Some Impotent Definitions

What is DNS?
 DNS short for “Domain Name System”, which maintains a database that can helps your computer to translate domain name such as to IP address such as and also translate IP address to Domain Names as well.  DNS allows machines to be logically groups by name domains.  DNS is based on the “named” daemon, which is built on the BIND package. Developed through the Internet software consortium.

There are four types of DNS servers:
 Master DNS, which stores authoritative records for your Domain.  Slave DNS, which relies on a Master DNS server for data.  Caching-Only DNS, which stores recent requests like a proxy server, its otherwise refers to the other DNS severs.  Forward-only DNS, which refers all requests to other DNS server.

What is DNS zone?
A zone is a part of the DNS database administered by a single name server. There are two types of DNS zones:  Forward-Lookup zone: maps host names to IP address.  Reverse-Lookup zone: maps IP address to Host name.

Types of main DNS Records:
 SOA record: The first resource record is the Start of Authority (SOA) which contains general administrative and control information about the domain.  A record: A records maps hostname to IP address.  PTR record: PTR records maps IP address to hostname.  CNAME record: CNAME records maps address aliases.  MX record: MX records maps mail server for a domain.

What is RAID?
RAID Short for “Redundant Array of Independent (or Inexpensive) Disks”, a category of disk drives that use two or more drives in combination for fault tolerance and performance. RAID disk drives are used frequently on servers but aren't generally necessary for personal computers. We use RAID to achieve redundancy, lower latency, increased bandwidth and maximized ability to recover from hard disk crashes.
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There are number of different RAID levels:  Level 0 -- Striped Disk Array without Fault Tolerance: Provides data striping (spreading out blocks of each file across multiple disk drives) but no redundancy. This improves performance but does not deliver fault tolerance. If one drive fails then all data in the array is lost.  Level 1 -- Mirroring and Duplexing: Provides disk mirroring. Level 1 provides twice the read transaction rate of single disks and the same write transaction rate as single disks.  Level 5 -- Block Interleaved Distributed Parity: Provides data striping at the byte level and also stripe error correction information. This results in excellent performance and good fault tolerance. Level 5 is one of the most popular implementations of RAID.  Level 0+1 -- A Mirror of Stripes: Not one of the original RAID levels, two RAID 0 stripes are created, and a RAID 1 mirror is created over them. Used for both replicating and sharing data among disks.  Level 1+0 -- A Stripe of Mirrors: Not one of the original RAID levels, multiple RAID 1 mirrors are created, and a RAID 0 stripe is created over these.

What is LVM?
LVM short for “logical volume manager”, a group of partitions across several disks, which appears as one single volume to the operating system is called logical volume manager. We can expand or reduce the volume size without losing data.

What is FTP?
FTP short for “File Transfer Protocol”, the protocol for exchanging files over the Internet. It is one of the original network application developed with TCP/IP suite. It follows the standard model for network services. . FTP is most commonly used to download a file from a server using the Internet or to upload a file to a server.

What is SSH?
SSH short for “Secure Shell” is a program to log into another computer over a network, to execute commands in a remote machine, and to move files from one machine to another. It provides strong authentication and secure communications over insecure channels. When using ssh login the entire login session, including transmission of password is encrypted.

What is Apache Web server?
In Apache web server we can create multiple web browser in a single system or multiple domain in single machine using one client to access data from several types of servers. The
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Apache web server was originally based on HTTPD, a free server from NCSA (The national Center for supercomputing applications). Port no: 80. Configuration file: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf Website location: /var/www/html

What is Network Information Service (NIS)?
NIS short for “Network information services”, it’s a one popular network service which can be used to manage system and account information on multiple systems from a central server. NIS servers are typically used to synchronize account information. They can share the contents of /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow and /etc/group files by converting them in to NIS maps.

What is DHCP?
DHCP Short for “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol”, a protocol for assigning dynamic IP addresses to devices on a network. DHCP also supports a mix of static and dynamic IP addresses. DHCP allows a client computer to get network configuration information from DHCP server.

What is NFS?
NFS Short for “Network File System”, a client/server application that allows all network users to access shared files stored on computers of different types. NFS provides access to shared files through an interface called the Virtual File System (VFS) that runs on top of TCP/IP. Users can manipulate (control) shared files as if they were stored locally on the user's own hard disk.

What is TELNET?
The Telnet program runs on your computer and connects your PC to a server on the network. You can then enter commands through the Telnet program and they will be executed as if you were entering them directly on the server console. This enables you to control the server and communicate with other servers on the network.

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What is DOVCOT?
Dovecot is a POP3 and IMAP mail server that can work with standard mbox and maildir formats. It is fully compatible with UW-IMAP and Courier IMAP servers as well as mail clients accessing the mailboxes directly. Dovecot is normally started during the system boot, and runs as a background process but it can also be run through inetd (8). Dovecot will log all of its activities according to syslog.

What is Quota?
Disk quotas allow you to monitor the amount of disk space left against the limit assigned to individual users or groups. Disk quotas can be controlled by per volume, per user and per group. If you suspect that a particular user is using disk space to download files from the Internet and is consuming a considerable amount of space… limit their space with quotas.

What is Samba?
Samba is a strong network service for file and print sharing that works on the majority of operating systems available today. When well implemented by the administrator, it's faster and more secure than the native file sharing services available on Microsoft Windows machines. SMB is the protocol that delivered with windows operating system for sharing file and printers.

What is IIS?
IIS short for “Internet Information Services” is used to make our computer a web server. If we want to have a web server for developing dynamic website or want to publish website on our own server then we install the IIS. IIS is used on windows platform, for other platform we have different web server. Ex: Apache for LINUX.

What is RIS?
Short for “Remote Installation Service”, RIS allows a network administrator to install the Windows operating system to any number of client computers simultaneously from a central location. The administrator places images, or versions, of built systems onto a central server and then downloads those images to a computer with an empty hard disk.

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What is RRAS?
RRAS short for “Routing and Remote Access service” it’s a multi-protocol software router integrated in Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 that provides connectivity for remote users and remote offices to the corporate network. RRAS make it possible for remote users to perform their tasks as though they are actually physically connected to the corporate network. A remote access connection enables services such as file and print sharing to be available to remote users.

What is WINS?
WINS short for “Windows Internet Naming Service” it’s a Name resolution software from Microsoft that runs in Windows NT and 2000 servers. It converts NetBIOS names to IP addresses. Windows machines that are named as a PC in a workgroup rather than in a domain use NetBIOS names, which must be converted to IP addresses if the underlying transport protocol is TCP/IP.

What is NAT?
NAT short for “Network address translations”, It is a service that is used for translate traffic coming from public network toward a private network. NAT serves three main purposes:  Provides a type of firewall by hiding internal IP addresses  Enables a company to use more internal IP addresses. Since they're used internally only, there's no possibility of conflict with IP addresses used by other companies and organizations.  Allows a company to combine multiple ISDN connections into a single Internet connection. There are 3 types of NAT: DNAT (dynamic NAT) This technique of Nating is mainly used for network internet sharing. Where as multiple private IP are mapping with one public IP through a NAT server without direct interaction.

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SNAT (static NAT) It is technique where is one to one mapping of IP occur address, Where only one machine with static IP address is connected to the NAT server, which is connected to internet without direct interaction. PAT (Port Address Translation) There is a case of DNAT where multiple hosts can used some source port numbers for accessing specific service which can create conflict. This is overcome by PAT, Where as NAT server maintain such specific source port number for specific hosts.

What is IPSec?
IPSec short for “Internet Protocol Security” A security protocol from the IETF that provides authentication and encryption over the Internet. It has been deployed widely to implement Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) IPSec supports two encryption modes: Transport and Tunnel. 1: Transport mode encrypts only the data portion (payload) of each packet, but leaves the header untouched. 2: The more secure Tunnel mode encrypts both the header and the payload. On the receiving side, an IPSec-compliant device decrypts each packet. For IPSec to work, the sending and receiving devices must share a public key. This allows the receiver to obtain a public key and authenticate the sender using digital certificates.

What is FSMO role?
Short for “Flexible Single Master Operations”, it is a feature of Microsoft's Active Directory. The schema master FSMO role holder is the domain controller responsible for performing updates to the directory schema.

What is Proxy?
A server that sits between a client application, such as a Web browser, and a real server. It intercepts all requests to the real server to see if it can fulfill the requests itself. If not, it forwards the request to the real server. Proxy servers have two main purposes: Improve Performance: Proxy servers can dramatically improve performance for groups of users. This is because it saves the results of all requests for a certain amount of time Filter Requests: Proxy servers can also be used to filter requests. For example, a company might use a proxy server to prevent its employees from accessing a specific set of Web sites.
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Group Policy Objects?
A Group Policy Object (GPO) is a collection of settings that define what a system will look like and how it will behave for a defined group of users. The GPO is associated with selected Active Directory container, such as sites, domains, or organizational units (OUs). You can use Group Policy to manage features included with the Microsoft® Windows Server 2003 family, such as Group Policy Software Installation, Administrative Templates, Folder Redirection, Remote Installation Services, Security Settings, Scripts (Startup/Shutdown and Logon/Logoff) and Internet Explorer Maintenance.

What is Software Deployment?
Software deployment is all of the activities that make a software system available for use.

What is EFS?
EFS short for “Encrypted File System”, which allow users to encrypted their files and folders. In widows server 2003 users can encrypt files and folders on local machines and across the network. In addition users can encrypt offline files. However EFS is only supports NTFS volume. FEATURES:1: EFS is only support NTFS version 5. 2: Compress files cannot be encrypted. 3: Encrypted files cannot be shared. 4: System files cannot be encrypted.

What is ICS?
ICS stands for “Internet Connection Sharing”, it’s a software package contained within the Windows operating system. ICS allows you to share network resources on a home computer network quickly and cheaply. Instead of buying a router or other hardware product, ICS allows you to designate one of your home computers as the "traffic cop."

What is DIAL UP?
Dial-up Internet access is a type of Internet connectivity that operates through a standard telephone line. By running the telephone line to a modem device in the personal computer, and configuring the computer to dial a specific phone number, the computer is granted Internet access.

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What is DHCP Relay Agent?
A DHCP Relay Agent is a computer, server or a Router in a particular subnet which receives a DHCP client broadcast and relays it to a DHCP server in another network or a subnet. A DHCP Relay Agent is more a helper agent here that gets the client a DHCP lease.

What is VPN?
VPN short for “Virtual Private Network”. A virtual private network is a source connection that allows your computer to access your organization network when you are not in campus or if you are using wireless connection. PROTOCOL: Pptp: point-to-point-tunneling-protocol IPSec, L2tp, L2tpv3, L2f, Mpls.

1: Work from home 2: Using wireless connection 3: Traveling on business. 4: Work on a remote site.

What is Backup, and How many types of Backup are there?
Backup means to take/make the copy of our data for fault tolerance. If original data will be corrupt, we can restore the data by the help of backup.

Types of Backup:
 Normal Backup: In Normal Backup, Backup of all the selected files & operating system will get information after Backup that Backup is done. Markup  Copy Backup: Backup of all the selected files but there is no information to the operating system. After Backup it not removes the archive sign from the file and folder.  Daily Backup: It is same as a copy but only for particular data. In case of daily Backup, it takes the Backup of only those files and folders which is created and modify on particular day.  Incremental Backup: Backup of only latest data and Markup after Backup, After taking the Backup, it deletes the archive sign.  Differential Backup: It means Backup of latest data but there is no change in archive attributes after Backup that means there is no information to the operating system. It means ready for Backup. (Markup/uncheck) It means Backup is done.
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