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Logical Modeling

Logical modeling deals with gathering business requirements and converting those requirements into a
model. The logical model revolves around the needs of the business, not the database, although the
needs of the business are used to establish the needs of the database. Logical modeling involves
gathering information about business processes, business entities (categories of data), and organizational
units. After this information is gathered, diagrams and reports are produced including entity relationship
diagrams, business process diagrams, and eventually process flow diagrams. The diagrams produced
should show the processes and data that exists, as well as the relationships between business processes
and data. Logical modeling should accurately render a visual representation of the activities and data
relevant to a particular business.
The diagrams and documentation generated during logical modeling is used to determine whether the
requirements of the business have been completely gathered. Management, developers, and end users
alike review these diagrams and documentation to determine if more work is required before physical
modeling commences.
Logical modeling affects not only the direction of database design, but also indirectly affects the
performance and administration of an implemented database. When time is invested performing logical
modeling, more options become available for planning the design of the physical database.
Typical deliverables of logical modeling include

Entity relationship diagrams


An Entity Relationship Diagram is also referred to as an analysis ERD. The point of the initial
ERD is to provide the development team with a picture of the different categories of data for the
business, as well as how these categories of data are related to one another.
Business process diagrams
The process model illustrates all the parent and child processes that are performed by individuals
within a company. The process model gives the development team an idea of how data moves
within the organization. Because process models illustrate the activities of individuals in the
company, the process model can be used to determine how a database application interface is
design.
User feedback documentation

Physical Modeling
Physical modeling involves the actual design of a database according to the requirements that were
established during logical modeling. Logical modeling mainly involves gathering the requirements of the
business, with the latter part of logical modeling directed toward the goals and requirements of the
database. Physical modeling deals with the conversion of the logical, or business model, into a relational
database model. When physical modeling occurs, objects are being defined at the schema level. A
schema is a group of related objects in a database. A database design effort is normally associated with
one schema.
During physical modeling, objects such as tables and columns are created based on entities and
attributes that were defined during logical modeling. Constraints are also defined, including primary keys,

foreign keys, other unique keys, and check constraints. Views can be created from database tables to
summarize data or to simply provide the user with another perspective of certain data. Other objects such
as indexes and snapshots can also be defined during physical modeling. Physical modeling is when all
the pieces come together to complete the process of defining a database for a business.
Physical modeling is database software specific, meaning that the objects defined during physical
modeling can vary depending on the relational database software being used. For example, most
relational database systems have variations with the way data types are represented and the way data is
stored, although basic data types are conceptually the same among different implementations.
Additionally, some database systems have objects that are not available in other database systems.

e software might only be available for Windows NT systems, whereas other software products such as Oracle are available on a wider rang

Typical deliverables of physical modeling include the following:

Server model diagrams


The server model diagram shows tables, columns, and relationships within a database.
User feedback documentation
Database design documentation

Conclusion
Understanding the difference between logical and physical modeling will help you build better organized
and more effective database systems. This article described both of these models.

There are various software development approaches defined and designed which are
used/employed during development process of software, these approaches are also
referred as Software Development Process Models (e.g. Waterfall model, incremental
model, V-model, iterative model, etc.). Each process model follows a particular life cycle in
order to ensure success in process of software development.
Software life cycle models describe phases of the software cycle and the order in which
those phases are executed. Each phase produces deliverables required by the next phase
in the life cycle. Requirements are translated into design. Code is produced according to the
design which is called development phase. After coding and development the testing
verifies the deliverable of the implementation phase against requirements.
There are following six phases in every Software development life cycle model:

1.

Requirement gathering and analysis

2.

Design

3.

Implementation or coding

4.

Testing

5.

Deployment

6.

Maintenance

1) Requirement gathering and analysis: Business requirements are gathered in this


phase. This phase is the main focus of the project managers and stake holders. Meetings
with managers, stake holders and users are held in order to determine the requirements
like; Who is going to use the system? How will they use the system? What data should be
input into the system? What data should be output by the system? These are general
questions that get answered during a requirements gathering phase. After requirement
gathering these requirements are analyzed for their validity and the possibility of
incorporating the requirements in the system to be development is also studied.
Finally, a Requirement Specification document is created which serves the purpose of
guideline for the next phase of the model.
2) Design: In this phase the system and software design is prepared from the requirement
specifications which were studied in the first phase. System Design helps in specifying
hardware and system requirements and also helps in defining overall system architecture.
The system design specifications serve as input for the next phase of the model.
3) Implementation / Coding: On receiving system design documents, the work is divided
in modules/units and actual coding is started. Since, in this phase the code is produced so it
is the main focus for the developer. This is the longest phase of the software development
life cycle.
4) Testing: After the code is developed it is tested against the requirements to make sure
that the product is actually solving the needs addressed and gathered during the
requirements phase. During this phase unit testing, integration testing, system testing,
acceptance testing are done.
5) Deployment: After successful testing the product is delivered / deployed to the
customer for their use.

6) Maintenance: Once when the customers starts using the developed system then the
actual problems comes up and needs to be solved from time to time. This process where
the care is taken for the developed product is known as maintenance.
The Waterfall Model was first Process Model to be introduced. It is also referred to as
alinear-sequential life cycle model. It is very simple to understand and use. In a waterfall
model, each phase must be completed fully before the next phase can begin. This type of
model is basically used for the for the project which is small and there are no uncertain
requirements. At the end of each phase, a review takes place to determine if the project is
on the right path and whether or not to continue or discard the project. In this model the
testing starts only after the development is complete. In waterfall model phases do not
overlap.

This model is used only when the requirements are very well known, clear and fixed.

Product definition is stable.

Technology is understood.

There are no ambiguous requirements

Ample resources with required expertise are available freely

The project is short.

Very less customer enter action is involved during the development of the product. Once the
product is ready then only it can be demoed to the end users. Once the product is
developed and if any failure occurs then the cost of fixing such issues are very high,
because we need to update everywhere from document till the logic.
V- model means Verification and Validation model. Just like the waterfall model, the VShaped life cycle is a sequential path of execution of processes. Each phase must be
completed before the next phase begins. Testing of the product is planned in parallel with a
corresponding phase of development.
Diagram of V-model:

The various phases of the V-model are as follows:


Requirements like BRS and SRS begin the life cycle model just like the waterfall model.
But, in this model before development is started, a system test plan is created. The test
plan focuses on meeting the functionality specified in the requirements gathering.
The high-level design (HLD) phase focuses on system architecture and design. It provide
overview of solution, platform, system, product and service/process. Anintegration test plan
is created in this phase as well in order to test the pieces of the software systems ability to
work together.
The low-level design (LLD) phase is where the actual software components are designed.
It defines the actual logic for each and every component of the system. Class diagram with
all the methods and relation between classes comes under LLD. Component tests are
created in this phase as well.

The implementation phase is, again, where all coding takes place. Once coding is
complete, the path of execution continues up the right side of the V where the test plans
developed earlier are now put to use.
Coding: This is at the bottom of the V-Shape model. Module design is converted into code
by developers.
Advantages of V-model:

Simple and easy to use.

Testing activities like planning, test designing happens well before coding. This

saves a lot of time. Hence higher chance of success over the waterfall model.
Proactive defect tracking that is defects are found at early stage.

Avoids the downward flow of the defects.

Works well for small projects where requirements are easily understood.

Disadvantages of V-model:

Very rigid and least flexible.

Software is developed during the implementation phase, so no early prototypes of

the software are produced.


If any changes happen in midway, then the test documents along with requirement
documents has to be updated.

When to use the V-model:

The V-shaped model should be used for small to medium sized projects where

requirements are clearly defined and fixed.


The V-Shaped model should be chosen when ample technical resources are
available with needed technical expertise.

High confidence of customer is required for choosing the V-Shaped model approach. Since,
no prototypes are produced, there is a very high risk involved in meeting customer
expectations.