile.This tile type has a longer head lap the joint from windblown rain being drained 160mm. avoids the Interlocking tiles Interlocking tiles in both clay and con- need for three tiles to always lap one another. which has the another. only one tile thickness is With the maximum head lap. giving a shape to each tile approxi- of around 100mm which accommodates down the roofing felt to the bottom of the mating to a square. As tiles lap beneath.The maximum head lap for all over the battens to both support the weight on both faces of the tiles that lap.Eaves Detail F Nara Centennial Hall. water is drained down these grooves onto always lapped with three tiles set over one which are set out accurately to ensure that the centre of the tile below. when hung on any slope down to 35° above (brackets) on their underside which hook again with grooves set into the tiles. Again rain- conditions is around 90mm. as (A). with a typical size of around 400mm x required. Japan. Architect: Arata Isozaki 2 8 4 3 5 9 6 12 10 15 Section 1:10. where it runs on down the roof.These roof.Tiles have two nibs action.Tiles are fixed to battens grooves in the bottom of the top tile. as is required for plain tiles. Interlocking tiles.Tiles are also lapped at their sides. Interlocking tiles. Interlocking tiles. together with over one another to avoid rainwater penetration by draining water that penetrates the outer tile onto the middle of the tile the provision of drainage grooves. so that tiles are of the tile and to align them on the battens.

pitched roofs are formed In the warm roof. but in practice the ceiling has to allow the internal space of the roof void to be completely sealed to avoid any vapour be used. As with the cold roof. as (E). A cold roof as (B).Verge Details 1. Plain tiles. Interlocking tiles. 6. Like plain tiles. Abutment 5. and are fixed with done to avoid ventilating the roof void. 10. and the void is ventilated to ensure that beneath is standard. 11. monopitch roofs as (C) and roof spaces nails which are usually larger than those used which can become very damp in temperate which are divided. 9 7 10 Section 1:10. 2. 15. modern designs. If the insulation com- can escape. Abutment Detail P Section 1:10. then MCR_ 144 . Abutment Detail Q 12 15 10 2 3 8 12 2 13 9 9 4 3 4 8 10 7 9 10 square-like size. 3. the sloping rafters are passing from the space below into the roof vapour barrier is set between the thermal as either warm roofs or cold roofs. which avoids damage to both the around roof hatches. In the void.Timber 03 Pitched roof :Tiles Section 1:10. but is visually dominant in vapour permeable membrane or 'breather' ridge and at the eaves even when a breather flat. 4. 13. horizontal joints are insulat- thermal insulation and the dry wall lining vapour permeable membrane is set on the ed.This is often not perceived timber and the thermal insulation. In practice. roof void escapes through the breather filled with thermal insulation in order to membrane. 15 12 1 5 3 9. 14. due to the rolled or wavy profiles typical of years it has become more common to use a most cold roofs are still ventilated at the traditional designs. for plain tiles in order to secure the larger climates during winter. in all roof constructions. 7. 12. 16. Interlocking tiles. a Ventilation Like flat roofs.While a vapour barrier between the insulation and the internal dry wall lining. Plain tile Interlocking tile Softwood battens Softwood counter battens Roofing felt Gutter Softwood rafter Vapour permeable membrane Thermal insulation Vapour barrier Softwood joist Metal flashing Ventilator Fascia board External wall Ridge capping 2 3 4 8 7 10 15 Detail N 15 Section 1:10. the inter- membrane as the underlayer to the tiling membrane is used as an underlay to the locking types have nibs on their underside to instead of waterproof roofing felt. In recent as at its edges for this to work. pipes and ducts as well pletely fills the void between the rafters. Any vapour in the sized tiles. Interlocking tiles. outside face of the sloping rafters as an any condensation forming in the roof void the barrier must be completely sealed underlay to the tiling. 8.This is tiling.These principles apply equally to hang and align the tile.

which is continuous between outside face of the membrane and the tiles profile called a tilting fillet. Interlocking tiles. tom tile.Vertically hung tiles at internal and external corners 4 3 1 3 9 3 1 10 this breather membrane serves to allow them through the underlay. then the void between the insulation terminated at their base with a gutter. the cavity between the tens is raised up on a wedge-shaped timber ceiling level. Monopitch ridge Detail C Section 1:10. and are fixed down to the underlayer and the tiles in a warm roof continues vertically until it reaches the slop- MCR_ 145 . a is increased from 25mm to 50mm to allow underlay to meet the underside of the bot- ventilator set between the bottom tile and the air within the void to move more freely. then returns hori- pendicular to the tiling battens. called the bottom tile to ventilate either the roof zontally back form a continuity with the wall counter battens. A brane. Eaves ventilator is set beneath the underlayer as moisture trapped within the construction to escape. or the cavity between insulation. In the warm roof version.Vertically hung tiles 16 2 3 1 3 1 9 4 10 12 3 3 2 15 5 4 3 1 7 7 8 12 15 Section 1:10.The thermal insulation either contin- increased gap if formed by battens set per- ventilator. configuration. In the ventilator set beneath the bottom tile and the breather membrane is ventilated at order to maintain a constant pitch of tiles and is released into the roof void without the ridge and at the eaves. Interlocking tiles. Fresh air is allowed to flow into lining. the bottom row of bat- affecting the thermal insulation of the roof at membrane is used. Internal fold Section 1:10. External fold Section 1:10. typically in PVC-U. Plain tiles. which are set in the direc- void in a cold roof.Section 1:10. is set between ues to the fascia board. into the gutter. If the thermal insulation does not fill the void.Where a breather down to the gutter.Verge Detail H 1 3 5 12 2 7 7 15 8 Plan 1:10.The ning down the underlay.This allows the wall and roof. and is set against the internal dry In the cold roof version the proprietary Both plain tiles and interlocking tiles are shown in (F). Plain tiles. or alternatively the wall insulation tion of the rafters. and drain both rainwater running the felt underlay introduces air into the void ensuring that vapour being released to the down the tiles as well as any moisture run- between the tile and the breather mem- outside can be dispersed easily.

as (J). 16 2 3 4 2 9. the gap being formed by the PVC- Verges Verges. 6. For ventilated ridges. 8. stagnant air ridge tile and the roof tile immediately from damaging the timbers. where installation is required. 8 3 9 10 9 8 10 7 Plain tile Interlocking tile Softwood battens Softwood counter battens Roofing felt Gutter Softwood rafter Vapour permeable membrane Thermal insulation Vapour barrier Softwood joist Metal flashing Ventilator Fascia board External wall Ridge capping 7 ing insulation set between the rafters. Interlocking tiles. 14.Where less steel. 16 5. as (G).Timber 03 Pitched roof :Tiles 16 2 2 8 3 1 1 8 3 6 12 3 7 9 5 7 7 10 9 Section 1:10. are closed with a U ventilator. 13. 12. ridge MCR_ 146 . where a rapid side in a cold roof. Ridge 9 Detail A Section 1:10. Metal clips. with a PVC-U and soffit immediately beneath it is in 'cold' across the ridge. a gap of around 10mm in often have special verge tiles.The the tile forms a straight vertical face. 16. mortar. usually in stain- tiles are either bedded in a sand cement metal clips. 15. typically stainless steel. Plain tiles.Where the beneath. 3.The void either the batten cavity between the under- ensure that rainwater is not blown up the enclosed by the timber fascia board and sof- lay and the tiles. or are dry fixed with metal the complete roof void is vented to the out- Proprietary systems of interlocking tiles screws. 2. or gable ends.The ridge tile is fixed in the same second version. or the roof batten cavity and down into the roof void fit board beneath is usually ventilated in Ridges Where a sealed ridge is required. usually in stainless steel.Valley gutter DetailG Details 1. Interlocking tiles. 10. 7. Air is allowed to pass ventilator set below the ridge tile. are used to restrain the edge tile. 4.The ridge tile itself is mechani- sand cement mortar seal between the cally fixed to a ridge batten which is secured underside of the tiles and the fascia board back to the counter battens beneath with beneath. Ridge 10 Section 1:10.The proprietary fixings usually made in PVC-U underlay is turned up the side of the top verge tiles are clipped together to hold them with ventilation slots are used to ventilate row of battens on each side of the ridge to in place to resist wind uplift. roof configuration and is required to be ven- through a gap between the bottom of the tilated in order to avoid damp. the underlay is formed at the ridge. in a warm roof. as (H). beneath. In the void in a cold roof configuration. 11. the void forming the fascia batten cavity is ventilated the cavity is sealed way in the warm roof version.

When a onto the tile itself. A side abutment requires no ventila- certain roof pitches. as at the often made using the same method as at the eaves. Hips in interlocking tiles are folds and junctions in the gutter. Valleys are formed in the same way.The vents. Plain tiles. as (N). and only ported by timber boards or plywood sheet fixed. being closed by a metal flashing beneath the defence against rainwater penetration at fold line. as (L). a full gutter can be formed by intro- allow the free passage of air. while the gap with either specially folded hip tiles or by ducing a metal or GRP strip. as (M). Architect: Arata Isozaki Detail J 2 3 8 7 12 7 9 14 10 15 order to keep it dry. A gap between the verti- large amount of rainwater is collected in the cal wall and the top tile is maintained to valley. areas. Japan.The gutter is usually sup- lator. Plain tiles. a proprietary ventilator is set onto the top tile. Hips and valleys Hips and valleys in plain tiles are formed MCR_ 147 .Verge Nara Centennial Hall.The between ventilator and wall is closed with a cutting the tiles to create a mitred corner. as (K) form part of cent battens and are made continuous with and folded over the top of the PVC-U venti- manufacturers' ranges of tiles. with the open joint beneath the gutter as a second line of the slope of the interlocking tile as (Q). edges of the gutter are folded up the adja- metal flashing that is set into the vertical wall Specially folded hip tiles. to which it is bonded or mechanically they suit only 90° corners in plan. Interlocking tiles. which is clipped either folded tiles or mitred tiles. More complex folds in set between the rafters as shown in (M). have bird mesh or insect mesh to pre- ridge in order to suit the individual shape of vent the voids from being used as nesting the tile used. Hips Detail K Sections 1:10.Valleys 1 Detail M 1 6 5 5 7 7 1 1 5 5 7 7 6 12 Section 1:10. An tion and the metal flashing folds into the gap the roof can be formed with cut tiles that additional layer of underlay is sometimes set below the top tile as (P) or is formed into meet at the fold line.Sections 1:10. but usually the felt underlay. with Abutments Where a tiled roof meets a vertical wall at the ridge.

made in a similar size to tiles. from 600mm x 300mm above the horizontal. Internal fold 6 6 Detail A 2 Section 1:10. then pressed to often formed with profiled edges that inter- shape. All slate types require a ural material. and glass fibre reinforcement. Fibre cement slates are cement-based jointing allows the material to be used in a cement tiles which imitate the appearance of imitations of natural slates which are more single thickness rather than as two layers. but are also available in a pitches from vertically hung to usually 22. at around Natural slate is sorted into at least three All these slate types can be used in roof groups on site. and the thinnest are used at the tiles.Timber 04 Pitched roof : Slates Section 1:10. Reconstituted slate are usually made lock to reduce the possibility of capillary principles set out in the previous section on with an interlocking profile to enhance their action from rainwater being drawn up into tiled roofs. as reconstituted stone or as fibre tion. with slates in between vary- Reconstituted slates are made from typically in a way that maintains a minimum thickness ing progressively from thick to thin.Valleys 1 7 1 7 2 2 11 5 9 6 8 8 9 11 1 4 4 2 11 5 Section 1:10. External fold 7 Detail B Section 1:10. Both of the roof. Reconstituted slate is do not require any sorting on site. with both warm and cold roof MCR_ 148 The ventilation of slate roofs follows the . the natural material. Fibre 50% to 60% recycled waste slate (from the of two layers of slate to ensure a weather cement slates are of constant thickness and quarrying of slate) which is mixed with resin tight roof covering. natural slate and fibre cement types are laid top of the roof.5° ness. depending on head lap (discussed in the previous section course (row of slates) are of similar thick- the manufacturer.The thickest slates are used at the base flat material that is fixed in the same way as 120mm depending on the roof pitch. based on the material thick- 450mm x 350mm. All these slate types are economic than the natural material. slates used on any down to 400mm x 200mm. which varies in the splitting of the nat- wider range of sizes. Natural slate is used as a on tiles) ranging from 60mm to around ness.This improved stone. as discussed in the previous section.Valleys 1 6 4 1 5 6 11 11 1 8 4 5 7 11 6 9 Roofing slates are made in either natural cut performance in reducing rainwater penetra- the lap between the slates.When fixed.

ensuring that rainwa- base of the roof vent and is sealed where it rainwater drainage. to a minimum. 14. 12.The ridge vent In (C) uses a similar cally fixed to the timber structure beneath upper slate and is lapped over the outer face vent as that required for a ventilated ridge. In (B) the external fold is usually in PVC-U as part of a proprietary way. Architect: Arata Isozaki & Associates. Japan. 6 15 1 10 8 2 4 1 8. ridge as well as on the general area of In (A) the roof pitch forms an internal fold. Extract points for mechanical ventilation Monopitch ridges line are formed by reducing the lap at the ducts can be integrated into a vent at the head of the tiles. Thermal insulation Vapour barrier Softwood joist Metal flashing Ventilator Fascia board External wall Ridge capping Flexible pipe 9 4 14 6 12 2 5 13 14 Section 1:10. 15. hips formed by projecting the upper slate out system. and a timber board on the vertical face.Section 1:10. as (D). 11. way as in (A). directed down the slope and not onto the The top of the flexible duct has a connector. 16. roofs.The ridge slate or tile is mechani- lower tile.The connector is closed around the and valleys follows the same principles of slightly to form a drip. 7. Slate Softwood battens Softwood counter battens Roofing felt Gutter Softwood rafter Vapour permeable membrane 4. A ventilator set into the pitch of the roof. Monopitch ridge Section 1:10. As with apex ridges. can have a flexible duct connected to it Roof folds Changes of roof pitch that form a fold Vents in the same way. ventilation and thermal ter does not run back up the metal flashing penetrates the underlay to ensure that rain- insulation as set out in the section on tiled beneath. 3.The detailing of eaves. 5. 10. 6. to either allow the ridge to be ventilated or of the lower slate to ensure that rainwater is as described in the section on tiled roofs. ridges. which is positioned in the same water cannot find its way into the roof void. 15 12 1 4 2 6 16 configurations being detailed in the same underlay beneath. Eaves Details 1. closed against the sloping slates on one side. A metal flashing is set beneath the below. 2. verges. 13. pitched roof without requiring a projection is formed with a specially formed ridge slate where the upper tile is butted up to the above the roof that would be visible from or clay tile. or head lap. a monopitch ridge MCR_ 149 . 9. Ridge with vent extract Detail C Tateyama Museum of Toyama.

Slate Softwood battens Softwood counter battens Roofing felt Gutter Softwood rafter Vapour permeable membrane Thermal insulation Vapour barrier Softwood joist Metal flashing Ventilator Fascia board External wall Ridge capping Flexible pipe MCR_ 150 6 11 5 14 . 9. 5.Ventilators 15 Detail D Sections 1:10. Expansion joint 1 1 6 Section 1:10. 13. 6. 8. 4. 16. 12. 10. Ridge 9 Section 1:10. 11. 15. 7. Monopitch ridge Section 1:10. 2.Verges 1 11 4 11 13 1 1 4 6 2 6 14 14 4 14 6 Section 1:10. Eaves 2 1 11 7 8 9 Details 1. 3. 14.Timber 04 Pitched roof : Slates 15 2 12 12 1 1 2 6 4 4 6 6 7 8 Section 1:10.

Ridges Section 1:10. Abutment Detail J 15 14 12 1 7 2 11 4 8 6 1 9 2 6 4 Sections 1:10. Eaves 4 7 2 1 10 9 2 1 8 8 9 12 6 6 11 11 5 13 14 12 5 13 14 MCR_ 151 . Ridges 15 12 Sections 1:10.Sections 1:10. Hips 1 4 15 6 7 8 9 1 6 4 15 15 12 11 2 1 6 4 8 7 1 6 9 Sections 1:10.

are shown in top of the cheek.Verge Section 1:10. are formed by covering the joint edge of the low pitched roof of the dormer between wall and roof with a metal flashing window has its fascia board set forward of which is fixed over the top of the first slate MCR_ 152 Valley gutters are formed in the same seal. as in (E).The as (J). as between brick courses. or vertically-set battens.Where brick is used. Hori- nal corners by butting the slates together side of the slate. and setting on tiled roofs. Abutment Section 1:10.The vertical face of the gutter vertically-set battens which are fixed back to a metal flashing beneath to ensure the conti- where it meets the adjacent wall. and at a monopitch ridge condition slates. with a metal tray folded up the under- members) in warm roof configuration. Slates are hung from the battens. Abutment Detail H Section 1:10. or counter battens. . as (G). with insulation set (F). to ensure that ventilation of the roof and is sealed against the vertical of the vertical cladding is maintained at the face of the wall. sealed with a flashing set over the top of the Slate cladding on the vertical faces. as (K) is the underlay or breather membrane. the flashing is returned into a joint (E). ensure that moisture is allowed to run freely down the membrane or underlay as well as gutter to provide a complete weather tight Abutments Abutments at the side of a pitched roof. encourage natural ventilation behind the as (H). slates form internal and exter- way. typically timber framed. as described in the section zontally-set softwood battens are fixed onto from each side to form a corner.The nuity of weather tightness at the corner.The supporting structure for the slates is the batten cavity at the base of the wall.Valley gutter Detail K 7 14 1 2 14 11 8 11 12 9 12 5 6 2 1 6 4 Dormer windows the slates. of a dormer window. At the corners of the vertically-hung between the timber studs (vertical framing slates.Timber 04 Pitched roof : Slates 14 11 1 1 11 2 4 4 13 6 6 14 Section 1:10. as (H) cheeks. Air is also allowed to enter and (J).

9. 10. 3.Vertically hung slates at external corner Detail E 1 2 3 13 11 8 8 9 2 14 1 8 1 Section 1:10. 4.Vertically hung slates at internal corner Detail G Tateyama Museum of Toyama. 11.Plan 1:10. 5. 12. Slate Softwood battens Softwood counter battens Roofing felt Gutter Softwood rafter Vapour permeable membrane Thermal insulation Vapour barrier Softwood joist Metal flashing Ventilator Fascia board External wall Ridge capping Flexible pipe 11 1 12 2 3 7 8 6 9 MCR_ 153 . 2. Dormer window 8 Details 1. 16. 14 1 Section 1:10. Architect: Arata Isozaki & Associates. 8. 14. 13. 6. Japan. 7. Detail F 8 8 1 14 1 2 Plan 1:10. 15.

Timber 05
Pitched roof : Metal




Section 1:10. Parapet verge

Details : Standing seam roof



Standing seam sheet
Fibre quilt thermal
Vapour barrier
Timber beam/joist
Folded metal gutter
Folded metal drip
Fascia board


External wall
Metal sheet fixing bracket
Soffit board
Metal supports
Ridge piece
Metal flashing
Parapet flashing

Isometric view of assembly












Section 1:10. Eaves



Detail A

House,Wye River, Australia. Architect: Bellemo & Cat.

Section 1:10.Valley gutter
Section 1:10. Ridge

Detail B




MCR_ 154

Section 1:10. Abutment

Section 1:10.Verge












Section 1:10. Parapet verge





Standing seam cold roofs

(ridge or abutment), with verges and para-

sheet and sealed against the sheet.This

Standing seam roofs are discussed in the

pets at the sides of the roof remaining

ensures that rainwater running down the

Metal chapter as sealed, insulated roof cover-


gutter cannot enter the roof void, while air
can still pass into the roof void.

ings in a warm roof configuration.When used
in the cold roof configuration with a pitched
timber roof, the standing seam roof is venti-

Eaves and valley gutters
Eaves are ventilated by leaving a gap

Ridges and abutments

lated, with thermal insulation provided at ceil-

between the top of the fascia board sup-

ing level.

porting the gutter and the underside of the

ically 100mm between the metal sheets, as

standing seam roof sheet. A metal angle is

(B).The gap at the ridge is covered with a

metal deck is set onto a timber roof of truss-

fixed in front of the opening as (A) to avoid

folded metal ridge capping which is fixed to

es and purlins. At ceiling level, thermal insula-

rainwater being blown through the opening

the sheets beneath. A narrow gap is main-

tion quilt is set between the ceiling joists

into the roof void.Valley gutters are formed

tained between the ridge sheet and the

(horizontal members). A vapour barrier is set

in a similar way, with a gap formed between

standing seam sheet in order to provide

beneath the insulation, positioned on the top

the gutter tray and the metal sheet to pro-

constant ventilation along the ridge. Alterna-

surface of a dry lined wall beneath.The roof

vide ventilation to the roof void.The metal

tively, PVC-U ventilator blocks are added at

void is ventilated at the lowest point (eaves

tray has an upstand at the edge which is

centres along the ridge, and the joint

or parapet gutter) and at the highest point

lapped up to the underside of the metal

between the ridge and the roof deck is

In this build-up a ventilated standing seam

Ridges are formed by creating a gap, typ-

MCR_ 155

Timber 05
Pitched roof : Metal















Section 1:10. Eaves

Section 1:10.Verge

Section 1:10. Penetration

Detail C

Section 1:10. Penetration

Detail D

Detail E







Details : Standing
seam roof



Standing seam sheet
Fibre quilt thermal
Vapour barrier
Timber beam/joist
Folded metal gutter
Folded metal drip
Fascia board
External wall
Metal sheet fixing
Soffit board
Metal supports
Ridge piece
Metal flashing
Parapet flashing


sealed. Abutments are formed in a similar
way to ridges, with a folded metal sheet that







Penetrations are formed in a way which

Metal tiled roofs
Metal tiles are increasingly being used for

is fixed to the roof sheet on one side and is

forms a gutter around the opening in the

roofs due to the flexibility of the roof pitch

sealed against the adjacent masonry/con-

roof as (D) and (E). In (E) rainwater runs off

and tile lap that can be formed economically

crete wall or parapet, typically with an addi-

the roof into the gutter, at the edge of the

for individual projects. Copper and zinc are

tional metal flashing which projects from

upstand, which is set at the level of the adja-

commonly used, with their characteristic

within the depth of the wall.Verges are

cent roof sheets.Water is directed around

patina that is suitable for both walls and

formed with a metal clip which provide a

the sides of the upstand and back onto the

roofs. Metal tiles are fixed in the same man-

closer to the edge sheet as (C), with an

roof sheeting below. Penetrations in roofs

ner as clay tiles and slates, with battens and

additional metal coping set over this to pro-

are positioned so that the standing seam

counter battens set onto a bitumen- or

vide a second line of defence against rainwa-

joints between roofing sheets are clear of

polymer-based waterproof underlay. Eaves

ter penetration.

the sides of the opening in the roof to

and parapet gutters are formed in the same

ensure that rainwater can run freely around

way as standing seam roofs, with ventilation

the sides of the upstand to the roof opening.

slots provided to ensure that air can pass
through the roof void. Metal tiles are either
flat like slates, or alternatively are made from
profiled sheet, which imitates the appear-

MCR_ 156

Ventilation void 21. Softwood battens 17.Section 1:10.Their appearance is very different from profiled metal sheet. since metal can Section 1:10. 22 Ridges and verges are usually made from folded metal sheet and are individually designed and fabricated for a building project. lapped over one another. Softwood joist Metal flashing Soffit board Fascia board External wall Ridge piece Ventilator 17 24 20 16 19 18 22 21 27 27 Section 1:10. MCR_ 157 . Vapour permeable membrane 18.The 18 24 19 short metal tiles. An advantage of metal sheet tiles over clay tiles is that tiles and edging pieces can be individually designed for each project while remaining economic. Thermal insulation 22. 27. with its continuous long lengths of sheeting. Vapour barrier 23. Metal tiles 16. 28. Monopitch ridge 15 16 25 19 17 21 20 22 27 15 Details :Tiled roof 15. 25. 29. Eaves 24 15 ance of traditional tiled roofs made from 17 curved or profiled tiles. Gutter 19. 24. 26. can easily take up complex geometries with 20 a pattern of joints and laps that clearly show 21 the form of the roof.Valley gutter be folded without the need for moulds which are required for clay tiles and slates. Softwood rafter 20.

Timber 05
Pitched roof : Metal






House,Wye River, Australia. Architect: Bellemo & Cat.

Section 1:10. Monopitch ridge




Details:Tiled roof
15. Metal tiles
16. Softwood battens
17. Vapour permeable
18. Gutter
19. Softwood rafter
20. Ventilation void




Section 1:10. Eaves














Section 1:10. Eaves

MCR_ 158




Section 1:10. Abutment

Section 1:10.Verge

Section 1:10. Abutment




Thermal insulation
Vapour barrier
Softwood joist
Metal flashing
Soffit board
Fascia board
External wall
Ridge piece








Section 1:10. Ridge









Section 1:10.Verge






MCR_ 159

(1) GRP rooflights
Eaves and upstands
Sliding roof panels
(2) GRP panels and shells
Smaller panels and shells
Larger panels and shells

MCR_ 161

Small rooflight verge Sections 1:5.Plastic 01 GRP rooflights Key plan and elevation. sometimes need an additional layer of solar walling systems. the insulated core. making it a panels. or use solar performance glass to nomic. GRP rooflights cy is required rather than the transparency thermal conductivity than aluminium.Where glazed rooflights of internally drained and ventilated curtain thermal insulation value of the rooflight. Like metal composite alent glazed rooflight with double glazed The material is not combustible. GRP is a composite material formed by set into the void is usually bonded to the the form of thermally insulated panels to reinforcing flexible fibreglass mat (or fibres) outer GRP facing sheets to provide true form translucent rooflights which are robust with thermosetting polyester resins that pro- composite action between the GRP skin and and economic when compared to an equiv- vide high tensile and compressive strengths. Small rooflight panel to panel junction Sections 1:5. making them ideal where translucen- extruded polymer that has a much lower reduce the effects of the sun. Typical small rooflight layout 5 5 1 1 2 1 1 2 9 1 Sections 1:5. Small rooflight panel to panel junction 4 5 5 4 1 1 5 2 7 4 1 2 7 3 2 1 3 4 5 3 1 1 9 2 9 3 Glass reinforced polyester (GRP) is used in age. lightness and flexibility. they are robust and eco- Thermal breaks are usually made from an shading. and are provide a more economic solution. GRP rooflights use the principles of suitable material for rooflights as well as an mal break introduced into the framing to metal composite panels which are combined opaque roof cladding material. bonded to the extrusion in the manner of advantages of GRP over glass are its Rooflights are made from GRP sheet glazed curtain walling or are clipped to it and strength. as well as which is bonded to an aluminium carrier secured in place by self tapping screws that the material's high resistance to impact dam- frame around its edges. MCR_ 162 . GRP panels increasingly have a ther- units.While GRP reduce the possibility of condensation form- with greenhouse glazing framing to provide a rooflight systems do not usually achieve the ing on the underside of the panel in temper- lightweight. Small rooflight ridge and eaves 7 5 4 2 5 1 1 10 1 9 3 Section 1:5. highly thermally insulated and high levels of resistance to wind blown rain ate climates as well as to improve the overall economic rooflight.Thermal insulation hold the pressure plate in position.The provided by glass panels.

These make their appear- Pressure plates for panel joints running In addition to these standard junctions ance more refined. GRP composite panels all four edges. 9. where unusual junctions are to be MCR_ 163 . up to around a section forms the support to the panels on slope sometimes have pressure plates with 3000mm span.The steel frame beneath to support the compos- els. as (B). as metal equivalent. 8. Proprietary tapes are also used. as (B). lightweight with slender joint lines. Lugano. 7. Large rooflight eaves Detail F 4 1 2 3 1 9 3 3 2 9 9 4 10 Section 1:5. Detail A Section 1:5. Detail K Details 1. Adjacent masonry/concrete wall Folded metal cover strip EPDM strip Supporting structure Concrete upstand 4 7 6 Bus Station. 3. composite panels. 5. are set over the joint which form part of proprietary systems. while those of pressure plate being used to hold the panels building up on the upper side of the joint greater span use an additional aluminium or in place on the outer face of the GRP pan- and being unable to run over the joint. 10. with an extruded aluminium lapped joints. Most support frames are now internally lap is formed by setting an aluminium strip ite panels over the greater span. in order to avoid water require no additional support. Joints running across the (C). Architect: Mario Botta 2 1 3 9 In small rooflights.Typical panel tion. Panel sizes drained and ventilated to provide a second or extrusion. 5 5 4 2 1 1 Section 1:5.This combination of glazed cur- sizes range from around 400mm x 800mm ed EPDM gasket clipped into the aluminium tain walling (or greenhouse glazing) tech- to 800mm x 3000mm. An extruded aluminium T- curtain walling. Large rooflight ridges. unlike their between the panels in the manner of glazed els are jointed with folded metal sheet. 2. under the bottom edge vary with the proprietary system and with line of defence against rainwater penetra- of the panel which laps over the top of the the individual rooflight design. Translucent and insulated GRP roof panel Thermally broken aluminium framing Inside Outside Pressure plate 6. as (A). 4. GRP rooflight panels extrusion.The outer seal is provided by an extrud- panel below. niques and composite metal panel tech- use a lightweight framing system rather than but are more dependent upon good work- niques provides a method of construction a lapped junction or raised edges to provid- manship on site than gaskets which are fixed for translucent rooflights which is visually ing a standing seam type joint used in metal to the pressure plate in factory conditions.Section 1:5. Large rooflight ridges. since the framing is very down the slope. pan- visible in translucent GRP panels. Large rooflight abutment . Switzerland.

Details Detail E Section 1:5. In (D) a ridge flashing is formed in the the bottom of the aluminium closer piece risk of condensation forming on the under- same way. Detail D Section 1:5. An inner metal sheet is the small amounts of water that would be An outer EPDM or extruded silicone seal is bonded to the junction of the panels to pro- drained in the internal cavity. an intermediary aluminium extrusion forms a drip where it is fixed to the top of where it would both impede the passage of or folded sheet is used to form the junction. In (C) a folded metal sheet is fixed inner joint between panels. Adjacent masonry/ concrete wall 7. Folded metal cover strip 8. Thermally broken aluminium framing 3. Outside 5. EPDM strip 9. Inside 4.These drainage slots also take is typically used in a wider than typical joint membrane waterproofing layer beneath. Large rooflight panel to panel junction 1 4 5 Section 1:5. A second line of drained either at the ends of the ridge or panels that run down the slope of the roof. Large rooflight upstand at base 1. as is the case over the top of the upper panels. An its thermal insulation properties due to the water penetration at the junction with the alternative detail is to fill the void with ther- absorption of water. and cannot be set within the drainage cavity as (E). Pressure plate 6. the vertical panel. ensuring elsewhere.This upper face of the GRP panel frame and a the outer seal. Drainage slots formed in mal insulation. because the thermal insulation that rainwater runs down the panel. Concrete upstand 1 2 2 1 9 1 3 2 9 10 formed. Any away any water to the outside from the where the provision of a thermal break is rainwater that penetrates the outer seal is drainage channels within the joints between usually difficult to achieve. Large rooflight eaves. with a metal sheet fixed to the drain away any water that passes through side of the panel in temperate climates. that forms a vertical part of the rooflight is beneath the metal flashing rather than on the MCR_ 164 formed by setting the panel behind a vertical . Large rooflight ridge. GRP roof panel. in order to reduce the Eaves and upstands When a rooflight terminates in an eaves. Translucent and insulated GRP roof panel 2. as well as lose used as an outer line of defence against rain- vide an inner seal and vapour barrier. Supporting structure 10.Plastic 01 GRP rooflights 7 4 1 1 1 9 3 2 2 Section 1:5. as (D). defence against rainwater penetration is pro- down the joint between the panels that run The GRP panel beneath the closer piece vided by a membrane set immediately down the slope of the roof.

A waterproof membrane is bonded to the ventilated channels in the joints that the GRP panel is sealed with either an the outside of the closer piece and is form the second line of defence against rain- EPDM gasket.The gap ported on an additional steel or aluminium between the bottom of the panel and the Upstands are formed either with an alu- MCR_ 165 . Detail B 4 5 1 7 2 2 4 1 3 1 2 Section 1:5. avoiding the possi- used to provide a continuous edge support ing set forward of the vertical face of the bility of rainwater passing through the joint. A waterproof membrane. or with within the building. cone sealant. In smaller rooflights the insulation in place and as a vapour barrier. a proprietary tape. for example. as (F). Detail C Section 1:5.This allows water to drain out of The gap between the aluminium closer and seal. Large rooflight monopitch ridge. Large rooflight internal fold. providing a roofing.Section 1:5. to the GRP panel as well as a weathertight upstand. such its inner face with a thin folded aluminium GRP panel and is sealed against the water- as the curved eaves used in profiled metal strip that serves both to retain the thermal proofing layer of the upstand.The closer typically EPDM. continuous seal from the surrounding area rainwater typically runs off onto the sur- The visible width of the inner closer strip of flat roof up to the rooflight. Large rooflight external fold 3 5 1 4 2 2 1 1 9 3 Section 1:5. Large rooflight external fold 1 9 4 5 1 2 2 2 3 7 1 10 aluminium strip that forms a lapped joint supporting frame. In (G) a GRP panel insulation from upstand to GRP rooflight. usually matches that of the adjacent alumini- break in the framing of the GRP composite um joints between the panels and is visible panel ensures a continuity in the thermal minium closer piece as used at eaves. A thermal rounding area of flat roof. is bonded to the bottom metal closer if required. A metal closer piece is upstand beneath is sealed with a metal flash- over the top of the panel. or a sili- secured to the upstand below. but this is usually piece is thermally insulated and is sealed on edge of the metal frame surrounding the exposed unless it forms part of a fascia. A metal gutter is fixed to the formed in reinforced concrete. Detail G Section 1:5. where the GRP panel is sup- is fixed to a supporting frame. a metal flashing. typically water penetration. Large rooflight base.

Architect: Mario Botta Key plan. Small facetted pitched rooflight layout 4 5 1 1 3 Verges with mineral fibre quilt type thermal insula- connected structurally. a metal a continuous groove or horizontal joint line the panels. such as rein- (K). Abutment.Plastic 01 GRP rooflights Section 1:5. Switzerland. and to the els to provide an additional seal and vapour metal flashing is set onto the membrane and top of the triangular-shaped vertical end barrier. to panels.The void between the panels is filled bonded. An additional aluminium angle is used structural movement between wall and roof.Verge. or mechanically fixed and sealed. Small curved roof layout Detail L 4 1 5 3 Section 1:5. as (L). Small rooflight ridge Section 1:5. the membrane tion. In (H) the sloping panel extends slightly forward of the vertical panels to give a thin Abutments top edge of the metal flashing where signifi- edge to the roof. Small rooflight panel to panel junction 1 4 5 1 9 1 3 3 Section 1:5. which has the flexibility required to fill usually has an extra curve of material are formed with an aluminium flashing that is the irregular-shaped voids between GRP between the panel and the wall to allow for bonded. the outer metal flashing being fixed into um sheet or angle closing the gap between forced concrete or concrete block. underside of the outer metal flashing as a bonded to the edge of the GRP panel and is second line of defence against rainwater pen- folded up the abutting wall to which it is etration. Beneath the in the concrete or masonry wall to provide tions. as in nates in a sharp edge. Small rooflight ridge Bus Station. 6 Detail J 4 5 7 10 1 1 Section 1:5. a waterproof membrane is a weathertight seal to the top of the flashing. Key plan. Lugano. Small rooflight upstand at base 7 3 2 5 4 1 1 1 Section 1:5. while in (J) the roof termi- Where a GRP rooflight is set against a cant structural movement is expected. the metal edge frame to the side of the GRP at the junction of the inner face of the pan- The outer line of defence formed by the panel forming the sloping panel. a waterproof membrane is set on the metal flashing. As with other panel to panel junc- flashing is used as in (K) and (L). is folded up the vertical face of the wall. with a folded alumini- vertical wall in another material.Where wall and rooflight are not MCR_ 166 . An The gable ends of sloping GRP rooflights additional metal flashing is used to cover the panel.

9. Any rainwater that pene- the levels of air infiltration associated with trates the outer seal is drained away in a MCR_ 167 . Translucent and insulated GRP roof panel Thermally broken aluminium framing Inside Section 1:5. is provided on the around 40% of panels in a rooflight are ciples of fixing and waterproofing joints are underside of the GRP panel. through holes in the bottom of the alumini- Panels can move either side to side in um profile onto the roof below.These general opened by sliding them over adjacent fixed used regardless of the direction of move- principles of sliding panels will no doubt be panels. Ridge 3 4. 7 2 3. the outer (upper) outward before sliding. rooflight panels are difficult and expensive to while the other three sides are set into a The pop-out type sliding doors that move become openable due to the weight of the slot. of openable panels over the next 10 years. or vertically in seal. 5. Opening panels are sealed to other two sides.Typically up to the manner of sash windows. and to slide on the sliding doors. together with hinged glass and the complexity of their seals. 8.The same prin- the outer gasket seals. GRP seal comprises EPDM or silicone-based gas- panels. 6. Outside Pressure plate Adjacent masonry/concrete wall Folded metal cover strip EPDM strip Supporting structure Concrete upstand 9 1 4 1 1 2 9 10 3 Sliding roof panels The lightweight nature of GRP rooflight panels is being used increasingly in sliding opening windows. usually in a 'flipper' section that allows generally applicable to large-scale applica- being provided by lapped joints with EPDM the aluminium framing to slide in and out of tions of all building types. Small rooflight panel to panel junction Small curved rooflight layout Section 1:5.Section 1:5. draining out than those of fixed glazed rooflights. Eaves 5 4 4 1 1 1 2 4 3 5 2 1 3 1 2 3 10 Section 1:5.Verge. or extruded silicone seals in the manner of the housing on one side. which are usually higher cavity within the rooflight frame. In the slot connection. 7. in relatively modest electrically oper- ment of the panels. Detail H 4 Details 1 1.Where larger-scale glass horizontally sliding panel has an upstand. one side of the developed to suit more complex geometries ated systems. will make this rooflight system more rooflight panels are easier to slide. either polymer foam based or similar to different times of the year. In (M). with seals kets. An inner air panels that allow a rooflight to be opened at the manner of sliding doors. 10. 2.

Plastic 02
GRP panels and shells

Bus Station, Hoofddorp,The Netherlands. Architect: NIO architecten





Section 1:5. Panel to panel junction










Section 1:10. Panel to panel junction Detail E
Section 1:10. Perimeter

Sections 1:5. Panel to panel junction Detail C






Where glass reinforced polyester (GRP)
rooflights, discussed in the previous section

Smaller panels and shells
Smaller shells, as shown in generic exam-

of the wheel are held in place by T-sections
that, in plan, form concentric circles.This

on rooflights, are made as panels which are

ples (A1) and (A2), consist of a set of seg-

'bicycle wheel' form is supported near its

joined to form translucent rooflights, opaque

mented panels which are bolted together to

perimeter by a metal ring beam that is set

GRP panels can be made as monolithic, self-

form a roof shell of approximately 7.0

immediately above the glazing beneath the

supporting shells, usually made from panel

metres diameter.Type (A1) is supported by

GRP roof.The ring beam is supported by

segments which are brought to site and bolt-

an additional frame, while (A2) is a self-sup-

posts that are fixed to the roof deck

ed together.The segment sizes of GRP shells

porting GRP shell.


are made in sizes which are suitable for

In (A1), GRP panels are supported by a

The metal frame is clad in prefabricated

transportation by road, usually set upright on

light metal frame beneath.The frame com-

GRP panels which are bolted to the support

a trailer.The shells can then be lifted by crane

prises steel or aluminium T-sections which

frame on their internal face in order to avoid

into place as a completed assembly, which

are welded together to form a structure that

visible fixings. Panels are made with an outer

makes them quite different from roof struc-

supports the complete outer skin.The frame

skin of GRP around 5mm thick, with an

tures in other materials.

has curved members that radiate from the

overall panel depth of around 45mm for the

centre at the top to the edge and from the

panels sizes shown of 3500mm long and

centre at the lowest point of the structure,

1800mm wide.The GRP panels are stiffened

back to the perimeter.The radiating 'spokes'

by concentric ribs, around 120mm wide, as

MCR_ 168

Plan and section 1:50. Generic examples A1 and A2

Detail B








GRP shell panel
GRP outer cladding panel
GRP structural rib
GRP thin panel with
honeycomb core
5. Mild steel or aluminium
6. Mild steel or aluminium
7. GRP flashing
8. Waterproofing membrane
9. Metal fixing bracket
10. Thermal insulation

shown in (B).The long edges of panels do

that conceals the joint lines. Finally, a paint

external face in the same way as example

not require thick ribs, and these are around

finish is applied, usually as a spray, to give a

(A1). A different method for forming the top

10mm thick as shown in (C). Panels secured

smooth and reflective finish.Where pigments

of example (A2) is shown in (E).Where

with bolts which are fixed through the metal

are applied to the top coat, or 'gel' coat, in

panel segments converge at the top of the

support frame into reinforcing ribs at the

the factory, a more limited range of colours

shell, a separate centre panel is used to cre-

edges of the GRP panels. Joints between

is available.Thermal insulation is set on the

ate a smooth external finish. A central exter-

GRP panels are formed by butting panels up

underside of the shell, being bonded to the

nal panel avoids the difficulty of bringing up

to one another and sealing the gap between

inner face of the GRP panels in order to

to 16 panels together at a single point which

the panels.The seal is formed in a continu-

achieve continuity of insulation.

would make it difficult to achieve a smooth

ous step profile on the long edges of each

Generic example (A2) uses glass fibre

panel that creates a continuous groove at

ribs that form part of the shell to provide

transition from one side of the shell to the
other. In the example shown, a shadow

the joint between panels.The groove is filled

integral structural stability to the shell. Panels

groove is set around the joint between the

with a lamination of glass fibre and resin to

are around 200mm deep, as (D), and are

central panel and the segments in order to

fill the groove to the level of the top of the

bolted together to form a self-supporting

avoid any misalignment between segmented

panels.The external face of the GRP is then

GRP shell. Ribs are made in solid GRP in

panels from being visible.The perimeter joint

ground smooth, usually by a hand-held

order to allow them to be bolted together

of the panel can be filled and sealed using

grinder, to achieve a uniform, smooth surface

easily. Panels are joined and sealed on their

the method described earlier, with additional

MCR_ 169

Plastic 02
GRP panels and shells

GRP shell panel
GRP outer cladding panel
GRP structural rib
GRP thin panel with honeycomb core
Mild steel or aluminium frame
Mild steel or aluminium truss
GRP flashing
Waterproofing membrane
Metal fixing bracket
Thermal insulation



Plan and section 1:200. Generic examples B1 and B2

grinding required on site to ensure a smooth

panel, but the drip reduces the amount of

ished in GRP to create the negative shape of


water that runs down to the glazing below.

the panel being formed. GRP panels are fab-

The underside of the shell is mostly set

The curved glazed units beneath the

ricated by first applying a release agent to

internally behind curved glazed units set near

roof shell are set into a recessed slot at the

the mould to allow the finished panel to be

the perimeter of the roof.The internal part

panel joint.The recess avoids the possibility

removed easily, then thermosetting polyester

of the shell on its underside, has the same

of a weakness in the seal that could result in

resins are applied to the face of the mould,

panels with the same finish, but without any

using a butt joint between shell and glazing.

with flexible fibreglass mat being laid into the

thermal insulation, which is typically set

The edge of the double glazed unit is sealed

resin, usually with rollers.The process of fab-

around the outer edge of the shell in order

completely around the junction with the

ricating GRP panels is very labour intensive,

to keep temperatures within the void close

shell, typically with silicone.

but requires no expensive equipment, mak-

to those within the building. Close to the

Both the cladding panels of (A1) and the

ing panel production a craft-based technique

edge of the shell, on the underside, the joint

self-supporting shell of (A2) are made using

rather than an industrial process.When the

between the top panel which curves around

the same manufacturing process. Panels are

panels are released from the mould they are

the edges, and the adjacent panel under-

made in a mould, usually from a single seg-

trimmed along their edges and ground

neath, has a groove formed along the joint to

mented panel type to form a complete

smooth where necessary. An alternative

serve as a drip.Windblown rain will still be

rooflight. Moulds are usually made from ply-

method is to apply a mixture of resin and

pushed along the underside of the soffit

wood to create the shape and are then fin-

glass fibre particles as a spray directly into

MCR_ 170

The inner shell serves as the ness of 3mm to 5mm depending on the loadbearing structure. GRP cladding panels the shell inside the building. Conse- bolted together on site. no scaffolding or access platforms joints are then formed on the finished face. with integral GRP structural ribs. which an external steel or aluminium truss. In (B1) finish the rooflight. it being easier to panel size required. be reversed so that an outer shell equipment at roof level. due to their size. for example. while in (B2) cladding panels is fixed using a lightweight complete item. However. where the roof shell. install panels with a pre-finished internal sur- by bringing the panel segments to site indi- face since no further access is required for vidually.The into position. avoids the need for scaffolding and access truss might be used to support a decorative of course. where no space is available on site nate translucent panels.Section 1:10.The quently. as a pre-assembled item that requires no for assembly. is to create a platform beneath further work externally.The outer skin of GRP lifted by crane into position on the roof as a a shell is made from GRP only.The panels are then finishes work on its internal face.The flexibility and lightweight the dome has structural stability provided by crane that lifts the outer segmented panels nature of GRP makes this possible. An alternative outer screen or a lighting system to illumi- with a factory-applied finish can be installed method. hemispherical dome of 20 metre diameter is are required inside the building to install and either internal or external. on the ground. is clad can then be applied to the internal face of can be assembled in place.The mixture is applied to a thick- outer screen. the shell is constructed as a self-supporting shell.The construction method can. the with GRP panels that form a weathertight the shell from inside the building. The structural shell is usually assembled MCR_ 171 . but this the sanding and grinding operations required to Larger panels and shells In generic example (B1) and (B2) a In example (B1) a loadbearing inner more difficult construction method. Finally. Junction at base 3 10 2 6 4 1 3 the mould.

These as a thin composite panel. filled with vides an outer seal against rainwater pene- continuous.The panel is they reach the top of the shell. Like the inner shell.The lation but made as solid GRP where panels continuous outer skin. deep. filled with thermal insu- sealed with silicone at their joints to form a polypropylene-based honeycomb sheet. 2 -3mm (G). as shown in outer segmented panels are bonded to the formed with two outer skins of GRP. shell is covered with a GRP skin that pro- difficult to avoid visible surface irregularities MCR_ 172 .Plastic 02 GRP panels and shells 6 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 Plan and section 1:100. GRP ribs are also set vertically on the inner shell with resins or with silicone. defence are drained away down the outer The inner shell in example (B1) is made them a flat. with overall sec- tion and visual screen provided by outer be in an enclosed space to avoid GRP dust tion sizes of around 200mm wide x 300mm cladding panels. with an inner core made from edges of the panels. Generic examples B1 and B2 make the inner face of the shell smooth and They are also made from GRP. Small amounts of rain- honeycomb core provides a rigid reinforcing are fixed together with bolted connections.This inner The shell is thermally insulated with min- GRP skin of the inner shell. stiffened by GRP ribs with an inner wall around 15mm thick made at the base of the shell. smooth appearance.While it is easier skin is reinforced by structural ribs that form eral fibre or foam-based insulation set in the to provide a continuous smooth finish in a an integral part of the panel.The horizontally- outer cladding is made from 15mm thick set ribs span a maximum of around 450mm composite panels. usually mineral fibre insulation or injected foam to tration. and are set hori- voids between the ribs. the particles from spreading around the building. deceasing in size until around 100mm deep x 200mm wide. water that might penetrate the outer line of layer to the outer skins of GRP that give as (H). and thick. as shown in detail (F). and ready for painting. in larger examples it is more zontally at approximately 1000mm centres.The outer face of the smaller shell.The layer is given a further protec- requires the in-situ constructed solution to provide thermal insulation.

an additional minimum 150mm above the adjacent roof metal truss in either mild steel or aluminium level without the need for complex junctions is fixed at the panel joints to provide struc- between roof slab and shell.The base plate is between the adjacent panels. A metal plate is set concrete upstand. struction tolerances in the height of the con- an outer skin of GRP cladding panels pro- crete upstand. example B2 Section 1:10. For this reason. Like example (B1). Panel to panel junction. 4. GRP shell panel GRP outer cladding panel GRP structural rib GRP thin panel with honeycomb core Mild steel or aluminium frame Mild steel or aluminium truss GRP flashing Waterproofing membrane Metal fixing bracket Thermal insulation MCR_ 173 . example B2 Detail J Section 1:10. Junction at base Detail K 4 1 3 3 7 on larger shells. as (K). Panel to panel junction. 3. with the joint set on levelling shims to take up the con- being sealed with silicone. example B1 Detail F 4 4 10 6 10 6 2 3 2 3 3 1 1 4 2 4 1 Plan 1:10.This allows the shell to be set a finishes. 2. concealed from view by internal shells. 5.The GRP ribs within the panels shell has a continuous GRP flashing bonded forming the inner shell are reduced to which also serves as a fixing plate onto the 20mm thick ribs. the shell where it is protected by another GRP are usually preferred in larger-scale GRP junction at the base of the shell is treated as cover strip. Panels are mechanically the upstand and is lapped under the GRP fixed to a continuous metal plate forming flashing. Architect: NIO architecten Section 1:10.The waterproofing membrane vides an outer line of defence against rain- of the adjacent roof is taken up to the top of water penetration.The Netherlands. 8. 10. 9. an upstand. example B1 Detail H 2 10 4 2 10 3 3 1 1 Bus Station. Panel to panel junction. as (J). An additional waterproofing part of the truss. 7. Panel to panel junction. the panel being sealed membrane may extend to the inside of the against the plate with silicone seal. 6. In generic example (B2). visible joints In both examples (B1) and (B2).The base of the tural stability. Hoofddorp.Plan 1:10. inner shell and up the internal face of the Details 1. as (J). as (K).

6 FABRIC (1) ETFE cushions Cushions Air supply The material Fabrication Durability Performance in fire (2) Single membrane : Cone-shaped roof Fabric roof principles Fabric types Comparison of types Thermal insulation Acoustics Durability Performance in fire Condensation (3) Single membrane : Barrel-shaped roof Membrane roof fabrication Membrane roof edges Suspension points Membrane folds MCR_ 175 .

alternatively. Section 1:5. particu- mum of two layers of ETFE sheet which are be cut to different shapes and joined togeth- larly for covering sports stadiums. by supporting the material used as non-loadbearing panels. Neuchatel. If the air cushion-shaped panel is inflated with air to a achieve with curved glass. the outer membranes. to the membrane. depending on the cushion size and by stretching the material.This type. they set back to back to form a flat panel and are er economically.The use where ETFE sheet is used to make panels stresses'. between structural supports the air supply fails or is switched off when provide structural stability to the panel. either structure deflates.The clamping 'foils'. Switzerland. discussed in the next two sections on single transparent. lightweight and resilient roofs The cushions are held in place by clamps layer fabric membranes. which is difficult to achieve remain structurally stable only while air is sealed at the edges.This section consid- that have thermal insulation values similar to that form a frame around the cushions in ers ETFE cushions. In smaller scale applica- Pascals. Junction of clamping plates 2 4 3 7 5 5 Fabrics used as roof membranes have the tion of inflatable fabric roofs. the complete roof pressure of between 200 Pascals and 700 fabrics are used in tension structures. strong in Although large scale self-supporting tension and durable. or 'pre- pneumatically in inflated structures. increased air pressure stretches. the manner of glazed rooflights.The void within the so easily with metal and is very expensive to being supplied to the structure.Fabric 01 ETFE cushions 2 1 1 2 2 2 5 1 Isometric view of junction of clamping plates Arteplage. Architect: Groupe Multipac. or 'prestressing' tions. and have the ability to inflatable roof structures are in use. Roof membrane supply is interrupted.The or. giving ETFE of fabric membranes in prestressed roofs is formed as air-filled 'cushions'. air-filled cushions remain in place when the manufacturer's proprietary system. also called 'pillows' or those of double glazed units. Cushions advantage of being light in weight. provides highly cushions their characteristic curved shape. which are the most common applica- MCR_ 176 ETFE cushions usually consist of a mini- frames are then supported by a mild steel .

The the air to all the cushions either side of a sin- that form two chambers.Section 1:10.This main pipe is also chambers are linked by a hole formed in the wide gap between the two outer mem- usually made from plastic and can be con- middle (flat) membrane in order to allow air branes. air is the cushion where its thickness is reduced to the clamping assembly. and to ensure that the air pressure in tion performance can also be improved by air supply. and 10 minutes per hour to compensate for loss MCR_ 177 .The two overall U-value can be reduced by forming a gle structural support. Extruded aluminium retaining profile 4. Junction of clamping plates 5 Section 1:5. which is similar to a double ETFE membrane. to provide a consistently wide cealed within the supporting structure. 2. filters (to avoid the passage of dust). as shown in (C).Thermal insula- only up to a diameter of around 60mm. Pipes supplied to the cushions for only around 5- a thin edge.This three increasing the number of air chambers with- within the cushions at a constant level. Insulated metal lined gutter 9. Once performance is reduced at the perimeter of nected to the underside of the cushion near the ETFE cushions have been inflated.The supply. Cushions typically have three layers overcome this loss of thermal insulation. ETFE cushion Extruded aluminium clamping plate 3. Supporting structure 6. which maintains the air pressure both chambers remains equal. Plastic edge bead to fabric membrane Plan 1:10. ETFE cushion with contours shown for clarity 1. Clamping plate assembly 1 1 2 1 1 4 3 5 8 Details 5. Clamping plate with air supply pipes 1 Detail C 2 1 1 2 2 1 3 5 6 1 5 7 structure formed typically as box sections or breaks at the panel perimeter to partially are connected to a larger pipe that supplies tubes. is layer cushion provides a U-value of around in the cushion by adding further layers of supplied by electrically powered fans with air 2. Clamping plate assembly 2 1 1 3 Plan 1:10.0 W/m K. Cushions made from two layers of ETFE sheet are also used but the thermal insulation performance in mechanical ventilation systems within Air supply Air is supplied to cushions from rubber buildings. Metal flashing 10.Thermal insulation pipes or flexible plastic pipes that are con- densation forming within the cushions. being to pass to both chambers from a single air air space within the cushion.The humidity level of the air is usually controlled to avoid the possibility of con- is reduced considerably. Plastic air supply tube 7. Some cushions have thermal are usually of around 25mm diameter. as used 2 glazed unit used in glass roofs. Main air supply tube 8. as (A). as (B). Opening smoke vents with insulated gutter Detail F Section 1:5.

a white coloured translucent . with the cushions before the air supply is restored. Inner lay- to the external face of the cushion. the outer used for glazed rooflights. As wind pressures are applied assembly as shown in (D). when compared to other fabric materials. Condensation on the underside. Junction of clamping plates Detail A 1 2 8 1 2 5 of air pressure from leaks from cushions or ensuring that ventilation levels within the Teflon) which is made by extrusion as a from air supply pipes. Junction with gutter 3 5 1 2 2 9 3 5 Section 1:10.5mm tened shape.The material is also sures.2mm If air pressure within the cushion is lost as occurring. In most cases the ers of ETFE sheet that provide separate skin will deflect either inwards or outwards temperature of the air supplied to the cush- chambers within the cushion are often made as a result of the positive or negative pres- ions is similar to that of the internal space from 0. condensation channels are fixed weight at around 350g/m² for this thickness supply pipe. Junction of clamping plates Section 1:10.Where condensation cushions.1mm thick sheet. allowing them to be very light in branes or from loss of air pressure in the is still a risk. tion does not usually occur on the underside 95% light transmission. so condensa- used for its high level of transparency. valves to prevent loss of air pressure from the cushions back to the supply pipes.Fabric 01 ETFE cushions Section 1:10. building are sufficiently high to avoid this sheet material. Junction with adjacent roof 2 1 1 1 2 3 8 3 5 5 Section 1:10. similar to that thickness weighs around 1000g/m². and its durability Some manufacturers' systems have one-way of the cushion. and that levels of relative humidity is a common thickness of material for ETFE a result of damage to one of the outer mem- are suitably controlled. or internal face. Junction at base Detail B 1 Section 1:5. Heavier gauge sheet at 0. In order to provide translucent areas of roof (or façade) using the same material. based The material ETFE (ethylene-tetra-flouro-ethylene) is a polymer similar to PTFE (marketed as on visual criteria. of ETFE cushions is avoided by MCR_ 178 with a life expectancy of 25-35 years. the cushion deflates to its flat- to the underside of the cushion clamping of sheet.This does not usually cause damage to immediately below the roof.Thicknesses vary but 0.

stretched.0 can be developed for individual projects.While this can be an advantage spans in widths of around 3. ETFE cushions are often made with choice. so that sound travels easily through reason. 7. 8. drumming effect during rain resulting from form cushions that vary from the rectangular MCR_ 179 . 9. Solar shading has the effect of varying the amount of solar to suit project conditions.The in noisy internal environments. it can be an metres between clamped frames. 3. with a The sound absorption of ETFE cushions Fabrication ETFE cushions are usually fabricated in but of a width of around 1. Junction of clamping plates Detail D Isometric view of junction of clamping plates 1 2 1 4 3 10 10 6 5 6 5 7 Details 1. ETFE does be varied by allowing the middle layer to material. 10. 5. Plastic air supply tube Main air supply tube Insulated metal lined gutter Metal flashing ETFE cushion with contours shown for clarity 2 2 1 1 5 5 sheet is manufactured which provides The amount of solar shading provided can the use of a thin . Cushions can also produce a er in the workshop to form wider sheets to the roof where more shading is required. though other colours and patterns the material.30 metres.The middle layer moves where extensive planting is displayed. membrane around 40% light transmission. manufactured in rolls of considerable length onto the surface of the ETFE cushion. though either outwards or inwards to increase the the translucent white sheet has greatly overlap of the printed screen of dots that the workshop but can be assembled on site reduced UV light transmission. making it ideal for use in buildings within the cushion. For this reflective silver colour being a popular is low. in lengths printed dots on clear ETFE sheet reduce the inappropriate material if external noise is up to between 15 . not provide a barrier to the passage of UV move as a result of changing the air pressure light. 4.5 metres. Larger can be increased further by printing dots on spaces where a quiet environment is cushions are made by welding sheet togeth- two faces of the air-filled cushion in areas of required.Section 1:5.The material is can be provided by a pattern of dots printed shading provided. 2. Junction of clamping plates 1 ETFE cushion Extruded aluminium clamping plate Extruded aluminium retaining profile Plastic edge bead to fabric membrane Supporting structure 6.0 metres to 4. but this able to travel through the roof to internal up to 60 metres have been used. but lengths light transmission to around 50-60%. Section 1:10.

of the cush- that serves as a second line of defence to the mild steel tube. Damage its supporting frame.The com- timber all being used to suit the design. which is wider than bined with a high resistance to tear. Junction of clamping plates Details Detail E Isometric view of junction of clamping plates Section 1:5. Insulated metal lined gutter 9. ETFE cushion Extruded aluminium clamping plate 3. Larger cushions sometimes use a net is drained away in grooves formed adjacent ETFE cushions and the supporting steelwork. ETFE cushion with contours shown for clarity 1 2 9 3 4 5 form created from a standard width of ETFE aluminium. Plastic air supply tube 7. In welded process undertaken in the workshop. metres have been made in a variety of holding it in place with an aluminium pres- with mild steel. the water restraint. Supporting structure 6.The aluminium fram- ion has an effect on its depth. being drained back to the outside of the The cushions have an edge bead. brane does not spread easily into a larger MCR_ 180 . mild steel tubes by fixing the framing onto T- visually striking when viewed from around with a drained and ventilated inner chamber sections which are welded in short lengths the building. but less framing is by sharp objects puncturing an outer mem- clamping frame.0 clipping it into an aluminium profile. plete assembly usually performs in a similar (E). which is used to retain the panel in around 100mm wide. that holds the panel in place by sheet. then supported by a structural frame beneath. the clamped framing assembly is fixed to The welded seams are visible but are not way to the framing used for glazed roofs. Metal flashing 10. typically roof.The cushion is set into a that used for glazed roofs. or span.Fabric 01 ETFE cushions 1 1 2 2 2 9 3 3 5 10 3 5 Section 1:5. Plastic edge bead to fabric membrane 5. where the against rainwater penetration.0 x 7. usually made from extruded required than that used on glazed roofs . Extruded aluminium retaining profile 4.The clamping assembly is typically The complete ETFE cushion assembly is Durability The toughness of ETFE sheet is com- in plastic.The width. Cushions up to around 7. of connected cables to provide additional to the edges of the ETFE cushions. Main air supply tube 8. aluminium and laminated shapes from circles to hexagons using a hot sure plate that clamps the edges. 2. Any rainwater ing spans between the T-section supports to depth is typically around 1/5 the span of the that passes through the outer clamping plate provide a visual separation between the cushion. Junction with adjacent roof 1.

some where there is a gradual loss of surface is visible. times fitted to avoid providing any spaces for introduced on long span roofs between sets ETFE sheet melts at around 275°C. Cushions holes in the fabric which allows the heat and resistance to surface fading from UV light are repaired by the use of ETFE tape. Neuchatel. but they have great difficulty in cable assistance or from external structure.Isometric view of junction of ETFE cushion assembly 10 5 10 9 Arteplage. except on Roofs are designed so as to ensure rainwa- burns. since the material melts rather than coming to rest on the roof itself. ETFE sheet is also highly resistant panel. where the ETFE cushions are Performance in fire A major concern in the use of polymer not affected by the fire. which smoke of a fire to escape. where wire is some- ter drains easily from the roof. making cushion from the roof. 2 3 8 5 Isometric view of junction of junction with gutter tear easily. result in little are usually cleaned as a result of rain in tem- fabric roofs is their performance in fire. with an aver- roofs relatively easy to maintain. since this may reflectivity. Gutters are carried away in the rising hot air of a fire. Architect: Groupe Multipac. ETFE roofs materials for single layer and multiple layer age wall thickness of 0. or by complete replacement of the roofs still require smoke vents.2mm. though access for mainte- sheet is not easily inflammable and will self- nance is required. forming birds to stand. Its low level of surface friction ensures that cushions do not hold dirt and dust easily. as shown in (F).The material has fairly high of clamping plates. depending largely on the visual not always occur during a fire if the smoke to attack from chemicals and from airborne requirements of the roof design. However. Switzerland. Few MCR_ 181 . usually provided by walk- extinguish quickly under direct flame. fire. and heat is being generated in an area away pollution in urban areas. Birds can puncture the outer ing along the external clamping plates with burning fragments will fall below during a membrane. perate climates. with most of the burnt material being the clamping plates.The small amounts of material used in ETFE cushions. ETFE material being deposited during a fire.

Spain. which is typically a mixture the membrane. described here can be applied equally to takes up a minimum of surface area as a which forms another aspect of design devel- hyperbolic paraboloid forms. either by specialist structural consultants or by manu- and same construction details. Architect: Schlaich Bergermann und Partner / Ayuntamiento de Madrid Isometric view of cone-shaped fabric roof Details 4. typically ric roof the membrane is structurally mod- external wall. mainly wind MCR_ 182 . In a fab- interfaces with adjacent areas roof and ric roofs are their smooth curves. but the construction principles bles. Fabric membrane panel Supporting mild steel structure Extruded aluminium retaining profile 6. Cone-shaped fabric roof 11 1 1 2 2 2 2 The following two sections discuss the two them. Stainless steel connector Membrane skirt Gutter formed by membrane skirt 10. For that rea- of 30 years ago were based. 8. 3. not just from the supporting struc- that allow diffused daylight to pass through distributes the tensile forces within the ture but from imposed loads. where the soap film wall of the bubble be suitable for draining away rainwater. Mild steel ring support 11. 5. 2. resisting all load combinations in their differ- shape of a hyperbolic paraboloid. 9. elled so that the resultant form developed to keep all parts of the fabric membrane in sharp edges that provide translucent roofs between architect and structural engineer tension. A third type. on facturers as part of the design development son its specific geometry is not discussed observations of how forces act in soap bub- process. Madrid. Plastic edge bead to fabric membrane Extruded aluminium clamp assembly Stainless steel cable 7. result of the surface tension of the wall of opment. 1. uses the same principles as those for these two types and is constructed using the same principles ent directions. with the resulting design shaped' roof. Fabric cover to close ring Section 1:400.The resulting form is designed with different in opposite directions. together with the treatment of The advantages of single membrane fab- the bubble being evenly distributed. in part.They use their curvature as a method membrane without over-tensioning some most common shapes used for single layer of tensioning the membrane against a sup- parts and under-tensioning other parts of roofs: the 'cone-shaped' roof and the 'barrel- porting structure.This work is usually developed Fabric roof principles Early examples of fabric roof structures in the form of a computer model.Fabric 02 Single membrane : Cone-shaped roof 1 11 1 1 1 2 2 Plaza de toros.The minimal surface form must also here. based on the of mild steel tubes and stainless steel cables. and thin.

which can detract from the PVC-coated polyester fabric and PTFE-coat- ous clamped fixings similar to those intended lightweight effect of the mem- ed glass fibre fabric.Plan 1:400. more of the structural loads are sand can cause permanent stretching of the in the material. Other open- of the supporting structure take up the loads within their own supporting frame. Both are woven cloth described in the previous section on ETFE brane.The distribu- steep to avoid creating areas or pockets on the following section make use of an internal tion of loads within the fabric roof design is the fabric roof where they can collect. to tension it in some areas. or can become tensioned . the high points adjoining structure.Wind pressures are resisted by re-dis- downloads from the membrane and visual effect on the adjoining structure is bal- tributing the forces within the fabric mem- imposed loads (mainly wind loads) and the anced with the requirements of the mem- brane. rather than contain the usually applied on both sides. Generally speaking. Any areas of the fabric roof that go lower points at the edges take up the effect brane roof and its own frame.Where roofs transfer forces to an materials which are protected by coatings. Cone-shaped fabric roof 1 1 1 1 2 Elevation 1:400. into compression as a result of slackness in of wind uplift. which membrane.either at points or with continu- visually heavy. steel structure that supports part of the revealed in the supporting structure. In shallow sloped roof mem- the membrane reveal themselves as creases branes. Cone-shaped fabric roof 6 1 1 1 1 2 2 loads. with can be as visually lightweight and elegant as roof edges where the material is held and the fabric membrane itself. the weave materials are used as solar shading Both the cone-shaped example in this Where imposed loads such as snow or Fabric types The two most common fabrics used are MCR_ 183 . taken by the edges or points at the base. fabric membrane. cushions. the form of the roof and often resulting in large columns or posts its associated slopes are made sufficiently section and the barrel-shaped example of being required at these points.

softeners and plasticisers.The coating pro- quers are also used. which results all these woven materials the strength of the vas is less stable than synthetic fabrics when from the softeners within the material grad- fabric can be different in the two directions used in tension structures. tects the fabric against the effects of rain and roof using this material is 500-800g/m². Acrylic lac- be checked when the material type is cho- sides with a layer of PVC.These are made from polymer appearance of natural canvas. and allowing the weft directions are similar. sometimes with a protective coating ial is used only where its appearance and additional outer coat of lacquer slows down applied to the manufactured thread itself.The typical weight of sen. In most commonly used roof mem- span fabric roofs. the tensile strength of the warp and PVC/polyester fabrics are made from attract little dust and dirt. the strength of the' warp' threads with a similar texture to natural canvas.The PVC coating is a mixture of PVC/polyester membrane roof will last MCR_ 184 .The lacquer coating also slows down the a material. UV tive coatings. but these need to polyester cloth which is coated on both membrane to be cleaned easily. An threads. ing. face has low surface friction so that it will branes. but this mater- stabilisers. and is difficult to ually moving to the surface of the PVC coat- in which the 'cloth' is woven. Clamping ring with fabric cover 6 12 6 11 12 2 1 1 2 only. A of UV light. A modified acrylic canvas material. pigments and fire retardants.When selecting clean. Neither material is suitable for long cally used. A running the length of the material is com- sometimes used for its greater dimensional PVDF lacquer (a fluorinated polymer) is typi- pared to the 'weft' threads running the stability. is fading effects of the colour pigments. and are manufactured without protec- Most fabric roof materials imitate the PVC powder.Fabric 02 Single membrane : Cone-shaped roof Section 1:50. In most important consideration. to individual texture is considered to be the the effect in the PVC coating of becoming increase the life expectancy of the material. Natural can- increasingly brittle with age. which also ensures that the sur- width.

Both latter being capable of being folded without it weighs 800-1500g/m². Clamping ring 5 8 1 5 8 5 5 around 15-25 years.Section 1:5. Most dirt is washed away by rain. PTFE/glass fibre membranes are made Comparison of types Both PVC/polyester and PTFE/glass fibre 5 naturally from its manufactured beige colour after a few months of being exposed to sun- from a glass fibre mat which is coated with a have high tensile strength and high flexibility. Mild steel ring support 11. 2. Stainless steel cable 7. PTFE/glass dust. Membrane skirt 9. PTFE/glass fibre has lower surface fabric from the effects of both the weather have a light transmission of 5-20% depend- friction than PVC/polyester. Neither will catch requires cleaning more frequently. mer to remain cleaner. and both resist the deteriorating fibre requires greater care in transportation some cleaning is needed using the same effects of UV light. while PTFE/glass fibre is usu- either PVC/polyester or PTFE/glass fibre typ- ally white. Gutter formed by membrane skirt 10. MCR_ 185 . while PVC/polyester surface to reduce the collection of dirt and reflecting 75-80% of light.Typically becomes increasingly brittle with age. but fire easily. 1 Fabric membrane panel Supporting mild steel structure Extruded aluminium retaining profile Plastic edge bead to fabric membrane Extruded aluminium clamp 1 assembly 6. As with PVC/poly- making them very suitable for curved and tion also disappear as a result of bleaching in ester membranes.They both sunlight. of a PTFE/glass fibre membrane roof is have poor thermal insulation performance longer than PVC/polyester membranes at when used as a single membrane roof. though PVC/polyester to site and erection than PVC/polyester. 4. allowing the for- and UV light as well as forming a low friction ing on the thickness of membrane used. Junction of adjacent fabric membranes 6 5 5 1 1 1 6 5 8 5 6 1 Details 1. light. the coating protects the double curved roof membranes. 3. PVC/polyester has a greater range of colours Thermal insulation A single layer membrane fabric roof in readily available. Base of roof with membrane skirt Plan 1:10. the colour to which it bleaches ically has a U-value of around 6. around 30-40 years.The life expectancy have almost no acoustic performance and damage to the membrane. Stainless steel connector 8.0W/m2K. Fabric cover to close ring 5 Section 1:10. the methods as for PVC/polyester roofs. 5.Weld marks that occur during fabrica- PTFE layer such as Teflon.

Since large tears either membrane. Architect: Schlaich Bergermann und Partner / Ayuntamiento de Madrid Detail G 5 8 8 1 1 5 5 Section 1:10.The ing most of the light transmission through els are replaced where visibility is the most insulation can be fixed to the inner face of the membranes. Junction of adjacent fabric membranes meeting at different angles Detail E 5 8 8 1 1 5 5 6 Where two layered membranes are used. the Durability Fabric roofs are highly susceptible to 2 branes are less commonly used as they have within the building. Larger tears are repaired insulation can be added to a double layer the roof. Double layer mema severely reduced light transmission. depending on how the sound is difficult to absorb due to the low can affect the overall structural performance roof void is ventilated. Base of fabric roof Plaza de toros. almost transparent to sound emitted from be stitched or welded. the complete membrane importance of the role of thermal insulation with ETFE cushion roofs. single layer membranes pro- made from the same material which are main advantages of the material. Large repairs are visible. Small cuts in the membrane can be repaired with patches translucency of the material being one of the vious section.Fabric 02 Single membrane 1: Cone-shaped roof 6 2 Section 1:10. the roofs are is sometimes removed for another panel to in the reduction of energy use in buildings. low frequency important consideration. A double layer roof with an with hot air welders.With the increasing mass of the cladding material. the U-value can be reduced 10 years. Spain. Acoustics Like ETFE cushions discussed in the pre- damage from sharp objects. as used in fibre glass cladding pan- performance but will have the effect of los- fabric roof.0 W/m K. usually undertaken by membrane by using a translucent fibre-based acoustic lining will provide some acoustic the specialist contractor that installed the insulation. and pan- els discussed in the previous chapter. Madrid. and re-coated in the MCR_ 186 . to around 3. In addition. In common of the membrane.Thermal vide no significant reduction of noise through glued into position. Junction of adjacent fabric membranes meeting at same angle Detail F Section 1:10. the use of double layer fabric membranes is with a minimum air gap of 200mm between set to develop considerably over the next the membranes.

Cleaning is also an important consider- and PVC/polyester seams starting to peel at a second membrane is added or. the work being done typically from either a mobile platform or by rope access cleaners (abseilers) who are Performance in fire The performance of a membrane during ure of the membrane forms holes in the roof which allow heat and smoke to escape. PVC has fire in the space below the roof. the fail- membrane surface. 11 1 1 1 Fabric membrane panel Supporting mild steel structure Extruded aluminium retaining profile Plastic edge bead to fabric membrane Extruded aluminium clamp assembly Stainless steel cable Stainless steel connector Membrane skirt Gutter formed by membrane skirt Mild steel ring support Fabric cover to close ring 1 2 2 2 factory. if any.The method is used. face of the fabric which can cause perma- retardants in the coating so that it self-extin- nent staining. 7.Elevation 1:200. 10. 9. Regular cleaning prevents guishes when the flame source is removed mould growth. 8. attached in harnesses and suspended from a fire depends on both the fabric used and cables attached to a steel bracket anchor the stitching at the seams. monly. but seams lower surface friction. PVC/polyester is more sus- which results in few. where this joining point on the top of the membrane roof. more com- ation in areas of high humidity where there around 100°C. The outer surface of fabric roofs are cleaned with soft brushes that wash the ceptible to mould growth than PTFE/glass to drop down from the roof. PTFE/glass fibre fibre fabrics. internal space within the building. essentially because the latter has fabrics fail at a around 1000°C. Membranes lose their ten- anchor point forms part of the steel or tim- sion under high temperatures. At 250°C the PVC melts. Cone-shaped fabric roof Details 1. 6. 5. Membrane cover Section 1:200. 2. will fail at a much lower temperature of around 270°C. 4. with on the underside of the membrane in an ber supporting structure to the membrane PVC/polyester stretching above 70-80°C. 3.With both materials. then either roof. burning fragments Condensation Where condensation is likely to occur MCR_ 187 . increased ventilation is provided with- is a higher risk of mould forming on the sur- leaving holes in the membrane. 11.

with all processes being car- stitched in conjunction with most lacquer els with edges that curve outward. Joint in widths up to around 5000mm in thickness- brane. PVC coat- ried out in the workshop. but even small pieces are now more rows of stitching visible. with higher loads requiring wider widths are similar to those required for es up to 1. Seams in PTFE/glass fibre Welded seams are made by forming a by CNC cutting machines. Large panels are usually cut seams. stitched seams. welded.The roof membrane. with small pieces In stitched panel joints.The width of the types. Barrel-shaped fabric roof 2 12 11 11 1 1 12 2 12 2 11 2 1 1 2 Membrane roof fabrication being made increasingly by a cutting rial folded over itself to strengthen the joint. avoid rainwater penetration through the that curve inward. machine.2mm.Fabric 03 Single membrane : Barrel-shaped roof Plan. while the barrel-shaped bonded or joined in a combination of stitch- sewn thread. wider seams have panels are formed by hot element welding cut by hand. strips of fabric are usually bonded onto the Roof membranes are made from individ- conical-shaped example shown in the previ- Fabric panels are joined together with outer (upper) face of the stitched seam to ous section is made from panels with edges lapped seams which are either sewn. which is visible from below the roof as 2000-3000mm. elevation 1:200. well as from outside the building. the curved forms of membranes of the material when it is under tension as a brane and its associated loads.0mm. Additional being formed from flat sheet material. PVC/polyester panels can be roof shown in this section is made from pan- ing and welding. is deter- lap between panels. with an MCR_ 188 . then heating the lapped while PTFE coated glass fibre fabric is made mined by the structural forces on the mem- areas and pressing them together. in thicknesses up to 1. ed polyester fabric is made in widths from lap. Fabric panels are usually made Joint widths vary from around 25mm to ual panels of fabric which are cut from sheet slightly undersized to allow for the stretching 100mm depending on the size of the mem- material. with the mate- rather than by stitching or bonding.

this avoids the need for an addition- plates. Architect: Shigeru Ban. the edge which can enhance the visual appearance of EPDM rod in a small pocket. Junction between panels Details Detail A 1.Section 1:10. 7. 8. the advantage of gently curved or straight. Bonding edge is then held captive within an alumini- quer removed before welding. 9. as (A) or alternative- to ensure that the PVC is fully welded and with most lacquers used on that material. 6. Fabric roofs with alternative detail used in PTFE/glass fibre 25mm diameter stainless steel cable is typi- high structural loads within the membranes canopies is to have an exposed cable con- cal. 8 1 1 10 Fabric membrane panel Supporting mild steel structure Extruded aluminium retaining profile Plastic edge bead to fabric membrane Extruded aluminium clamp assembly Stainless steel cable EPDM sealing tape Membrane skirt Gutter formed by membrane skirt Thermal insulation Welding seam Wind up lift cable (above membrane) Isometric view of roof assembly 2 2 2 2 2 Japanese Pavilion Expo 2000. 5. Hannover. which is with solvents is used on PVC/polyester fab- um clamping plate assembly similar to that applied again when the welding is complete rics only. 12. 2. Germany. that the PVDF lacquer forms a continuous seal across the joint when formed. depending on the structural forces. Cable restrained curved edges to fabric Membrane roof edges roofs usually follow a circular or catenary PVC/polyester can be both hot air welded Edges of membranes are usually either shape. An which a stainless steel cable is inserted. 10. For al strip to be added to the upper surface. Edge of roof 8 1 10 Isometric view of roof assembly 1 1 2 Section 1:10. 11. an edge bead made from a flexible PVC or welded joints on PVC membranes. 3. Straight edges are usually formed with branes to provide the required strength. Curved edges are membrane back over itself and stitching or hot air welding being that repair work and formed with a cable held in a continuous welding it to form a continuous pocket in some complex jointing can be undertaken pocket at the edges of the membrane. 4. but can be done in conjunction used for ETFE cushions. ly in a luff groove extrusion. If the joint is first sewn then brane with a series of stainless steel link within the joint itself between the mem- welded.This reinforced of the panel being jointed has the PVDF lac- the membrane on its outer surface. A can be both welded and sewn to provide a nected to the clamped edges of the mem- strip of membrane material or plastic is set MCR_ 189 . A during erection on site. additional fabric strip added either on top or stronger joint. A sleeve is formed by folding the and hot element welded.

which comprise two flat. set back to back rainwater penetration but any rainwater that corners or points. brane or. clamps sometimes have an additional cover ter can collect. Additional straps are Where two cables meet at membrane around 100mm away from the edge of the Clamping plates are also used at the sometimes added to ensure that the mem- cable. Edge of roof with penetration Elevation 1:10. is drained a stainless steel cable fixing which is secured plate and supporting extrusion used at joints away within the groove which also serves as with a pin connection back to a supporting between panels. 9 Fabric membrane panel Supporting mild steel structure Extruded aluminium retaining profile Plastic edge bead to fabric membrane 10 2 Elevation 1:10. A reinforced plastic edge strip or rod.Water is then drained at steel plate. 3. Roof penetration Detail M 2 1 1 1 8 5 5 5 2 Details 2 1. typically of 10mm diame- the clamping plates are positioned to ensure strip is sometimes added into the pocket but ter. that prevents the membrane from slip- that rainwater can run freely along its edge this is not visible from either above or below ping within the clamping assembly. individual brackets are the two parts are required to be fabricated fixed to a supporting wall. usually where the MCR_ 190 Rainwater can be directed along the edge of a membrane. In both cases out abrasion occurring.The clamping plates are fixed a drainage channel. Straight clamped edges use clamping strip to serve as a first line of defence against plates. where no stainless and installed separately. to form a curved end.Fabric 03 Single membrane : Barrel-shaped roof Section 1:10. where the edge of single mild steel plate.The corner of membrane is cut back to either a visible cable which is set the base of the roof. Roof penetration 2 2 2 5 1 8 2 between the cable and the membrane to steel cable is required.The rather than creating a barrier where rainwa- the roof. 4.The cable is fixed into grooved plates. rather than the clamping the membrane is held captive. they are usually fixed to a and bolted together. passes into the groove. around 100mm wide. 2.The edges of the membrane has reached a maximum size for allow the two to move independently with- membrane have a flexible plastic or EPDM either fabrication or installation. rather than being . alternatively. which follows the edge of the mem- junction between two areas of roof where brane does not slide away from the corner.

A second clamp is used to fix Membrane folds In an external fold in a roof membrane. secured. are formed as flexible membrane con- forms a continuous membrane with a smooth curved form on which the mem- nections to allow for movement between smooth curved top. Junctions requires an additional membrane cover cantilevered brackets with a curved shape with vertically-set membranes beneath the piece. 10. Edge of roof 5 1 2 2 Section 1:10. Edge of roof Detail L Section 1:5.The ducing a standing seam adjacent to the edge. 5 1 10 4 Extruded aluminium clamp assembly Stainless steel cable Stainless steel connector Membrane skirt Gutter formed by membrane skirt Thermal insulation 2 8 10 1 4 Section 1:10. Edge of roof Detail K Section 1:10. the membrane is clamped between Suspension points Suspension points at the top of a cone- an inner ring and an outer ring fixed together with bolts. fixed with fabric strips that are tral mast by cables or cantilevered brackets shaped cover is either pulled over the top of sewn or welded to the underside of the MCR_ 191 . solution. 6. alternatively. Edge of roof 1 1 5 5 4 2 8 8 2 Section 1:10. shaped fabric roof are usually formed either the cone-shaped membrane that covers the the material is draped over the supporting by a metal ring. while the second 'palm tree' option are set out radially in order to create a roof. of projecting curved metal brackets which ring is either freely suspended from cables. by intro- or.The brackets are usually aligned roof and wall. as when the fabric The first option with a metal ring In the 'palm tree' supported solution. ing users pass beneath. the continuity of the membrane. by a 'palm tree' arrangement the central mast or clamped around it. In the 'ring' with joints between membrane panels.The top of the conical- structure.Section 1:10. Clamping plate assembly 5 4 1 4 7 allowed to fall directly off the edge. 7. A strip of membrane is rolled around a foam serve to tension the continuous membrane or is firmly fixed to the mast with can- strip and is welded or stitched to the mem- against its supporting mast set within the tilevered brackets to which the ring is brane. Edge of roof at abutment 8 5. roof forms an external canopy. 9. without any breaks in brane is set. 8. which is fixed back to a cen- top of the ring.This is particularly useful where build- building.

straps beneath. In practice this is difficult to fix wards rather than across the ridge and securing the closing flaps being above the unless the strip is bonded or welded in posi- downwards. Barrel-shaped fabric roof 1 Details 1. extrusion which is supported by the primary section). while the clamp itself is fixed to a cen- continuous line. 9 10 2 2 membrane and clamped to the supporting each membrane is clamped with an edge structure. Architect: Shigeru Ban. with the clamping strip junction. forming membranes at the external fold. the strip is fixed to the top of the joint to con- tral cable. as (E – previous not submerged when functioning as a gutter. 3. curved to membrane strips is supported off the metal internal fold. 8. clamping are clamped down to a thin pressure plate two gutters where the pressure plate joint is them with a pressure plate to an aluminium between the membranes. tolerances on site. joined with a pressure plate set method is to form a joint between two sewn or welded to the base of the strip and above the level of the adjacent roof. with the membrane folded out- gutters are formed.The edge of straps in place were lower than that shown.The clamp that closes the two structure. An additional membrane cover bead. Edge of roof with penetration 2 Section 1:200. a single membrane is sewn or form the shape taken up by the membrane. 7. as (F – previous section). 9. 5. 2. Germany. In some cases the membrane level of the water being drained.The gap between the membranes same principle of sewn or welded strips can ceal the stitching if required. 4. By raising the closing strips welded to each side of the joint and the link- Internal folds are formed in the same above the height of the join. such as a mild steel tube. Fabric membrane panel Supporting mild steel structure Extruded aluminium retaining profile Plastic edge bead to fabric membrane Extruded aluminium clamp assembly Stainless steel cable Stainless steel connector Membrane skirt Gutter formed by membrane skirt Thermal insulation 5 8 2 2 Japanese Pavilion Expo 2000. 6. MCR_ 192 Where two joining members form a Where a single gutter is required in an . Hannover.Fabric 03 Single membrane : Barrel-shaped roof 2 1 Section 1:10. two adjacent ing membrane is held in tension across the way as hips. 10.These junctions are being submerged in water if a single gutter brane.The solution of two strips joined with formed by clamping the ends of adjacent were formed where the clamp holding the a clamping plate allows more easily for fixing membranes that form the valley. An alternative is closed by two membrane strips which are be applied. rather than tion on site on at least one side of the mem- may pass under the cable.

membrane skirts are used to form a The membrane skirt at the base of the roof plate fixed onto a base plate which is weld- junction. two components to avoid abrasion. as in the barrel-shaped same principle can be applied where a gutter is formed at the base of a roof. as (G – previous section). an additional becoming too hot from the effects of the membrane skirt can be used to drain away sun (as a result of direct contact with the water. can be added to the supporting a watertight seal. MCR_ 193 . In (L). is set between the metal flashing and the brane panels. A clamping strip is used to fix the al member that penetrates the roof.The Where the membrane is formed over arched supports. where the mem- gutter. which also forms of the skirt is clamped to the projecting off the roof. Junction between membrane roof panels 11 3 5 5 5 11 5 2 9 9 5 5 10 2 At the base of a fabric roof. the metal flashing is structure.The membrane skirt is sewn or weld- supporting steelwork) as well as to allow the ed to the membrane in the workshop. a metal sheet to shed water directly membrane to the flashing. or forms a continuous part of a support- at the roof edge. as (K). A where it is mechanically fixed to a metal membrane skirt that fits around the structur- gutter to drain away rainwater or. where there is a risk of water being held membrane to both avoid the member from behind the clamping plate. alterna- flashing.The top tively. as (M).The same principle is applied is clamped to the side wall of an insulated ed. are closed with a specially formed provides a sealed termination to a roof. a clamping roof.Where the clamping plate is at the fixed to the timber arches. Adjacent penetrations. also shown in ing steel member. while the base of the skirt is site structure. brane continues over the edge of the roof (M).Thermal insulation welded or bonded to the main roof mem- base of a low pitched membrane roof. as (A).Plan 1:10.

Lugano. Photographer: Christian Richters 6. Netherlands. Haarlemmermeer. Italy. Riken Yamamoto and Field Shop. Holland. Japan. GRP rooflights Bus Station. Profiled metal sheet Atelier and House. Concrete: Exposed membrane Natural Unit / Studio House Masaki Endoh and Masahiro Ikeda Photographer: Hiro Sakaguchi 11. Nicholas Michelin Photographer: C. Arata Isozaki & Associates. Photographer:Yasuhiro Ishimoto 24. Photographer: Courtesy of Office 20. Germany. Single membrane: 2 Japanese Pavilion Expo 2000. Mecanoo architekten Photographer: Christian Richters 14.The Netherlands. Single membrane: 1 Plaza de toros. Japan. Metal canopies The Giovanni and Marella Agnelli Art Gallery at Lingotto. Rainscreens Shimosuwa Municipal Museum. Arnheim. Renzo Piano Building Workshop Photographers: Gianni Berengo Gardin and Michel Denancé 22. Netherlands. Biwa-cho.Turin. ETFE cushions Arteplage. Groupe Multipac. Limoges. Berlin.Timber flat roof 1: Mastic asphalt Saltwater Pavilion. Germany. Japan. France. Architect: Asymptote. Japan. Bellemo & Cat Photographer: Mark Munro 25. Australia. Concrete: Concealed membrane International Port Terminal. Tokyo. Japan. Photographer: Courtesy of Oosterhuis Associates 23.PHOTO REFERENCES Cover photo: Hydrapier. Haarlemmermeer. Architect: Asymptote. Spain. Yokohama. Hannover. Shuhei Endo Architect Institute Photographer:Yoshiharu Matsumura 8. Bolt fixed glazing 2 Conference Bubble. Stuttgart. Schlaich Bergermann und Partner / Ayuntamiento de Madrid Photographer: Roland Halbe 29. Glazed canopies Train Station. Toyo Ito & Associates Photographer: Courtesy of Toyo Ito & Associates 17. GRP panels and shells Bus Station. Mario Botta Photographer: Pino Musi 26. Heilbronn Auer und Weber / Schlaich Bergermann und Partner Photographer: Roland Halbe 9. Demonfaucon 16. Foreign Office Architects Photographer: Satoru Mishima 10. Shiga Prefecture. Neeltje Jans. Pitched roof: metal House. Madrid. Oosterhuis Associates. Concrete: Planted Saitama Prefectural University. Pitched roof:tiles Nara Centennial Hall. Photographer: Christian Richters 21. Labfac / Finn Geipel. France. Photographer: Christian Richters 13 Bolt fixed glazing 1 Hydrapier. Neuchatel. Switzerland. Renzo Piano Building Workshop Photographer: Enrico Cano 18. Italy. Holland. Silicone-sealed glazing and rooflights DG Bank. London. Metal standing seam Museum. Wye River. Lake Suwa. Architect: Shigeru Ban Photographer: Roland Halbe . Dirk van Postel. Toyo Ito & Associates Photographer: Courtesy of Toyo Ito & Associates 19.Timber flat roof 2: Bitumenbased sheet Pavilion. Hoofddorp. Photographer: Roland Halbe 12. NIO architecten Photographer: Hans Pattist 27. Japan. Greenhouse glazing and capped systems Auer und Weber Amazonian House. Composite panels School of Decorative Arts. Arata Isozaki Photographer:Hisao Suzuki 7. Bonded glass rooflights+decks Pavilion.Turin. Photographer: Roland Halbe 28. Lingotto Factory Conversion. Pitched roof:slates Tateyama Museum of Toyama. Switzerland. Burgundy. Architect: Frank O Gehry Photographer: Roland Halbe MCR_ 194 15.

Machteld Schoep of Mecanoo Architekten. Japan. MCR_ 195 . Elizabeth Hughes of Foreign Office Architects. Natural Ellipse. Zaha Hadid Architects. wrote the text. London.Tokyo. Masaki Endoh and Masahiro Ikeda. Oosterhuis Associates. where she worked on the Cultural Centre in New Caledonia. Schlaich Bergermann und Partner. Bellemo & Cat. Bruges Pavilion Toyo Ito & Associates Photographer: Roland Halbe 3.Takako Fujimoto of Arata Isozaki & Associates.Yasmin can be contacted at: ywatts@newtecnic. Gianni Berengo Gardin. He is working on a companion volume in the Modern Construction series. Pino Musi. Light Wing at MoMa Tom Wiscombe / Emergent Photographer: Courtesy of Emergent 2. Andrew Watts has a Masters Degree from the University of Cambridge in Interdisciplinary Design. Mark Munro. Strasbourg. Christian Richters. he has worked on some well-known projects around the world including Federation Square.Tram Station. Andrew Watts has 20 years' experience working as an architect specialising in facade detailing on international projects with a wide range of construction technologies. Yasmin Watts designed the book. Hisao Suzuki. drew the illustrations on CAD and set out the pages. Andrew Watts is currently a facade specialist on the Bur Juman Project in Dubai. Mrs Helena Watts. ranging from their wider content to the quality of print paper. for proof reading in the final stages. Hiro Sakaguchi. She undertook both the illustrations and the graphic design of the layouts. Peter Horn. David Marold is Editor for Architecture and Building Techniques at Springer Verlag in Vienna. working on some of his most notable buildings. Melbourne and the Millennium Bridge. Germany. Maurice Nio of NIO architecten. Stuttgart. Zaha Hadid Architects. Andrew can be contacted at awatts@newtecnic.Yoshiharu Matsumura.Tom Wiscombe of Emergent. Dirk van Postel. France. Frank O Gehry. He was a project architect for Jean Nouvel in Paris. Riken Yamamoto and Field Shop.AUTHORSHIP Andrew Watts conceived the book. Paola Pellandini of Studio Architetto Mario Botta. Shuhei Endo. Groupe Multipac. Satoru Mishima. Demonfaucon. Mercedes Benz Design Center. and the Cité Internationale in Lyon.Yasuhiro Ishimoto.Yasmin Watts was an architect at the Renzo Piano Building Workshop in Paris. Roland Halbe. Labfac. Michel Denancé. Auer und Weber. France. Masaki Endoh and Masahiro Ikeda Photographer: Hiro Sakaguchi 5. I would like to thank all the following photographers for providing images of their work: Enrico Cano. More recently as a facade specialist. Chiara Casazza of Renzo Piano Building Workshop. I would also like to thank the following people for providing photographic images: Asymptote Architects. one of the largest facade projects in the Middle East. He has driven this book from a set of basic layouts to a completed book. Grant Suzuki of Shigeru Ban He has a passion for books and their design. Photographer: Roland Halbe 4. who has adapted the book for use in the German speaking countries. Photographs in the essay on roof testing are by the author. He presented a paper on passive and low energy design to the PLEA Conference 2000. AUTHOR'S THANKS ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHS USED IN THE INTRODUCTION I would like to thank my mother. C. The German language edition of this book has been translated by Norma 1. Renzo Piano Building Workshop Photographer: Peter Horn Photographs of other projects in the Introduction which are illustrated elsewhere in the book have credits as per the photo references on the previous page. Mariko Nishimura of Toyo Ito & Associates.

Les Systèmes de Couverture Moniteur Architecture AMC May 2001. December 2003. Defining Component-based Design Architectural Record. Japan. Groupe Multipack. Autumn 2002. Wye River.396. Labfac / Finn Geipel. September 2002. Bellemo & Cat Architectural Review. July/August 2001. Lingotto Factory Conversion. from a materials-based standpoint. Renzo Piano Building Workshop A+U December 1996. Building with Metal Architectural Review June 2002. Bolt fixed glazing: Hydrapier. Mercedes Benz Design Center. September 2000. Yokohama. Emergent Architectural Forms A+U No. January/February 2004. DG Bank. Breath of Fresh Air RIBA Journal February 2003. Australia. GA Document November 1996. Limoges.Turin. August 2001. France. Detail. Switzerland. Gehry Domus. Techniques et Architecture. October 2002. Metal tiles House. April 2000. Bruges Pavilion Toyo Ito & Associates Architecture d'Aujourd'hui January/February 2002. Bolt fixed glazing: Conference Bubble. Neuchatel. . Arteplage. Berlin. Blob and Build Architecture d'Aujourd'hui September/October 2002. Material Assets Architectural Review August 2004 Material Witnesses Architectural Review May 2000. MCR_ 196 / Ayuntamiento de Madrid Deutsche Bauzeitung. Foreign Office Architects Japan Architect.The subject matter of these articles covers general issues about the nature and the future of roof construction. Italy. Form and Materials A+U No. May 2001. Germany. Renzo Piano Building Workshop Architectural Review January 2000. July 2004. Hoofddorp. Domus. Domus. Manufacturing Complexity Architectural Design May/June 2004. International Port Terminal. Enginering Enlightenment Architectural Review July 2003. Casabella 705 November 2002. Germany. Spain. September 2003. Schlaich Bergermann und Partner Greenhouse glazing and capped glazing Auer und Weber Amazonian House. Stuttgart. NIO architecten Architectural Review. Netherlands. Casabella 705. Nicholas Michelin Architecture d'Aujourd'hui. Architect: Asymptote. Glass at the Cutting Edge Architectural Review August 2001 Canopy Plaza de toros. Stuttgart. Haarlemmermeer. Light Wing at MoMa Tom Wiscombe/Emergent A+U September 2003. Composite panels School of Decorative Arts. September 2003. December 1994. Auer und Weber website GRP panels and shells Bus Station. Architecture d'Aujourd'hui. November 2002.The Netherlands.This bibliography lists articles from the international technical press from the years 2000 to 2005. Madrid. Magazine references are also given for further exploration of projects illustrated within the book. Glass Action Architectural Review August 2003.412.

August 2004. Photovoltaic Cells RIBA Journal June 2002. Polycarbonate rooflights Bus Station. Skin Architecture A+U No. Smart Skins for the Hyperbody Techniques et Architecture No. Vegetation Systems Architectural Record. Switzerland. Neeltje Jans. Shiga Prefecture. On Shells and Blobs: Structural Surfaces in the Digital Age Harvard Design Magazine. View from the Top Architecture Today. July/August 2001. Saltwater Pavilion. Japan. Rooftop Oasis Architecture June 2001.Turin. Architectural Review. September 2002. Germany. Italy.BIBLIOGRAPHY Natural Ellipse. Winter 2003. October 1996. Burgundy. Fall/Winter 2003-4. Pavilion. Saitama Prefectural University. Toyo Ito & Associates Japan Architect. May 2003. Tiles: Nara Centennial Hall. Japan. October 2002. France. GA Document November 1996. Domus. Casabella 702 July/August 2002. Masaki Endoh and Masahiro Ikeda Architectural Review/April 2003 Architecture d'Aujourd'hui May/June 2003. September 2000. Holland. Auer und Weber / Schlaich Bergermann und Partner Industria delle Construzione. January/February 2002. Riken Yamamoto and Field Shop. March 2003. Tensile supported Japanese Pavilion Expo 2000. Mario Botta Architectural Review. Japan.448. Tokyo. December 1998. Casabella 687 March 2001.Tokyo. Autumn 2003. Nature Talking with Nature Architectural Review January 2004. MCR_ 197 . Solar shading The Giovanni and Marella Agnelli Art Gallery at Lingotto. Mecanoo architekten Architectural Review August 2000.385. Holland. Natural Unit / Studio House Masaki Endoh and Masahiro Ikeda JA Spring 2000 Architecture d'Aujourd'hui. May 2001. The New Paradigm in Architecture Architectural Review February 2003. Lugano. Lake Suwa. Tram Station. Renzo Piano Building Workshop A+U December 1996. Standing seam metal Museum. Rainscreens Shimosuwa Municipal Museum. Japan. Zaha Hadid Architects. Arnheim. Roofing Matters Architecture New Zealand July/August 2002. Pavilion. Roof Structures Detail 7/8. 2002. Hannover. Architectural Review. Biwa-cho. Heilbronn. Profiled cladding Atelier and House. Shigeru Ban Architectural Review. Dirk van Postel. France. Detail 7/8. April 2003. Arata Isozaki & Associates. Arata Isozaki Japan Architect Yearbook 1999 Train Station canopy. Japan. April/May2000. 2004. Toyo Ito & Associates Casabella 711. Strasbourg. Roof Construction. Slate:Tateyama Museum of Toyama. Shuhei Endo Architect Institute Architectural Review. Sound and Light Made to Measure Architecture d'Aujourd'hui May/June 2003. Oosterhuis Associates. Spring 1994. Japan Architect. London. Japan Architect. Japan.

Bitumen-based sheet membranes The material Roof build-up Solar protection Fixing methods Parapet upstands Junction with tiled roof Eaves and verges 130 130 130 131 133 133 134 135 135 136 136 137 138 138 139 140 141 G Glazed canopies Four edge restrained canopy Bonded glass canopies Greenhouse glazing and capped systems Greenhouse glazing Modern roof glazing Capped systems GRP Panels and shells Smaller panels and shells Larger panels and shells GRP Rooflights Eaves and upstands 102 105 106 66 66 69 69 168 168 171 162 164 . Mastic asphalt coverings Warm and cold roofs The material Warm roof build-up Solar protection Upstands Eaves and verges Penetrations Gutters and rainwater outlets Flat roof. Bonded glass rooflights Generic conical rooflight Generic rectangular rooflight Generic monopitch rooflight Glass roof decks 78 79 79 80 81 82 84 85 86 87 88 90 96 96 97 99 99 C Composite panel roofs Single wall composite panels Twin wall panels Ridges Verges Eaves Parapets and valley gutters Concealed membrane Materials Structural joints Parapet upstands Balustrades and plinths Rainwater outlets Penetrations for pipes and ducts 46 46 48 49 49 50 50 110 110 111 113 114 114 115 E MCR_ 198 ETFE Cushions 176 Cushions Air supply The material Fabrication Durability Performance in fire Exposed membrane Polymer-based membranes PVC membranes FPO (TPO) membranes Mechanically fixed method Bonded fixing method Parapets and upstands Ballasted roofs 176 177 178 179 180 181 116 117 118 119 119 119 120 121 F Flat roof.A An overview of roof systems Metals Glass Concrete Timber Plastics Fabrics 8 8 10 12 13 14 14 B Bolt fixed glazing Generic support methods Supporting brackets Bolt fixings Arrangement of bolt fixings Glazed units Bolt fixed glazing: Pitched roofs and rooflights Base of glazed roof External and internal folds Small glazed rooflights Larger rooflights Bolt fixed glazing:Twin wall roofs.

fabricators and installers 16 MCR_ 199 .Verges Abutments Sliding roof panels 166 166 167 M Metal canopies Bolt fixed panels Fixed metal louvre canopies Electrically operated louvres Metal rainscreen roofs Panel arrangement Parapets Monopitch ridges and verges Roof geometry Roof soffits Metal standing seam roofs Site-based method Prefabricated methods Sealed and ventilated roofs Roof openings Ridges and valleys Eaves and parapets 58 61 61 63 52 53 54 55 56 57 34 34 35 37 37 38 39 P Performance testing of roofs Air infiltration test Water penetration tests Wind resistance tests Impact resistance test Dismantling of sample Pitched roof: Metal Standing seam cold roofs Eaves and valley gutters Ridges and abutments Penetrations Metal tiled roofs Pitched roof: Slates Roof folds Vents Monopitch ridges Dormer windows Abutments Pitched roof:Tiles Plain tiles Interlocking tiles Ventilation Eaves Ridges Verges Hips and valleys 18 18 19 19 19 19 154 155 155 155 156 156 148 149 149 149 152 152 142 142 143 144 145 146 146 147 Abutments Planted concrete roofs Planted roof components Soil depth Overflows Roof junctions Rainwater outlets Balcony planters Profiled metal sheet roofs Profiled metal decks as substrates Profiled metal roof sheeting Sealed and ventilated methods Twin skin construction Ridges Openings Eaves and parapets Ridges and valleys INDEX 147 122 123 124 125 125 126 126 40 40 41 41 42 43 43 44 45 R Roof-mounted facade cleaning systems 20 Davit systems 21 Monorails 23 Trolley systems 27 S Silicone-sealed glazing and rooflights Silicone-sealed systems Junctions Use of capped profiles Rooflights Single membrane: Barrel-shaped roof Membrane roof fabrication Membrane roof edges Suspension points Membrane folds Single membrane: Cone-shaped roof Fabric roof principles Fabric types Comparison of types Thermal insulation Acoustics Durability Performance in fire Condensation 72 72 73 75 76 188 188 189 191 191 182 182 183 185 185 186 186 187 187 W Working with manufacturers.

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