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CONTENTS
System Requirements ....................................................................... 3
Installing Tornado .............................................................................. 3
GETTING STARTED .............................................................................. 4
Options.../Exit Buttons ....................................................................... 4
Preferences ....................................................................................... 4
Explore ............................................................................................... 5
Review ............................................................................................... 5
Logs ................................................................................................... 5
The Quickstart User's Guide ............................................................. 6
FLIGHT OPTIONS .................................................................................. 7
Simulator ............................................................................................ 7
Training .............................................................................................. 7
Combat .............................................................................................. 7
THE MISSION SELECTION SCREEN .................................................. 8
The Situation Menu ............................................................................ 8
Other Options Available ..................................................................... 8
THE MISSION PLANNER ...................................................................... 9
SECTION 1 - Using the Mission Planner - Basics ............................ 9
SECTION 2 - Planning Your Own Missions ...................................... 15
SECTION 2b - Level Two Campaigns ............................................... 18
SECTION 3 - Command Level .......................................................... 19
DEBRIEF ................................................................................................ 22
ELEMENTARY FLYING TRAINING ....................................................... 23
Starting the Simulator ........................................................................ 23
Flying the Autopilot and Reading the HUD. ....................................... 23
Level Turns and Autotrim .................................................................. 25

The Autothrottle ................................................................................. 26
Stalling ............................................................................................... 27
Wing Sweep ....................................................................................... 28
Automated Landings .......................................................................... 29
Taking Off .......................................................................................... 30
ADVANCED FLYING TRAINING ........................................................... 32
Setting up your own Approach and Landing ...................................... 33
Semi-automatic and Manual Landings .............................................. 35
Manual Approaches ........................................................................... 36
Landings and Wind Direction ............................................................. 37
Landing Damaged Aircraft... .............................................................. 37
Emergencies ...................................................................................... 38
SPILS, Spins and Spin Recovery ...................................................... 38
External Views ................................................................................... 39
WEAPONS CONVERSION .................................................................... 40
Air-to-ground ...................................................................................... 40
Weapons Training in the Simulator .................................................... 41
Air-to-air ............................................................................................. 49
AIRCREW NOTES ................................................................................. 52
Cockpit Layout ................................................................................... 52
Avionics reference ............................................................................. 60
TECHNICAL SUPPLEMENT .................................................................. 65
Customer support .............................................................................. 70
Index .................................................................................................. 72

Copyright ©1993 Digital Integration Limited
All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Digital Integration Ltd.

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CD-ROM INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS
To run Tornado from the CD-ROM, log onto your CD-ROM drive and type ‘GO’
R. Type ‘Readme’ R for more detailed information. Tornado CD will
use some space on your hard disc for configuration and setup files. You can
specify which hard disc it will use by typing the drive letter after ‘GO’ i.e. to use
drive E type ‘GO E:’ R at the CD-Rom drive root directory.
N.B. You will need at least 1Mb of free space on the drive that you choose.
You will also need at least 600k of free conventional memory for Tornado to run.
To create a boot disc for Tornado CD-Rom
If you are unable to run Tornado CD-Rom due to ‘insufficient memory’, you will
need to create a Boot Disc. Insert a blank disc to be formatted into drive A & type
‘Format A:/S’ R at the C: prompt. This will create a system disc.
Having made a system disc create a CONFIG.SYS file & an AUTOEXEC.BAT
file refering to the suggestions below.
To do this refer to the section in your DOS manual for details of the DOS ‘Edit’
command. Remember when typing ‘EDIT CONFIG.SYS’ R make sure
you are on the A: prompt.
CONFIG.SYS
DEVICE=C:\DOS\HIMEM.SYS
DEVICE=C:\DOS\EMM386.EXE NOEMS I=EØØØ-EFFF
(or try I=BØØØ-B7FF)
DOS=HIGH,UMB
FILES=15
BUFFERS=2Ø
DEVICEHIGH=C:\CDROM\CDROM.SYS /D:CDROMØ1 /P:34Ø
DEVICEHIGH=C:\DOS\DBLSPACE.SYS /MOVE
AUTOEXEC.BAT
LH C:\DOS\MOUSE.COM
LH C:\DOS\MSCDEX /D:CDROMØ1
LH C:\DOS\SMARTDRV.EXE
D:
GO

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Note:
Try each of these include statements in turn.
Replace this line with your specific CD-Rom Driver line (check
CONFIG.SYS)
You will only need this line if you use DOS 6 with Dblspace.
Change this line according to where your mouse driver is.
Modify this line according to your present autoexec.bat on your Hard Disc
or system Disc.
Try leaving this line out if you are low on memory.
This should be your CD log drive.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
IBM PC
Absolute minimum system:
• IBM PC or compatible
• DOS 5.0
• 80386 16MHz processor • 1 Mb RAM
• VGA (256k memory)
• Microsoft compatible mouse (not version 9)
• At least 600k (615,000 bytes) of free conventional memory
Recommended system:
• 80486 33Mhz or faster
• 64k external cache
• Two analogue joysticks
• 4 Mb RAM (software disc cache)
• SoundBlaster sound card • Local bus 32 bit SVGA card
• Null modem cable or Hayes-compatible modem for Two Player mode
• Trackball (substitute for mouse)
Tornado is compatible with DR DOS 6.
Tornado will not run if you have any TSR (Terminate and Stay Resident)
programs loaded into memory (e.g. DOS shells, printer spoolers etc). Remove
these from your AUTOEXEC.BAT file or make yourself a separate Tornado boot
disc (see below). Tornado will not run within Windows.

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Control input increases the longer you hold the key down. you will be asked if you want to quit the program.the safe option! All the items in this menu work the same way. nothing will be drawn beyond the selected Visual Range... marked ‘Options. When you release the key the control input stays at its last level . selecting or reviewing Pilot Logs Does nothing .’ and hold down the button.. and then release the button. it will expand into a menu showing the following options: System Preferences Explore Review Log Cancel Allows you to quit the program immediately For fine-tuning the program for your equipment Lets you explore any map as a disembodied eye Shows all military aircraft and fighting vehicles For creating.numeric pad). marked ‘Exit’ and ‘Options. If you click on this and hold down the mouse button. Let the joystick spring to its centre position and then click on . which is given in miles. or hit the Autotrim key (5 . Click on the option of your choice. you will go back to the previous screen. or if you are on the main screen (the first screen).’. throttle and rudder control by second analogue joystick in port 2.if you want to stop rolling or pitching you’ve got to make an opposite input.. Keyboard 1 Pitch and roll control by numeric keypad / cursor keys. Recalibrate Joystick This button is used to ensure that the computer recognises the centre position of your joystick(s)./EXIT BUTTONS In the bottom right corner of all screens (except when flying. Control input increases the longer you hold the key down. Joystick 2 Pitch and roll control by analogue joystick in port 1. exploring or going through a recognition review) is a pair of buttons. move the pointer until the item you want is highlighted. PREFERENCES Simulation Preferences Visual Range In your outside views. Ground This switch will turn on or off most of the groups of trees and the field patterns we have provided to give a true sensation of speed and depth in low-level flight. Control Device This switch allows you to select which of a range of possible devices you will use to fly the aircraft. Horizon This allows you to choose between a smoothly graduated horizon (‘Faded’) and a plain blue sky (‘Plain’).’. works in a different way.. The upper of the two buttons. Click on the Cycle button repeatedly to see the range of options available. The overcast effect (a thick solid cloud layer) will not be affected. Joystick 1 Pitch and roll control by single analogue joystick in game port 1. then leave the desired option showing. Sky This switch allows you to turn the thin layers of individual clouds on (textured) or off (Plain). Ironwork This peculiarly-named switch controls whether you will see the cockpit canopy framework and the brackets supporting the Head-up Display. Hills When this switch is set to ‘Textured’. click on ‘Options. the faces making up our hills will subdivide into smaller countershaded faces as you approach them. Click on a figure to select it. but returns to neutral when the key is released. Keyboard 2 Pitch and roll control by numeric keypad/cursor keys.. If you click on ‘Exit’...4 GETTING STARTED OPTIONS.

curves are drawn in flightplans wherever you change course. If you find that the aircraft is developing a persistent roll or a tendency to climb or dive. ‘On-Eng’ gives you all sound effects except the noise of your own engines. you are doing so under one of these 20 possible identities. and then return to the three-dimensional world at that spot. but when you select Combat.5 this button. and ‘On+Eng’ gives you all sound effects including your own engine noise. You will find that your view is now that of a disembodied eye floating sixteen feet above ground level at the spot you clicked upon. You can recalibrate in flight by centring the stick and hitting the Y key. but solid windows are drawn faster. transparent windows let you see through the window to the map. Contour Interval Contours are shown on the Mission Planner map to give you an idea of the height and shape of hills. click RIGHT to zoom out. Miscellaneous Preferences Review Stills The digitised pictures of aircraft and vehicles available in Review mode (see below) are high-quality images. Windows On the Mission Planner map. the Mission Selection Screen provides the facility to choose any one of three different War Zones. but they do take up a lot of disc space. This log is supplied with the . the mouse or joystick(s) you can now move at will in three dimensions at high speed.the default log. Curve Segments On the Mission Planner map. and then hit the z or the e key. or click on the Eject button. When in Simulator or Training modes. a nominal RAF rank and a record of flying hours and experience. REVIEW The Review feature allows you to see digitised photographs of the aircraft and military vehicles you will encounter. this will always be the Training Area. Note that when you do this the point under the mouse pointer will be moved to the centre of the screen. If you have installed a working copy of Tornado on a hard disc and you want to reclaim the disc-space used by these images you can click on the ‘Delete’ button here to remove them from the installed copy. Music This switches the front-end incidental music on or off. you can only get them back by re-installing the program. Panel Lighting This switch allows you to select red or green cockpit lighting for flying at night. click on another point as far away as you like. Click on the LEFT mouse button to zoom in. Most of these identities you create for yourself by choosing a name and typing it in. To leave Explore mode. with a name. Sound and Music Preferences Effects ‘Off’ switches off all sound effects. hold down the c key and hit Q. or hover on the spot. At any time you can flip back to the map screen. EXPLORE When you select the Explore option the screen changes to show you a full-screen window onto a map of the current Flying Area. say). but one is special . LOGS diagram 1 Any time you’re flying a Tornado. Using the keyboard. If you move the mouse pointer against any screen edge. When you have deleted these images. To leave Review mode hold down the c key and hit Q. it is probably because your joystick centre position is drifting over time. the screen window will be dragged across the map in the corresponding direction. and compare them with the 3D models representing them in Tornado. Click on some recognisable feature (a city or an airfield.

In the Tornado ADV you have three air-to-air weapons to choose from. and your new pilot will be added to the roster. click on the Exit button in the lower right corner to leave this Screen. If the top of the Bomb Fall Line is below the CCIP. hit the Master Warning Reset key (* or ' key). One of Group Captain deFault’s good points is his rank . a list of all existing pilots. Enemy aircraft in front of you will be shown as small square symbols. A pilot’s status may be Active. ‘KIA’ or ‘Dismissed’.go on too long and the aircraft will shake itself to pieces. If you are flying slowly. and the aircraft will not turn fast enough . Creating. and back to accelerate to high speeds. You sweep these forward to manoeuvre better at low speeds. There are three stages of wingsweep. and medium-range (up to 20 miles) radar-guided Active Sky Flash missiles (SKYF). and unless you are using the deFault log you will be offered a choice between logging the mission or wiping it off the record. The other good thing about Group Captain deFault is that he is indestructible. All new logs are created with the rank of Flying Officer.you will not be allowed to fire until the missile can see the target and you can hear the lock-on tone. Cheating At the end of every flight you will get a Debrief. it means that you’re too low . but it has several interesting features. which will select the target closest to dead-ahead.6 software. When you are finished. IF you choose to log it. Leaving the Log Screen When you have selected the Log you want to use. though the wing sweep system will jam in one position if you neglect the buffeting for too long. the hours flown and any other achievements will be added to your record . or in a TwoPlayer engagement. the wings will sweep back one stage. if you persist a warning will sound . The symbol on the radar will now flash. . and is automatically selected every time you start Tornado. Only pilots with Active status can fly. You can now type in the name you want. cannon for close range (GUNS). the status of the log will change to ‘Missing’. There is a Designate key (l). ‘KIT’. If you are on an air-to-ground mission. sweep the wings forward by hitting the W key . and each time you hit the S key. which will bring up a plan display of the radar image on the central Multi-Function Display (MFD). The log is in the name of Group Captain deFault and you can use it just like any other log. Be aware that the radar can see further than the seeker head on the Sidewinder missiles . in descending order of rank and experience.the aircraft will probably be damaged or destroyed when the bombs go off. which means that when you hit the Commit key (z or joystick button). using B to correct mistakes. To turn off the warning if it sounds. ‘POW’. This will turn off the flashing lights provided that you have fixed the problem. As you create identities for yourself. Deleting and Renaming Logs Clicking on the Create button brings up the Record window with a blank name and record.or stops flying and drops its nose. key). by rank. If you try to go too fast for your wingsweep setting.once for each stage. Your bombload is set to drop in Manual mode.and if you did not make it. so do not do this unless you are prepared to suffer the consequences. You cannot get killed or captured in the Simulator. Initially there is only Group Captain deFault’s name on the list. You must also hit Arm air-to-air (a+e). The final thing you have to do is lock on to your target. and they should fall where the short horizontal line (the CCIP) crosses the longer vertical one with a gap near the top (the Bomb Fall Line). THE QUICKSTART USER’S GUIDE The most important difference between a Tornado and most other aircraft is that the Tornado has variable-sweep wings. the list will expand downwards to its maximum of 20 names. When you use the Air-to-air option. name and status. the first thing you must do is turn on the radar in Air mode (a + R). KIT (Killed in Training). Now you can select which air-to-air weapon you want (. Missing. click on the ‘OK’ button at the bottom of the Record window. This will arm your bombs and give you a bombsight on the Head-Up Display (HUD). which is only open to pilots who have earned the notional rank of Wing Commander or above. POW (Prisoner of War). just hit the Arm air-to-ground key (e key). Using this log identity you are automatically qualified to play the Command wargame. There is no way back once the mission result is logged. KIA (Killed in Action) or Dismissed. the bombs will be released immediately. Using the Log Screen The left-hand half of the screen is dedicated to displaying the Roster.equal to the highest available in Tornado. heat-seeking short-range Sidewinder missiles (AIM9). and a target designator and other sighting symbols will be shown on the HUD. the aircraft will start to shake and rumble.

A successful Command earns a promotion to Group Captain. Main Screen TRAINING Simulator. Any rank of pilot may use this facility. though it will be logged as ‘Simulator Hours’ rather than ‘Flying Hours’. The individual missions are not pre-planned in detail for you. unless the current rank is already greater.just restart the exercise and repeat it until you don’t crash. Training. (s)he will be promoted to Flight Lieutenant. Simulator exercises always take place over the Training Area. This option is available to any rank. lose or reach a stalemate. but successful completion of a Level Two Campaign yields a promotion to Wing Commander. but the objective for each is specified. These missions are intended to serve as an introduction to the job of planning missions for yourself. Group Captain deFault is already qualified. The connection may be made directly or by modem. The Campaign state may be saved at the end of each mission. you are presented with a new screen showing four icons giving you a choice of four different types of play: Two-Player lets you connect your computer to a friend’s and fight a human opponent one-to-one. See the Technical Supplement for further details (page 65). The situation at the start of each mission reflects the success (or otherwise) of the previous one. and Combat. Each mission is a complete game in itself. and ‘Free Fire (ADV)’ where no targets are assigned and you are free to attack whatever you like. If you are using a log you have created yourself. The war continues until you win. COMBAT pre-planned. Only qualified pilots (with the rank of Wing Commander or above) can assume Command. you must plan missions for a whole formation. You must decide your own objectives as well as plan the missions and fly a proportion of them. No-one will be shooting at you.b. Click on this with the mouse pointer. Mission lets you choose from a selection of completely pre-planned missions. This option is available to any rank.7 FLIGHT OPTIONS In the centre of the Main Screen is the large triangular ‘Flight’ icon. whatever the current rank. Combat Selection Screen n. Each one requires you to fly a sequence of missions to achieve a final objective. but the status can be saved and reloaded so you don’t have to fight your war in one continuous session. Training or Combat After clicking on the ‘Combat’ icon. Live training always takes place on the Training area map. and it divides to offer three choices: Simulator. This offers live flight training. but any new pilot only qualifies when (s)he logs at least one successful Level Two Campaign. In a Level One Campaign. In a Level Two Campaign. flight time in the simulator will be recorded.your own. Campaigns are graded into two levels. however. Two Missions are different from all the others in that they are not Campaign lets you choose from a selection of scenarios. but you can still kill yourself. SIMULATOR Crashes don’t matter in the simulator . to be continued later. Command gives you total command authority to conduct your own air war. Successful completion of a Level One Campaign will earn the pilot a promotion to Squadron Leader. . and the outcome of any one mission has no effect on any other. If any pilot successfully completes all the missions. you will be responsible for creating flightplans for just one aircraft . These are the missions titled ‘Free Fire (IDS)’.

/Exit’ device in the Mission Planner. The range covers almost everything you can do with IDS and ADV Tornados. providing a list of alternative starting scenarios and one saved game slot per War Zone. Situation Menu for Missions Every mission here is pre-planned for you . This is a Cycle button. a total of six. click on the line you’re interested in. and some will put you straight into the cockpit in flight. and the Briefing Mission Selection Screen window will close. Saved games in the list are identified by scenario. If you exit from the Mission Planner in the middle of a Campaign.will appear on the screen giving a fuller description. just click on the appropriate slot in the list. Click on the Cycle buttons to set up the options you want. you will be asked whether or not you wish to save the game in order to return to it later. and elapsed time within the campaign. Situation Menu for Training These are a selection of training exercises to be flown live. a summary of a complete Flightplan. Two buttons will always appear at the bottom of this window. click on ‘Commit’ to advance to the Mission Planner. If you want to go back to the list and look at other possibilities. Each item on the list is a one-line description or title. is a small button showing a circle / arrow symbol. To the left of the title showing “War Zone 1” (or 2 or 3). some will pass you on to the Mission Planner.. You can still reverse your choice if necessary. Situation Menu for Command This works very much like the Campaign menu described above. or c Q in the cockpit. Pilot Log name. alternative starting situations for a Campaign mission sequence. Situation Menu for Campaigns The selection list for Campaigns is divided into sections. a map image of the currently selected War Zone is shown on the right-hand side of the screen. To take a closer look at a possible choice. OTHER OPTIONS AVAILABLE Choice of War Zone (Combat Modes) When you enter the Mission Selection Screen in Combat modes. the description of the military situation at the start of a Campaign or Command game. Simulator Options This bank of switches controls features which can be provided in the simulator but are impossible in the real world. or 2) your whole flight. You can save one Level 1 and one Level 2 Campaign per War Zone at any one time. and clicking on it will select each War Zone in turn. A new window .the Briefing window . The upper of these sections is a list of scenarios. click on ‘Cancel’. by using the the ‘Options. times and the number of aircraft.except the missions titled ‘Free Fire’. Each scenario is tagged as Level 1 or Level 2. The lower section of the list is available for saving and loading uncompleted Campaigns. or straight into the cockpit in the case of some Simulator exercises. To reload a saved Campaign. or a situation summary for a saved game. one marked ‘Commit’ and the other marked ‘Cancel’. according to whether you will be expected to plan missions for 1) just your own aircraft. from which you must select one. which may (depending on the situation) include such things as the Tasking Order specifying the target(s). If you want this situation or mission. Feature Options Weapons Limited / Infinite Fuel Limited / Infinite G-LOC Possible / Impossible Aircraft Weight Actual / Minimum Aircraft Collisions Crash / Bounce Enemy Active / Inactive Time Set any start time on 24-Hour clock . The Briefing Window will provide a situation summary with the usual Commit and Cancel buttons. Situation Menu for Simulator A wide variety of training exercises are available here.8 THE MISSION SELECTION SCREEN THE SITUATION MENU Offers you a list of situations or scenarios.

which can only be dismissed by fixing the problems it’s bringing to your attention.OCU’ so that you can reach this screen. which is used to verify fuel and weapons load. the nearest structure (if any). and calls up a window with an outline description of the mission. Every sub-window has a Title bar with a Close Box allowing the window to be dismissed or dragged.USING THE MISSION PLANNER . see below. and will function differently. some of these factors can be changed. the ground height above sea level. At Campaign level it will read ‘Task’. the estimated ‘floor’ of radar coverage at that point and the current ownership (Allied or Enemy). Briefing For Simulator Missions. click on this button. including the grid coordinates. after a pause to download the flightplan to your aircraft’s navigation systems. modify. and to load weapons for self-defence or attacks on targets-ofopportunity. Take-off When you’ve studied the briefing. Report This button calls up a weather (Met. except the Problems Window. Centre This button zooms the map right out and centres it on the screen. Payload This button calls up the Payload Window. Targets Used at Campaign level and above. See below. clicking on the ‘Tidy’ button will close all open subwindows at once. and several of these may be present at the same time. You can close them all at once with the ‘Tidy’ button. Tidy If you feel that the map is in danger of disappearing behind a solid sheet of overlapping windows. which allows you to review. Provided that there are no major flaws in the flightplan. Mission Planning Point Data This gives details about the point on the map under the mouse pointer.BASICS Select and Commit on any one of the Simulator or Training Missions with the prefix ‘IDS . Windows may overlap one another. the flightplan. and at Command level it will read ‘Command’. the payload and the Met. The Key Button Click on this button and a ‘frame’ of panels/buttons will appear down the left side and across the bottom of the screen showing the map symbols and their meaning. it can be turned off by clicking on the Close button in the top left corner. report. and a number of buttons down the right-hand side. You’ll see a map in front of you. Many of these buttons call up sub-windows on the screen. or single Combat Missions.9 THE MISSION PLANNER SECTION 1 . Fit Clicking on this button will automatically set the zoom level and scroll the map so that the whole of the ‘current’ flightplan is visible on the screen at once. or create flightplans for your own (and potentially other) aircraft. so that you can instantly call up the big picture from wherever you are. you will find yourself in the cockpit on the runway. Like any other sub-window on this screen. We will refer to these in future as ‘Map Screen Buttons’. In the Simulator. for Meteorological) report giving wind direction and strength plus visibility and cloud heights. Flightplan This button is used to bring up the Flightplan Window. identical to the description you were offered when selecting the mission. the button reads ‘Briefing’. The Key display is not just a passive display to help you identify map symbols. but right-clicking on any visible portion of a window will put it ‘in front’ of any overlapping windows. Each of its panels showing a symbol and its identification is also a button which controls whether or not that symbol will be drawn on the map. Key Calls up the map Key. Met. you can avoid cluttering the display with Key Buttons . Using this feature.

the ones which you are not currently reviewing or editing will be shown in a different colour. Because drawing contours is a demanding task which can reduce a slow computer to a crawl. and you may use it either to make an automatic approach or to guide a manual approach. the vertical distance between contour lines can be set from the Preferences screen (available through Options. The other buttons along the bottom edge of the strip. CAP Area Indicates a fighter CAP (Combat Air Patrol) area. Category Flag This symbol is used by the Target Finder facility to highlight all potential targets in a particular category. your ILS (Instrument Landing System) will be active. This can also be used to speed up the redrawing of the screen if your machine is running more slowly than you like . bridges or embankments. however. Contours Contour lines are shown for hills at variable intervals above (flat) ground level. Airfields The runway layouts of the airfields themselves are always shown on the map. Clicking on the symbol areas has just the effect you would expect . To turn any symbol on or off. road bridges. . stores dumps etc. Structures Symbol for buildings. Does not take account of terrain masking . Power Lines Self-explanatory. EWR Coverage Shows areas within theoretical range of Early Warning Radar stations. Roads Self-explanatory. are ‘split’ buttons..g. This feature is only used at Command level. and does not take account of terrain masking or range variation with altitude. This button acts only to turn the airfield name label on or off. control towers. Flightplan (Other) When more than one flightplan is shown on the map. or from the Point Data Window.display of the allied or enemy symbols is turned on or off individually.but you can get this information from the Flightplan Profile Window (see below).). AA Threat Areas known to be covered by AAA or SAMs are shown like this. Clicking below in the text area. Enemy positions are estimated. Railways Self-explanatory. e. your flightplan will be shown.just turn off everything you think you can do without. Rivers and Lakes Self-explanatory. just click on the appropriate panel of the Key window. Enemy symbols will normally appear in orange and allied in blue (check with the Technical Supplement for your machine if they don’t). INVERTS the selection state of both allied and enemy symbols at once ..it gives you the exact opposite of what you have at the moment. ILS Coverage If your aircraft is within the ILS symbol and pointing in the general direction of the runway. The area shown illustrates the maximum effective range of the system deployed.10 symbols you don’t need or want to see. Each is divided into three areas. Priority Flag This symbol is used by the Command Target Priority facility to highlight positions which are important targets for one reason or another. These comprise the allied and enemy versions of the same symbol and the area below containing the legend text. Flightplan (Current) When a preset mission is loaded. with the active runways distinguished by colour. allied positions should be exact.

‘Fixed’ or ‘Bound’. Position Coordinates are displayed in the title bar of a waypoint window. Initial Points Initial Points are the Turning Points from which you start the attack run on a ground target. this is placed at known locations of major ground force formations on the battlefield. or plan. To move a point on the map to the centre of the screen. If the Altitude Authority is set at ‘Altitude Hold’. and should be visible on the map when zoomed out. Zoom Control All about Waypoints The flightplan for the mission you loaded has already been created for you. Waypoints come in several flavours: Take-off Point The Take-off Point. Y and theoretically Z. Ground Forces Standard military symbology for an armoured unit.these are by far the most common type. is obviously at the airfield from which you take off. Approach Point The Approach Point should be placed at the end of one ILS beam of the airfield at which you intend to land . To zoom in or out. Moving and Zooming the Map Moving around the map and zooming in or out are done with the mouse. and an AFDS Altitude Authority attribute. with the pointer on the current zoom level. The Status will show ‘Free’. diagram 2 Altitude Every Waypoint type except Take-off Points will also have an altitude/ride height. Turning Points Turning Points are simply places where you change course . Keep holding the mouse button down! You may go straight to any other zoom level you like by simply moving the mouse pointer over the appropriate box in the strip and releasing the (right) mouse button. or en route to the battle area. This is the strength in knots of the component of the wind which is blowing across the runway as you take off or land. i. and a Leg is simply the path between one Waypoint and the next. the AFDS system will fly the leg to this waypoint at the given BAROMETRIC altitude. to pass or attack this point. For all other waypoints it is the time at which you expect. i. using the RIGHT button. A small strip of boxes corresponding to the zoom-levels available will appear under the mouse-pointer. above. in close reserve.e. The relative positions of this point and the next waypoint (the CAP End point) define an oval ‘racetrack’ for your aircraft to patrol while waiting to intercept incoming enemy aircraft. height above sea level. the AFDS system will fly the leg Terrain Following at the Ride Height given. For a Take-off point. Legs usually start with a curve and terminate at the next Waypoint as straight lines. A flightplan is composed of Waypoints and Legs. just point and click (right) on it. ADV flightplans only. CAP Start This is used to set up a Combat Air Patrol station for ADV missions. clearance above the ground beneath the aircraft. which is always Waypoint A.11 AWACS Track Shows the exact (allied) or estimated (enemy) ‘racetrack’ which an AWACS aircraft flies when on station. Waypoints are fixed points. for the first. .e.you can make the ILS beam coverage visible on the map using the Key. this is the takeoff time. Time All waypoints show a Time and Time Status. Cross-wind Only for Take-off and Approach Points. second and (most unlikely) third planned targets of a mission. CAP End See CAP Start. click (right) and hold down. Head/Tail Wind Only Take-off and Approach Points have this attribute. If the Altitude Authority setting is ‘Ride Height’. represented by the symbols between the line sections. Targets Targets are labelled with the letters X.

. This is the average speed at which it is necessary to fly the leg approaching this waypoint in order to arrive at the Time shown. Like the waypoints. You can also call up this window by double-clicking (clicking twice in quick succession) on the Waypoint Strip button or the map symbol. will appear. Target Target waypoints only. This will select waypoint A. The lowest strip. highlight the button. Along the lower edge of the window is a row of buttons like the Waypoint Strip in the Flightplan window. Flightplan Profile Window Clicking on the ‘Profile’ button in the Flightplan Window brings up the Profile Window . the Aircraft Strip. The buttons for the waypoints define the section of your flightplan which will be shown in profile . and those on either side of it. or to split and reformate waypoints when planning for multi-aircraft missions. G etc. you will be presented with a sub-window which summarises the whole flightplan in terms of times and actions. clicking on the map with the LEFT mouse button has the effect of placing a new waypoint at the mouse position. X.) of each waypoint in the flightplan. Double-clicking on a waypoint button will bring up a profile covering three waypoints only. so be careful. allowing you to select one at a time.a wide shallow window showing all or part of your flightplan straightened out and viewed from the side.. B. Package data: Weapon Delivery Salvo Minimum recommended delivery height. e. etc. which will be the only letter shown if this is a mission for a single aircraft. just click ONCE on the ‘Delete’ button in the bottom row of the Flightplan window before you do anything else. Areas where the flightplan takes you underground will be shown as solid rectangles in a contrasting colour! Above the profile is a shallow horizontal bar which changes colour to show whether you are flying over Allied or Enemy territory Profile Window at each point in the Profile. When you first call up this window or when you use the waypoint buttons to change the section of Profile in view. the Waypoint window will remain on screen.the ones shown highlighted are currently visible in the Profile Window. but remember that you can’t create or drag waypoints unless the Flightplan Window is open.12 Speed All waypoint types except Take-off show a Speed and Speed Status.g. Describes the target. Flightplan Summary Window If you click on the ‘Summary’ button in the Flightplan window. These parameters specify the Package of weapons to be used in attacking this target. Target waypoints only. B. and at the lower left end buttons appear for inserting and deleting waypoints when appropriate. and how the Package is to be delivered. A single mouse click on a button will extend or retract the left or right end of the highlighted strip (whichever is closer) to the selected button and waypoint. runway etc. Reading the Flightplan and Waypoint Data Clicking on the Map Screen button marked ‘Flightplan’ brings up the Flightplan Window. The Formation Leader (you) is always aircraft A. An additional window. the Waypoint Window. The middle strip (the Waypoint Strip) shows a button corresponding to the label (A. with the profile of the terrain beneath it. You can also select any waypoint and highlight its Waypoint Strip button by left clicking inside the waypoint symbol on the map.. and if the waypoint is off-screen the map will Flightplan Window automatically be re-centred and re-drawn to show it. plus individual buttons for all the aircraft in the formation. road bridge. then C and so on. the one you clicked on. F. the . showing all the attributes appropriate for its type. The top strip (the Tool Strip) contains buttons to call up sub-windows showing individual waypoint data. the aircraft are distinguished by letters A. Since this is a Take-off Point. giving detailed data for the selected waypoint. HAS. If you select Waypoint B. While this window is on-screen. one for every waypoint in the current flightplan. the lines representing your flightpath. If you do accidentally create a new waypoint. Now click once on the Waypoint button in the Tool Strip. a Summary or a Profile (side view) of the flightplan. shows the mission number in the daily sequence. the Time given will be your planned take-off time.. You can dismiss or drag the Flightplan window or the Waypoint window using the close box and the title bar. click once on the Waypoint Strip button labelled A. Shown on the waypoint window Title bar next to the map coordinates. Select a zoom level of 2x or 3x and if it’s not already highlighted. displaying data for each of the waypoints in turn. C.

If a package is empty or loaded for targets-of-opportunity. Overcast is a thick continuous layer of cloud. zooming in or out. Payload Window . drawn more slowly from left to right. diagram 3 Mission Rehearsal using Explore Mode If you wish to explore a particular area. which the IDS cannot. but neither can an infra-red sensor or most lasers. Overcast. the button will show a dash (“-”).the line-of-sight calculations needed to show this data take a LOT of processing power. This will open a window to give you a meteorological report. Report Before taking off.13 terrain below and the ‘ownership’ of that terrain will be drawn quite rapidly. dragging windows or performing any other function. Visibility Four visibility conditions are possible. The reason why the line appears slowly is quite simple . but can carry Sky Flash. the altitude above which you will probably be visible to known enemy ground radars . After this is done. The Payload Window The Payload window can be called up at any time by clicking on the Map Screen Button marked ‘Payload’. Effects of Weather on the Mission Wind This will mainly affect the length of your take-off and landing run. The contents of these packages cannot be changed except by changing the mission plan. The ‘Other’ button displays external stores which are not part of any weapon Package. and the difficulty of your approach. click on the Map Screen Button marked ‘Met. another (usually broken) line will appear on the Profile display. and there is no need to distinguish between packages. telling you about wind strength/direction and visibility conditions. but they are performed as a ‘background task’ and will not prevent you from moving about the map. though if you change the flightplan by placing.so obviously your flightplan should keep you below it wherever possible. Cloud Obviously you can’t see through thick cloud. ‘Y’ or ‘Z’. for every point along the Profile section. but it will also defeat your TIALD (Thermal Imaging and Laser Designator) cameras. Once these are complete. dragging or deleting waypoints the profile will need to redraw from scratch. Fog and Thick Fog. so the Payload screen for an ADV mission will show far fewer options. and allows you to load or unload them. like drop tanks. AIM9Ls and defensive pods. ADV aircraft do not carry ground attack weapons. Wind Shows bearing in degrees (the direction the wind is blowing FROM). just right-click on that point to centre it on the Mission Planner map before entering Explore Mode. Met. and vertical hatching will be shown wherever it intersects a threat circle. The buttons for weapon packages loaded for planned attacks will show ‘X’. This may degrade or utterly destroy the performance of heatseeking missiles. Report’. Light Cloud Only. the flightplan section will be checked against known AA Threats.This shows.

but only if you unload something else. ‘Y’ or ‘Z’. If there are free Packages. because all these items are internal on that aircraft. If the external tanks are fitted then they will always be full. Other stores may be loaded in these places. drop tank in a ground attack package) or because it would violate the rule that each ground attack package must contain only one type of store. then external tanks will be shown as fitted. and a pair of AIM9L for self-defence. None of the other symbols will respond if you click on them. Fuel Weight (including fuel in drop tanks). and Weight Margin. These weight figures are passive displays except for Fuel Weight. or its nearest equivalent for the weapon concerned. plus drop tanks as appropriate. one on each inner wing pylon. will always load certain items if there are hardpoints to take them. free stores points and a sufficient weight margin. All weapons in one Package must be of the same type. Just click on a Package button showing ‘-’. Store/Hardpoint Symbology Symbol Meaning Store symbol A store in the current package (selected by clicking on a Package button) is fitted at this point.). All other stores will be removed. which can be used to load or unload fuel. . created or changed. but not within the current package. These are marked ‘Standard’ and ‘Clear Package’. Stores Weight (excluding fuel in drop tanks). ECM pod on the port outer). If a target-of-opportunity package (or the ‘Other’ package) is selected. except for external tanks if these are essential for the planned mission. but it can be changed in the air using the Stores Management Display. a small window called the Problems Window will automatically appear on the screen. under the Package selection buttons. you can change your internal fuel loading by means of the Fuel Weight display. Whenever a mission flightplan is loaded.g. If you do. a minimum fuel requirement is automatically calculated for the distances and speeds specified. (3300 lbs. you will have NO chaff or flares or ECM! This does not apply to the Tornado ADV. The delivery mode for such a package will automatically be set to Manual delivery. Click on the digit of the Fuel Weight figure which you wish to change. which is the difference between All-up Weight and Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW). If you reduce the fuel load to below the calculated minimum requirement. Clicking on this button will unload all stores in the currently selected package. with a line running horizontally to the right from each beneath the aircraft diagram. Raised button This point is available for this store within the current package Flush button This point is available for this store.14 Stores (weapons or other external loads) are listed down the left-hand side of the Payload window. Sunken button It would be possible to fit this store to this point. The ‘Clear Package’ button will only be active if the currently selected package is NOT ‘X’. Clicking on the ‘Standard’ button will set up a load that consists of weapon packages for planned targets. plus a fixed margin of 1500 kg. you may if you wish load extra ground attack weapons for unplanned targets . stores may be loaded or unloaded by placing the mouse pointer on a Raised Button or a Store symbol and clicking with the left button. Two other buttons appear at the upper right of this window. Fuel Weight Display When external tanks are NOT fitted.Targets of Opportunity. For the IDS these are the defensive pods (chaff and flare dispenser on the starboard outer wing pylon. If more fuel is required for the mission than the internal tanks can hold. This calculated minimum fuel weight will be shown as already loaded when you first open the Payload Window. and internal fuel will always be topped up to maximum as well. the defensive pods and 2 AIM9L. Greyed symbol A store in a different package (not the currently selected one) is fitted at this point. This is either because the type of store is inappropriate (e. and add the weapons you want. diagram 4 Weight and Fuel At the upper left corner of the screen figures are shown for All-up Weight (aircraft plus all fuel and stores). What to load? The ‘Standard’ option. but think hard before you leave the defensive pods at home.

an IDS Task outline will usually preset Target Waypoint(s). Remember that a flightplan may have up to 15 waypoints. the Problems window will automatically appear with a list of messages. Warnings and Errors When you first see the skeleton flightplan of a new Task on the Mission Planner map. in which case it will be created as an Approach Point. then fly it.PLANNING YOUR OWN MISSIONS 2a . providing a connected series of missions set in a military situation which evolves over time. and b) the Map Screen Button which used to say ‘Briefing’ is now titled ‘Task’. you can exit from the Mission Planner to the Mission Selection Screen and save the current situation to reload and continue later. and one of the Level 1 Campaign scenarios you will see a bare outline of a mission which simply specifies an objective.15 Starting the Mission When you are satisfied that you have absorbed all the necessary information. adding it to the end of your current flightplan. Dragging Waypoints Place the mouse pointer crosshair on the symbol of the waypoint you wish to move and hold down the LEFT mouse button. impossible or improbable timings and speeds. Problems. instead of the Briefing you would expect for a single mission you will see a summary describing the military situation at the time the Campaign starts. where you and your aircraft are based. and it’s up to you to select a target. or to lose the war. rather than a complete flightplan. You will have to lay down all the other waypoints for the mission yourself. and an ADV Task will usually preset a CAP point. and that the aircraft is suitably loaded for the mission. or Initial Points too close to the target. or 'WARNING' when the problem is not so serious as to completely invalidate the flightplan. two differences should be seen: a) there is a flightplan laid out. These messages will start with either 'ERROR' for a problem which must be fixed before you take off. If you choose ‘Campaign’ on the ‘Combat ‘ screen. diagram 5 . or until a stalemate is reached. The Campaign will last for as many missions as it takes to accomplish the Campaign objectives. The planning systems apply a set of rules to any flightplan to detect unreasonable situations such as unflyable course changes. Turning a Task into a Flightplan When you select a Campaign scenario on the Mission Selection Screen. When you release the mouse button the waypoint is ‘dropped’ in its new position. When a flightplan bends or breaks these rules. you’ll often notice a small window without a close box.these are your orders.the Take-off Point. In order to start placing or moving waypoints you must first click on the Map Screen Button labelled Flightplan. and the legs to and from will be redrawn. Placing Waypoints Clicking anywhere on the map with the LEFT mouse button will place a new waypoint at that point. Click on the Task button to see the Air Tasking Message . While you hold the button down you may drag the waypoint about the map by moving the mouse.‘FREE FIRE’ and LEVEL 1 CAMPAIGNS When you arrive at the Mission Planner for a ‘Free Fire’ mission there will be no preset mission plan at all. When you Commit and move to the Mission Planner. and then dragging them into position. When (and if) you return from that mission your commander will present you with a new Task to plan and fly. thus opening the Flightplan window. The new waypoint will be a Turning Point by default unless it is placed in the ILS coverage of an allied airfield. The Campaign option is the next step up. titled ‘Problems’. and the planning support systems are automatically alerting you to the fact. you can click on the Map Screen Button labelled ‘Take-off’. ‘Rubber Lines’ will be drawn to show the new legs to and from the waypoint affected. but no more. This appears because the Task outline as it stands is not a viable flightplan. but it’s just a skeleton. If you are starting a Campaign. plus an Approach Point. depending on the nature of the mission. together with the curve of the turn following the waypoint. the system will refuse to create any more. a patrol station or other objective and create a flightplan. SECTION 2 . This outline is your Task for the next mission. When you need a break. You will generally create your flightplan by inserting extra waypoints between the ones you are given. When the limit is reached. and you must do all the detailed planning. Setting and Moving Waypoints If you are planning a ‘Free Fire’ mission there will be only one waypoint on the map when you enter the Mission Planner .

g. Waypoints may be selected either by clicking on the appropriate letter in the Flightplan Window. New waypoints are inserted halfway between existing ones.). and must be dragged to their desired positions. At the left end of the line displaying the waypoint Type is a button showing a small circular symbol. Click on an item in the left list to select a category of target (Military. select weapon(s) and delivery mode(s). or by clicking inside the appropriate waypoint symbol on the map. the wider the turn. The first of these problems can affect any pair of waypoints. if you wish to control the precise direction of more than one leg in a flightplan (e.g. Waypoints cannot be inserted if all 15 available waypoints are already used. Transport etc. When working with a flightplan for multiple aircraft. Every target of that type on the map will now be marked by the Category Flag symbol. the Category Flag symbols will disappear unless they are enabled by the Key. diagram 7 Creating and Placing a Target Waypoint (IDS only) Assuming that you know what type of target you want to hit and roughly where it is. Waypoint A can never be deleted. Diagram 6 shows that this diagram 6 means it is quite impossible for the aircraft ever to reach the second waypoint by turning towards it .233 attack run or an approach for landing) it is best to lay out all the waypoints first. Click on the Map Screen Button labelled ‘Targets’. Drag your intended Target waypoint (still a Turning Point at this stage) to the target and drop it there.16 Selecting Waypoints A waypoint must be selected before certain operations can be performed upon it. which calls up a window showing two lists. helping you pick out your intended target from other buildings in the same area. set any fixed Speeds (and/or Times) and only then to work through the flightplan in order from start to finish dragging waypoints to set direction. Turning Circles The radius of the curve is governed by the Speed set for the adjacent waypoint and the control authority of the AFDS system: the faster the speed. Click on the type which describes your target. Two kinds of problem can arise when you place two waypoints too close together. Deleting Waypoints The Delete button is not shown in the Waypoint Strip of the Flightplan Window unless it’s permissible to delete the selected waypoint. Hangar. then precisely place the Target Waypoint(s). The right list will change to display a list of individual types of target in the selected category (e. and demands that you must have time to line up on a straight attack run before you reach the release point (or the pull-up point for a Loft attack). The planning system calculates how far back from the target the weapon will be released. so that changes rippling forward affect only the legs which you have not yet adjusted. Inserting Waypoints The Insert button is not shown in the Waypoint Strip of the Flightplan Window unless it’s possible to insert a new waypoint BEFORE the currently selected one.). for a JP. For this reason. Hardened Munitions Store etc. When working with a flightplan for multiple aircraft. The second type of problem affects only Initial Points and Targets. insertions can only be made in legs common to all aircraft in the formation. Category Flag symbols will be shown on the map while the Target Finder window is open. centre the map on the approximate position and place a standard Turning Point waypoint there. regardless of whether or not Category Flags are turned on in the Key. When you close the Target Finder window. Target Finder Window . Now call up the Waypoint Window. and happens when the second waypoint is INSIDE the diameter of the turning circle curve from the first.instead it will circle until you use the Next Waypoint key to skip the offending waypoint. only formation waypoints may be deleted.

clicking on this sets the waypoint Altitude to the minimum safe height. The Time at X is 12:00:00 Fixed. Times and Speeds The system uses two default values for speed. however. Clicking on any of these will call up arrow buttons to change one digit at a time up or down. Clicking on the Cycle button at the left of the display changes the mode from ‘Ride Height’ to ‘Altitude Hold’ or vice versa. Time and Speed Problems A waypoint’s Time is the planned time of arrival (and/or departure) at that waypoint. Altitude For normal air-to-ground operations the Altitude Authority Mode shows ‘Ride Height’ and the value set is 200 (feet). 2 or 4 weapons. The planning systems will also select a default weapon Package based on the type of Target. and clicking on this will set that figure. but it would be more common to change the actual Time or Speed value first. The button to the right shows the recommended salvo size for the recommended weapon. Time and Speed status can be changed using the Cycle buttons at the left of their respective display lines. Whenever you change a Turning Point into a Target waypoint. showing how many weapons there are in the Package. the Waypoint Window expands and acquires the extra displays necessary to define the weapon Package. and issue a WARNING if it’s set too low. ‘Fixed’ status means that the planning systems will juggle other times and speeds which have ‘Free’ status as much as necessary in order to ensure that you can fly your attack run at this speed and still maintain your timetable. and then flying round and round in a ‘racetrack’ pattern waiting to intercept enemy aircraft. each digit of the altitude figure will appear as a separate button. but if you like you may change this. and 550 knots as a standard speed for attack runs.17 Click once on the Type Cycle button. The 'snapping' feature can be disabled by holding down the a key while dragging the Target Waypoint. If you select ‘Altitude Hold’ as the Altitude Authority Mode. To select a Weapon type just click on the desired button in the Weapon display. The planning system will check your altitude on the Attack run against the Minimum Safe Height for weapon release. you may set any feasible speed value you want for any leg. If you have selected ‘Ride Height’ and you want to change the actual height value. Now select the first of these two waypoints and call up the Waypoint Window. and if you do the Speed status will change from ‘Free’ to ‘Fixed’. so wait till you’re on the straight run to the next waypoint before you accelerate or decelerate. The Cycle button beside it can be used to select a size of 1. If Category Flag display is enabled. and it will change to ‘CAP Start’. Speed is 600 Knots Fixed. depending on the type. diagram 8 Let’s assume that we have a target (X) ten nautical miles away from its Initial Point (call it D). Space them fairly well apart to start with. This will automatically convert the next Turning Point into a ‘CAP End’. In order to set up a CAP mission. and you would be unable to change status or value directly. so that if the aircraft is under AFDS Track mode control it will fly these legs terrainfollowing at 200 feet. If the weapon type has more than one possible delivery mode you may choose from the available options by clicking repeatedly on the Cycle button at the left of the Delivery display.your CAP pattern. 420 knots as a standard cruise. the label changes to X. If you were to look at the Waypoint data for D. and the waypoint symbol on the map changes shape and ‘snaps’ to the intended target. though the Time would change if you dragged D to a different position. The Speed is the average speed over the preceding leg of the flightplan which will get you there at that time. Click on the Cycle button for the waypoint Type. which will automatically change a ‘Free’ status to ‘Fixed’. click on the button showing the value itself. Below this is the Salvo Size display. Setting up a CAP Station (ADV only) The ‘typical’ ADV Combat Air Patrol mission involves taking off. Y or Z. it will snap to the nearest flagged object. If you wish. Target Waypoint Window . and it will normally calculate waypoint times using these values. flying to a given position and altitude. create a skeleton flightplan (if it’s not provided) and place a Turning point roughly where you want each end of your racetrack pattern to be. Speed at a waypoint is also used to calculate the radius of the turn onto the next leg. At the right of the Delivery display is the Safety Height Button. you’d find the Time at D showing as 11:59:00 Bound. The Turning Point before the Target will automatically change to an Initial Point. and you should see the leg between the two change into a circuit with rounded ends . the waypoint will snap to the exact position of the nearest object. The waypoint Type changes from Turning Point to Target.

A Task at this level will normally prescribe an attack on a large enemy installation .an airfield. legs and times are automatically generated at an offset from the formation leader. That means that you MUST pass D at 11:59:00 . 2: Dispersion in space. the formation will split as aircraft diverge to their individual Initial Points to start their separate Attack Runs on different targets.18 The Speed of 600 knots for the leg D-X dictates exactly how long it should take to fly the distance from D to X: at 600 knots you’ll cover the 10 nautical miles from D to X in 1 minute. SECTION 2B . If you send the aircraft in from many different directions at the same time. And do it from as far away as possible. all your aircraft will be flying the same route in a widely spaced formation. for example . A is the Formation Leader . bomb has a debris hemisphere of 1000-feet (305 m) radius. 3: Go for the defences first. They then follow a common route (with automatically staggered Waypoints and Times) back to diagram 9 the airfield for landing.assign targets to each aircraft and specify a Time-on-Target. and that a separation of 200 feet (61 m) is adequate for all other weapons. You can achieve separation by varying approach direction. Don’t set up the attacks so that one aircraft flies through the debris hemisphere of another’s bombs. 4: Try to avoid blowing each other up.LEVEL TWO CAMPAIGNS At this level. you divide the enemy’s fire and reduce his chances of scoring a hit.see next point). you are responsible for creating flightplans for your whole formation of Tornados and setting up coordinated attacks. If your entire attack is compressed into the space of a few seconds with no advance warning you may be gone almost before the enemy has started shooting. Flightplans for Formations At Campaign Level Two. There is another variant of the same problem. In a Formation Flightplan there will be one button in the Aircraft Strip of the Flightplan Window for each aircraft in the formation.no other answer is possible unless you start allowing for variable speeds over the leg. If you Fix the Times of two adjacent waypoints. and the only legs where Speed need be fixed are legs where you have no choice but to cross defended zones. and another between Target and Approach Point. All aircraft in a formation will have exactly the same number of waypoints and legs in their flightplans. where each aircraft’s position and all other waypoint attributes can be set individually. where the Formation Leader’s waypoint automatically determines the position of the corresponding waypoint for every other aircraft currently in the formation. 5: Be on time. . Others are independent waypoints. within certain limits. Limitations on Waypoint Editing Insertion or deletion of waypoints can only be done when the waypoints or legs affected are common to all the aircraft in the formation. For most of any Flightplan. just as at Level One. The best way to avoid creating problems for yourself is to Fix Times and Speeds only when necessary .and most of the time it’s not necessary. Clicking on an aircraft letter selects that aircraft’s flightplan for viewing and editing. That’s why the Time status at D is ‘Bound’. Under normal circumstances the only Time in a mission which needs to be Fixed is the TimeOn-Target. it is dictated absolutely by the Times and the distance between the waypoints. Assume that a 1000 lb. It will be your responsibility to set up the individual attacks and their precise timing. the Speed for the leg between them (the one given for the second waypoint) becomes Bound. Some will be formation waypoints. This is why the skeleton flightplan generated for a multi-aircraft mission includes a Turning Point between Take-off and Target. Each aircraft will then follow its own Egress Run until the formation reforms at a set rendezvous. when you enter the Mission Planner you will see a Task outline. with timings and speeds set up so that all aircraft arrive simultaneously at their correct positions.don’t delete them. altitude or Time-On-Target (but only within a couple of seconds either way .you. and their individual waypoints. Here is a list of basic principles for achieving a successful coordinated attack: 1: Concentration in Time. Approaching the Target. If these waypoints were not included you’d find it much less convenient to insert new waypoints in the flightplan .

at Command level you create the Task as well. you’ll see a WARNING or ERROR in the Problems window. and you’ve selected aircraft B’s flightplan. or single aircraft. Each independent waypoint will be of the same Type (Turning Point or Target) as the formation waypoint which was split to produce them. Also. The formation waypoint attributes will be inherited from the original independent waypoint.COMMAND LEVEL At this level. When the selected waypoint is a formation waypoint. This . If the targets are closely spaced. When the selected waypoint is an independent waypoint. the button will show ‘Formate’. This is because you haven’t yet created any Tasks. and its lower portion (the Priority Target Finder) closely resembles the Target Finder called up by the Targets button. In addition. but in addition you will need to make the all-important decisions about what targets to strike. the Mission Selection Screen for Command level presents a selection of starting scenarios. which summarises the location. you will need to adjust direction. altitude and time of attack to ensure that this doesn’t happen. and clicking on the button will make this into an individual waypoint for all aircraft in the formation. Tornados landing elsewhere (including the old base) will incur the normal time-penalty for ferry flights. Clicking on ‘Formate’ will turn D into a formation waypoint at the same position. which shows buttons corresponding to all serviceable Allied airfields. and allows you to select any one of the three War Zones. and how to divide your resources. As with the ‘Campaign’ option. You can now use the buttons in the Aircraft Strip of the Flightplan window to select the flightplan of any aircraft in the formation. In order to select ‘Command’ on the Flight Options page. holding the rank of Wing Commander or Group Captain. Relocate Click on this button to call up the Relocation window. provided that it’s physically possible for each aircraft to fly its independent track and rejoin the formation on time at the next formation waypoint. If you’re asking for the improbable or the impossible. you can save one Command game per War Zone to reload and continue later. The window shows the number of Tornados available for operations. At Campaign level you had the job of turning a Task into a flightplan. The Mission Planner in Command Mode When you commit to a Command scenario.to shift your Tornados to another airfield. one line will be displayed showing a Mission number followed by a button showing the type of Tornado assigned. which can only be done by calling up the Command Window. the pilot whose log is currently selected must be Command-qualified. which provides a summary of the overall military situation. nature and strength of air force units on both sides. you can create the flightplan(s) for that Task. You will need to exercise all the skills you have already learnt in mission planning and flying. Let’s say that your currently selected waypoint is D. Each aircraft’s independent waypoints may be dragged about or edited in any way you like. Tasking The Tasking window called up by this button allows you to allocate Tasks to formations of Tornados. both IDS and ADV. you have complete command authority. SECTION 3 . When you first call up this window in each round. Air Power This button calls up the Air Power window. the Flightplan window will not appear. When you use this facility to shift your base. this would result in your aircraft blowing one another up. The Command Window This window allows you to review intelligence data to help in selecting your objectives. you will see that the Mission Planning Screen looks exactly as before except that the Map Screen Button which used to read ‘Briefing’ or ‘Task’ is now titled ‘Command’. all flightplans for the tasks you generate in this round should be set up for landing at the new base. since the individual waypoints will automatically spread out from the original position. and then issue the orders to accomplish them. As we suggested above. Your current base airfield will be highlighted . It contains a strip of buttons at the top. an independent waypoint. just click on the appropriate button. All other waypoint attributes except position will also be inherited. if you click on the Flightplan button straight away. You’ll be able to see the effect of this on the map. with a Cycle button beside it. it will show ‘Split’. Situation This calls up the Situation Report window. Once you have created a Task. The skeleton flightplan automatically generated from the Tasking Message will give every aircraft an identical Time-On-Target.19 Split and Formate The rightmost button in the Tool Strip of the Flightplan Window will show two alternative legends according to the nature of the currently selected waypoint ‘Split’ or ‘Formate’.

major stockpiles holding huge quantities of everything needed to supply armed forces.better intelligence is needed. the symbol will change from a question mark to a tick. The Priority Flag markers work just like the Category Flags. You can select which Task’s flightplan to edit by clicking on the appropriate mission number in the Tasking window. When you create a Task by assigning aircraft to it. dispersed. where known. The first shows the number of aircraft assigned to the formation. Class: Logistics This class of targets covers the enemy supply system . and vital for the potential effect on intelligence. The items on the right are each marked with one of three symbols. they are automatically enabled when this window is open. Like the Target Finder.perhaps the most important class of all. in order from the last backwards. a mission number for a further Task will appear on the line below. two further buttons appear to the right. Priority Target Finder This system gives you easy access to processed intelligence data. defaulting to 1. If stocks of these are seriously depleted. camouflaged stockpiles which supply the needs of local forces and are replenished in turn from the major stockpiles.targets aren’t available yet. Which category of target you set out to strike should be determined by the broader view you gain from the Situation Report and Air Power windows. Once a Task has been created by assigning aircraft to it. the Priority Target Finder shows two columns. Logistics: POL Installations POL is the standard military abbreviation for Petrol. easily recognisable by the microwave relay tower on the site. but when it’s closed you can use the Key window to control whether or not they are displayed. a cross or a question mark. You can’t change the figure to 0. the left being used to select a broad class of targets. The quantity and quality of intelligence available will govern the quantity and quality of the evaluations provided by the Priority Target Finder. . When the type is changed to something other than ‘None’. and as this figure is changed the availability figure will fluctuate accordingly. A tick indicates that intelligence can offer you targets of this type. A question mark indicates that intelligence is still being evaluated . Class: Command This class selects enemy headquarters. The rightmost button can be used to display a description of the mission type as a reminder of your intentions. Command: Field HQ These are the headquarters of force commanders close to the front line. Class: Comms Communications targets are important in themselves. each with a Cycle button beside it. all vehicles from trucks through tanks to aircraft will be seriously affected. Logistics: Forward Dumps These are small. Lubricants. though airfields normally have large stocks on site in wellprotected underground tankage.20 button will initially show ‘None’. The associated Cycle button can be used to change the number of aircraft between 1 and the maximum available. Logistics: Main Depots These are main centres of supply . Command: Rear HQ These are permanent hardened facilities normally well behind the line of battle and very well defended. Comms: Main Node These are permanent facilities. you must delete all later tasks by setting their aircraft types to ‘None’.if you can cut these channels the enemy’s fighting power will be very seriously reduced. showing you which facilities are most important to the enemy’s war effort. You may only modify aircraft assignments for the latest Task in the list . When such items are ready. whereas a cross tells you that no information is available . but by clicking on the Cycle button it may be changed to read ‘IDS’ or ‘ADV’. but they will be sometime soon. its flightplan may also be created in the normal way by calling up the Flightplan window. depending upon availability of the type. You should also bear in mind that you will ALWAYS fly aircraft A in the first Task in the list.if you change your mind and want to modify tasks earlier in the list. a tick. all roads and railways leading towards the battlefield will be vital channels of supply . Comms: Field Relay These are temporary camouflaged installations providing secure communications between the battlefield rear area and the main comm. up to a maximum of four Tasks or until all available aircraft are assigned. and the right to display a complete list of all the individual items in this class. As a result of this. and flags the most important. Oil. Destroying an HQ may have serious effects on the coordination of enemy forces and the efficiency of the enemy supply system. net. but the same effect can be achieved by selecting a Type of ‘None’.

because repair of anything worse than minor breakdowns and battle damage will slow down severely or stop altogether. Politics: Power Station Depriving the enemy population of power may have a significant effect on morale . Counter Air: C³ This is ‘C-cubed’ rather than ‘C-three’. you can already see from the Air Power Window which aircraft types the enemy is operating from which airfields. If intelligence can identify a coordinating centre for enemy air activity.provided that it is already depressed. don’t expect to find them exactly where intelligence said they were. this is how it will be shown. Politics: Decapitation A Decapitation (beheading) strike is designed to take out your enemy’s political leadership. Battlefield: Direct Support These are Close Air Support targets . . Counter Air: Defences This is intended to highlight the densest defences masking the most valuable targets. but this facility will highlight the EWR stations which are most valuable to the enemy. Politics: NBC Capability NBC is for Nuclear/Biological/Chemical weapons. they represent research and manufacturing sites rather than stockpiles.enemy forces in contact with allied forces. these are the locations of enemy armoured units in reserve. familiar to all Gulf War fans. Class: Counter Air These are all types of target which are important to the air war in different ways. taking the distribution of targets into account. Battlefield: Repair Centre If you can knock out or seriously damage these major repair centres it can have a devastating effect on enemy ground forces. Battlefield: Reserves As the name suggests.21 Logistics: Choke Points Choke points are places where transport routes can be cut with maximum effect and efficiency . Counter Air: Airfields If Allied intelligence is good enough. If this category of target is offered. or will paralyse the military command structure by fighting among themselves for power. Class: Politics This is a miscellaneous category for targets which are not strictly military.in Tornado. Command and Control. Counter Air: EWR It’s easy enough to find EWR sites using the ordinary Target Finder. Politics: SCUD Launchers The classical political distraction target. If you decide to go looking for them. Class: Battlefield These targets represent places where you might directly influence the land battle. and stands for Communications. on the assumption that their successors will either be more willing to talk. all choke points are bridges. and that information should be a useful guide in choosing airfield targets.

and when you leave there you’ll be on the Mission Selection Screen. ’30 at 3' would mean that your bomb fell 30 feet to the right of the target. ‘180 at 6’ would mean that your bomb fell short by 180 feet. Four types of message are possible: Score: ’50 at 1'. click on the ‘Cancel’ button and the mission and its outcome will completely disappear from the record. you’ll be presented with the choice of whether or not to log the flight and add the flying time and achievements to the log record. whether from flying accidents or enemy action. Bombing Accuracy This only applies to the Bombing Range mission available in Training. All other types of flying involve some degree of risk. Note that you must make your attack run flying directly North (a heading of 360°). Selecting Exit from there will give you the choice of quitting the program. provided that you did not abort the flight one button will show ‘OK . logging the flight (by clicking on the ‘OK’ button) will mean that the current log will lose its Active status. regardless of the outcome of the mission. a perfect score. you must use the key combination c Q to leave the cockpit. For example. The first figure is your miss distance in feet. If the exercise started on the runway (which means that you reached the cockpit by way of the Mission Planner). Miss distances of greater than 500 feet will not be scored. Presumably you didn’t drop it. the ‘OK’ exit will take you back to the Mission Selection Screen. When you leave the Debrief screen. If you died. you must land and bring the aircraft to a halt before you do this. in a 2-Player game.a miss distance of over 500 feet. or the clock figures won’t be meaningful. and you will not be allowed to log it. or you will be considered to have aborted the flight. The most convenient way to do this is by using the ‘System’ command available from the Options button. Alternatively. Campaign (& Command) ‘Cancel’ will always return you to the Mission Planner and set the clock back. If your pilot lost Active status through death or dismissal. depending on the nature and the outcome of your flight. Be sure that you understand the consequences before you choose to log the flight.22 DEBRIEF Ending or Aborting your Flight At the end of your flight. and the other will show ‘Cancel . or under the Quickstart option. or if you aborted. you’ll find yourself on the Mission Selection Screen. Training (& Mission) The ‘Cancel’ exit will always return you to the Mission Planner. If you click on ‘OK’. No matter how you started a flight. or ‘180 at 6’ are examples of typical scores. You can’t be killed or captured in the Simulator. When you are flying under a Log identity you created yourself. you’ll be returned to the Log screen to choose another pilot. . Leaving the Debrief screen This is done by clicking on one of the two buttons in the lower part of the screen. where you must drop a single weapon on the practice target. If your pilot lost Active status. went missing or were captured in the course of the mission.Log Flight’. For any flight outside the Simulator or the 2-player option. ‘Delta Hotel’ A dead hit. ‘No Spot’ The bomb wasn’t seen. you can use the Exit button to step back through successive screens to the Main Screen. at the end of every one you’ll see the Debrief Screen. For every type of flight except when using the Quickstart option or Group Captain deFault’s log. what happens will depend on the outcome of the flight. or leave using the Exit button. The text on these buttons will change according to the situation. If you decide not to log the flight. or ‘Cancel’. and you won’t be able to use it again. while the ‘Cancel’ exit will return you to the Mission Planner. If you click on ‘OK’ with your pilot still Active and the Campaign unfinished. Quitting Tornado ‘Splash’ No score . you will always return to the Mission Selection Screen. you may find yourself on any one of a wide variety of screens.Do not log’. If the pilot is still Active. and you will be returned to the Mission Planner to fight the next round. the second gives the miss direction in clock-face terms. the Campaign will end and you’ll be returned to the Log screen to choose another pilot. Simulator Flights If this was a ‘start airborne’ exercise. Quickstart Flights You will always be returned to the Main Screen. giving you the opportunity to review the flight plan and try again. but will always start with either ‘OK’. the military situation will be updated to take account of everything which happened during your flight.

You’re now looking at the Navigator’s Panel. diagram 10 . you’ll see that this is showing something like AFDS: ALT/HDG. Main Screen Quick Cockpit Tour Hit 8. and you’re looking out of the left side of the cockpit. but the important item for the moment is option 7 on the right-hand pad. then hit the key again and you’re looking up and forward. Most of these are intended to allow you to set up the detail level of the outside visual to suit your preferences and the speed of your computer. Once you’ve returned to the forward view.NOT the numeric keypad) corresponding to the number of the item . Click on the first choice in the list. Though the panel and the pilot’s ejector seat block the view forward. the 7 key.now let’s put you in control of it. If you look at the MultiFunction Display (MFD) screen in the centre of the instrument panel. After a pause for loading. and you’re ready to start your first flying lesson. As with all these kneepad options. marked ‘IDS .in this case. Click on the part marked ‘Simulator’. The Look Right Key does exactly the same on the other side. click on the large triangular ‘Flight’ icon. you can use the Look Left and Right keys to see out . Release the key and you’re looking forward again. The yellow light beside it means that the Autothrottle is already engaged. This lets you select which of the available devices you’re going to use as your control stick the basic steering control of the aircraft.and you can also call up various camera views on the displays (more about this later). Hit the Front Cockpit key to return there. Look Down View FLYING THE AUTOPILOT AND READING THE HUD. which will divide into three parts.23 ELEMENTARY FLYING TRAINING STARTING THE SIMULATOR Once the Main Screen is displayed. Look Down .Airborne’. A green light on the panel illuminates to tell you the AFDS has control.Choosing your Control Stick Pilot's Cockpit Navigator's Cockpit The first thing we asked you to do was to switch on the autopilot . Each press advances the setting through the range available. hit the Back Cockpit key. followed by ALT 6000. giving details and showing two buttons. Now select the control device you want but DON’T move it. which turns on the AFDS (Autopilot and Flight Director System) in its Altitude and Heading Hold mode. Training or Combat Using the Look Down key in either cockpit gives you a view of your own legs and more importantly. Simulator. These keys work the same way in all view modes. Hit and hold the Look Left Key. Switch back to the Front Cockpit view. Hit it again to return to the standard front cockpit view. Click on the one marked ‘Confirm’.Free Flight . and a window will appear. HDG 270 and IAS 400. you switch the settings by pressing the number key (from the horizontal row on top of the typewriter keypad . which means that the aircraft will continue on in a straight line unless you tell it otherwise. and you will be presented with the Mission Selection Screen. you’ll find yourself in the air. the kneepads which display a range of configuration options.

In this AFDS mode. how high and in which direction the aircraft is currently flying. Set the Heading figure to somewhere between 0° and 10°. and each is marked with an angle in degrees. MFD in AFDS Mode Look up at the Head Up Display (HUD) .they’ve stayed parallel with the horizon outside .24 These figures mean that the aircraft is trying to fly itself due West . and the aircraft will start manoeuvering to follow.this. The precise rate of climb or descent is only normally relevant in the last stages of a landing. If not.a heading of 270°-at an altitude of 6000 feet above sea level (flat ground level in this case). Pitch Ladder are at an angle on the HUD .and they always do. the further you push the stick. These are the actual readings telling you how fast. is always true. At the top left you can see the Indicated Air Speed figure . Let’s tell the aircraft to turn North. If you look back up at the HUD and the outside world. but the movements of the bar serve as a reminder of what the aircraft is doing. moving the stick right or left to nudge the number up and down . At the top right is the Altitude figure . your control stick does not fly the aircraft directly. These are called the Pitch Bars (collectively the Pitch Ladder).this should read 6000 (feet). which will reset the Altitude Hold target to your current height. pushing forward will nudge it down. the bar extends to the end of the scale and stops.diagram 10. the faster the numbers change. you use it to alter the autopilot’s instructions. you should see that the reading on the Heading Strip is the same as the heading figure you set on the AFDS display (diagram 11). you’ll see that the aircraft has rolled .to an angle of about 45°. and it’s telling you that the aircraft’s compass heading is 270°. This is shown as a vertical bar which rises or falls from a centre position as the aircraft climbs or dives.all the figures on the heading strip represent TENS of degrees.banked . and the Autothrottle has control of the engines and is trying to maintain an Indicated Air Speed of 400 knots. you can see the Altitude figure changing. you can see that it’s showing that the aircraft’s nose (represented by the circle-andtwo-lines symbol in the centre of the HUD) is pointing above the horizon. We’re about to reverse your last action and command the diagram 11 diagram 12 diagram 13 . the aircraft will reverse its direction of turn because it’s now quicker to turn left than right to get there! Just set the heading figure somewhere near 0° and let the AFDS sort it out for itself. If you hold the stick over too hard for too long and the AFDS heading figure goes past 090°. Now hit the 8 key again. at 10° intervals. Across the bottom of the HUD is a strip of figures above a scale marked in dots.but don’t worry about an exact value for the moment. and the pointer on the ‘clock’ swinging clockwise around it (diagram 12). If you look at the Pitch Ladder. and the autopilot then flies the aircraft to carry them out. and the aircraft will turn. or the key down. Notice that the turned-down inner ends of the ladder bars point down at the ground . You tell it which way to fly and how high. The aircraft will raise its nose and start climbing. On the HUD. Move your control stick slightly right while watching the HDG (Heading) line on the Multi-Function Display (MFD) screen. You should see the heading figure start increasing towards 360° (at which point it snaps back to 0). If you’re using an analogue joystick. Pulling back on the stick will nudge this figure up. climb or dive as necessary to fly in the right direction at the right height.the Vertical Speed Indicator (diagram 13). If the rate of climb or descent is bigger than the scale allows (and it often is). This is the Altitude/Heading Acquire and Hold mode of the AFDS. This is the Heading Strip. too. and the figures on the heading strip are sliding across as the heading changes. and under both is a short vertical line.it should show 400 (knots). Now look at the ALT figure on the AFDS display. Its scale is calibrated with dots at intervals of 5 feet per second. You should also take a look at the pairs of horizontal bars with turned-down inner ends which appear in the wide central section of the HUD. the faster the figures will change. which should be directly below the figure 27. then the longer you hold the stick over. Instead. Half-way up on the right-hand side of the HUD is the VSI . Set the figure to about 10000 feet. You can also see that the bars of the When the aircraft rolls level again.

• The rate of turn increases. and hold it slightly back. Hitting P again will restart the simulation.another useful reminder that your nose is pointed at the ground. All is not lost. and the aircraft is starting to dive and pick up speed. or when the bank angle approaches 90° and it just isn’t possible to keep the nose up any longer by simply pulling back on the stick. and then release it to spring back to the centre. you can see that whereas all the bars above the horizon are solid. Try to set up a bank angle of about 45° and stop it there. regardless of whether or not you’re using the keypad as your control stick. You can also see that the steeper the angle of bank. When you engage Autotrim. the stick force just increases as you hold the key down longer. hit the q key. Congratulations. and the yellow light is on when the autothrottle is engaged. If you’re trying to fly with the keyboard you won’t be able to use the stick this way. so at most you can make the Lift Vector seven and a half times longer than the Gravity Vector. If the aircraft was flying stably before you turned it off. When the aircraft is flying straight and level again. Autotrim is cancelled when you make any pitch input (that is. nothing very much will change unless you move the control stick. read ahead or try to work out what’s going wrong. The aircraft should bank to the left and then stop rolling. the harder you need to pull to maintain level flight. then restart. The outside world and the Pitch Bars on the HUD are the easiest visual references to use for this kind of manoeuvering. LEVEL TURNS AND AUTOTRIM Remember the green and yellow lights near the top left of the panel? The green light is on when the autopilot has control.5 times the aircraft’s weight as a safe maximum. but you don’t have to be exact. Autotrim is always available when the aircraft is upright.and then quickly hit the Autotrim key (on most machines this will be the 5 key on the numeric keypad). Autopilot & Autothrottle Engage Indicators . If you try to re-engage the autopilot while the aircraft is rolled further than this limit all hell will appear to break loose as red lights start flashing and sirens sounding. It’s just the aircraft’s way of making sure that you know that the autopilot is NOT flying the aircraft for you even though you tried to switch it on . quit the simulator by holding down c and Q simultaneously. If it doesn’t stop rolling. and the pointer on the Altimeter ‘clock’ is now swinging anticlockwise as the Altitude figure winds rapidly down. With the wings swept forward for low-speed flight the aircraft will complain if asked to fly too fast.25 aircraft back down to its original height. This will ensure that the wings are fully swept back for highspeed flight. and the Autotrim system will pull back as hard as necessary to maintain the same rate of climb or descent. You can see that the aircraft puts its nose down. If you end up in a situation you can’t handle. This should produce two results: Now push the stick forward to set the AFDS desired altitude back to 6000 feet no lower. Hit the S key. Move the control stick a short way to the left. however. Cancel the Warning by hitting the * (numeric pad) or ' key and everything should return to normal. you’ve just switched off the autopilot. and the faster you turn (diagram 14). when you pull back or push forward on the control stick). the VSI changes from showing a climb rate to a rate of descent. During all of the following exercises feel free to use the P key to pause while you catch up. relax the back pressure on the stick and try to keep the nose on the horizon. you may re-engage the AFDS in Altitude and Heading Hold mode by hitting key 8. move the stick right and then release. you can move the control stick right or left to bank the aircraft to any angle short of about 80°. At any time when the aircraft is not banked beyond 60°. Because there is no way of reading how hard you’re pulling back. you should see that two things are happening: • The aircraft is turning slowly to the left. How hard can you pull? The Tornado’s wings are built to support 7. but the aircraft will probably accelerate in the dive. all the bars below the horizon are drawn as broken lines . at which point it will take the current heading and altitude as the values to hold. Raise the aircraft’s nose until it’s level with the horizon or climbing slightly . pause for a second or two and then hit S again. If it doesn’t. • The nose is dropping.the HUD VSI is a useful aid for this . If you now look at the HUD and the outside world. When the nose is roughly level with the horizon. • The nose should rise again. Pull back gently on the stick.you still have control. hold the stick back further. The green light should go out. There’s no way of reducing the stick force short of releasing the key altogether. Looking at the Pitch Ladder.

you.just not good enough in combat. with the wings swept back as far as they will go). The reason it’s slow is because the aircraft’s negative-G limit is less than its positive-G limit: -3 G against +7.5 times the force of gravity. If it wants to decelerate. you will black out. all it can do is throttle up.with the aircraft in its current configuration (i. which is throttling the engines to try and maintain the requested diagram 15 Indicated Air Speed. Autothrottle is an enormously useful feature. Limits of the Autothrottle diagram 14 Negative G When you’re flying straight and level and you want to dive. If it wants to accelerate the aircraft. blood returns to your brain. For the moment. but pushing forward to enter a steep dive is not a good idea. hit 8 again for Heading and Altitude Hold. G Meter THE AUTOTHROTTLE If you haven’t already done so. the pilot. The risk of red-out is one excellent reason to avoid this practice. Since this usually means that you stop pulling. the other is that it’s a slow way to manoeuvre .e. For small corrections this is a perfectly valid method.26 Positive G and G-LOC As you may have realised. The situation is sometimes known as G-LOC: G-induced Loss Of Consciousness. and you’ll probably want it switched on most of the time you’re flying. When you switch from manual throttle to Autothrottle. it takes the current Indicated Air Speed figure as its target speed. and you wake up again unless you’ve crashed or been shot down meanwhile. the obvious way to do this is to push the control stick forward to lower the nose. and the yellow indicator light next to the green AFDS indicator turns on when the Autothrottle is engaged. But if the aircraft is climbing at a steep angle. If you keep this up for too long. the aircraft will stop flying and stall not far below this speed. are being pushed down into your seat with 7. the force becomes less.5 G as against pushing -3 G. the engine RPM and reheat settings stay at the last value commanded by the Autothrottle. and watch the HUD Airspeed figure until it becomes steady. All this time you’ve been flying with the engines under control of the Autothrottle. all it can do is throttle back. so the throttle controls (which normally vary the engine RPM manually) are used under Autothrottle to change the desired speed up and down. Just as the control stick (which flies the aircraft manually) is used to change the autopilot’s orders when the AFDS is flying the aircraft. which is shown on the AFDS display on the MFD. When you switch from Autothrottle to manual throttle control. don’t set the Autothrottle target speed below about 250 knots . The G-force reading is shown on the G-meter (upper right centre) on the instrument panel. if you’re pulling this hard.5 G. Other limitations exist mainly because the Autothrottle controls ONLY the throttles. The 0 key is used to switch Autothrottle on and off. the engines simply cannot develop enough thrust to Secondary Control Surfaces Position Indicator . Diagram 15 gives some idea of the maximum turn rates available by pulling +7.

Use ‘Slam shut’ to bring the engines down to idle thrust . The others are True Air Speed (TAS). an IAS of 200 knots means that your TAS is about 327 knots. diagram 17 . When you pull back hard on the stick you are forcing the wings to generate a large amount of lift.e. however. As the aircraft climbs. Airbrake on Airbrake off STALLING Indicated Air Speed . use the Airbrakes. To handle the second situation (unwanted acceleration in a dive). which is actual speed over the ground. and this is the drag caused by manoeuvering. but you started with a high speed. turn the Autothrottle off by hitting 0. but leave the autopilot engaged. At higher altitudes and lower air densities you need to fly faster just to stay in the air. This technique will work for moderate dive angles. you will see the Airspeed start to decay. with the autothrottle at about 400450 knots. the autopilot maintains the set altitude. Use the AFDS in Altitude and Heading Hold mode to set the aircraft up in straight and level flight at an altitude of at least 8000 feet.27 accelerate that much weight ‘uphill’. You should see that as the speed drops. the airspeed will drop. the thinner the air. With the engines idling. the outside air pressure and density fall. the aircraft will accelerate as it coasts ‘downhill’ even though the Autothrottle has cut the engines back to idle thrust (63% RPM). In both cases you can look at the IAS figure and know that your speed is dangerously low . and Mach Number. so you can carry on climbing for some time before the speed falls to a dangerously low figure. You can cope with the first situation (the climb) either by climbing at a gentle angle which the engines can sustain (generally less than 20° nose-up) or by accelerating to a high speed in level flight before pulling back into a steep climb (a ‘zoom climb’). In order to do so it raises the nose more and more.IAS Indicated Air Speed (IAS) is one of four common ways of expressing an aircraft’s speed. Angle of Attack Manoeuvre Drag There is another source of drag which can make it impossible for the Autothrottle to maintain its target speed.let your speed decay naturally from that point. diagram 16 and the vertical strip meter on the left side of the HUD. At ground level an Indicated Air Speed of 200 knots means that your True Air Speed is 200 knots. or even prevent the speed from dropping. At 30000 feet. This is the Angle-of-Attack (Alpha) meter (diagram 17). and so for any given aircraft weight. but it is impossible to do this without also generating a large amount of drag. but there is a limit to the effect. which will show up on the Pitch Ladder. opposite the VSI. If you look at the Airbrake Position Indicator (lower left on the Panel) you’ll see a needle flick in and out as you deploy and close the Airbrakes.in fact. When you’ve done this. If you set the aircraft up in level flight at a constant speed under Autothrottle and then enter a steep hard turn. wing sweep and flap setting the aircraft will always stall (i. Now watch the HUD Airspeed Indicator. with wings fully swept back. the Pitch Ladder. which would be confusing and dangerous. but you may want to use the Airbrakes carefully to bring your speed down to about 250 knots .you should see the RPM gauges drop to a figure of 63%. At the same time the Alpha meter shows a steadily rising trend. The higher you go. The amount of lift generated by your wings depends largely on the speed and density of the air flowing over (and under) the wing. which represents the speed relative to the air you’re flying through. In this case you will lose speed in the climb. the Tornado would quite possibly have stopped flying and started falling at 200 knots IAS. which represents your speed as a multiple or a fraction of the speed of sound at your current altitude. while the Autothrottle cuts in maximum thrust and still can’t keep up. The Indicated Air Speed figure takes air density into account. If the aircraft’s nose is pointed down in even a moderate dive. If the pilot used a TAS figure the stall speed would increase with altitude. stop flying) at the same IAS. Ground Speed. At ground level Indicated Air Speed is exactly the same as True Air Speed: speed through the air.

73 at 45° sweep: Mach 0. • Whatever the sweep angle. As soon as you see that the aircraft is actually pitching down in response to your command. Though the aircraft as a whole is nowhere near the speed of sound yet. Now set the Autothrottle for about 480 knots and watch carefully as the aircraft accelerates.p. the effect would have grown more severe. Now it’s time for you to act: slam the throttle open and push the control stick forward (you’re trying to accelerate to flying speed as fast as possible).88 at 67° sweep: Mach 2. sweep the wings back to the mid-sweep position and the buffeting should stop. the nose drops uncontrollably. causing turbulence and shaking the aircraft. The AFDS system realises that it can’t handle the situation and turns itself off . pull the stick back GENTLY and level off. the Alpha Meter is a more consistent indicator of an approaching stall than the Airspeed Indicator. 67° sweep. the lower the stalling speed. Shockwaves are constantly forming and collapsing in a chaotic pattern. hit the * key on the numeric keypad or the ' key. To cancel the Warning. Before you’ve reached the target speed you’ll hear a rumbling. zero flap at 25° sweep: Mach 0. Sweeping the wings back delays the formation of the shockwaves until you reach a higher speed. and eventually the aircraft would become uncontrollable and/or shake itself to pieces. the better the aircraft turns. • The further forward the wings are swept. When you do.20 . buffeting noise and possibly notice some vibration. Secondary Control Surfaces Position Indicator diagram 18 Mach Number Starting with the aircraft flying level at about 5000 feet with 25° sweep at about 400 knots under Autothrottle. You can now accelerate past the speed of sound (Mach 1) all the way to the limits of the aircraft’s performance at the current altitude before you will experience any further buffeting. zero flap Now set the autothrottle for about 600 knots.and tells you so by sounding an alarm and flashing the Attention-Getter lights. Engine r. If you had carried on accelerating without sweeping the wings back. Once again.28 Finally the stall point is reached. the airflow over parts of the wings 45°sweep. The critical Mach numbers (the numbers you shouldn’t normally exceed) are: You’ve just run into what are called compressibility effects . 25° sweep. Gauges was beginning to approach sonic speeds at different places at different times. as the aircraft accelerates. which will disappear if you sweep the wings back all the way to 67°.m. zero flap WING SWEEP • The further forward the wings are swept.the fringes of what used to be called the Sound Barrier. you will hear and/or see buffeting.

25° sweep. use the Airbrakes to slow the aircraft still more. Initially there will be no lights. All you will have to do is deploy airbrakes. The throttles will also be adjusted as the autothrottle seeks the correct approach speed for the aircraft weight and configuration.Airbrakes Bring your speed down to less than 225 knots. Hit Key . diagram 19 not a weapon aiming mode). You’ve just lowered the stalling speed. which will bring your approach speed down to the slowest possible. so you should see the throttles close again. until the engine RPM gauges rise from idle thrust and reach a steady value. then Simulator.29 AUTOMATED LANDINGS Hit/Hold Key .Sweep Forward (to 25 sweep) As you do this you should see the throttles close briefly. Hit Key . The AFDS in Approach mode will fly the approach path for you and manage the throttle.you may want to use the Pause key to stay ahead of the instructions: Hit Key . then three reds as the gear travels. flaps and gear at the appropriate times.AFDS Approach Mode. If the throttles are still closed at this point. with autothrottle set at 450 knots and wings at 45 sweep.Gear Switch Watch the Gear Indicator lights to make sure it does come down and lock. select Flight. select ‘Landing Practice’. manoeuvre flap Hit/Hold Key . The sequence of operations from here should go like this . Landing Practice for AutoApproach From the Main Screen. just outside ILS (Instrument Landing System) range. As you come in range of the ILS system.Flaps Down Now you’re below the limiting speed for Mid Flap. to lower Manoeuvre Flap.Flaps Down Do this once.Flaps Down Now you’re slow enough for Full Flap. wing sweep. This will have a large effect on the stalling speed. This will always happen when you enter range of an ILS system if the HUD is in nav mode (i. Unpause and wait a few seconds. (6) The aircraft will start manoeuvering to put the large cross on the HUD in the centre WITH the aircraft on the runway heading. Hit the Pause key. full flap Gear Position Indicator . for the moment. You should now be in a stable approach. You will see the Flap/Slat position indicators droop to the first position. and a larger open cross appears off-centre. then finally three greens to show that all three legs are locked down. Hit Key .Airbrakes Use Airbrakes to bring the speed down to 350 knots. From the Simulator Missions. 25° sweep. The aircraft should start to slow down.Airbrakes Bring your speed down to less than 280 knots. Take a look at diagram 19. mid flap Hit/Hold Key . 25°sweep. Having clicked on ‘Commit’. which shows your situation in plan view. The HUD shows the standard nav display. you’ll see the HUD symbology change the centre symbol becomes a small open cross. you will find yourself in the cockpit. Hit Key . You are straight and level at 4000 feet ASL heading towards a runway. Hit Key . so the AFDS can fly the approach more slowly.e.

.Wheelbrakes You must disengage the Thrust Reversers before your speed drops below about 50 knots. choose the option ‘Free Flight (from runway)’. Close the throttle first. You will find yourself in the Mission Planner.. until you can see the rate of descent start to slow down. watching the indicator to make sure it goes out. Now release the Throttle control. Light up Reheat (Afterburners).. and at about 70 knots. the procedure is exactly the same as for the Landing Practice sequence. You’ll see the Engine RPM gauges rise till they show 100%. held only by the brakes . or you’ll just accelerate again. and the aircraft will start to follow the ILS beam down to the runway. On the Mission Selection Screen. but both Reheat Indicators will light.Thrust Reversers Thrust Reversers Hit Key . Watch your airspeed. slowing you down. Watch the HUD Airspeed Indicator. Step 1. which will do them no good at all. Now look for the Approach Progress Indicator light (upper right on the panel). if it’s heavy this won’t happen until you have Wheel Brakes Landing Gear Position Indicator . Hit Key . all ready to go. and wait for it to start flashing. release the stick and. Hit Key . When the speed reaches 140 knots. The Engine RPM gauges will stay on 100%. with engines idling and Medium Flap selected. or your engines will start re-ingesting their own exhaust.. start pulling back gently on the stick. Release the Wheelbrakes. and then the Simulator. When it does. as well as the 0 reading on the HUD altimeter). Fuel Flow Indicator Wheel Brake Indicator Step 3. Fully open the throttle. on the right-hand side. the Fuel Flow gauge will show a moderate rise. and as the figure reaches 50 feet.you may notice some vibration.Cancel Autopilot The aircraft should continue stably and smoothly down the approach. If the aircraft is lightly loaded the nose will immediately start to rise.Thrust Reversers The Thrust Reverser buckets close over your engine nozzles and divert thrust forward. As the main gear touches down (you should hear and see the thump. You will find yourself in the cockpit.Slam Throttle Shut Release Key . handsoff.30 Operational Conditions descending smoothly toward the runway. the AFDS will automatically engage Approach Mode. If this is your first take-off. and the Fuel Flow gauge needle will spin clockwise and jam itself against the stop. Watch the HUD Altimeter as you approach the runway threshold. since everything is already set up. When you arrive at an Approach Point in Track Mode.. on the runway. From this point on. Step 2. The aircraft is now at absolute maximum power. just click on the button marked ‘Take-off’. pull the stick back and hold it back. The aircraft will start rolling. At the same time. From the Main Screen select Flight. by fully opening the throttle again. TAKING OFF Secondary Control Surfaces Position Indicator Approach Progress Indicator Hit/Hold Key . and stand by with the Control Stick.

and finally go out altogether (locked up). from just below to just above the first bar above the horizon. Step 4.31 more speed. Watch the HUD Airspeed Indicator. When you reach 215 knots. Reheat ON FULL Wheelbrakes OFF (at 100% RPM and Max. Check the Gear Indicator. your next task will usually be to turn on the AFDS in Track mode and watch the Time Early/Late indicator on the HUD. the drill goes like this: Throttle OPEN. which should change from three green lights (gear locked down) to three reds (not locked down or up). Now release the stick. You’re now cleaned up and ready to fly. As soon as it leaves 0 you’re off the ground.push it down a little carefully! Step 5.it should be quite safe to engage Track mode autopilot as you pass about 200'. hit Flaps Up twice. Operationally. Watch the HUD Altimeter. hit the Landing Gear Switch to retract the undercarriage. Check the Airspeed to see that you’re still accelerating. Normal practice would be to cut Reheat as you pass 300 knots. . you’ve got the nose too high . If you’re not accelerating. Reheat) Pull back (at 140+ knots) Gear UP (at 10+ feet) Flaps UP (at 215 knots) After Take-off. You will also see the HUD VSI indicator rise to show that you’re climbing. In short form. fine-tuning your speed with the autothrottle in order to arrive exactly on time at your first en-route waypoint. You’ll see the Flap Position Indicator rise from Mid-Flap to Manouevre Flap to No Flap. you will normally (in the Tornado IDS) be levelling off quite low while you continue to accelerate to cruising speed . and make the switch from 25 sweep to 45 sweep at about 350 knots. If you are. Hold the stick back until you’re pitched up about 8-12° according to the HUD Pitch Bars.

1000. engage the Autothrottle with a speed setting of about 420 knots. pausing briefly each time to let the aircraft stabilise at the new Ride Height. If you’re below the limiting speed for Manoeuvre Flap you can use it to turn more tightly than you can with the flaps fully up. The zone represents the profile of the ground directly ahead of the aircraft. so the TF system needs to look further ahead for obstacles. and call up the ‘IDS . The vertical scale of the EScope remains the same.Free Flight (from Runway)’ option. Now set the Autothrottle to a higher speed. When you get there. If you look at the HUD altimeter. Now climb straight ahead to about 2000 feet. and try to find some more hills. As the aircraft moves. Fly straight ahead (a heading of 270). If you’re over hills. get the aircraft off the ground.32 ADVANCED FLYING TRAINING More about Flaps and Slats DON’T exceed the flap limiting speeds! Here they are again: Flap Limiting Speeds Manoeuvre Flap: Mid Flap: Full Flap: 450 Knots IAS 280 Knots IAS 225 Knots IAS One consequence of the interlock system is that you can’t sweep the wings and change the flap setting at the same time. as closely as it can. As you reach about 500 feet you’ll notice that the E-Scope (the display above and to the left of the MFD) is starting to show an undulating green zone in its bottom section. As the aircraft’s speed increases. Set the Ride Height down to 200 feet by stages. If you’re not above hills at the moment. You’ll see the mode change on the AFDS MFD display and the ALT status will change to 1500 RIDE (maintain a Ride Height of 1500 feet). just as you would in Altitude/Heading Acquire mode. but it does have limits. The TF system is smart and trustworthy. and once you’ve cleaned the aircraft up for cruising flight. 500.a demonstration Select the Simulator.or flat ground . not forgetting to adjust wingsweep as necessary. which is prefixed by the letter R to show that this is a radar altitude (height above ground) rather than a barometric altitude (height above sea . 750. you must do one thing first and then the other. The system allows itself a margin of error below the set Ride Height. the green zone will rise up the display. you’ll see that a letter T has appeared below the digital altitude figure. shown relative to the fixed mark on the left-hand side of the display. Select ‘Take Off’ in the Mission Planner. you’ll see that the aircraft is now pitching up and down under automatic control to maintain 1500 feet above ground. but the horizontal scale changes to compress a greater distance into the fixed width of the display. which can be set to 1500. look about to find some. What this means in effect is that the slopes start to look steeper.level). hit the 9 key to put the AFDS into Terrain Follow (TF) mode. and use left or right Control Stick movements to set the Heading Acquire figure to steer towards them. say 550 knots. As the Ride Height is reduced further. the more dramatic the effect becomes. 300 or 200 feet. Moving the stick forwards or backwards will change the Ride Height figure. and once you’re in the cockpit. and the extra drag is hardly worth worrying about. 400. and flashes the B-risk indicator E-Scope E-Scope B-Risk Indicator . Terrain-Following with the AFDS . The faster you go. the ground profile shown in the E-Scope scrolls in on the right and out on the left.

though you’ll need to fly loft profiles manually. be aware that the aircraft is going to twitch all over the place in response to the flurry of rapidly changing steering demands. If you want to fly parts of the flightplan manually. possibly running you into a hill. and remember roughly which way it is from your current position (remember. Tornado IDS will normally fly in widely-spaced tactical formations. you’ll need to hit ‘arm air-to-ground weapons’. Smaller deflections left or right indicate smaller deviations from the schedule. at the right dot you’re early by 30 seconds or more. If you’re late. the system goes into panic reaction. SETTING UP YOUR OWN APPROACH AND LANDING Finding a runway. The vertical line moves sideways between the centre position and the outside dots. To avoid this problem. The AFDS can fly most planned attacks for itself. is probably the best one to start with. the AFDS will automatically switch to Approach mode for landing. Remember that the adjustment won’t affect the TEL calculation until the actual aircraft speed has changed. When the aircraft reaches the currently selected waypoint while in AFDS Track mode. rising from 500-600 knots for attack and egress runs. adjust the speed upward. This subject is treated in much more detail in the Mission Planner chapter. call up the PLN display if it’s not already visible. the line is below the centre dot. but it’s easier to see what’s going on if you watch the PLN display. but if you leave the AFDS in Track mode while you do it. the map rotates so that your aircraft is always flying straight up the screen). If it’s a target. disengage the AFDS and either fly the aircraft manually or re-engage in plain TF mode until you’ve selected the right waypoint. Even more significantly. if early. left for late and right for early. diagram 20 While the TEL displays make really accurate timekeeping much easier. if it’s at the left dot you’re 30 seconds late or more. the navigation systems continuously calculate a predicted time-of-arrival on the basis of your current position and speed. You can repeat the comand as many times as you like. Use a+left click to centre on your current position. zoomed well out. If the radar altitude falls this low. You can use this command from the front seat if you wish. reduce it. If you’re right on time. the TEL displays will not be active until the nose is pointing in the general direction of the next waypoint. just move to the back seat. 2 Wait for the aircraft speed to adjust to the new setting and watch the TEL indicator. When the TEL HUD display is active. There is also an absolute limit below the safety margin. When you reach a waypoint and the aircraft turns onto the next leg. most of the waypoints are tagged with planned times-of-arrival.33 (a red light below the E-Scope) when it exceeds that margin. If the B-risk indicator is flashing frequently. nor too far away. zoom right out and . the next waypoint in the flightplan is automatically selected and the aircraft turns towards it. but in general you won't go far wrong if you assume that the flight plan expects a cruising speed of 420 knots. If the aircraft reaches an Approach Point within an allied ILS beam while under Track mode control. it appears as a short vertical line and three horizontally-spaced dots just below the HUD Airpeed indicator. and it’s impossible to hold your place in the formation by eye. Now switch to the back cockpit and call up the Scrollable map on one of the Tab displays. then automatically disengages itself and sounds a warning to tell you. Use this to find an airfield which is neither too close. and cycle all the way through the list again if you overshoot. and weapons cannot be released unless you hold down the Commit button. you'll find it difficult to achieve this in practice unless you have some idea of what speed the mission plan required over each leg of the flight plan. Desperate Measures: Skipping Waypoints It’s very simple to use. When the mission flightplan is created. TEL (Time Early/Late) Displays On the way to and from the target. and hit the Skip Waypoint key (probably N) to advance the currently selected waypoint to the next in sequence. the altitude authority mode and height setting may change from waypoint to waypoint. placing an Approach Point Finding a runway isn’t difficult if you use the map displays. The difference in seconds between the planned and predicted figures is shown as the Time Early/Late. The Full-screen map. you’ll have to advance the selected waypoint yourself at the end of each leg. The drill for adjusting your speed to stay on schedule might go something like this: 1 Adjust Autothrottle setting for the nominal speed over the current leg of the flightplan. When the aircraft is flying towards a selected waypoint which has a set time-of-arrival. you should either slow down or increase the Ride Height if the situation allows. using the Skip Waypoint command (see below). It instantly rolls the wings level and pulls up hard away from the ground.

34
scroll the map in the right direction to find your target airfield. Refer back to the
Full-screen map if necessary to find your way. When you bring the airfield onscreen you will be able to see that the active runway (the one you want to use)
is shown in a contrasting colour.
With the airfield on screen and
the Scrollable Map zoomed
right out, click the left mouse
button to place waypoint T about
7 or 8 runway-lengths from the
airfield, in line with the runway.
You now have a home-made
approach point. Hit T to make
waypoint T the currentlyselected waypoint, and you can
engage Track mode to fly you
there.

Why put the
Approach Point there?

diagram 23

How to line up for your Approach
diagram 21

Diagrams 24A,B and C illustrate a number of situations and possible ways of
dealing with them.

As you can see from diagram
22 the ILS beams cover a spikeshaped zone which is widest
and highest at its furthest point
from the runway. This is about
60000 feet (10 nautical miles or
18 kilometres) from the runway
threshold. Since all the active
runways you’ll find in Tornado
are about 8000 feet long, this
means that the big end of the
wedge is almost exactly 8
diagram 22
runway-lengths from the middle
of the runway. You’ll have to enter the ILS zone and point the aircraft in roughly
the right direction before the ILS displays will activate and AFDS Approach mode
can be engaged.
You can see from diagram 23 that the beam is 8000 feet high at extreme range,
and the AFDS will find it easiest to line up for the approach if you enter the beam
near the centre, so set the AFDS for Altitude hold (still under Track mode) at about
4000 feet.
diagram 24A,B,C and D

35
As you approach waypoint T,
call up the Local Map on the
MFD, select Base Origin display
(aircraft at the bottom, not in the
middle) and look out for the letter
T marking the position. When
you get close, cancel the
Autothrottle and disengage the
AFDS, then start your turn. If
you make it a tight turn you’ll
lose a good deal of speed as
well as staying closer to your
reference point.
Once you’re in the beam you
can engage the AFDS in
Approach mode, but if you’re
crossing the centreline at too
great an angle and too high a
speed you’ll fly straight out of
the other side of the beam before
the AFDS can line up (see
diagram 26). If this happens,
the AFDS will turn itself off and
sound a warning.

down to indicate which way it is to the centre of
the ideal approach path. When you are in the
centre of the path the two crosses are exactly
superimposed.

diagram 25

For comparison you can call up the MFD ILS
display by using the D key (MFD Function
Select) to cycle through the possible displays.
Here the ILS display shows fixed dashed
crosshairs equivalent to the aircraft datum on
the HUD, and moving solid crosshairs which
correspond to the larger moving cross. This
display also shows, clockwise from top left;
Aircraft Heading, Bearing to the airfield (to runway
midpoint), Range to the airfield in nautical miles
(to runway midpoint) and Time-to-go in minutes
and seconds.
diagram 27

Reading and Reacting to the ILS
display
diagram 26

SEMI-AUTOMATIC AND MANUAL
LANDINGS
Semi-automatic Approach:- ILS and Autothrottle
In this type of approach we’ll use the ILS (Instrument Landing System) as a
manual steering cue, and leave speed management to the Autothrottle. Your
aircraft’s ILS displays are driven by transmitters and aerials on the ground,
pointing up the approach path. There are effectively two fan-shaped radio beams;
one (the Localiser) to tell you whether you are to the left or to the right of the
runway centreline, and the other (the Glideslope) to tell you whether you are
above or below a steady 3° slope which meets the ground at the runway
threshold. See diagram 22 for a full schematic.
The easiest form of the display to use is the one which automatically appears on
the HUD when you enter ILS coverage with the HUD in standard NAV mode (i.e.
no weapon aiming displays). On the HUD ILS display, the aircraft datum in the
centre is shown as a cross and a second, larger cross moves left, right, up and

On the face of it, then, reaching the ideal approach
path is simply a question of flying the aircraft
towards the cross on the HUD. It’s not quite that
simple - there are two other points to bear in
mind. The first is that the ILS display is only
telling you where you are relative to the ideal
approach path - it is NOT telling you if you’re
pointed in the right direction to stay there. To
stay in the centre of the localiser beam (the leftright reference) you need to be pointing in the
same direction as the runway you’re
approaching. If you’re landing on runway 09 the
aircraft’s got to be on a heading of 090° as well
as in the centre of the beam. Don’t make big,
radical manoeuvres to try to reach the centre of
the beam - the closer you get to it, the smaller
your corrections should be.
This is a highly important point, and one which
many people find difficult to grasp: if the ILS
display is telling you that the runway centreline
is off to the left of your current position, it’s NOT
telling you to keep turning left until you reach it.
If you’re approaching runway 09 and the ILS

MFD - ILS active

MFD - ILS (not active)

36
shows that the centreline is off to the left, what you should be doing is taking up
a heading to the left of 090° (say 080 or 085°), so that you reach the centreline
before you arrive at the threshold. In the same way, if the ILS showed the
centreline to the right, you should take up a heading to the right of 090 (say 095
or 100°), hold that until the ILS shows you that you are close to the centreline, and
then bring the heading back towards 090. If you correct your heading in this way
but find that the ILS is not creeping back towards the centre, only then should you
make a bigger correction.
The second point to remember is that the glideslope beam (the up-and down
reference) slopes down. You cannot track the glideslope centreline unless the
aircraft is descending steadily.

Setting your Approach Speed
Recommended Approach Speeds at 25° Wingsweep

Light case:
33000lb / 15000kg - Virtually empty aircraft
Medium case: 45000lb / 20400kg - No external stores, full internal fuel
Heavy case:
60000lb / 27200kg - Near maximum take-off weight
The medium-weight case is probably the most useful: set the Autothrottle to about
210 knots to bring you within flap-limiting speeds, lower the flaps all the way and
then set 165-180 knots. If you’re carrying more weight than this it would normally
be sensible to dump some of it using the External Stores Jettison option before
starting the approach.

MANUAL APPROACHES
Manual Approach with ILS

diagram 28

diagram 29

Normally you think in terms of controlling speed with the throttle and controlling
rate of descent or climb by pointing the nose up or down. At the low speeds
involved in flying an approach, however, it is actually easier to reverse this
convention. Think in terms of controlling speed by raising the nose (to slow down)
or lowering the nose (to speed up), and controlling rate of descent by opening the
throttle (to descend more slowly) or closing the throttle (to descend faster). Let’s
give some examples of how the process works:
1 Speed correct, but BELOW the glideslope
You respond by throttling up to raise the engine RPM figure one or two per cent.
Now watch your airspeed. As soon as this starts rising above the target figure,
raise the nose slightly to bring the speed back on target. The end result is that
you’re still at the correct approach speed, and you’re descending more slowly
than you were.
2 Speed correct, but ABOVE the glideslope

diagram 30

diagram 31

Throttle back a little. As the airspeed drops below the target, lower the nose a little
to recover the speed.

and try landing with 45 or 67° sweep. you must either land on one of the long taxiways or use a disused runway (these are the ones with white crosses at the threshold). Lighten the aircraft as much as possible first. the faster you must descend to match the fixed 3° glideslope. You can practice various emergencies quite easily in the Simulator. It is possible. very cautious. diagram 32 centreline. 4 ON the glideslope. . For a flapless landing. it’ll be blown sideways by the crosswind component. Conversely. and of course there’s no ILS. Provided that they haven’t been damaged in the attack. raise the nose slightly. Line up on the localiser (leftright reference) first. If you can afford a good long roll after touchdown.37 3 ON the glideslope. If this leaves you below the glideslope refer to example 1. and use the forward-looking camera at night. but speed LOW Lower the nose slightly. you’ve either got to stop before. you can mitigate the effects of a crosswind by flying a faster approach than usual.. If you point the aircraft straight down the beam. If this leaves you above the glideslope. though respectively narrower and shorter than the main runway. land after or swerve around the craters . This will mean that you can point the nose closer to your intended path. wait till you’re close to the target speed and then lower it a fraction to stabilise at the new speed. If your runway is damaged.. If you don’t want to divert or you can’t for lack of fuel. Until you’ve got the feel of the situation it’s best to be very.On Damaged Runways diagram 33 LANDINGS AND WIND DIRECTION There’s a Simulator exercise called ‘Crosswind Landing Practice’ which you can try out.. Try a landing with the engines at idle thrust . You’ll find that in order to fly a straight line down the centre of the beam you will need to keep the nose pointing a few degrees to the upwind side of the Keep your eyes open on the approach. Pretend that the wing sweep mechanism has failed. the higher your approach speed. these surfaces should be perfectly suitable. deal with the problem as in example 2.you may need to do some brisk steering to avoid veering off the runway. but you must touch down very lightly.without touching the throttles. Be especially careful at and after touchdown when flying this sort of approach . and then devote most of your attention to matching the glideslope by juggling speed and rate-ofdescent. . leave the flaps up. but speed HIGH Raise the nose a little till the speed starts to drop. and watch for the speed to start rising. and make the smallest possible control inputs. As it reaches the correct figure. Want to try a wheels-up landing? Simple! Just leave the gear up. Be wary of trying to fly to a fixed rate-of-descent in feet per second as shown on the HUD or the VSI..or land on another runway. diagram 34 LANDING DAMAGED AIRCRAFT. a slow approach with a heavy crosswind will be very difficult to fly accurately.

the HUD references and the instruments are all over the place and the horizon flashes past your nose at short intervals and strange angles. This option is intended for use just before landing a damaged aircraft. The aircraft will zoom-climb to a high altitude. leaving the throttles at Max. If this happens. This is characteristic spinning behaviour when the wings are fully swept. When it is working. if the situation demands it.the direction doesn’t matter. and NOT when you switch it off deliberately. This should probably be done with the C+I key combination. Jettison All External Stores and Internal Fuel down to 1000 lbs. Like any other system in the aircraft. The red. If and when an engine fire is detected the warning system will go off and the condition will be flagged on the Warning Panel in the back cockpit. because the control toggles SPILS on/off and there’s no indicator apart from the one on the warning panel in the back. diagram 35 . All external stores are dumped without exception. second. amber and green Jettison lights will all illuminate to confirm that the stores are gone and the fuel dumped. leaving you with an aircraft in its lightest possible powered configuration. Jettison Tanks and Offensive Stores This is the option you need if hard-pressed by an enemy fighter in close combat. Suddenly the aircraft goes crazy . it is unlike most other aircraft in that it has no aileron control surfaces on the wings.38 EMERGENCIES Jettison External Tanks only Releases the drop tanks on your inboard pylons to save weight and drag. The amber and green Jettison lights illuminate to confirm separation. moving the tail surfaces differentially instead. Dry power (100% RPM).so you need to know how to recover once the spin has started. but check with the Control Summary for your machine (Secondary Flight Controls section). Hit 1 for an external view and you’ll see that the aircraft is tumbling end over end in all three axes as it falls. SPILS. Let’s set up the problem in the Simulator. turn off the SPILS system. Now apply full sideways stick . Spin Recovery The Tornado’s spinning characteristics and recovery drill are unusual for two reasons: first. /450 kg. At about 220 knots IAS you should see the nose begin to drop in the stall. and all internal fuel bar 1000 lbs with which to complete the approach. It dumps all external stores except AIM9L airto-air missiles for self-defence. SPINS AND SPIN RECOVERY Spinning Spinning is a hazard associated with stalling. or a loss of control with no prospect of recovery before the aircraft hits the ground. but you will probably be in no doubt when it occurs. it is a swing-wing aircraft and the nature of the spin changes with wing-sweep setting. losing speed rapidly. the SPILS system in the Tornado detects any incipient spin problem at the stall point and acts to correct it before the spin can become established. Now sweep the wings right back to 67°. or in the event of engine damage. The green Jettison light illuminates to confirm separation. then cancel reheat (just Slam Shut while in reheat). Loss of control can occur in many different ways. Select one of the Free Flight (Airborne) exercises. which (for our purposes) will always result in a catastrophic explosion within a few seconds. When you arrive in the cockpit. These are an engine fire. Let the aircraft accelerate to high speed on the level. any stall may develop into a spin . Jettison Lights Ejection There are two situations in which ejection is definitely the only way out. Pull the aircraft up into a near-vertical climb and take your hands off the controls. which only illuminates when the system fails due to damage. however. the SPILS system may be disabled by combat damage or random failure. Be careful when doing this: just hit the key once. cancel Autothrottle and go to full reheat (Slam Open twice).

Select again and you’ll get a worm’s eye view looking up from underneath! (c) Remote view This option allows you to hop outside and watch your aircraft from a fixed position. If your prefer. (d) Drone view “Drones” are the numerous computer-controlled aircraft and ground vehicles moving around the combat area simultaneously to yourself. you will need to hold the stick in this position for a variable length of time. the aircraft is under control again. This one excellent reason why you should bring the wings to 25 sweep first. but the aircraft is twirling like a propeller. This is almost the exact opposite of the spin recovery drill used in most aircraft. Meanwhile watch the Altimeter and the Airspeed Indicator. In a steady spin the Airspeed Indicator will show a very low figure. to bring the wings to 25 sweep. the viewpoint is ‘frozen’ in space wherever it happens to be at that moment (unless it’s already a Spectator view). 4 First sign of recovery will be a sustained increase in airspeed. As the figure climbs towards the normal ranges you should also see that the rotation rate is slowing. These allow you to swing your viewpoint around your aircraft in either direction. The viewpoint is fixed at the position of your aircraft at the moment of selection. (f) Spectator view When you select Spectator view. 5 When rotation ceases. . while the action carries on. otherwise monitor altitude closely throughout the recovery process. One of the first signs that the recovery process is working will be a steady rise of speed. aircraft or ground vehicles. Having identified which way you’re turning: APPLY AND HOLD FULL BACKWARD STICK AND PRO-SPIN AILERON! In other words. Just prior to impact. in short form: Once you realise that the aircraft is spinning: 1 Eject immediately if there is insufficient height for a recovery (say 20000 feet). (e) Weapon view Again. Having applied full backward stick and pro-spin aileron. pushing it forward and applying opposite rudder.39 Now hit the Sweep Forward key twice. air-to-ground weapons will switch to a plan view to help assess accuracy of delivery. far below normal flying speeds. and turns to follow your aircraft as you manoeuvre. which will never be less than a couple of seconds and sometimes a good deal longer. because it is extremely difficult to tell which way you’re going if the aircraft’s in a full-blooded tumble. you may use the zoom in and out facility to adjust your perspective at either normal or fast rate. When it stops. This classical procedure is utterly useless in a spinning Tornado. try the “adjust tracking” controls. Zoom and track controls are available. you will be positioned immediately behind your aircraft. to give you a full 360° outside view. 2 Command full forward sweep to 25°. You may also switch between allied and enemy drones. so immediately center the stick and (if you can still afford the height loss) push the nose down to accelerate faster. 3 As soon as the direction of rotation is identified. If you move back to the cockpit you will see that the horizon is now fairly stable. hold the stick right back and to the side you would normally use to bank in the direction you’re already turning. zoom and track adjust is available. quickly or slowly. EXTERNAL VIEWS (a) Tracking view When first selected. As the wings move forward you should see the wild tumble stabilise into a rapid rotation. The “reset” option will position you behind the aircraft again and for good measure we have the “toggle lo/hi” feature which puts you level with your aircraft or slightly below it. accelerate to a safe speed as quickly as possible. following at a fixed distance. apply and hold full backward stick and pro-spin aileron. which is classically performed by centering the stick. When you’ve had enough of looking at tailpipes. Here’s the Spin Recovery Procedure again. In order to recover from the spin you must first identify which way the aircraft is rotating. (b) Satellite view Select this option for a bird’s eye view looking directly down onto your aircraft. By repeatedly pressing “drone view select” you may observe their activity and impress your friends.

the case splits open at a preset height (set at 150 feet in Tornado) and ejects the submunitions in a dense cloud. SAM or AAA radars. Laser Guided Bombs (LGB) LGB are used in conjunction with the launching aircraft’s TIALD system. aircraft etc. ALARM (Air Launched Anti-Radiation Missile) Like any other anti-radiation missile ALARM homes on the transmissions of enemy ground radars (EWR. The navigator slews and zooms his camera view to place the aiming crosshairs on the precise point he wants to hit. since the aircraft is much further ahead of the bomb by the time it hits the ground (see diagram 36). which is illuminated by the laser designator in the TIALD system. The seeker in the nose of the LGB ‘sees’ the spot of reflected laser light and tilts the bomb’s nose control surfaces to steer towards it. Quite effective against a hardened target provided you can hit it. JP.40 1000 lb. This means that they can be dropped safely from much lower altitudes than GP bombs. This degree of accuracy makes laser-guided bombs the ideal weapon against hardened installations or major bridges. diagram 36 . draggy load for the aircraft. Is actually a casing for many smaller bombs (submunitions). for example) in order to destroy them. which must be hit with extreme precision to cause more than superficial damage. search.233 Dispensers JP. though less well streamlined. though the pods jettison automatically when empty. and the blast and fragments will affect softer targets (most vehicles. After dropping. WEAPONS CONVERSION AIR-TO-GROUND The Weapons 1000 lb. effective against a wide variety of targets. 1000 lb. Retarded Bomb (RET) These are 1000 lb.) over a fair radius. This is the weapon of choice against groups of vehicles or parked aircraft. General Purpose Bomb (GPB) A plain and simple unguided bomb. Usually delivered four at a time. Minimum dropping height for Retarded Bombs is 100 feet (just enough time for the fuse to arm).233 will make a really impressive mess of any runway if used properly. BL755 Cluster Bomb Looks like a plain bomb. as against 1000 feet for unretarded GP bombs.manoeuvering strews the things all over the place! It is also a heavy. GP bombs fitted with an alternative tail section incorporating a braking parachute. Its main disadvantage is the fact that diagram 37 the delivering aircraft has to overfly the target at low level holding a straight course for the four seconds needed to dispense the whole load . but it is far more resourceful than most.

we’re going to attack target X as planned.41 Weapon Packages and the Stores Management Display (SMD) Weapons for ground attack are grouped together in ‘Packages’. the type of weapon (GPB1000).755 to attack targets of opportunity. the package Select the Simulator from the Flight options. bottom centre in the rear panel. if any. Now Commit. attacking any target with any package. like JP. Hitting the K key will select and highlight the next package down the list. either when you plan an attack on a specific target. Packages are created at the Mission Planning stage. for example. When the package is released the Arm status cancels itself. one with two retarded bombs. where each of the top three lines can describe a single package. Others. The Delivery Mode specifies whether you intend to use manual or automatic release. When you turn the arming switch on.for Tornado Weapons Conversion Unit. the HUD will display different aiming cues according to the delivery mode selected.if you want to change package or delivery mode you must hit ‘Cancel Arm’ first. WEAPONS TRAINING IN THE SIMULATOR Stores Management Display The content and status of any weapon Packages loaded can be seen on the Stores Management Display (SMD).Freefall Bombs’. or when you use the Payload window to create packages to use against Targets of Opportunity. For the moment. using any delivery mode suitable for the weapons in the package. disappears from the SMD and the next package is selected and highlighted. Suppose that the top line reads: X GPB1000x4 LFT This specifies from left to right the target. If you planned attacks on two targets (X and Y) in one mission. the number in the package (x4) and the Delivery Mode selected (LFT). and the appropriate line on the SMD will flash continuously. and all must be of the same type. the second line the package for target Y. and then loaded one more package for opportunity targets. with the four GP bombs. four GP bombs for Laydown delivery. When you start your attack run and flip the ‘arm air to ground weapon’ switch. and one with two BL. Switch to the back seat and you will see from the Track display on the left Tab that the aircraft is approaching the Initial Point for an attack on target X. and a second package of two BL. with a dash (“-”) on the left rather than a letter.755 cluster bombs. You may override both the assignment of packages and the delivery modes. this is the package that will be used in the attack. ready to be armed. like GP bombs. which will be released together as a salvo. have only one delivery mode available. There are two other packages loaded. The currently selected Package is shown highlighted. or skip from the last to the first. Make sure that the Simulator Options switch for Infinite Weapons is ON.you will find yourself Terrain-Following at a ride height of 1000 feet. load a package of four retarded bombs for a planned attack on airfield installations. You might. diagram 38 . titled ‘IDS TWCU . and you will move straight to the aircraft. and look through the options on the Mission Selection Screen until you find the mission titles with the letters TWCU . Select the first of these. a laydown or loft trajectory or a laser-guided attack.233. and the third line the Target of Opportunity package. You cannot do either of these things when the arming switch is on . The maximum number of weapons in a single package is four. Hitting the L key will cycle through the available delivery modes for the currently selected package. when you looked at the SMD the first line would show the package for target X. On the SMD you will see that the first package is selected. the HUD resets to its normal nav mode. One package contains all the weapons intended for one target. in flight. Some weapons. offer several options. for which the package is intended (X). Engage the AFDS in Track mode .

Just as with the Local Map display. You can see how this works in diagram 39. use the T key to turn it on. but the exact moment of bomb release is controlled automatically by the bombsight. and then press the Commit button to drop the bombs. and if not.42 Laydown Attack (LAY on SMD) Laydown bombing is ‘traditional’ bombing. showing where the bombsight thinks your bombs would go if released at this moment. place. Note that the radar can’t see through hills. and targets are designated by clicking left or cancelled by clicking right. From the back seat. then hit the L key repeatedly to cycle throught . Wait until the aircraft passes the Initial Point and starts turning towards X. When the radar detects an object which is not in the map database it displays it as a bright green dot. The point where the CCIP line crosses the Bomb Fall Line is the point where a bomb would hit if released now. and the Late Arm Switch flips back down. your first step would be to line up the Bomb Fall Line so that it passes through the Target Marker. you must press and hold the Commit button to permit the automatic release. the release is automatic when the CCIP reaches the Target Marker. so that the aircraft isn’t damaged by flying debris as the bomb goes off. because you haven’t told the navigation systems where the target is. This is especially useful for finding vehicles (including SAM and AAA defences) and trains. which you can do from either seat. the CCIP (Continuously Computed Impact Point). go to the back cockpit and highlight the package you want to use using the K key. the radar display can be zoomed in or out by clicking left or right mouse buttons with the c key held down. with the Target Marker in the gap below the top of the Bomb Fall Line. diagram 39 For the moment the autopilot has control. Shortly before the CCIP reaches the Target Marker. Hit the R key to turn on the radar and show the radar image on the centre MFD.it’s disappeared off the bottom edge of the HUD! The ideal minimum height attack is flown with the top of the line right in the centre of the Target Marker. The automatic release will not occur. No Target Marker is shown.check that the MFD’s green Mouse Active light is on. You just fly the aircraft to place your visually selected target at the intersection of the two lines. but to do this manually. but for now you might want to allow the normal training safety margin. The landscape and fixed objects ‘known’ to the digital map system are always shown in dim green shades. you’ll see the selected package on the SMD start flashing. In Laydown attacks. In the front seat you’ll see the Late Arm Switch cover raised. The upper end of the Bomb Fall Line provides you with a Safety Height Cue. however. When release takes The mouse is used to control a designator cross which can be moved around the display . unless the pilot or navigator permits it by holding down the Commit button. followed by a plan view at impact. and the Target Marker. MFD Ground Radar Display Radar ON Light Manual Delivery (MAN on SMD) The HUD displays the Bomb Fall Line and the CCIP (Continuously Computed Impact Point) across it. If you hit the Weapon View key just after bomb release you’ll be able to enjoy a bomb’s eye view of the approaching target. In the ‘dead ground’ behind a crest the display will show you only stored map data. which may well be partly hidden behind the Bomb Fall Line (see diagram 38 to find out which is which). you’re far too low . where the aircraft flies more or less straight and level over the target to release its bombs. but the symbol serves to show you how close you are to release. If you can’t see the Bomb Fall Line at all. the HUD changes back to normal navigation mode. and the HUD mode will change to show the Bomb Fall Line. Designating a Target of Opportunity on the Ground Radar This can be done from the front or back seat. The first thing to do is hit the ‘arm air-to-ground’ Switch. The CCIP is the other element of the bombsight symbology. To change the delivery mode. Lining up on the target is the responsibility of the pilot (or the AFDS in Track mode).

You pull up into a climb. (four GP bombs) is already selected and the delivery mode is shown as LAY. diagram 42 Restart the Simulator ‘Freefall Bombs’ mission. The first package. diagram 40 diagram 41 In a typical Loft attack. the bombs travel a very long way from the release point with no form of guidance. The HUD will now show the Target Marker.still four or five miles from the In a Loft attack. The Clock is counting down to the point where you start pulling up into a climb in order to loft the bombs. climbing at an angle of just over 20° . climbing to 8-9000 feet before they start to descend. Nonetheless. trying to place the cross at the apex of the triangle (the Apex Marker) in the centre of the aircraft datum ring. In practice. This point. set your altitude to about 200 feet and your airspeed to about 550 knots. speed (the faster you’re flying. you’ll be amazed at how much accuracy is possible. so absolute accuracy can’t be guaranteed. The great advantage of this form of attack is that the aircraft need not overfly the target. starting a good distance (say 10 miles) from the target. you line up the Bomb Fall Line with the Target Marker and wait for a ‘countdown clock’ on the HUD to count down to zero. an aircraft running in at 550 knots at 200 feet would start its pull-up about five or six miles from the target and release its bombs just below 1000 feet. the delivery mode options for that package until you reach MAN. As you do. and may never even come within range of its defences. you must Arm before you can drop the package. rising to the top of a long arc and then curving down on or near the target. the further you can throw . Use the Bomb Fall Line to line up on the Target Marker. Hit the L key to cycle round the delivery options until the display shows LFT. hit the arming switch. As with any weapon delivery mode. A Loft attack comes in two phases: in the first you run in at low level and fairly high speed. Loft bombing is not recommended for precision attacks. the clock winds down. or let the AFDS do it in Track Mode. The bombs would take about 20-25 seconds to reach the target. and whether manually or under AFDS. engage AFDS Track mode and switch to the back cockpit. a solid Bomb Fall Line.43 target. When it reaches zero the bombs are released (provided that the Commit button is down) and you are free to get the aircraft out of the way. The bombs fly on. however. the second phase starts as the HUD changes to display a ‘rubber triangle’ steering cue and another countdown clock. When the aircraft turns to run in on target waypoint X. Loft Delivery (LFT on SMD) A Loft attack also requires that the target position should be known to the navigation systems. the Pull-up Point. is constantly recalculated on the basis of range to the target. When that happens. and a Countdown Clock slowly diagram 43 unwinding anti-clockwise around the Aircraft Datum.

to show another Countdown Clock and a ‘Rubber Triangle’ steering cue. Both of these signs tell you that you’re getting closer diagram 44 . telling you to pull straight up. now is the time to cancel it. The Pull-up Point is determined by the maximum range at which your lofted bombs could reach the target if released at your current height and speed in a 45° climb. stand by. and the distance your bombs would be thrown if you released them now. and the Apex Marker will also move down closer to the ring centre. the further the bomb will fly). The position of the Apex Marker in relation to the Aircraft Datum tells you which way to steer . The Clock shows the difference between the range to the target. As the aircraft pitches up and starts climbing you will see the Countdown Clock run down rapidly as your bomb throw distance increases. and hold it back . the HUD symbology changes. Assuming that you are still well lined up on the target. the base line of the triangle is fixed and the middle horizontal line is drawn halfway between the two.when you’re pointed exactly the right way.the standard practice is to pull up at about 3. Pull back firmly on the stick.44 the bomb) and altitude (the higher you are. If you’ve flown this far under AFDS control. As the Countdown Clock approaches zero. This is the climb angle at which you would achieve the theoretical maximum range. left and right relative to the Aircraft Datum. the Apex Marker is in the exact centre of the ring of the Aircraft Datum. the small cross (the Apex Marker) moves up and down. The steering cue directs you to pull up and steer left or right as necessary to stay lined up with the target.5 G. When the Pull-up Point is reached. skewing right or left as the Apex Marker moves. the Apex Marker will be directly above the centre of the Aircraft Datum.

The bombsight computer repeats its calculations for bomb throw distance at very frequent intervals. Remember that the bombs will be automatically released the instant that the throw distance is equal to or greater than the range to the target. diagram 45A diagram 45B Delivering Laser-Guided Bombs (LGB on SMD) You can only laser-designate what the TIALD head under the aircraft can see. but it increases in much smaller steps. This places you in flight at 23000 Feet. hold down the Commit button and let the stick come forward to the neutral centre position. If you are pulling up steeply. the further you can see. Looking at the Stores Management Display you will see that you have one package of three LGB loaded. the HUD reverts to normal nav mode symbology and the Arm status cancels.LGB Attack’. switch to the back seat. Diagram 45A illustrates this problem. When the Clock and the Apex Marker are indicating that you’re nearly at release. If it does. If you can see any heading error at all you must correct it before release or your bombs will be wasted. but each calculation takes time. as for any other delivery mode. but because the bombs travel so far in a loft attack any directional error will result in a miss by a correspondingly large margin. a long run-in is desirable (say 6 miles or more). You may also see the Apex Marker deflecting sideways. Recovery and Escape after a Loft Attack The moment the bombs are released you’re free to turn the aircraft away from the target and its defences. and you also want to avoid climbing so high that you’re exposed as an easy SAM or AAA target.45 to the release point. An LGB attack is executed entirely from the navigator’s seat. Select and commit to the Simulator Mission ‘TWCU . If instead you let the stick come forward as the release point approaches diagram 45B. by showing how the predicted bomb trajectory and impact point change at half-second intervals through a pull-up. heading toward a Target Waypoint X on an airfield. Having assured yourself that the aircraft is heading in the right direction at the right speed under the AFDS. Diagram 44 shows a complete sequence of HUD images for a loft attack. The resulting release will stand a far better chance of being accurate in range. As with Loft attacks. You should be able to see that accuracy in these circumstances is a matter of blind luck. Accuracy in a Loft Attack As with any other form of attack you must line up exactly on the target before release. but we want a moderate-to-low speed (say 250 knots IAS). We suggest an altitude of about 23000 feet. The other great factor in loft accuracy is the pitch rate just before release. the throw distance still increases as the aircraft climbs. and the higher you are. Use the ‘Right Tab Function Select’ key to cycle through the right Tab display options till you see a downward-looking . with the Delivery mode set to LGB. with the aircraft under AFDS control. bank towards it to line up again. and the throw distance at release may overshoot the target by hundreds of feet. At the moment of release. the throw distances from successive calculations go up by leaps and bounds. but don’t overshoot on the correction.

and sweep the field of view from side to side. compensating for the aircraft’s movement. Now zoom in closer. If it isn’t. Don’t bother to place the lock precisely for the moment. so that the image will rotate as the aircraft turns. so the successive targets cannot be too far apart. which is where approaching targets will first appear. You should be approaching the Initial Point of your attack run on Target Waypoint X at 500 knots. indicating that mouse control is active on that display. hit the arming switch. The arming status will not cancel automatically until the package is empty. and sets the Target of Opportunity waypoint T at this point. Hit the O (letter “o”) key to switch the map origin (the aircraft position) from the centre of the MFD down to the bottom centre.a HAS (Hardened Aircraft Shelter) complex would be a classic example. then closer for a further adjustment until you are satisfied that the laser spot is on the precise point you wish to hit. you would need a longer interval between releases. zoom out a little to give yourself a more general view.for the moment.233 TIALD Dispaly-too late to drop Select the Simulator Mission ‘TWCU . . Hit the arming switch and release the package immediately with the Commit button. but there are limits to the field of view. Delivering JP. The direction of the aircraft’s movement is always up the screen.JP. Use a wide zoom to search for some recognisable feature in the forward half of the available camera coverage and then click the left mouse button. you may finely adjust the designator spot by moving the mouse while holding down the left mouse button. followed by the third. You will now find that moving the mouse scrolls the camera image in the corresponding direction.46 camera view (infra-red at night. and you can use this time to zoom in and refine the position of the designator spot. It will be at least 20 seconds before the first bomb reaches the ground from this altitude. Use the D key to cycle display options on the centre MFD till you’re looking at the Local Map display (with the dotted orientation line down the centre). When the aircraft starts its turn to line up on the target. a few seconds later the second bomb will strike the same spot. watching the centre symbol of the display. It is simply a matter of shifting the spot quickly after each bomb strikes.233’ and start it up. It is normally best to do this in several stages. starting with a wide zoom. This is the TIALD view. just set it somewhere in the general area of the target. This allows you to release a second and a third bomb manually at intervals of several seconds. letting the camera view roll forward over the ground at the aircraft’s speed. While the square brackets are shown. In this way you can either make repeated attacks on one difficult target or guide each bomb in turn to a different target. the image locks on the point at the centre of the display. This triggers immediate release of the first bomb. You should see that when the view centre is near the forward edge of coverage (ahead of the aircraft) the centre cross symbol is surrounded by square brackets. the Target Marker and the CCIP. start zooming in to find a target . This locks the view and the laser designator on the point at the centre of the image. When the target airfield starts to appear at the leading edge of the TIALD view. you could drop a bomb and continue to designate the current centre spot long enough for the bomb to reach the ground. When you’re satisfied with this. hit the T key once or twice until it is on. An interval of four seconds between bombs is a good choice for closely spaced targets. Zoom out as far as possible and move the view forward and backward between the leading and trailing edges of the available area. unless the trailing edge of the camera coverage catches up and pushes it forward. placing the point. so that you can see ahead as far as possible. If you wished to strike widely separated targets. When zooming. If the square brackets are absent. Push the mouse forward so that you are looking at the forward edge of the camera’s coverage. Check that the green light in the corner of the right Tab is on. the spot in the centre of the camera view would be too far behind the aircraft for you to keep it illuminated till the bomb hit. If you don’t change anything. Normally a ‘slow ripple’ of LGB like this would be used to strike multiple targets clustered in a group . While you are locked on. visible light in daytime) with boxed crosshairs in the centre. which will help you locate it in the TIALD image. As the aircraft approaches Target Waypoint X you will be able to see it marked on the map. When the bomb arrives you will probably be able to see it flash into view before striking the target. zooming in closer TIALD Display-OK to drop and adjusting position. at 200 feet. The TIALD image can be zoomed by holding down the c key and moving the mouse forward or back. You will see a solid Bomb Fall Line with no Safety Height cue. Clicking the right mouse button cancels the lock. There are limits to how fast the bombs can manoeuvre. any target will do. which disappear when the view is centred nearer the trailing edge (behind the aircraft).

The HUD symbology will change to show a Boresight Marker in place of the aircraft datum.5 n. and a Range Clock centred on the Boresight Marker will indicate the range to this target. Provided that the ALARM package is not empty. then hit ‘arm air-to-ground weapon’. When the package is empty. If there is more than one hostile ground radar showing on the Radar Launching ALARM . no target will be designated and you will not be permitted to launch in Direct mode. you’ll need to do this manually with the ‘Cancel Arm’ key combination.Indirect mode (IND on SMD) In order to launch an ALARM in this mode you must first select a package of ALARMs. each missile will cruise toward the target at medium altitude. and Direct (DIR) or Indirect (IND) mode operation is selected using the normal ‘select delivery mode’ key. the arm status will not cancel automatically on launch. the arming status will cancel automatically and the next package on the SMD will be selected by default.47 As the CCIP approaches the Target Marker. The HUD symbology is identical to that provided in ALARM Direct mode. The standard Ground Target Marker will be shown on the HUD. then hit ‘arm air-to-ground weapon’. This counts down through the four seconds necessary to dispense the full load. Release starts automatically and continues till all submunitions are dispensed. You may notice vibration and noise while the release continues. It then hangs nose-down over the target. set the delivery mode to IND. When it finds one (or more) active radars. whether from the stored flightplan or a Target-of-Opportunity. each press of the Fire/Commit button will immediately launch one ALARM at the target. Shortly before the target is reached. the HUD will display a Countdown Clock.m. set the delivery mode to DIR. If there is no ground radar on the RWR within 45° on either side of the nose. hold down the Commit button. Starting from the moment of release. scanning for hostile radar emission. swinging the aircraft nose left or right will automatically switch the designation to whichever is most directly in front. however. If you want to disarm in order to select Indirect mode or another weapon package. diagram 46 ALARMS are loaded and managed in packages like all other ground-attack stores. it will select the one most directly diagram 48 . Launching ALARM . showing a Ground Target Marker and a Range Clock with the same calibration. Once the system is armed and a valid target exists. the missile will execute a zoomclimb to about 10000 feet and deploy its parachute. hitting the Fire/Commit button will launch a single ALARM from the selected package on a direct trajectory. Maximum reading of the Range Clock is 40000 metres (130000 feet or 21. Once the target is designated.). subject to the same condition that the target must be within 45° of the nose on one side or the other. The target will be the currently-selected waypoint.Direct mode (DIR on SMD) In order to launch an ALARM in this mode you must first select a package of ALARMs. The Arm status will not automatically cancel while there are still ALARMs left in the selected package. ALARM Attack Warning Receiver (RWR). After launch. and the ground radar diagram 47 emitter most directly in front of the nose (within an angle of plus or minus 45°) will automatically be designated as the target. Remember that any radical turn will spray submunitions in a wide curve.

In the time needed to set up a launch from a standing start you’d probably have flown straight past the threat. If the clock is showing a complete circle. and fighter radars and missiles may also be affected. for better or worse. In addition. If you’re pointed too far off. the Standby Sight will appear.typically groups of unarmoured or lightly-armoured vehicles. its only function is to show you where your cannon shells will go. the Standby Sight will appear on the HUD. You’ll know when you’ve selected Guns because you’ll see GUNS x180 in the bottom left corner of the HUD (on the ADV the Weapon status panel will also show GUNS illuminated). and one (the Standby Sight) which is the default when no target of either type is designated or within view. the range is 2400 metres (8000 feet) or more. Tactics for ALARM Radar is used by SAM (Surface-to-Air Missile) launchers. If the missile is fired at a target beyond effective range. Guns .provided you can persuade or trick them into switching on. and HUD symbology is provided for both uses. if ECM ON Light you have no target currently designated. it will cut away and drop unguided to the ground. The gun outfit of the IDS is intended for use against ground targets as well as airto-air. you’d better have it armed and ready so that all you have to do is hit the Fire button. diagram 49 Guns . and select it as the current waypoint. and the aircraft datum symbol is replaced by the Boresight Marker. To use the cannon in either mode. SAMs and AAA. thus ALARM can be used against either . and it detects that its speed has dropped below a threshold value.48 beneath. and you may then cycle through the weapons available with Air-to-Air Weapon Select. parked aircraft or other grouped soft targets. it will zoom-climb and loiter wherever it happens to be at that point. but if it is you must ensure that it’s in Ground mode. it makes no attempt to show you where your target is or predict its motion. In order to use it you must set a ToO waypoint using the Scrollable Map or the Ground Radar. If a threat radar is detected beneath. you must start by hitting the Arm Air-to-Air key combination (a+e on most machines). cut away the parachute and drop on it as a guided bomb. giving the range to the target. and AAA (Anti-Aircraft Artillery) vehicles. it will attack it as normal. Once these conditions are satisfied. ECM (Electronic Counter-Measures) If you turn on the Tornado’s ECM system.Standby Sight The Standby Sight is a simple ‘iron’ sight. The two marks on the lower rim of the clock indicate recommended maximum (1500m/4900ft) and minimum (900m/3000ft) ranges. Cannon The Tornado IDS carries two and the ADV one integral Mauser BK 27 cannon. You don’t need to have the radar on. There are in fact three HUD displays associated with the guns: one for use against a designated ground target. SAM and AAA units will find it more difficult to obtain a lock on you. This is highly distinctive because unlike all other HUD symbology it’s coloured red.Air-to-Ground This mode is intended to help you attack Targets of Opportunity . If you want to use ALARM in Direct mode to shoot your way out of unexpected trouble. both to look for targets and to direct fire. replacing the aircraft datum symbol . one for a designated air target. The normal Ground Target Marker is superimposed on the target.in other words. If no target has appeared by the time the missile has descended to 1000 feet. A Range Clock is shown centred on the Boresight Marker. diagram 50 . not Air mode. the HUD will show the Air-to-Ground Guns symbology whenever the nose is pointed within a reasonable angle of the target. which should obviously be placed over the Target Marker and kept there in order to hit the target.

Air Radar Whether you are using guns or missiles in air combat. the main difficulty involved in using the guns to attack ground targets is due to the fact that you have to dive the aircraft at the ground in order to do it. designating each in turn. Speed. this will work exactly like ‘boresight designate’. the Aiming Point. c) you must have designated an aircraft as your target. Heading.m.Air-to-Air In order to use this mode: a) you must hit ‘arm air-to-air weapon’ (probably a+e) and select the guns using ‘cycle air-to-air weapons’./3. and you’ll be unable to use missiles at all. showing enemy and allied aircraft within range as two different types of symbol. a large Air Target Marker cross will overlay the target. this means that the target is at least 1000 metres (3000 feet) away. The two marks on the lower half of the clock correspond to the maximum and minimum recommended ranges. you will lose lock. If you want a mnemonic. The display is a plan view of the volume ahead of the aircraft nose. In order from top to bottom these show: target Range in nautical miles./55km. If there IS already a designated target. Boresight designation is the quickest and easiest method to use in close air combat . b) the Radar must be on and in Air-to-Air mode. This will select and designate the nearest aircraft in front of you. Turning on the Radar in Air mode is done by hitting a R on most machines. When you’ve designated your target a column of four numbers will appear in the lower right corner of the HUD. The second method is to point the aircraft’s nose in the general direction of the enemy and hit boresight designate’ (l on most machines). If you designate a target which then passes out of the radar’s field of view. this will designate the next available candidate. target Speed in knots and target Heading in degrees. think RASH for Range.). you will need the radar switched on in Air mode to designate targets.m. which are 600 metres (2000 feet) and 400 metres (1300 feet) respectively.5km. If the Range Clock is showing a full circle.49 Apart from the obvious problem of hitting the target in the first place. The third method is to hit ‘next air target’ (probably a + l). but you’ll have to estimate deflections by eye. and a small cross.) and medium-range (10n. AIR-TO-AIR It’s important that you realise and remember that the radar can only see targets within a wedge-shaped volume in front of the aircraft.8km. One is to use the mouse to point and click on the display. MFD Air Radar Display diagram 51 There are three different ways of designating an aircraft as a target.) displays are available in both IDS and ADV Tornados. you’ll need to designate again. target currently designated. Short-range (2n. so you can use it to cycle round all targets on the radar. If and when you re-acquire the target. You can use the guns with the Standby Sight. and the ADV also offers a long-range setting (30n. If there is no air Guns . Altitude.m.just point your nose somewhere near the target and hit the key. with a concentric Range Clock attached. target Altitude in thousands of feet. diagram 52 diagram 53 . and therefore no sighting information./18. The aircraft datum is replaced by a mediumsized cross (the boresight symbol). This will also automatically select the Air radar display on the MFD. If you don’t have radar switched on you will have no indication of target range. will be there as well. If the target is within the HUD field of view you’ll see the symbology shown in diagram 53.

there’s still a lot to be said for this method. A diagram 56 target must also be designated on the Air Radar. bearing. d) the missile seeker head must be able to see and lock on to the designated target. target Range. in order to maximise your chances of hitting the target. the radar should be set for long range. The gunsight computes how long it would take your cannon shells to cover the intervening distance. as shown in diagram 55. When you designate a target. Until the missile seeker head acquires the target. Launching AIM9L The following conditions are necessary to launch an AIM9L: a) you must hit the ‘arm air-toair’ key combination. the maximum reading on the Range Clock is 10000 metres (33000 feet). . using any preferred method. You have to aim ahead of the target (‘lead’ it) in order to have any chance of hitting it. Altitude. not the Target Marker. The Air Target Marker and Range Clock overlay the target position. In this mode. elevation and radial velocity (by Doppler effect). When the seeker head picks up the target and locks on. and a missile fired at close range may well not be able to hit the target unless it’s launched with some degree of lead. and on the Weapon Status indicator. your radar measures its range. c) you must turn on the radar in Air mode and designate your target. Each measurement is integrated with the previous ones to work out speed and precise direction. in order to maximise your chances of hitting the target. because it gives a useful visual indication of the target’s direction of motion. The history of air combat consistently shows that only a tiny proportion of pilots are capable of accurate deflection shooting without a lead-computing sight to help them. The weapon name and the number available appear in the lower left corner. surrounding the Boresight Marker. In order to hit a target moving across your field of view. the HUD symbology is as shown in diagram 54. When the target has been designated but the missile seeker cannot yet see it. this will rest at the centre of the HUD. This will be shown in the lower left corner of the HUD. Aim the Boresight at the Aiming point. Even with sophisticated modern gunsights. The other element of the symbology is the Lock-on Diamond. except that there is no Lock-on Diamond. Before such sights were available. you must allow for the distance the target travels between the time you fire and the time the shot reaches the target. calculates how much lead is necessary and projects the Aiming Point ahead of the target. Lock-on is also confirmed by an audible signal. b) you must use the ‘cycle air-to-air weapon’ key to select AIM9L. diagram 55 Launching Sky Flash To launch a Sky Flash missile you must hit ‘arm air-to-air weapon’ and use ‘cycle air-toair weapon’ to select Sky Flash. not the Target Marker. The HUD symbology is almost exactly like that provided for the AIM9L. An Aiming Point is shown just as in Air-to-Air Guns mode. thus effectively eliminating the need to estimate deflection. and to take full advantage of Sky Flash. a steady tone. Aim the Boresight at the Aiming Point. Speed diagram 54 and Heading are shown in the lower right corner. unless it is travelling directly towards or away from you. the Lock-on Diamond shifts to the Target Marker and tracks it. most gun kills were made at short range from almost directly ahead or astern of the target.50 The Aiming Point is the only part of this display which really needs explanation.

Suggested Ranges For Sky Flash. The basic principle is that you must use the decoy when the missile is fairly close. by the distance the aircraft travels in the missile’s flight time. you drop chaff and flares as the missile approaches and then turn hard or dive out of the way. For the AIM9L. from ahead or 1. However. modern IR seekers are a great deal more discriminating than they used to be.radar-reflecting strips dispensed in a cloud . so that the aircraft will be out of the missile’s field of view by the time the decoy has lost its effectiveness. The Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) The display itself shows a ‘clock-face’ of bearing markers on the left. Chaff and Manoeuvres Flares have been used to decoy heatseeking missiles for almost as long as they have existed.5 n.has been in use against search and gunnery radar for even longer than radar-guided missiles have existed. or they may not be fooled for long. though they can help a lot if used properly. a symbol with a characteristic shape is placed on the clock-face at the appropriate relative bearing. Maximum launch range against a receding target is considerably less than maximum range against a stationary one. Missile Ranges Altitude Drag is less at high altitudes. Radar Warning Receiver Symbols for radars will be shown in green. an RAF Tornado ADV pilot (interviewed in an unclassified video) has quoted launch ranges of 20 miles from ahead and 5 miles from astern. there will also be an audio warning which sounds rather like a telephone ringing.51 and the maximum range reading on the Range Clock is 40000 metres (130000 feet / 21. When a threat is detected. The maximum launch range is greater than it would be against a stationary target. As a rough guide. decelerates more slowly and travels further. On the other hand. or half of these figures at low altitude. Target Speed and Aspect If a missile is launched head-on at an oncoming enemy aircraft. the maximum engagement range is limited by the maximum range at which the infra-red seeker can acquire and lock the target. orange for radar-guided missiles and red for infra-red (or visually-guided SAMS). you may well be more successful. Every time a new threat is detected. let’s say that sensible maximum launch ranges at high altitude might be 5 n.). which we have elected to set at 8 nautical miles or so.5 from astern. and on the PC version at least. on the other hand. diagram 57 . and it’s easy to see that once the missile’s speed has fallen below the target’s a hit is impossible. these figures might well be halved or worse. and the matching text on the right will be lit up. and in conjunction with manoeuvre. If. which is normally quoted as having a ‘range’ of 30 miles or so. for example. and a column of text ‘discretes’ down the right-hand side.m. if a missile is launched at a retreating target the opposite is true. Neither of these countermeasures really gives you immunity from missiles. It’s important to realise that the top of the clock-face display represents the direction in which your aircraft’s nose is currently pointing. dumping decoys and continuing in a straight line may do you very little good: the missile will pass them and you will still be in view. If a missile is approaching from behind. Chaff .m. missile symbols are shown in two different colours. We assume that these are probably figures for fairly high altitude. the target and the missile are travelling toward one another at high speed. At low altitude. so the missile reaches a higher speed at burn-out. In some cases they can distinguish between a brightly burning flare and a warm aircraft. against a target doing a little less than Mach 1. so that a threat on your right will be shown at 3 o’clock whichever way you’re heading. Missile Countermeasures: Flares.

52 AIRCREW NOTES COCKPIT LAYOUT Instruments Key 1 Reverse thrust indicators 2 Attention getter 3 Autopilot engaged indicator 4 Autothrottle engaged indicator 5 Wheel brakes 6 Landing gear position indicator 7 Radar altimeter 8 “B” risk indicator 9 Vertical speed indicator (VSI) 10 Indicated airspeed / Mach number 11 Secondary control surfaces position indicator 12 Altimeter 13 Jettison all external stores + internal fuel 14 Jettison all external stores except AIM9-L 22 Head up display control panel 30 Approach progress indicator 15 Jettison external fuel tanks 23 Multi-function display (MFD) 31 Reheat operating lights 16 Angle of attack indicator 24 Mouse active indicator 32 G meter 17 E-Scope (IDS) or weapon status (ADV) 25 Radar “on” indicator 33 Fuel flow indicator 18 Horizontal situation indicator (HSI) 26 ECM “on” indicator 34 Fuel quantity indicator 19 Attitude direction indicator (ADI) 27 Radar warning receiver 35 Standby compass 20 Head up display (HUD) 28 Engine r.p.m. indicators (left & right) 36 Oxygen flow indicator 21 Late arm switch 29 Engine temperature indicators (left & right) Pilot's Instrument Panel .

53 Reverse thrust indicators Illuminated when reverse thrust selected. slat and flap positions are linked and not separately controllable “B” risk indicator (IDS only) Warning light advising you that Terrain Following system is at risk of being unable to maintain the required safety margin. 3500 feet from the runway threshold. Late arm switch Moves to its upper (armed) position after weapons armed using “arm ground attack” key or “arm air attack” key.b. Radar “on” indicator Illuminated when aircraft’s radar is active. Autothrottle engaged indicator Illuminated when autothrottle engaged.four flap positions: zero flap manoeuvre flap mid flap full flap (b) Upper right .slat positions: zero slat manoeuvre slat mid slat n. Angle of attack indicator Mechanical display of angle of attack. Refer to Central Warning Panel in rear cockpit for identification of problem.e. Weapons cannot be fired when the Late Arm switch is down. Secondary control surfaces position indicator (a) Upper left . Autopilot engaged indicator Illuminated when autopilot (AFDS) engaged.gear down and locked (b) Three red lights . Attention getter Illuminates after system failure or warning. Head up display See separate section later. . Reheat operating lights Illuminate when engine reheat selected. Zero Flaps Mid Flaps Manoeuvre Flaps Full Flaps ECM “on” indicator Illuminated when aircraft’s ECM is active. descent). Landing gear position indicator (a) Three green lights . Approach progress indicator Illuminates during the approach to an allied airfield. Wheel brakes Illuminated when wheel brakes applied.gear locked up Vertical speed indicator Moves clockwise for a positive rate of climb and counter-clockwise for a negative rate of climb (i.gear not locked up or down (c) No lights . Moves to its lower (disarmed) position by using “cancel arm” key.

Non-linear scale with highest resolution at low altitude. Indicated Airspeed / Mach number Analogue dial showing Indicated Airspeed up to 800 knots and digital readout of Mach number. Radar altimeter Indicates height above ground level when below 5000 feet barometric. For example. roll right and the artificial horizon rolls left. Weapon Status on ADV Altimeter E-scope on IDS Attitude direction indicator Otherwise known as an artificial horizon. A small “bug” travels around the circumference of this instrument showing your roll orientation. The pilot may select between guns. this instrument shows the pitch and roll attitude of your aircraft relative to the ground.airbrake position Altimeter Analogue dial showing barometric altitude.wing sweep: Jettison indicators Three lights to confirm successful jettison of: Left: all external stores plus internal fuel to minimum Centre: all external stores except AIM9-L Right: external fuel tanks 67° sweep E-scope (IDS) or Weapon status (ADV) (a) E-scope (IDS Tornado) Shows projection of terrain ahead of aircraft when flying at low altitudes. This is particularly useful when your aircraft is pitched so far up or down that the horizon is no longer visible. Level Flight IAS/Mach number Rolled 90° right Flying Inverted Rolled 90° left . pitch up and the artificial horizon will fall. Airbrake on Airbrake off 25° sweep 45°sweep (d) Lower right . The weapon name will not highlight if it is not available. AIM9-L Sidewinder or Sky Flash. (b) Weapon status (ADV Tornado) The weapons status indicator shows which air-to-air weapon is selected (highlighted) and armed (flashing).54 (c) Lower left .

infra-red or radarguided. This instrument is then particularly useful for assessing the extent of reheat in use. ground or air-launched Fuel Flow Indicator Fuel Quantity Indicator Radar Warning Receiver . Normal reading of 400°C at idle and 700°C at full reheat. with the radar on the MFD and the moving map on a TV TAB display. Engine temperature indicators Individual analogue temperature indicator for each engine (left and right). The display also shows incoming ground-launched or air-launched missiles. Full scale deflection of 100% at maximum dry thrust (no reheat) and throughout all reheat settings. examples: bug at 12 o’clock heading due North bug at 3 o’clock heading due East bug at 6 o’clock heading due South bug at 9 o’clock heading due West G meter Shows g force due to aircraft manoeuvres. Engine rpm indicators Individual analogue rpm indicator for each engine (left and right). Maximum positive g force of 7. it is part of the Instrument Landing System and shows localiser and glideslope deviation during an approach to an allied airfield. both ground-based (e. Runway to your left Below Glideslope Mouse active indicator When mouse control is appropriate to more than one current display e. both infra-red and radar-guided. control may be passed between the displays by use of the “Select active display” key. Standby compass Shows magnetic compass heading of aircraft. Higher than this probably means that you are on fire.. maximum negative g force of -3. fighter aircraft)..g.g. Fuel quantity indicator Shows total quantity of fuel remaining. Fuel in external tanks is represented by the red-bordered sector from 12 to 3 o’clock on the gauge.55 Horizontal situation indicator (HSI) This instrument has two functions: Firstly. For straight and level flight the reading will be 1g with the pointer at the 9 o’clock position. The indicator will illuminate to confirm mouse control is active.5. Indicators G Meter you are being tracked by a SAM launcher you are being tracked by anti-aircraft artillery you are being tracked by ground-based early warning radar you are being tracked by an enemy aircraft incoming missile. The vertical needle is linked to the runway localiser and shows deviation from the runway centreline..p. Engine Temperature Indicators Bug at 12 o'clock flying north Secondly.m. it indicates your aircraft’s heading by means of a “bug” travelling around the circumference of the compass rose.. A small vertical scale can be seen on the left of the instrument and this may be used to follow the correct glideslope down to the runway threshold. Fuel flow indicator Very little movement is evident on this instrument unless reheat is selected. Normally shows 63% at engine idle.g. Radar warning receiver This display shows when your aircraft is being tracked by enemy radar. Discretes on the right of the display will illuminate as follows: SAM AAA EWR AC MSL Engine r. SAM or AAA) and airborne (e.

. Calibration dependent upon weapon type. If you are aligned with the runway centreline and following the required glideslope. steer towards it. The position of the base line is fixed. Rubber triangle A steering cue consisting of an apex point (small +). Bomb fall line Line along which the bomb will fall after release. Ground target marker Position of designated target as seen through the HUD. Safety height cue gives indication of safety margin so that pilot may avoid flying through debris hemisphere of exploding weapon. Ground target marker Position of designated target as seen through the HUD. Countdown clock Counts down to the “pull up point” and the start of stage 2. If the marker is off centre. Countdown clock Shows the difference between the range to the target and the distance your bombs would be thrown if you released them immediately. Bomb fall line Line along which the bomb will fall after release.up and down relative to the aircraft datum to indicate a steering demand to the pilot.56 ILS steering marker The steering marker is linked to the runway localiser and glideslope ILS transmitters. The middle line is drawn half way between the apex marker and the base line and moves left and right. The apex marker moves left. a short middle line and a long base line.right. the steering marker will overlay the aircraft datum symbol in the centre of the HUD. Continuously computed impact point (CCIP) Marker across the bomb fall line showing the bomb’s computed impact point if released immediately. Unwinds as your aircraft approaches weapon release.

5 nm (40 km) Ground target marker Position of designated target as seen through the HUD. Range clock Displays range to target with maximum range of 21.57 Bomb fall line Line along which the bomb will fall after release. Ground target marker Position of designated target as seen through the HUD. Safety height cue gives indication of safety margin so that pilot may avoid flying through debris hemisphere of exploding weapon. . Bomb fall line Line along which the bomb will fall after release. Counts down through the four seconds necessary to dispense the full weapon load. Continuously computed impact point (CCIP) Marker across the bomb fall line showing the bomb’s computed impact point if released immediately. Continuously computed impact point (CCIP) Marker across the bomb fall line showing the bomb’s computed impact point if released immediately. Boresight This replaces the aircraft datum. Countdown clock Appears when the CCIP reaches the target marker.

Aiming point Prediction of the target’s position. Range clock Displays range to target with two calibration marks: 400m and 600m range Mode is similar to AIM9-L symbology but without the IR lock diamond. calibrated for AIM9-L. . This replaces the aircraft datum. Range clock Displays range to target with two calibration marks: 900m and 1500m range IR Lock diamond When the missile’s IR seeker has acquired the target this symbol moves from the centre of the HUD to the target marker. May be used as a steering cue. Standby sight Larger red sight which appears when cannon armed but no target is designated. Range clock Shows range to target.58 This mode is only available with a target of opportunity selected as the current waypoint. Manoeuvre your aircraft so that the aiming point coincides with the boresight and fire your cannon when in range. Aiming point Prediction of the target’s position. Air target marker Position of air target projected onto HUD display. Boresight Direction in which your cannon shells will travel if fired now.

Central Warning Panel . prior to arming. All available weapons will be listed together with chaff and flare availability. The highlighted name will flash once you have armed the weapon. You may cancel the attention getters by pressing “master warning reset” key. Refer to this panel when the front cockpit attention getters are flashing.59 Navigator/Weapons Officer’s seat Instruments Key Items common with front cockpit 1 Mouse active indicator 2 Landing gear position indicator 3 Attitude direction indicator 4 Horizontal situation indicator 5 Altimeter 6 Indicated airspeed / Mach number 7 Multi function display 8 Mouse active indicator 9 Autopilot engaged indicator 10 Autothrottle engaged indicator 11 Radar “on” indicator 12 ECM “on” indicator 13 Mouse active indicator Items unique to rear cockpit 14 Left TV TAB display 15 Analogue clock 16 Stores management display 17 Right TV TAB display 18 Central warning panel Navigator's Instrument Panel Stores Management Display This small screen is dedicated to the display of available weapon packages and the selection of weapon delivery modes. use the “Select weapon package” key to highlight the required weapon during your approach to the target and use the “Select delivery mode” key to specify your method of attack. Stores Management Display Central Warning Panel The large panel to the right of the Stores Management Display is used to determine the nature of system failures and warnings. If necessary.

For example. Roll and pitch rates maintained when key released.useful in combat. Less ground detail on the screen will give a smoother simulation on slower computers. Selecting the “plain” options in 2 to 5 will also improve performance on a “slow” computer.if active (e) Forward looking camera .60 Central Warning Panel Red Captions: REV OXY FIRE AUT ENG SPILS UC FUEL thrust reversers failure oxygen system pressure low engine fire (left or right) emergency autopilot disengage engine failure (left or right) SPILS spin prevention system damaged gear damaged fuel low Amber Captions: CNFG flap configuration error ECM ECM failure UC gear configuration error AB air brake failure SWP wing sweep failure WB wheel brake failure ADC air data computer (autopilot) failure FLPS flaps failure MFD1 MFD failure . Joystick 2 provides throttle and rudder control. AVIONICS REFERENCE Multi Function Display (MFD) Mounted centrally on the instrument panel of both pilot and navigator you will see the Multi Function Display.system configuration Option 7 allows you to select different primary flight controls: (i) keyboard 1 .roll rate and pitch rate proportional to how long key is depressed. (iii) joystick 1 .Reduces Visibility to 6 miles and selects “plain” for options 2 to 5 with single keystroke.navigator HUD HUD failure RAD radar failure TAB TV TAB failure (left or right) RWR radar warning receiver failure Kneepad view and options Select the “Look down” view for the following user options: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 Visibility Ground Hills Sky Horizon HUD frame Control device 6 to 25 miles plain or textured plain or textured plain or textured plain or faded hidden or shown keyboard 1 or 2 joystick 1 or 2 Sound effects off or on Minimise / restore Options 1 to 6 adjust aspects of “Tornado” that will affect the smoothness with which it runs on your computer. selected by the “Centre MFD Function Select” key: (a) Autopilot and Flight Director System (AFDS) and Autothrottle settings . (iv) joystick 2 . Joystick provides pitch and roll control. reducing the Visibility will mean that ground objects cannot be seen until you get closer to them. This option offers instant frame rate boost .pilot MFD2 MFD failure . Option 0 .roll rate and pitch rate proportional to how long key is depressed. Joystick 1 provides pitch and roll control.two joystick option. (ii) keyboard 2 .if active (b) Local map (c) ILS (d) Radar . To restore your previous setting hit 0 again. a distinguishing feature of the GR4 Tornado. Look Down View . Roll and pitch rates reduce to zero when key released.single joystick option. This unit offers a variety of functions.

The aircraft will fly automatically from each waypoint to the next. flaps. Five autopilot modes are available: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Track Altitude/Heading Acquire Terrain Follow Approach Autothrottle (i) Track (AFDS TRACK (-) ) . ALT and HDG will show ACQR to confirm autopilot acquire mode. Roll control sets desired heading as in Altitude/Heading Acquire mode. You will also need to cancel the autopilot just prior to touchdown. it will be necessary for you to make the appropriate adjustments to wing sweep. The letter of the next waypoint (e.links the autopilot to the Instrument Landing System for an automatic approach to an allied airfield. heading and rate of descent. land. Time To Go (TTG) is displayed as minutes:seconds. If you wish to bypass the next waypoint.g. At this point the ILS marker will be on your HUD and the localiser/glideslope needles will have appeared on your MFD if it is in ILS mode. apply reverse thrust. Either slow down or increase your ride height. The system will do its best to follow the contours of the ground. Heading adjustment is not available in Track mode (HDG display will read AUTO). The autothrottle system will adjust the engine thrust accordingly in an attempt to . The autothrottle facility is available in this mode. heading (HDG) and airspeed (IAS) are all under autopilot control (AUTO). adjusting altitude and speed accordingly. brake etc. The autothrottle facility is available in this mode.. execute a hard pull up.ignore it and you may find yourself crashing into a hillside. disengage itself and trigger a warning. The aircraft will make the necessary manoeuvres in order to acquire the conditions specified. An AFDS approach is manually selectable only if you are within an allied ILS beam and flying towards the airfield. your heading (HDG) and your Indicated Air Speed (IAS).not an “auto-landing” mode. the normal throttle control is used to set the desired speed on the AFDS display. Watch for the “B risk” indicator when travelling at high speed on the lowest ride heights. The system may be toggled between Terrain Follow or Altitude Acquire when in Track mode by pressing the Terrain Follow key. The Approach mode is automatically selected when you arrive at an approach waypoint in Track mode. the autopilot will steer the aircraft onto the correct approach path to the runway and adjust throttle setting for correct speed and rate of descent. selectable in seven stages from 200 feet up to 1500 feet using the normal pitch control input.61 (a) Autopilot Flight Director System (AFDS) and Autothrottle Depending upon the mode selected. During your “hands off” approach. If the radar altitude falls below the safety margin the AFDS will roll the wings level.this mode will command the aircraft to follow a flight plan defined during your pre-flight briefing or to fly to a waypoint set at a target of opportunity during flight (waypoint T). gear etc.. flare.this mode instructs the autopilot to fly your aircraft at a given ride height (RIDE) above the ground. n. thereby minimising your exposure to enemy radar. The autothrottle facility is available in this mode. This warning light illuminates when the system believes that it may not be possible to maintain the desired safety margin . the autopilot will take control of your altitude (ALT). Time To Go (TTG) is displayed as minutes:seconds. Altitude (ALT). (iv) Approach (AFDS APRCH) . This is an “auto-approach” mode . Once active. Altitude acquire (ACQR) or ride height (RIDE) may be adjusted with the pitch control.C. Selection is confirmed by IAS changing from manual (MAN) to acquire (ACQR) and illumination of the “autothrottle engage indicator”. while the autopilot does the hard work of adjusting speed. When active. use “skip to next waypoint” key.(AFDS THROT) -this facility allows you to set a desired airspeed and may be used independently or in conjunction with AFDS modes (i) to (iii) described above. etc) is shown in brackets at the top of the display. Selection of this mode without further control input will cause the aircraft to hold the current altitude and heading. (iii) Terrain Follow (AFDS TF) . Time Early/Late (TEL) will be displayed if the waypoint has a predefined time of arrival.b. (v) Autothrottle .this mode enables you to specify a required barometric altitude and a required heading by using the normal pitch and roll control inputs in conjunction with the AFDS display.. (ii) Altitude/Heading Acquire (AFDS ALT/HDG) . B..

estimated time to touchdown (lower left corner) and distance to runway mid-point (lower right corner).62 button.e. zoom in and out) from 0.used primarily for detecting. If the designator does not appear to respond to the mouse. check that the MFD is the active display for the mouse by pressing the T key. 8nm and 16nm. Ground Radar Mode The IDS radar has six selectable ranges:0. 2nm.5nm. first check that the radar is switched on. Designation may be cancelled with the right mouse button. or AFDS THROT if autothrottle is active. airfields (active runway in white) and waypoints (B. The IDS radar has only the 10nm and 2nm range settings. rivers. check that the MFD is the active display for the mouse by pressing the T key. The display shows hills. The ADV air radar has three selectable ranges: 30 nm (for use with Sky Flash). please note that this is not possible in all circumstances e.5nm. If the desired radar mode does not appear as you cycle through the MFD functions. if you disengage the autopilot. it cannot see through hills! Local Map Mode (c) Instrument Landing System (ILS) Select this display during your final approach to see the ILS localiser and glideslope indicators. Due to terrain masking. Functions are selected by repeatedly pressing the Left (or Right) Tab Function Select key: Air Radar Mode . in a steep climb or dive or high “g” turn. The ADV is not fitted with a ground radar. 1nm. 2nm.e. heading along the dotted flightpath.g. The scale of the map is selectable (i. The map origin may be toggled between the centre of the display or at the base of the display. Please note that use of the radar at very low altitudes will be affected by terrain masking i. maintain the demanded speed. roads. (b) Local Map This is a moving map display orientated about your present position. It is also possible to lock on to a target visually through the HUD by using the boresight designate key. 4nm. Forward Looking Camera TV TAB displays (navigator’s cockpit) Both left and right TV TAB displays offer a variety of functions on a mutually exclusive basis. The air radar is a plan view display showing target range and bearing only. Designation may be cancelled with the right mouse button. (d) Radar The radar has two independent modes of operation. Use your mouse to move the designator symbol to coincide with the chosen target position and designate with the left mouse button. Your aircraft is always at the map origin. 1nm. bearing to the runway mid-point (top right corner). designating and tracking military ground vehicles. designating and tracking aircraft. If the designator does not appear to respond to the mouse. However. 10nm (for use with AIM9-L) and 2 miles (for use with guns).used for detecting. 4nm. The display is a composite image of radar returns and digital map data which are compared to identify and highlight vehicles. Items such as Forward Looking Camera and local map are also available on the central MFD. vehicle returns may be intermittent whereas mapped features will always be shown. Use your mouse to move the designator symbol to coincide with the chosen target and designate with the left mouse ILS Mode (ii) ground mode .each with on/off control. (i) air mode . pitch and roll control revert to manual (MAN) and the MFD will confirm AFDS OFF if autothrottle is not active. Additional information on this screen includes aircraft heading (top left corner). differentiated by symbology.D etc). (e) Forward looking camera This display provides a daytime forward view for the navigator and an image-intensified view for both crew at night. 8nm and 16nm with a base origin.C. Finally. Both enemy and allied aircraft are shown.

TIALD Display .B. For example. otherwise calculation would be impossible. You will see that moving the mouse scrolls the map freely in all four directions. Pressing the “locate aircraft” key will centre the map at your current position if you are within the boundaries of the map. so that the aircraft’s direction of movement is always straight up the screen. and try moving the mouse about. If you scroll the map a little away from the point you selected. the map will centre itself on the waypoint again.C etc) plus any target of opportunity waypoint (T) set during flight.You can also zoom in and out by clicking the left and right mouse buttons while holding down the C key. and pressing the Select Active Display key (probably T) will switch the mouse from one display to the next in a continuous cycle. however.75nm up to 24nm. If you click the RIGHT mouse button while holding down the a key.b. Camera steering and target designation is by means of the mouse. this display does not scroll automatically to keep your current position at a fixed point on the screen. bearing of next waypoint (top right corner). Clicking the RIGHT mouse button on its own cancels the waypoint. Unlike the Local Map. It is capable of looking ahead. estimated time to next waypoint (lower left corner) and distance to next waypoint (lower right corner). (c) Scrollable map Like the Local Map. (a) Flight Plan Display (PLN) Normally displayed on the left hand TV TAB. the designator symbol changes to confirm this fact. this map display rotates as the aircraft heading changes.m. This light is used to show which display currently has use of the mouse as an input device. As the camera looks ahead of your aircraft. and find an identifiable feature.b. (b) Thermal Imaging and Laser Designating (TIALD) This is a steerable plan view camera with laser designator. a city. a village or a bridge. Prior to take-off this equipment does not function and the TV Tab will display a large cross. it is not possible to display an estimated time. The estimated time will only be displayed if you are heading in the general direction of the next waypoint. (a) Flight Plan Display (PLN) (b) Thermal Imaging and Laser Designating (TIALD) (c) Scrollable map (d) Local map (e) Forward looking camera In the bottom left corner of each of the three displays is a green light which only ever illuminates on one display at a time. Setting a Target-of-Opportunity Waypoint Use the a and left click combination to find your aircraft again. to position of cursor n.000 feet in order to give the widest field of view. n. Its range increases with altitude and ideally it would be used at above 20. Additional navigational data is presented in each corner: Upper left: aircraft heading Upper right: bearing to position of cursor Lower left: estimated time to reach position of cursor Lower right: distance in n. this option shows your aircraft position relative to your flightplan. If you are flying away from the cursor position. Also appearing on the Flight Plan Display are aircraft heading (top left corner). A continuous zoom facility allows pin-point accuracy. Check that the right Tab’s green Mouse Active light is on. Now click the left mouse button on its own. It is also possible to switch off each TV Tab display. All pre-planned waypoints are shown (A. this might be an airfield. you’ll see that it is marked by a flashing cross. behind and to the sides of your aircraft.63 It is recommended that you designate targets ahead of your aircraft in order to give the laser-guided bombs sufficient time to reach their targets. scroll the map some way ahead of your current position. TAB Scrollable Map TAB PLN Display Map scale is selectable from 0. This will create a Target-of-Opportunity waypoint at that location. Pressing the “locate target” key will centre the map at the position of waypoint T if set. on the scrollable map your aircraft symbol scrolls with the map and may leave the display altogether. Unlike the Local map where your aircraft is fixed at the centre or bottom centre of the display. The scale of the display adjusts automatically in order to keep both your current position (small circle) and your pre-planned flight path on the display simultaneously.

For safety reasons we recommend that you select autopilot before switching to the map. Full-Screen Moving Map A full screen moving map display is available with zoom controls. and obviously you CAN set this one in flight. (d) Local map This is very similar to the Local Map mode of the MFD but with selectable ranges from 0.75nm. and watch the aircraft turn and fly towards T. Now engage AFDS Track mode (7).you can see the stored flightplan on the Tab PLN display. 1. at any position you like (provided that it’s within the current map area). The boundaries of the combat zone are not shown. 6nm. with the letters X. TV TAB Forward Looking Camera Full Screen Moving Map . it’s shown on the PLN display by the letter T.64 Waypoints which are part of the stored flightplan are labelled in alphabetical order from A to O. Please note that the simulation continues in real time when this map is displayed. The waypoint you’ve just placed is different. and check to see that the T on the Track display is highlighted. 12nm and 24nm with the base origin. The map is always centred at your present point and orientated so that you are flying directly up the screen. 3nm. (e) Forward looking camera This display provides a daytime forward view for the navigator and an image-intensified nightime forward view for the navigator. Y and Z used for planned targets . it’s called the Target-of-Opportunity waypoint.5nm. Do this now. These waypoints can only be set up in the Mission Planner. TAB Local Map The only way to select T as the current waypoint is to hit the T key.

click the appropriate button. and RED or BLUE leader. 9:39 AM . When this option is “Free”. you may: a) preset simulation preferences b) specify sound hardware and which sound effects you wish to hear c) specify or recalibrate your joystick d) specify your preferences on several miscellaneous features. enter the number (see your modem manual for any special command characters) followed by E. proceed as follows: 1 Connect the modem to either COM1 or COM2 serial port and then select the appropriate port by clicking on COM1 or COM2 button.g. Please seek permission if you are not the owner of the phone. All other types of joystick may be calibrated at any time during the simulation by centering the joystick and pressing Y. difficulty. start time.e.see fault finding below. Two Player IBM PC This option allows you to link two computers via modem or a direct cable link and fly head-to-head combat with a friend. either one or two. where nnnn is the baud rate. click on the “Phone no.PM5 65 10/1/96. Certain joysticks may need to be used on the “high sensitivity” setting in order to achieve better aircraft manoeuvrability but please remember that a Tornado is not an F-16! Miscellaneous preferences We have introduced one extra option . 3 Select the two player menu options for weather. Possible errors are: i) “No dial tone” . “transmission error” or “no reply.” button. 4 Decide which player will be the “caller”. Access to Two Player mode is via the Combat screen: 1 At the Main Screen. The other player will be the “receiver”. If you have a Thrustmaster FCS joystick.line is engaged iii) “No answer” . NEW. 5 For the caller to dial a number. all four night levels will occur i. from dusk to pitch black. The dialogue box will say “dialling number” followed by “CONNECT nnnn” if successful. reset modem and retry” . To use a modem for two player missions. The dialogue box will display “Initialize modem” followed by OK if successful. This procedure will only be necessary once providing that you save your preferences.check that your modem is connected to the phone line ii) “Busy” . You will need a copy of Tornado on both computers. 6 Select Tone or Pulse dialling and then click on the Dial button. In normal ambient lighting conditions. If a problem occurs you will see a message e. By setting this option to “Fixed”. If you believe that the program is not detecting a joystick. select Flight 2 On the next screen. first check that the trim controls on the joystick are centred. the darker levels (3 and 4) can make the game difficult to play.receiver not responding iv) “No carrier” . select Two Player Set-up a) Connection via a modem Please note that playing the Two Player option over a modem will be charged as a telephone call at a rate appropriate to the charge band.receiver’s phone is answering but his modem not responding Remember to save your preferences if you decide to change any of them.Night Level. Joystick selection and calibration Tornado will automatically detect how many analog joysticks you have connected i. open the dialogue box and initialize it.e. 2 Click on the “modem” button to enable the modem controls.65 TECHNICAL SUPPLEMENT Preferences IBM PC By selecting the Preferences icon on the main screen. select Combat 3 On the next screen. The modem interface supports any Hayes-compatible modem (AT commands) that is capable of at least 2400/2400 baud (V22 bis 2400). range. The program will require you to calibrate the Thrustmaster joystick and its coolie hat by moving it to full travel and then back to centre. only levels 1 and 2 will be used by the program.

When both systems are ready. the dialogue box will print “Testing link”. if you wish to use “manual answer”. 2 Communication errors when “Testing link”: a) Both users should try to re-establish the link by clicking on the START picture. 11 Any commands that involve a long timeout period may be aborted by pressing any key. there are three possible configurations for your cable. start conditions will be confirmed and the game will begin. for up to a maximum of several hundred feet.e. and then press E. “Unrecognised response” not a recognised Hayes response. 10/1/96. The same baud rate must be used on each computer. a “null modem” cable must be connected into a serial port on each computer.PM5 66 b) Direct link using null modem cable If you intend to use a direct cable link. 3 Did you dial the wrong number? Select “Hang-up” and retry. 4 Have you selected the correct COM port. 9:39 AM . These are the same as the standard Hayes messages with the following additions: “Unexpected response” expecting OK but got a different response. aborted” User aborted. Just plug one end of the cable into a spare serial port (e. click on the “manual answer” button when the phone rings. with short form or verbose responses. As you can see from the diagram. Check the ports on both computers before ordering your cable. “Timeout error” no response from modem. check its status. 2 Make your menu selection (see below) 3 Decide who will be Red leader and Blue Leader. 6 If your phone has a “call waiting” facility. 5 A dialogue box will be opened to announce “Testing link” followed by “Transmitting menu data”. Problems 1 If the modem is not responding: a) Check all connections and that the modem is switched on. Proceed as follows: 1 On the BAUD/PORT window. When both systems have been initialised with All errors described for direct link operation also apply. The dialogue box will say “”Awaiting call”. The modem controller has been written with a smart receiver which will allow the modem to be in half or full duplex mode. you may order one direct from Digital Integration sales on 0276 684959. 10 The “Command” button is provided to enable you to send commands to the modem to reconfigure it . For pin connections. It should be possible to temporarily disable this feature prior to starting your game. see diagram. and will probably be male (pins). 8 As soon as communication between the computers is established. this may disrupt the modem connection during your game. 4 Click on START picture. 7 The receiver may use either “auto-answer” or “manual answer”. The ports will either be 9-pin or 25-pin. The dialogue box will confirm this by printing “Hang up phone” followed by OK if successful. click on the “auto-answer” button and wait for the phone to ring. COM1 or COM2. followed by “RING” and “CONNECT nnnn” when the phone has rung and connection has been established. Try cancelling this mode by sending “ATQ0” command. If you do not have a null modem cable. Alternatively. b) The modem may be in “quiet” mode. To send a command.g. The plugs on the end of your null modem cable must match the ports of both computers. specify the baud rate and serial port you wish to use. click on the button. enter the command. “Transmission error” serial communication problem.g. b) Have you selected a BAUD rate that is compatible with your modem? c) Try using the lowest baud rate e. For PC users. Fault finding when using the modem Modem messages. The length of the cable will limit how far apart you can physically place the computers. “Key pressed.g. etc. COM1) on the other computer. select the port in use i. 5 Are you clear about who is the “caller” and who is the “receiver”? If you both try to be “caller” you will get nowhere. COM1) on one of the computers and plug the other end into a spare serial port (e. 2400 NEW. Please note that you do not need a modem in order to use a “null modem” cable. Clicking on the button will abort entry and the command will not be sent. For autoanswer.66 See below for other error messages. Check in your phone handbook. Check to see which port your cable or modem is plugged into. but it cannot cope with quiet mode “ATQ1”. click on the “hang up” button. 9 To abort a call once connection has been made.

Details of Two Player operation cannot be stored in your Pilot’s Log. 4 Error . 10/1/96. Computer-controlled allied aircraft do not have this capability. Opponent: Cheats: NEW. 9:39 AM . If you suspect that any of the discs are faulty. We regret that it is not possible for us to offer full refunds to customers who purchased any of our products from retailers or mail order companies. the small circles represent AAA threats and the larger circles represent SAM threats.shoot down your opponent. 10 Sidewinders and infinite cannon. • Pressing keys S and 5 together will reverse cycle through the computer controlled aircraft. 6 “Testing link” may be aborted by pressing any key. The objective of the game is simple . If you are having trouble with installation then please call or write to Customer Support. maximum manoeuvrability. If identical conditions are not selected. 2 Have you both selected the same BAUD rate? Error messages: 1 Timeout . The effect is more noticeable on slower machines and is quite normal.dawn The take-off time dictates the light level which does not change during flight. • When in the Mission Planner you may notice slight delays when closing windows.PM5 In visual range or Beyond visual range ON or OFF 67 This option offers infinite fuel. please return just the discs to Customer Support and we will exchange the items for tested replacements. • The q key may be used instead of the Exit button when in the Mission Planner. Try re-routing the cable. ERRATA AND ADDITIONS Last minute additions. • When AA is selected on the Mission Planner KEY. Faulty items If you purchased Tornado direct from Digital Integration and you are unhappy with the product for any reason.There are no keystrokes that may be substituted for mouse commands in the Review mode. the message “Common menu values set” is printed. it is our company policy to offer a full refund providing that the product is returned to us in a re-saleable condition within 14 days of purchase. As each player succeeds. Either player may then elect to continue the game or quit.introduced so that you can evaluate target area damage before leaving the Debrief screen. 3 Checksum error .one or both computers are not receiving data. Two player menu selections Both players should select the same start conditions on the GAME window: Weather: Light cloud or Overcast or Light fog or Thick fog Time: 8am to 6pm day 6pm to 8pm night level 1 . At this point. no G-LOC. In these cases..see Transmission error. • Explore mode in Debrief .2nd para. the game will pass to the Debrief screen to present the score.this is caused by data corruption. The possible causes are: i) Computers not connected to each other ii) Cable connected to the wrong serial port or incorrect serial port selected iii) Faulty cable iv) Different baud rates selected v) More than 30 seconds had elapsed between both players selecting START 2 Transmission error . .. your request must be addressed to the vendor. 10 Sky Flash.both RED leader or both BLUE leader. • Only the player’s aircraft can use loft delivery mode or ALARM in direct mode. possibly due to an excessively long cable or an “electronically noisy” environment.dusk 8pm to 10pm night level 2 10pm to 12pm night level 3 12pm to 2am night level 4 (darkest) 2am to 4am night level 3 4am to 6am night level 2 6am to 8am night level 1 . This phenomenon is due to the Mission Planner performing numerous calculations in parallel to your planning. This parallel computation can also temporarily inhibit movement of the mouse pointer. the computer will set both players to the more difficult condition of the two. • p 28 . Fault finding when using direct link 1 Are the pin connections correct on your cable? Check the diagram.67 common start conditions. modem users will be confirmed as “Off Line”. followed by “Take-off” after a short delay to enable you to see the conditions. Both players have selected the same option. One player must change.

MISSION SELECTION SCREEN References to the “Command scenarios” should be ignored. No mission planning is necessary. Choice of War Zone The map image for each war zone has been replaced by a digitised photograph. A.. Detailed changes. Preferences Review stills . 10/1/96.. Clicking on any button will display information about Waypoint window the waypoint.C etc. At the top of the window you will see the waypoint type e. GETTING STARTED References to the Mission Planner and Mission Planning functions should be ignored.removed Contour interval . Target. NEW. JP233 plus ALARM).g. Successful completion of a campaign will earn promotion to Wing Commander. • For any last minute comments please see file: README.removed Curve segments .removed Windows solid/transparent . It may also help if you select a lower ride height during the climb-out than was planned. If your mission involves a particularly heavy weapon load (e. Approach etc.DOC on disc. position. Section 1 . Progress through a campaign depends upon the successful completion of each mission in turn. type a R to clear and redraw the screen. Turning. By not engaging the autopilot Track mode until you have reached this speed will minimise how late you become during the take-off leg. Initial.PM5 68 Situation Menu for Campaigns Each war zone has a single Campaign consisting of 8 pre-planned missions. Situation Menu for Missions “Free Fire” combat missions are not available due to the absence of the Mission Planner. Beneath this is the waypoint strip with a button corresponding to each waypoint in the flightplan e. Flightplan and waypoint data Clicking on the Map Screen button marked “Waypoint” brings up the Waypoint Window. FLIGHT OPTIONS References to the Combat “Command” option should be ignored. Situation Menu for Command This has been removed as the Command option is not available on the Amiga.are fixed. Completion of all three campaigns will earn promotion to Group Captain.g. The Campaign option now consists of a set of 8 preplanned missions for each war zone. speed.B. by chapter.g. thus allowing your aircraft to accelerate as quickly as possible to the first desired speed (usually 420 kts).Map basics Map screen buttons: Targets Briefing Point data Flightplan Summary Key buttons: Contours Rivers and lakes Power lines ILS coverage Flightplan (current and other) Category flag Priority flag Ground forces function removed function removed function removed renamed “Waypoint” replaces the summary button on the Flightplan window renamed “hills” renamed “water” abbreviated to “Pwr lines” abbreviated to “ILS cover” combined into a split key function removed function removed abbreviated to “Grnd unit” All about waypoints All attributes (e. Progress through a campaign depends upon the successful completion of each mission in turn. time. 9:39 AM . you are advised to climb to your first waypoint at a very shallow angle.removed Logs The maximum number of logs is 16.g. References to the “Mission Planner” should be read as “Flightplan Screen”.68 • Make sure that you take-off promptly when you start a multi-aircraft mission. type etc) . • If you experience "window corruption" on the Mission Planner screen. The other aircraft in the formation will not wait and you will risk colliding with them if you delay your take-off run.

d) Ensure Trim Wheels are set to centre position. then use Port 1.9 Tornado will not work with this Mouse driver. 1000 lb GPB delivery mode e.g.IRQ in general should be 7.SYS and AUTOEXEC. loft. 6) MICROSOFT MOUSE DRIVER V. NEW. Two additional boxes appear in the waypoint window for target waypoints and the approach and take off waypoints: Target Approach & take off Weapon Delivery Head wind Cross wind weapon type e. please ensure that the appropriate software driver is loaded.sys When not using the boot disc make sure Files & Buffers are set to at least Files=15 and Buffers=20. devicehigh=c:\dos\dblspace. Line 4 at present reads.69 Beneath the waypoint strip are four boxes displaying autopilot mode (e. Modify your boot disc as necessary.Loadhigh Amp.com ** Device=C:\sstordrv. b) SoundBlaster & SBPro .B. laydown wind component along runway when landing wind component across runway when landing It is not possible to introduce additional waypoints or to change the flightplan in any way. Answer Free up at least 1 MB of space (make sure Files=15 in CONFIG. so the CONFIG.bat. e) When using an intelligent games card e. tornado. PC Trouble Shooting 1) JOYSTICK a) Keep your hand off the joystick when selecting Take-Off..g.com CD C:\tornado Hidos=on call tornado.0 If you are using DBLSPACE with MSDOS 6.. c) If you are using a single joystick on a dual joystick card. aircraft number and letter (e. When not using the boot disc make sure Files & Buffers are set to at least Files=15 and Buffers=20. 3) WARNING MESSAGES Problem message “warning***. b) If you have a joystick port on your soundcard as well as an individual joystick card make sure that the joystick port on the sound board is disabled.BAT should be edited for the boot disc as follows: CONFIG. Use an earlier version.0 at the moment.PM5 69 5) DRDOS 6.function not available 6 HUD frame .SYS Problem message "warning ***. AIRCREW NOTES Kneepad view 5 Horizon . use the adlib option.0 replace with HiLoad Amp. 3 or 5. however if problems occur try 2. 2) SOUND CARD a) SoundBlaster Pro . Make sure that you have a fully DRDOS 6..sys *** Set mouse=C:\mouse /F=none /K=auto /B=ffff /R=auto *** C:\mouse\mouse. For DRDOS 6.0 If your DRDOS 6. The Tornado boot disc does not cater for DRDOS 6. terrain following.in” Reason Not enough files in CONFIG.The DMA has to be set to 1. 10/1/96. altitude hold).0 version is dated 08/91 you will need to update to at least 04/ 92. 017 A.g.bat file.renamed “ironwork” 7 Control device (port 2) ..C).\tripleA\samdata" Reason Not enough space on hard disc. Quickshot Smart Card. local time (planned time of arrival at waypoint) and speed (planned speed over the leg leading to the waypoint).SYS Answer Set Files = 15 and Buffers = 20 in CONFIG.g.0 compatible mouse driver.SYS.\dataxchg\layer.SYS) 4) MSDOS 6.SYS AUTOEXEC. Add or adjust the following line in your CONFIG.BAT Device=C:\drdos\emm386.sys /hidma C: ** Device=C:\devswap. The Flightplan Profile feature is not available. 9:39 AM . Once on the runway the computer will have re-calibrated the joystick for you.options include digital joystick or analogue joystick or second mouse. Files=15 *** Modify according to location of Buffers=20 mouse driver ** omit these lines if not using NOTE: you will also need to edit your SuperStor. c) If the sound effects are intermittent when using soundBlaster.g.0 either with your original set up or a boot disk you will need to load DBLSPACE high.

3 When landing with a high crosswind.co. Tips 1 Enemy interceptors will have difficulty tracking you if you are terrain following at low altitude and at high speed. This is when all that practice at manual landing comes in handy… CUSTOMER SUPPORT If you have any questions about Tornado or any of our other products.PM5 70 10/1/96. 2 Take particular care when terrain following at high speed with 67° wing sweep.compulink. GU15 3AJ phone 0276 678806 (UK only) Between 2pm and 5pm. This may mean breaking formation temporarily to fly ahead and your route may no longer match the flightplan due to the wider turns at each waypoint. you may find that the auto-approach system cannot remain centred in the ILS beam. 9:39 AM .uk It helps us enormously if you have already returned your registration card but please be prepared to provide the following information: Name Address Product name Computer Description of problem and how it occurred Error messages appearing on screen NEW. Monday to Friday email address digint@cix. please contact Customer Support at: write Digital Integration Ltd Watchmoor Trade Centre Watchmoor Road Camberley Surrey.70 Tornado README file Please register Send in your pre-paid registration card to ensure that you receive details of product updates and special offers.

71 NEW. 9:39 AM .PM5 71 10/1/96.

55. 53 Approach and landing How to set up 33 Approach progress indicator 52. 57 Ground target marker 42. 53.72 INDEX A Aborting your flight 22 Advanced flying training 32 Air radar Field of view 49 Target designation 49 Air tasking message 15 Airbrake 27. 59 Autopilot and flight director system Altitude / Heading acquire mode 61 Approach mode 61 Autothrottle 61 Track mode 61 Autopilot engaged indicator 52. 57 Boresight 57. 59 Amiga manual addendum 68 Analogue clock 59 Angle of attack 27 Angle of attack indicator 52. 54. 42 Defensive pods 14 Head up display AIM9 mode 58 Air to air guns mode 58 Air to ground guns mode 58 ALARM mode 57 ILS Mode 56 JP. 58 Vertical speed 25 Horizontal situation indicator 52. 52. 54 ECM (Electronic Counter-Measures) 48 ECM "on" indicator 52.233 mode . 55 EWR 21 Explore mode 5 External views Drone view 39 Remote view 39 Satellite view 39 Spectator view 39 Tracking view 39 Weapon view 39 F B "B" risk indicator Central warning panel 59 Chaff 51 Cheating 6 Cockpit. introduction 23 Autothrottle 26 Autothrottle engaged indicator 52. 59 Autopilot. 56. 59 Autotrim 25 Avionics reference 60 53 C Campaigns Level one 15 CAP station. 54 Aircrew notes 52 Altimeter 52. 57 Countdown clock 56.p. 56. quick tour 23 Command level 19 Customer support 71 72 70 Flares 51 Flight options 7 Formation flightplans 18 Free fire missions 15 Fuel flow indicator 52.running in 57 Laydown bombing mode 56 Loft attack mode . 59 Elementary flying training 23 Emergencies Ejection 38 Engine fire 38 Engine r. 55 Fuel quantity indicator 52. 58 Rubber triangle 56 Safety height cue 43 Standby sight 48.stage one 56 Loft attack mode . setting up 17 CD-Rom Installation instructions NEW. 54. 58 Continuously computed impact point 42.stage two 56 NAV mode 56 Sky Flash mode 58 Head up display symbology Aiming point 58 Air target marker 58 Bomb fall line 42. 53 Attitude direction indicator 52. 55 Fuel tanks 14 Fuel weight 14 G meter 52. 53. 55 Ground radar Target designation Ground speed 27 10/1/96. 57 Heading strip 24 ILS steering marker 56 IR lock diamond 58 Pitch ladder 24 Range clock 57. 53 Attention getter 52. 53.PM5 G D H Debrief 22 Debris hemisphere 43 Defences 21.m.233 mode . 56. 59 E E-Scope 32. 9:39 AM 42 .release 57 JP. indicators 52 Engine temperature indicators 52.

report 13 Missile countermeasures 51 Missiles. 59 Landing practice for auto-approach 29 Late arm switch 52. clouds 4 Sound and music 5 Visual range 4 Windows 5 Protection (PC version) 65 Radar Air mode 49. 59 Radar warning receiver 51. 54. 53 Level turns 25 Look down view 60 M Mach number 27. effects of 26 Preferences 65 Contour interval 5 Control device 4 Curve segments 5 Ground detail 4 Hill texture 4 Horizon. report 9 Payload 9 NEW. 59 Multi function display Forward looking camera 62 Local map 62 Radar 62 73 26 O Options. 59 System Requirements 3 Negative g. 28 Manoeuvre drag 27 Map screen buttons 9 Briefing 9 Centre 9 Fit 9 Flight plan 9 Key 9 Met. free and bound 17 Spin recovery 38 Stalling 27 Standby compass 52. 55 Recalibrate joystick 4 Reheat 30 Reheat operating lights 52. graduated 4 Ironwork 4 Panel lighting 5 Review stills 5 Sky. 55 Stores management display 41. 53 Review 5 S T Taking off 30–31 Target classes Battlefield 21 Command 20 Counter air 21 Logistics 20–21 Politics 21 Target finder 16 Target of opportunity Designating on ground radar 42 Target-of-opportunity waypoint 63 Terrain following 32 Terrain masking 62 Thrust reversers 30 10/1/96. 52. effective range 51 Mission planner 9 Mission rehearsal 13 Mission selection screen 8 Mouse active indicator 52. 62 Ground mode 62 Radar altimeter 52. 53. 54 Radar "on" indicator 52./Exit Buttons 4 Oxygen flow indicator 52 P Payload window 13 PC Trouble Shooting 69 Positive g.. mission planner Kneepad view 60 9 R N Secondary control surfaces position indicator 52. 52. fixed.73 I ILS display 35 Indicated airspeed / Mach number 27. 9:39 AM . 54 K Key. 59 Installing and Running Tornado 3 Instrument panel Navigator 59 Pilot 52 J Jettison indicator lights 52. 53 Reverse thrust indicators 52..PM5 Point data 9 Take-off 9 Targets 9 Tidy 9 Met. effects of L Landing Automated 29 Manual 36 Semi-automatic 35 Wind direction 37 Landing damaged aircraft 37 Landing gear position indicator 52. 53 Simulator options 8 Situation menu 8 Skipping waypoints 33 Speeds.

53 W War zones 8 Waypoints Approach point 11 CAP end 11 CAP start 11. 17 Deleting 16 Dragging 15 Initial points 11 Inserting 16 Placing 15 Selecting 16 Setting and moving 15 Split and formate 19 Take-off point 11 Targets 11 Timing 17 Turning points 11 Weapon delivery modes Laser-guided (LGB) 45 Laydown (LAY) 42 Loft (LFT) 43 Manual (MAN) 42 Weapon packages 41 Weapon status (ADV) 52. 53 Windows Air power 19 Flightplan 12 Flightplan profile 12 Flightplan summary 12 Problems 9 Relocation 20 Situation report 19 Target waypoint 17 Tasking 19 Waypoint 12 Wing buffet 28 Wing sweep 28–29 Z Zooming of displays Air radar 62 Ground radar 42 Scrollable map 63 40 10/1/96. 47 Guns. effects of 30 Wheel brakes 30. 65 V Vertical speed indicator Visibility 13 52. 46 Weapons conversion 40 Weapons training in the simulator 41 Weather. fixed. 52. effects of 13 Weight.PM5 74 63 1000 lb retarded bomb 40 ALARM (Air Launched Anti-Radiation Missile) 40. air-to-ground 48 JP. 9:39 AM . free and bound 17 True airspeed 27 Turning circles 16 TV TAB displays Flight plan display (PLN) 63 Forward looking camera 64 Local map 64 Scrollable map 63 Thermal imaging and laser designating Two-player option 7. air-to-air 49 Guns.74 Times. 54 Weapons 1000 lb general purpose bomb NEW.233 dispensers 40.