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CONTENTS
System Requirements ....................................................................... 3
Installing Tornado .............................................................................. 3
GETTING STARTED .............................................................................. 4
Options.../Exit Buttons ....................................................................... 4
Preferences ....................................................................................... 4
Explore ............................................................................................... 5
Review ............................................................................................... 5
Logs ................................................................................................... 5
The Quickstart User's Guide ............................................................. 6
FLIGHT OPTIONS .................................................................................. 7
Simulator ............................................................................................ 7
Training .............................................................................................. 7
Combat .............................................................................................. 7
THE MISSION SELECTION SCREEN .................................................. 8
The Situation Menu ............................................................................ 8
Other Options Available ..................................................................... 8
THE MISSION PLANNER ...................................................................... 9
SECTION 1 - Using the Mission Planner - Basics ............................ 9
SECTION 2 - Planning Your Own Missions ...................................... 15
SECTION 2b - Level Two Campaigns ............................................... 18
SECTION 3 - Command Level .......................................................... 19
DEBRIEF ................................................................................................ 22
ELEMENTARY FLYING TRAINING ....................................................... 23
Starting the Simulator ........................................................................ 23
Flying the Autopilot and Reading the HUD. ....................................... 23
Level Turns and Autotrim .................................................................. 25

The Autothrottle ................................................................................. 26


Stalling ............................................................................................... 27
Wing Sweep ....................................................................................... 28
Automated Landings .......................................................................... 29
Taking Off .......................................................................................... 30
ADVANCED FLYING TRAINING ........................................................... 32
Setting up your own Approach and Landing ...................................... 33
Semi-automatic and Manual Landings .............................................. 35
Manual Approaches ........................................................................... 36
Landings and Wind Direction ............................................................. 37
Landing Damaged Aircraft... .............................................................. 37
Emergencies ...................................................................................... 38
SPILS, Spins and Spin Recovery ...................................................... 38
External Views ................................................................................... 39
WEAPONS CONVERSION .................................................................... 40
Air-to-ground ...................................................................................... 40
Weapons Training in the Simulator .................................................... 41
Air-to-air ............................................................................................. 49
AIRCREW NOTES ................................................................................. 52
Cockpit Layout ................................................................................... 52
Avionics reference ............................................................................. 60
TECHNICAL SUPPLEMENT .................................................................. 65
Customer support .............................................................................. 70
Index .................................................................................................. 72

Copyright 1993 Digital Integration Limited


All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Digital Integration Ltd.

NEW.PM5

10/1/96, 9:38 AM

CD-ROM INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS


To run Tornado from the CD-ROM, log onto your CD-ROM drive and type GO
R. Type Readme R for more detailed information. Tornado CD will
use some space on your hard disc for configuration and setup files. You can
specify which hard disc it will use by typing the drive letter after GO i.e. to use
drive E type GO E: R at the CD-Rom drive root directory.
N.B. You will need at least 1Mb of free space on the drive that you choose.
You will also need at least 600k of free conventional memory for Tornado to run.
To create a boot disc for Tornado CD-Rom
If you are unable to run Tornado CD-Rom due to insufficient memory, you will
need to create a Boot Disc. Insert a blank disc to be formatted into drive A & type
Format A:/S R at the C: prompt. This will create a system disc.
Having made a system disc create a CONFIG.SYS file & an AUTOEXEC.BAT
file refering to the suggestions below.
To do this refer to the section in your DOS manual for details of the DOS Edit
command. Remember when typing EDIT CONFIG.SYS R make sure
you are on the A: prompt.
CONFIG.SYS
DEVICE=C:\DOS\HIMEM.SYS
DEVICE=C:\DOS\EMM386.EXE NOEMS I=E-EFFF
(or try I=B-B7FF)
DOS=HIGH,UMB
FILES=15
BUFFERS=2
DEVICEHIGH=C:\CDROM\CDROM.SYS /D:CDROM1 /P:34
DEVICEHIGH=C:\DOS\DBLSPACE.SYS /MOVE
AUTOEXEC.BAT
LH C:\DOS\MOUSE.COM
LH C:\DOS\MSCDEX /D:CDROM1
LH C:\DOS\SMARTDRV.EXE
D:
GO

NEW.PM5

Note:
Try each of these include statements in turn.
Replace this line with your specific CD-Rom Driver line (check
CONFIG.SYS)
You will only need this line if you use DOS 6 with Dblspace.
Change this line according to where your mouse driver is.
Modify this line according to your present autoexec.bat on your Hard Disc
or system Disc.
Try leaving this line out if you are low on memory.
This should be your CD log drive.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
IBM PC
Absolute minimum system:
IBM PC or compatible
DOS 5.0
80386 16MHz processor 1 Mb RAM
VGA (256k memory)
Microsoft compatible mouse (not version 9)
At least 600k (615,000 bytes) of free conventional memory
Recommended system:
80486 33Mhz or faster
64k external cache
Two analogue joysticks
4 Mb RAM (software disc cache)
SoundBlaster sound card Local bus 32 bit SVGA card
Null modem cable or Hayes-compatible modem for Two Player mode
Trackball (substitute for mouse)
Tornado is compatible with DR DOS 6.
Tornado will not run if you have any TSR (Terminate and Stay Resident)
programs loaded into memory (e.g. DOS shells, printer spoolers etc). Remove
these from your AUTOEXEC.BAT file or make yourself a separate Tornado boot
disc (see below). Tornado will not run within Windows.

10/1/96, 9:38 AM

GETTING STARTED
OPTIONS.../EXIT BUTTONS
In the bottom right corner of all screens (except when flying, exploring or going
through a recognition review) is a pair of buttons, marked Exit and Options....
If you click on Exit, you will go back to the previous screen, or if you are on the
main screen (the first screen), you will be asked if you want to quit the program.
The upper of the two buttons, marked Options..., works in a different way. If you
click on this and hold down the mouse button, it will expand into a menu showing
the following options:
System
Preferences
Explore
Review
Log
Cancel

Allows you to quit the program immediately


For fine-tuning the program for your equipment
Lets you explore any map as a disembodied eye
Shows all military aircraft and fighting vehicles
For creating, selecting or reviewing Pilot Logs
Does nothing - the safe option!

All the items in this menu work the same way; click on Options... and hold down
the button, move the pointer until the item you want is highlighted, and then
release the button.

PREFERENCES
Simulation Preferences
Visual Range
In your outside views, nothing will be
drawn beyond the selected Visual
Range, which is given in miles. Click
on a figure to select it.
Ground
This switch will turn on or off most of
the groups of trees and the field
patterns we have provided to give a
true sensation of speed and depth in
low-level flight.

Hills
When this switch is set to Textured,
the faces making up our hills will
subdivide into smaller countershaded faces as you approach them.
Horizon
This allows you to choose between a
smoothly graduated horizon (Faded)
and a plain blue sky (Plain). Click on
the option of your choice.
Sky
This switch allows you to turn the thin
layers of individual clouds on
(textured) or off (Plain). The overcast
effect (a thick solid cloud layer) will
not be affected.
Ironwork
This peculiarly-named switch
controls whether you will see the
cockpit canopy framework and the
brackets supporting the Head-up
Display.
Control Device
This switch allows you to select which of a range of possible devices you will use
to fly the aircraft. Click on the Cycle button repeatedly to see the range of options
available, then leave the desired option showing.
Keyboard 1 Pitch and roll control by numeric keypad / cursor keys. Control input
increases the longer you hold the key down, but returns to neutral when the key
is released.
Keyboard 2 Pitch and roll control by numeric keypad/cursor keys. Control input
increases the longer you hold the key down. When you release the key the control
input stays at its last level - if you want to stop rolling or pitching youve got to make
an opposite input, or hit the Autotrim key (5 - numeric pad).
Joystick 1 Pitch and roll control by single analogue joystick in game port 1.
Joystick 2 Pitch and roll control by analogue joystick in port 1, throttle and rudder
control by second analogue joystick in port 2.
Recalibrate Joystick
This button is used to ensure that the computer recognises the centre position
of your joystick(s). Let the joystick spring to its centre position and then click on

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this button. If you find that the aircraft is developing a persistent roll or a tendency
to climb or dive, it is probably because your joystick centre position is drifting over
time. You can recalibrate in flight by centring the stick and hitting the Y key.

Sound and Music Preferences


Effects
Off switches off all sound effects; On-Eng gives you all sound effects except
the noise of your own engines, and On+Eng gives you all sound effects including
your own engine noise.
Music
This switches the front-end incidental music on or off.

Miscellaneous Preferences
Review Stills
The digitised pictures of aircraft and vehicles available in Review mode (see
below) are high-quality images, but they do take up a lot of disc space. If you have
installed a working copy of Tornado on a hard disc and you want to reclaim the
disc-space used by these images you can click on the Delete button here to
remove them from the installed copy. When you have deleted these images, you
can only get them back by re-installing the program.
Panel Lighting
This switch allows you to select red or green cockpit lighting for flying at night.
Curve Segments
On the Mission Planner map, curves
are drawn in flightplans wherever
you change course.
Contour Interval
Contours are shown on the Mission
Planner map to give you an idea of
the height and shape of hills.
Windows
On the Mission Planner map,
transparent windows let you see
through the window to the map, but
solid windows are drawn faster.

EXPLORE
When you select the Explore option the screen changes to show you a full-screen
window onto a map of the current Flying Area. When in Simulator or Training
modes, this will always be the Training Area, but when you select Combat, the
Mission Selection Screen provides the facility to choose any one of three different
War Zones. If you move the mouse pointer against any screen edge, the screen
window will be dragged across the map in the corresponding direction. Click on
the LEFT mouse button to zoom in, click RIGHT to zoom out. Note that when you
do this the point under the mouse pointer will be moved to the centre of the screen.
Click on some recognisable feature (a city or an airfield, say), and then hit the
z or the e key. You will find that your view is now that of a disembodied
eye floating sixteen feet above ground level at the spot you clicked upon. Using
the keyboard, the mouse or joystick(s) you can now move at will in three
dimensions at high speed, or hover on the spot.
At any time you can flip back to the map screen, click on another point as far away
as you like, and then return to the three-dimensional world at that spot. To leave
Explore mode, hold down the c key and hit Q.

REVIEW
The Review feature allows
you to see digitised
photographs of the aircraft
and military vehicles you
will encounter, and
compare them with the 3D
models representing them
in Tornado. To leave
Review mode hold down
the c key and hit Q, or
click on the Eject button.

LOGS

diagram 1

Any time youre flying a Tornado, you are doing so under one of these 20 possible
identities, with a name, a nominal RAF rank and a record of flying hours and
experience. Most of these identities you create for yourself by choosing a name
and typing it in, but one is special - the default log. This log is supplied with the

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software, and is automatically selected every time you start Tornado. The log is
in the name of Group Captain deFault and you can use it just like any other log,
but it has several interesting features.
One of Group Captain deFaults good points is his rank - equal to the highest
available in Tornado. Using this log identity you are automatically qualified to play
the Command wargame, which is only open to pilots who have earned the
notional rank of Wing Commander or above. The other good thing about Group
Captain deFault is that he is indestructible.

Using the Log Screen


The left-hand half of the screen is dedicated to displaying the Roster, a list of all
existing pilots, by rank, name and status. A pilots status may be Active, Missing,
POW (Prisoner of War), KIT (Killed in Training), KIA (Killed in Action) or
Dismissed. Only pilots with Active status can fly. Initially there is only Group
Captain deFaults name on the list. As you create identities for yourself, the list
will expand downwards to its maximum of 20 names, in descending order of rank
and experience.

Creating, Deleting and Renaming Logs


Clicking on the Create button brings up the Record window with a blank name and
record. You can now type in the name you want, using B to correct
mistakes. When you are finished, click on the OK button at the bottom of the
Record window, and your new pilot will be added to the roster. All new logs are
created with the rank of Flying Officer.

Leaving the Log Screen


When you have selected the Log you want to use, click on the Exit button in the
lower right corner to leave this Screen.

Cheating
At the end of every flight you will get a Debrief, and unless you are using the
deFault log you will be offered a choice between logging the mission or wiping it
off the record. IF you choose to log it, the hours flown and any other achievements
will be added to your record - and if you did not make it, the status of the log will
change to Missing, POW, KIT, KIA or Dismissed. There is no way back once
the mission result is logged, so do not do this unless you are prepared to suffer
the consequences. You cannot get killed or captured in the Simulator, or in a TwoPlayer engagement.

THE QUICKSTART USERS GUIDE


The most important difference between a Tornado and most other aircraft is that
the Tornado has variable-sweep wings. You sweep these forward to manoeuvre
better at low speeds, and back to accelerate to high speeds. If you try to go too
fast for your wingsweep setting, the aircraft will start to shake and rumble, if you
persist a warning will sound - go on too long and the aircraft will shake itself to
pieces.
There are three stages of wingsweep, and each time you hit the S key, the wings
will sweep back one stage. To turn off the warning if it sounds, hit the Master
Warning Reset key (* or ' key). This will turn off the flashing lights provided that
you have fixed the problem, though the wing sweep system will jam in one
position if you neglect the buffeting for too long. If you are flying slowly, and the
aircraft will not turn fast enough - or stops flying and drops its nose, sweep the
wings forward by hitting the W key - once for each stage.
If you are on an air-to-ground mission, just hit the Arm air-to-ground key (e
key). This will arm your bombs and give you a bombsight on the Head-Up Display
(HUD). Your bombload is set to drop in Manual mode, which means that when
you hit the Commit key (z or joystick button), the bombs will be released
immediately, and they should fall where the short horizontal line (the CCIP)
crosses the longer vertical one with a gap near the top (the Bomb Fall Line). If the
top of the Bomb Fall Line is below the CCIP, it means that youre too low - the
aircraft will probably be damaged or destroyed when the bombs go off.
When you use the Air-to-air option, the first thing you must do is turn on the radar
in Air mode (a + R), which will bring up a plan display of the radar image on the
central Multi-Function Display (MFD). Enemy aircraft in front of you will be shown
as small square symbols. You must also hit Arm air-to-air (a+e). Now you
can select which air-to-air weapon you want (; key). In the Tornado ADV you
have three air-to-air weapons to choose from; cannon for close range (GUNS),
heat-seeking short-range Sidewinder missiles (AIM9), and medium-range (up to
20 miles) radar-guided Active Sky Flash missiles (SKYF). The final thing you
have to do is lock on to your target. There is a Designate key (l), which
will select the target closest to dead-ahead. The symbol on the radar will now
flash, and a target designator and other sighting symbols will be shown on the
HUD. Be aware that the radar can see further than the seeker head on the
Sidewinder missiles - you will not be allowed to fire until the missile can see the
target and you can hear the lock-on tone.

FLIGHT OPTIONS
In the centre of the Main Screen is the large triangular Flight icon. Click on this
with the mouse pointer, and it divides to offer three choices: Simulator, Training,
and Combat.

SIMULATOR
Crashes dont matter in the simulator - just restart
the exercise and repeat it until you dont crash. If
you are using a log you have created yourself,
flight time in the simulator will be recorded, though
it will be logged as Simulator Hours rather than
Flying Hours. Simulator exercises always take
place over the Training Area.

Main Screen

TRAINING

Simulator, Training or Combat

After clicking on the Combat icon, you are presented with a new screen showing
four icons giving you a choice of four different types of play:
Two-Player lets you connect your computer to a friends and fight a human
opponent one-to-one. The connection may be made directly or by modem. Any
rank of pilot may use this facility. See the Technical Supplement for further details
(page 65).
Mission lets you choose from a selection of
completely pre-planned missions. Each mission
is a complete game in itself, and the outcome of
any one mission has no effect on any other. This
option is available to any rank. If any pilot
successfully completes all the missions, (s)he
will be promoted to Flight Lieutenant, unless the
current rank is already greater. Two Missions are
different from all the others in that they are not

Campaign lets you choose from a selection of scenarios. Each one requires you
to fly a sequence of missions to achieve a final objective. The individual missions
are not pre-planned in detail for you, but the objective for each is specified. The
situation at the start of each mission reflects the success (or otherwise) of the
previous one. The Campaign state may be saved at the end of each mission, to
be continued later. This option is available to any rank. Campaigns are graded
into two levels. In a Level One Campaign, you will be responsible for creating
flightplans for just one aircraft - your own. In a Level Two Campaign, however,
you must plan missions for a whole formation. Successful completion of a Level
One Campaign will earn the pilot a promotion to Squadron Leader, whatever the
current rank, but successful completion of a Level Two Campaign yields a
promotion to Wing Commander.
Command gives you total command authority to conduct your own air war. You
must decide your own objectives as well as plan the missions and fly a proportion
of them. The war continues until you win, lose or reach a stalemate, but the status
can be saved and reloaded so you dont have to fight your war in one continuous
session.

This offers live flight training. No-one will be


shooting at you, but you can still kill yourself. Live
training always takes place on the Training area
map.

COMBAT

pre-planned. These are the missions titled Free Fire (IDS), and Free Fire (ADV)
where no targets are assigned and you are free to attack whatever you like.
These missions are intended to serve as an introduction to the job of planning
missions for yourself.

Combat Selection Screen

n.b. Only qualified pilots (with the rank of Wing Commander or above) can
assume Command. Group Captain deFault is already qualified, but any new pilot
only qualifies when (s)he logs at least one successful Level Two Campaign. A
successful Command earns a promotion to Group Captain.

THE MISSION SELECTION SCREEN


THE SITUATION MENU
Offers you a list of situations or scenarios, from which you must select one. Each
item on the list is a one-line description or title. To take a closer look at a possible
choice, click on the line youre interested in. A new window - the Briefing window
- will appear on the screen giving a fuller description, which may (depending on
the situation) include such things as the Tasking Order specifying the target(s),
times and the number of aircraft, a summary of a complete Flightplan, the
description of the military situation at the start of a Campaign or Command game,
or a situation summary for a saved game.
Two buttons will always appear at the bottom of this window; one marked
Commit and the other marked Cancel. If you
want this situation or mission, click on Commit
to advance to the Mission Planner, or straight
into the cockpit in the case of some Simulator
exercises. You can still reverse your choice if
necessary, by using the the Options../Exit device
in the Mission Planner, or c Q in the cockpit.
If you want to go back to the list and look at other
possibilities, click on Cancel, and the Briefing
Mission Selection Screen
window will close.

Situation Menu for Simulator


A wide variety of training exercises are available here, some will pass you on to
the Mission Planner, and some will put you straight into the cockpit in flight.

Situation Menu for Training


These are a selection of training exercises to be flown live.

Situation Menu for Missions


Every mission here is pre-planned for you - except the missions titled Free Fire.
The range covers almost everything you can do with IDS and ADV Tornados.

Situation Menu for Campaigns


The selection list for Campaigns is divided into sections. The upper of these
sections is a list of scenarios, alternative starting situations for a Campaign
mission sequence. Each scenario is tagged as Level 1 or Level 2, according to
whether you will be expected to plan missions for 1) just your own aircraft, or 2)
your whole flight.

The lower section of the list is available for saving and loading uncompleted
Campaigns. If you exit from the Mission Planner in the middle of a Campaign, you
will be asked whether or not you wish to save the game in order to return to it later.
Saved games in the list are identified by scenario, Pilot Log name, and elapsed
time within the campaign. You can save one Level 1 and one Level 2 Campaign
per War Zone at any one time, a total of six. To reload a saved Campaign, just
click on the appropriate slot in the list. The Briefing Window will provide a situation
summary with the usual Commit and Cancel buttons.

Situation Menu for Command


This works very much like the Campaign menu described above, providing a list
of alternative starting scenarios and one saved game slot per War Zone.

OTHER OPTIONS AVAILABLE


Choice of War Zone (Combat Modes)
When you enter the Mission Selection Screen in Combat modes, a map image
of the currently selected War Zone is shown on the right-hand side of the screen.
To the left of the title showing War Zone 1 (or 2 or 3), is a small button showing
a circle / arrow symbol. This is a Cycle button, and clicking on it will select each
War Zone in turn.

Simulator Options
This bank of switches controls features which can be provided in the simulator
but are impossible in the real world. Click on the Cycle buttons to set up the
options you want.
Feature
Options
Weapons
Limited / Infinite
Fuel
Limited / Infinite
G-LOC
Possible / Impossible
Aircraft Weight
Actual / Minimum
Aircraft Collisions
Crash / Bounce
Enemy
Active / Inactive
Time
Set any start time on 24-Hour clock

THE MISSION PLANNER


SECTION 1 - USING THE MISSION
PLANNER - BASICS
Select and Commit on any one of the Simulator or Training Missions with the
prefix IDS - OCU so that you can reach this screen. Youll see a map in front
of you, and a number of buttons down the right-hand side. We will refer to these
in future as Map Screen Buttons.
Many of these buttons call up sub-windows on the screen, and several of these
may be present at the same time. Every sub-window has a Title bar with a Close
Box allowing the window to be dismissed or dragged. Windows may overlap one
another, but right-clicking on any visible portion
of a window will put it in front of any overlapping
windows. You can close them all at once with the
Tidy button.
Key
Calls up the map Key, see below.
Targets
Used at Campaign level and above.

Mission Planning

Point Data
This gives details about the point on the map under the mouse pointer, including
the grid coordinates, the ground height above sea level, the nearest structure (if
any), the estimated floor of radar coverage at that point and the current
ownership (Allied or Enemy).
Briefing
For Simulator Missions, or single Combat Missions, the button reads Briefing,
and calls up a window with an outline description of the mission, identical to the
description you were offered when selecting the mission. At Campaign level it
will read Task, and at Command level it will read Command, and will function
differently.
Flightplan
This button is used to bring up the Flightplan Window, which allows you to
review, modify, or create flightplans for your own (and potentially other) aircraft.

Payload
This button calls up the Payload Window, which is used to verify fuel and
weapons load, and to load weapons for self-defence or attacks on targets-ofopportunity. See below.
Met. Report
This button calls up a weather (Met. for Meteorological) report giving wind
direction and strength plus visibility and cloud heights. In the Simulator, some of
these factors can be changed.
Centre
This button zooms the map right out and centres it on the screen, so that you can
instantly call up the big picture from wherever you are.
Fit
Clicking on this button will automatically set the zoom level and scroll the map
so that the whole of the current flightplan is visible on the screen at once.
Tidy
If you feel that the map is in danger of disappearing behind a solid sheet of
overlapping windows, clicking on the Tidy button will close all open subwindows at once, except the Problems Window, which can only be dismissed
by fixing the problems its bringing to your attention.
Take-off
When youve studied the briefing, the flightplan, the payload and the Met. report,
click on this button. Provided that there are no major flaws in the flightplan, you
will find yourself in the cockpit on the runway, after a pause to download the
flightplan to your aircrafts navigation systems.

The Key Button


Click on this button and a frame of panels/buttons will appear down the left side
and across the bottom of the screen showing the map symbols and their
meaning. Like any other sub-window on this
screen, it can be turned off by clicking on the
Close button in the top left corner.
The Key display is not just a passive display to
help you identify map symbols. Each of its
panels showing a symbol and its identification is
also a button which controls whether or not that
symbol will be drawn on the map. Using this
feature, you can avoid cluttering the display with

Key Buttons

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symbols you dont need or want to see. To turn any symbol on or off, just click
on the appropriate panel of the Key window. This can also be used to speed up
the redrawing of the screen if your machine is running more slowly than you like
- just turn off everything you think you can do without.

Flightplan (Other)
When more than one flightplan is shown on the map, the
ones which you are not currently reviewing or editing will be
shown in a different colour.

Contours
Contour lines are shown for hills at variable intervals above
(flat) ground level. Because drawing contours is a
demanding task which can reduce a slow computer to a
crawl, the vertical distance between contour lines can be
set from the Preferences screen (available through
Options...).

Category Flag
This symbol is used by the Target Finder facility to highlight
all potential targets in a particular category, e.g. road
bridges, control towers, stores dumps etc.

Rivers and Lakes


Self-explanatory.
Roads
Self-explanatory.
Railways
Self-explanatory.
Power Lines
Self-explanatory.
Structures
Symbol for buildings, bridges or embankments.
Airfields
The runway layouts of the airfields themselves are always
shown on the map, with the active runways distinguished
by colour. This button acts only to turn the airfield name
label on or off.
ILS Coverage
If your aircraft is within the ILS symbol and pointing in the
general direction of the runway, your ILS (Instrument
Landing System) will be active, and you may use it either
to make an automatic approach or to guide a manual
approach.
Flightplan (Current)
When a preset mission is loaded, your flightplan will be
shown.

Priority Flag
This symbol is used by the Command Target Priority
facility to highlight positions which are important targets for
one reason or another. This feature is only used at Command
level.
The other buttons along the bottom edge of the strip, are split buttons. Each is
divided into three areas. These comprise the allied and enemy versions of the
same symbol and the area below containing the legend text. Enemy symbols will
normally appear in orange and allied in blue (check with the Technical Supplement
for your machine if they dont). Clicking on the symbol areas has just the effect
you would expect - display of the allied or enemy symbols is turned on or off
individually. Clicking below in the text area, however, INVERTS the selection
state of both allied and enemy symbols at once - it gives you the exact opposite
of what you have at the moment.
AA Threat
Areas known to be covered by AAA or SAMs are shown
like this. The area shown illustrates the maximum effective
range of the system deployed, and does not take account
of terrain masking or range variation with altitude.
EWR Coverage
Shows areas within theoretical range of Early Warning
Radar stations. Does not take account of terrain masking
- but you can get this information from the Flightplan Profile
Window (see below), or from the Point Data Window.
CAP Area
Indicates a fighter CAP (Combat Air Patrol) area. Enemy
positions are estimated, allied positions should be exact.

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AWACS Track
Shows the exact (allied) or estimated (enemy) racetrack
which an AWACS aircraft flies when on station.

Initial Points
Initial Points are the Turning Points from which you start the attack run on a
ground target.

Ground Forces
Standard military symbology for an armoured unit, this is
placed at known locations of major ground force formations
on the battlefield, in close reserve, or en route to the battle
area.

Targets
Targets are labelled with the letters X, Y and theoretically Z, for the first, second
and (most unlikely) third planned targets of a mission.
CAP Start
This is used to set up a Combat Air Patrol station for ADV missions. The relative
positions of this point and the next waypoint (the CAP End point) define an oval
racetrack for your aircraft to patrol while waiting to intercept incoming enemy
aircraft.

Moving and Zooming the Map


Moving around the map and zooming in or out are done with the mouse,
using the RIGHT button. To move a point on the map to the centre of the
screen, just point and click (right) on it. To zoom in or out, click (right)
and hold down. A small strip of boxes corresponding to the zoom-levels
available will appear under the mouse-pointer, with the pointer on the
current zoom level. Keep holding the mouse button down! You may go
straight to any other zoom level you like by simply moving the mouse
pointer over the appropriate box in the strip and releasing the (right)
mouse button.

CAP End
See CAP Start, above. ADV flightplans only.

Zoom
Control

All about Waypoints


The flightplan for the mission you loaded has already been created for you, and
should be visible on the map when zoomed out. A flightplan is composed of
Waypoints and Legs. Waypoints are fixed points, represented by the symbols
between the line sections, and a Leg is simply the path between one Waypoint
and the next. Legs usually start with a curve and terminate at the next Waypoint
as straight lines. Waypoints
come in several flavours:
Take-off Point
The Take-off Point, which is
always Waypoint A, is obviously
at the airfield from which you
take off.

Approach Point
The Approach Point should be placed at the end of one ILS beam of the airfield
at which you intend to land - you can make the ILS beam coverage visible on the
map using the Key.
Position
Coordinates are displayed in the title bar of a waypoint window.
Head/Tail Wind
Only Take-off and Approach Points have this attribute.
Cross-wind
Only for Take-off and Approach Points. This is the strength in knots of the
component of the wind which is blowing across the runway as you take off or land.
Time
All waypoints show a Time and Time Status. For a Take-off point, this is the takeoff time. For all other waypoints it is the time at which you expect, or plan, to pass
or attack this point. The Status will show Free, Fixed or Bound.

Turning Points
Turning Points are simply
places where you change
course - these are by far the
most common type.
diagram 2

Altitude
Every Waypoint type except Take-off Points will also have an altitude/ride height,
and an AFDS Altitude Authority attribute. If the Altitude Authority is set at Altitude
Hold, the AFDS system will fly the leg to this waypoint at the given BAROMETRIC
altitude, i.e. height above sea level. If the Altitude Authority setting is Ride Height,
the AFDS system will fly the leg Terrain Following at the Ride Height given, i.e.
clearance above the ground beneath the aircraft.

12
Speed
All waypoint types except Take-off show a Speed and Speed Status. This is the
average speed at which it is necessary to fly the leg approaching this waypoint
in order to arrive at the Time shown.
Target
Target waypoints only. Shown on the waypoint window Title bar next to the map
coordinates. Describes the target, e.g. road bridge, HAS, runway etc.
Package data: Weapon
Delivery
Salvo
Minimum recommended delivery height.
Target waypoints only. These parameters specify the Package of weapons to be
used in attacking this target, and how the Package is to be delivered.

Reading the Flightplan and Waypoint Data


Clicking on the Map Screen button marked Flightplan brings up the Flightplan
Window. The top strip (the Tool Strip) contains buttons to call up sub-windows
showing individual waypoint data, a Summary or a Profile (side view) of the
flightplan, or to split and reformate waypoints when planning for multi-aircraft
missions. The middle strip (the Waypoint Strip) shows a button corresponding to
the label (A, B,.. X,.. F, G etc.) of each waypoint in the flightplan, allowing you to
select one at a time, and at the lower left end buttons appear for inserting and
deleting waypoints when appropriate. The lowest strip, the Aircraft Strip, shows
the mission number in the daily sequence, plus individual buttons for all the
aircraft in the formation. Like the waypoints, the aircraft are distinguished by
letters A, B, C, etc. The Formation Leader (you) is always aircraft A, which will
be the only letter shown if this is a mission for a single aircraft.
While this window is on-screen, clicking on the map with the LEFT mouse button
has the effect of placing a new waypoint at the mouse position, so be careful. If
you do accidentally create a new waypoint, just click ONCE on the Delete button
in the bottom row of the Flightplan window before you do anything else.
Select a zoom level of 2x
or 3x and if its not already
highlighted, click once on
the Waypoint Strip button
labelled A. This will select
waypoint A, highlight the
button, and if the waypoint
is off-screen the map will

Flightplan Window

automatically be re-centred and re-drawn to show it. You can also select any
waypoint and highlight its Waypoint Strip button by left clicking inside the
waypoint symbol on the map.
Now click once on the Waypoint button in the Tool Strip. An additional window,
the Waypoint Window, will appear, giving detailed data for the selected waypoint,
showing all the attributes appropriate for its type. You can also call up this window
by double-clicking (clicking twice in quick succession) on the Waypoint Strip
button or the map symbol. Since this is a Take-off Point, the Time given will be
your planned take-off time. If you select Waypoint B, then C and so on, the
Waypoint window will remain on screen, displaying data for each of the waypoints
in turn. You can dismiss or drag the Flightplan window or the Waypoint window
using the close box and the title bar, but remember that you cant create or drag
waypoints unless the Flightplan Window is open.
Flightplan Summary Window
If you click on the Summary button in the Flightplan window, you will be
presented with a sub-window which summarises the whole flightplan in terms of
times and actions.
Flightplan Profile Window
Clicking on the Profile button in the Flightplan Window brings up the Profile
Window - a wide shallow window showing all or part of your flightplan straightened
out and viewed from the side, with the profile of the terrain beneath it. Areas where
the flightplan takes you underground will be shown as solid rectangles in a
contrasting colour! Above
the profile is a shallow
horizontal bar which
changes colour to show
whether you are flying over
Allied or Enemy territory
Profile Window
at each point in the Profile.
Along the lower edge of the window is a row of buttons like the Waypoint Strip in
the Flightplan window, one for every waypoint in the current flightplan. The
buttons for the waypoints define the section of your flightplan which will be shown
in profile - the ones shown highlighted are currently visible in the Profile Window.
A single mouse click on a button will extend or retract the left or right end of the
highlighted strip (whichever is closer) to the selected button and waypoint.
Double-clicking on a waypoint button will bring up a profile covering three
waypoints only; the one you clicked on, and those on either side of it.
When you first call up this window or when you use the waypoint buttons to
change the section of Profile in view, the lines representing your flightpath, the

13
terrain below and the ownership of that terrain will be drawn quite rapidly. Once
these are complete, the flightplan section will be checked against known AA
Threats, and vertical hatching will be shown wherever it intersects a threat circle.
After this is done, another (usually broken) line will appear on the Profile display,
drawn more slowly from left to right.This shows, for every point along the Profile
section, the altitude above which you will probably be visible to known enemy
ground radars - so obviously your flightplan should keep you below it wherever
possible. The reason why the line appears slowly is quite simple - the line-of-sight
calculations needed to show this data take a LOT of processing power, but they
are performed as a background task and will not prevent you from moving about
the map, zooming in or out, dragging windows or performing any other function,
though if you change the flightplan by placing, dragging or deleting waypoints the
profile will need to redraw from scratch.

Wind
Shows bearing in degrees (the direction the wind is blowing FROM).
Visibility
Four visibility conditions are possible; Light Cloud Only, Overcast, Fog and Thick
Fog. Overcast is a thick continuous layer of cloud.
Effects of Weather on the Mission
Wind
This will mainly affect the length of your take-off and landing run, and the difficulty
of your approach.
Cloud
Obviously you cant see through thick cloud, but neither can an infra-red sensor
or most lasers. This may degrade or utterly destroy the performance of heatseeking missiles, but it will also defeat your TIALD (Thermal Imaging and Laser
Designator) cameras.

The Payload Window


The Payload window can be called up at any time by clicking on the Map Screen
Button marked Payload.

diagram 3

Mission Rehearsal using Explore Mode


If you wish to explore a particular area, just right-click on that point to centre it on
the Mission Planner map before entering Explore Mode.

Met. Report
Before taking off, click on the Map Screen Button marked Met. Report. This will
open a window to give you a meteorological report, telling you about wind
strength/direction and visibility conditions.

The buttons for weapon packages loaded for planned attacks will show X, Y or
Z. The contents of these packages cannot be changed except by changing the
mission plan. If a package is empty or loaded for targets-of-opportunity, the
button will show a dash (-). The Other button displays external stores which
are not part of any weapon
Package, like drop tanks,
AIM9Ls and defensive
pods, and allows you to
load or unload them.
ADV aircraft do not carry
ground attack weapons,
but can carry Sky Flash,
which the IDS cannot, so
the Payload screen for an
ADV mission will show far
fewer options, and there
is no need to distinguish
between packages.
Payload Window

14
Stores (weapons or other external loads) are listed down the left-hand side of the
Payload window, with a line running horizontally to the right from each beneath
the aircraft diagram.

The Clear Package button will only be active if the currently selected package
is NOT X, Y or Z. Clicking on this button will unload all stores in the currently
selected package, except for external tanks if these are essential for the planned
mission.

Store/Hardpoint Symbology
Symbol

Meaning

Store symbol

A store in the current package (selected by clicking on a


Package button) is fitted at this point.

Greyed symbol A store in a different package (not the currently selected


one) is fitted at this point.
Raised button

This point is available for this store within the current


package

Flush button

This point is available for this store, but not within the current
package. This is either because the type of store is inappropriate
(e.g. drop tank in a ground attack package) or because it would
violate the rule that each ground attack package must contain
only one type of store.

Sunken button It would be possible to fit this store to this point, but only if you
unload something else.
If a target-of-opportunity package (or the Other package) is selected, stores
may be loaded or unloaded by placing the mouse pointer on a Raised Button or
a Store symbol and clicking with the left button. None of the other symbols will
respond if you click on them.
Two other buttons appear at
the upper right of this window,
under the Package selection
buttons. These are marked
Standard and Clear Package.
Clicking on the Standard button
will set up a load that consists of
weapon packages for planned
targets, plus drop tanks as
appropriate, the defensive pods
and 2 AIM9L. All other stores
will be removed.

diagram 4

Weight and Fuel


At the upper left corner of the screen figures are shown for All-up Weight (aircraft
plus all fuel and stores), Stores Weight (excluding fuel in drop tanks), Fuel Weight
(including fuel in drop tanks), and Weight Margin, which is the difference between
All-up Weight and Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW). These weight figures are
passive displays except for Fuel Weight, which can be used to load or unload fuel.
Whenever a mission flightplan is loaded, created or changed, a minimum fuel
requirement is automatically calculated for the distances and speeds specified,
plus a fixed margin of 1500 kg. (3300 lbs.). This calculated minimum fuel weight
will be shown as already loaded when you first open the Payload Window. If more
fuel is required for the mission than the internal tanks
can hold, then external tanks will be shown as fitted.
If the external tanks are fitted then they will always be
full, and internal fuel will always be topped up to
maximum as well.
Fuel Weight Display
When external tanks are NOT fitted, you can change your internal fuel loading by
means of the Fuel Weight display. Click on the digit of the Fuel Weight figure
which you wish to change. If you reduce the fuel load to below the calculated
minimum requirement, a small window called the Problems Window will
automatically appear on the screen.
What to load?
The Standard option, will always load certain items if there are hardpoints to take
them. For the IDS these are the defensive pods (chaff and flare dispenser on the
starboard outer wing pylon, ECM pod on the port outer), and a pair of AIM9L for
self-defence, one on each inner wing pylon. Other stores may be loaded in these
places, but think hard before you leave the defensive pods at home. If you do, you
will have NO chaff or flares or ECM! This does not apply to the Tornado ADV,
because all these items are internal on that aircraft.
If there are free Packages, free stores points and a sufficient weight margin, you
may if you wish load extra ground attack weapons for unplanned targets - Targets
of Opportunity. Just click on a Package button showing -, and add the weapons
you want. All weapons in one Package must be of the same type. The delivery
mode for such a package will automatically be set to Manual delivery, or its
nearest equivalent for the weapon concerned, but it can be changed in the air
using the Stores Management Display.

15

Starting the Mission


When you are satisfied that you have absorbed all the necessary information, and
that the aircraft is suitably loaded for the mission, you can click on the Map Screen
Button labelled Take-off.

SECTION 2 - PLANNING YOUR OWN


MISSIONS
2a - FREE FIRE and LEVEL 1 CAMPAIGNS
When you arrive at the Mission Planner for a Free Fire mission there will be no
preset mission plan at all, and its up to you to select a target, a patrol station or
other objective and create a flightplan.
The Campaign option is the next step up, providing a connected series of
missions set in a military situation which evolves over time. If you choose
Campaign on the Combat screen, and one of the Level 1 Campaign scenarios
you will see a bare outline of a mission which simply specifies an objective, rather
than a complete flightplan. This outline is your Task for the next mission, and you
must do all the detailed planning, then fly it. When (and if) you return from that
mission your commander will present you with a new Task to plan and fly. The
Campaign will last for as many missions as it takes to accomplish the Campaign
objectives, or to lose the war, or until a stalemate is reached. When you need a
break, you can exit from the Mission Planner to the Mission Selection Screen and
save the current situation to reload and continue later.
Turning a Task into a Flightplan
When you select a Campaign scenario on the Mission Selection Screen, instead
of the Briefing you would expect for a single mission you will see a summary
describing the military situation at the time the Campaign starts. When you
Commit and move to the Mission Planner, two differences should be seen: a)
there is a flightplan laid out, but its just a skeleton, and b) the Map Screen Button
which used to say Briefing is now titled Task. Click on the Task button to see
the Air Tasking Message - these are your orders.
Problems, Warnings and Errors
When you first see the skeleton flightplan of a new Task on the Mission Planner
map, youll often notice a small window without a close box, titled Problems. This
appears because the Task outline as it stands is not a viable flightplan, and the
planning support systems are automatically alerting you to the fact.
The planning systems apply a set of rules to any flightplan to detect unreasonable
situations such as unflyable course changes, impossible or improbable timings

and speeds, or Initial Points too close to the target. When a flightplan bends or
breaks these rules, the Problems window will automatically appear with a list of
messages. These messages will start with either 'ERROR' for a problem which
must be fixed before you take off, or 'WARNING' when the problem is not so
serious as to completely invalidate the flightplan.
Setting and Moving Waypoints
If you are planning a Free Fire mission there will be only one waypoint on the map
when you enter the Mission Planner - the Take-off Point, where you and your
aircraft are based. You will have to lay down all the other waypoints for the mission
yourself. If you are starting a Campaign, an IDS Task outline will usually preset
Target Waypoint(s), and an ADV Task will usually preset a CAP point, depending
on the nature of the mission, plus an Approach Point. You will generally create
your flightplan by inserting extra waypoints between the ones you are given, and
then dragging them into position.
In order to start placing or moving waypoints you must first click on the Map
Screen Button labelled Flightplan, thus opening the Flightplan window. Remember
that a flightplan may have up to 15 waypoints, but no more. When the limit is
reached, the system will refuse to create any more.
Placing Waypoints
Clicking anywhere on the map with the LEFT mouse button will place a new
waypoint at that point, adding it to the end of your current flightplan. The new
waypoint will be a Turning Point by default unless it is placed in the ILS coverage
of an allied airfield, in which case it will be created as an Approach Point.
Dragging Waypoints
Place the mouse pointer crosshair on the symbol of the waypoint you wish to
move and hold down the LEFT
mouse button. While you hold
the button down you may drag
the waypoint about the map
by moving the mouse. Rubber
Lines will be drawn to show
the new legs to and from the
waypoint affected. When you
release the mouse button the
waypoint is dropped in its
new position, and the legs to
and from will be redrawn,
together with the curve of the
turn following the waypoint.
diagram 5

16
Selecting Waypoints
A waypoint must be selected before certain operations can be performed upon
it. Waypoints may be selected either by clicking on the appropriate letter in the
Flightplan Window, or by clicking inside the appropriate waypoint symbol on the
map.
Deleting Waypoints
The Delete button is not shown in the Waypoint Strip of the Flightplan Window
unless its permissible to delete the selected waypoint. Waypoint A can never be
deleted. When working with a flightplan for multiple aircraft, only formation
waypoints may be deleted.
Inserting Waypoints
The Insert button is not shown in the Waypoint Strip of the Flightplan Window
unless its possible to insert a new waypoint BEFORE the currently selected one.
New waypoints are inserted halfway between existing ones, and must be
dragged to their desired positions. Waypoints cannot be inserted if all 15 available
waypoints are already used. When working with a flightplan for multiple aircraft,
insertions can only be made in legs common to all aircraft in the formation.
Turning Circles
The radius of the curve is governed by the Speed set for the adjacent waypoint
and the control authority of the AFDS system: the faster the speed, the wider the
turn.
For this reason, if you wish to control the precise direction of more than one leg
in a flightplan (e.g. for a JP.233 attack run or an approach for landing) it is best
to lay out all the waypoints first, then precisely place the Target Waypoint(s),
select weapon(s) and delivery mode(s), set any fixed Speeds (and/or Times) and
only then to work through the flightplan in order from start to finish dragging
waypoints to set direction, so
that changes rippling forward
affect only the legs which you
have not yet adjusted.
Two kinds of problem can arise
when you place two waypoints
too close together. The first of
these problems can affect any
pair of waypoints, and happens
when the second waypoint is
INSIDE the diameter of the
turning circle curve from the
first. Diagram 6 shows that this

diagram 6

means it is quite impossible for the aircraft ever to reach the second waypoint by
turning towards it - instead it will circle until you use the Next Waypoint key to skip
the offending waypoint.
The second type of problem
affects only Initial Points and
Targets. The planning system
calculates how far back from
the target the weapon will be
released, and demands that you
must have time to line up on a
straight attack run before you
reach the release point (or the
pull-up point for a Loft attack).
diagram 7

Creating and Placing a Target Waypoint (IDS only)


Assuming that you know what type of target you want to hit and roughly where
it is, centre the map on the approximate position and place a standard Turning
Point waypoint there.
Click on the Map Screen Button labelled Targets, which calls up a window
showing two lists. Click on an item in the left list to select a category of target
(Military, Transport etc.). The right list will change to display a list of individual
types of target in the selected category (e.g. Hangar, Hardened Munitions Store
etc.). Click on the type which describes your target. Every target of that type on
the map will now be marked by the Category Flag symbol, helping you pick out
your intended target from other buildings in the same area. Category Flag
symbols will be shown on the map while the Target Finder window is open,
regardless of whether or not
Category Flags are turned on in
the Key. When you close the
Target Finder window, the
Category Flag symbols will
disappear unless they are
enabled by the Key.
Drag your intended Target
waypoint (still a Turning Point
at this stage) to the target and
drop it there. Now call up the
Waypoint Window. At the left
end of the line displaying the
waypoint Type is a button
showing a small circular symbol.

Target Finder Window

17
Click once on the Type Cycle button. The waypoint Type changes from Turning
Point to Target, the label changes to X, Y or Z, the Waypoint Window expands
and acquires the extra displays necessary to define the weapon Package, and
the waypoint symbol on the map changes shape and snaps to the intended
target. Whenever you change a Turning Point into a Target waypoint, the
waypoint will snap to the exact position of the nearest object. If Category Flag
display is enabled, it will snap to the nearest flagged object. The 'snapping' feature
can be disabled by holding down the a key while dragging the Target Waypoint.
The Turning Point before the Target will automatically change to an Initial Point.
The planning systems will also select a default weapon Package based on the
type of Target, but if you like you may change this. To select a Weapon type just
click on the desired button in the Weapon display. If the weapon type has more
than one possible delivery mode you may choose from the available options by
clicking repeatedly on the Cycle button at the left of the Delivery display. At the
right of the Delivery display is the Safety Height Button; clicking on this sets the
waypoint Altitude to the minimum safe height. Below this is the Salvo Size display,
showing how many weapons there are in the Package. The Cycle button beside
it can be used to select a size of 1, 2 or 4 weapons, depending on the type. The
button to the right shows the recommended salvo size for the recommended
weapon, and clicking on this will set that figure.
Setting up a CAP Station (ADV only)
The typical ADV Combat Air Patrol mission involves taking off, flying to a given
position and altitude, and then flying round and round in a racetrack pattern
waiting to intercept enemy aircraft. In order to set up a CAP mission, create a
skeleton flightplan (if its not provided) and place a Turning point roughly where
you want each end of your racetrack pattern to be. Space them fairly well apart
to start with. Now select the first of these two waypoints and call up the Waypoint
Window. Click on the Cycle button for the waypoint Type, and it will change to
CAP Start. This will automatically convert the next Turning Point into a CAP
End, and you should see the leg between the two change into a circuit with
rounded ends - your CAP pattern.
Altitude
For normal air-to-ground
operations the Altitude
Authority Mode shows
Ride Height and the value
set is 200 (feet), so that if
the aircraft is under AFDS
Track mode control it will
fly these legs terrainfollowing at 200 feet.

Clicking on the Cycle button at the left of the display changes the mode from Ride
Height to Altitude Hold or vice versa. If you have selected Ride Height and you
want to change the actual height value, click on the button showing the value
itself. If you select Altitude Hold as the Altitude Authority Mode, each digit of the
altitude figure will appear as a separate button. Clicking on any of these will call
up arrow buttons to change one digit at a time up or down. The planning system
will check your altitude on the Attack run against the Minimum Safe Height for
weapon release, and issue a WARNING if its set too low.
Times and Speeds
The system uses two default values for speed; 420 knots as a standard cruise,
and 550 knots as a standard speed for attack runs; and it will normally calculate
waypoint times using these values. If you wish, however, you may set any
feasible speed value you want for any leg, and if you do the Speed status will
change from Free to Fixed. Fixed status means that the planning systems will
juggle other times and speeds which have Free status as much as necessary
in order to ensure that you can fly your attack run at this speed and still maintain
your timetable.
Time and Speed status can be changed using the Cycle buttons at the left of their
respective display lines, but it would be more common to change the actual Time
or Speed value first, which will automatically change a Free status to Fixed.
Time and Speed Problems
A waypoints Time is the
planned time of arrival (and/or
departure) at that waypoint. The
Speed is the average speed
over the preceding leg of the
flightplan which will get you
there at that time. Speed at a
waypoint is also used to
calculate the radius of the turn
onto the next leg, so wait till
youre on the straight run to the
next waypoint before you accelerate or decelerate.

diagram 8

Lets assume that we have a target (X) ten nautical miles away from its Initial Point
(call it D). The Time at X is 12:00:00 Fixed, Speed is 600 Knots Fixed. If you were
to look at the Waypoint data for D, youd find the Time at D showing as 11:59:00
Bound, and you would be unable to change status or value directly, though the
Time would change if you dragged D to a different position.
Target Waypoint Window

18
The Speed of 600 knots for the leg D-X dictates exactly how long it should take
to fly the distance from D to X: at 600 knots youll cover the 10 nautical miles from
D to X in 1 minute. That means that you MUST pass D at 11:59:00 - no other
answer is possible unless you start allowing for variable speeds over the leg.
Thats why the Time status at D is Bound.
There is another variant of the same problem. If you Fix the Times of two adjacent
waypoints, the Speed for the leg between them (the one given for the second
waypoint) becomes Bound; it is dictated absolutely by the Times and the distance
between the waypoints.
The best way to avoid creating problems for yourself is to Fix Times and Speeds
only when necessary - and most of the time its not necessary. Under normal
circumstances the only Time in a mission which needs to be Fixed is the TimeOn-Target, and the only legs where Speed need be fixed are legs where you have
no choice but to cross defended zones.

SECTION 2B - LEVEL TWO CAMPAIGNS


At this level, you are responsible for creating flightplans for your whole formation
of Tornados and setting up coordinated attacks. A Task at this level will normally
prescribe an attack on a large enemy installation - an airfield, for example - assign
targets to each aircraft and specify a Time-on-Target. It will be your responsibility
to set up the individual attacks and their precise timing. Here is a list of basic
principles for achieving a successful coordinated attack:
1: Concentration in Time. If your entire attack is compressed into the space of a
few seconds with no advance warning you may be gone almost before the enemy
has started shooting.
2: Dispersion in space. If you send the aircraft in from many different directions
at the same time, you divide the enemys fire and reduce his chances of scoring
a hit.
3: Go for the defences first. And do it from as far away as possible.
4: Try to avoid blowing each other up. Dont set up the attacks so that one aircraft
flies through the debris hemisphere of anothers bombs. Assume that a 1000 lb.
bomb has a debris hemisphere of 1000-feet (305 m) radius, and that a separation
of 200 feet (61 m) is adequate for all other weapons. You can achieve separation
by varying approach direction, altitude or Time-On-Target (but only within a
couple of seconds either way - see next point).
5: Be on time.

Flightplans for Formations


At Campaign Level Two, when you enter the Mission Planner you will see a Task
outline, just as at Level One. For most of any Flightplan, all your aircraft will be
flying the same route in a widely spaced formation, and their individual waypoints,
legs and times are automatically
generated at an offset from the
formation leader. Approaching
the Target, the formation will
split as aircraft diverge to their
individual Initial Points to start
their separate Attack Runs on
different targets. Each aircraft
will then follow its own Egress
Run until the formation reforms
at a set rendezvous, with
timings and speeds set up so
that all aircraft arrive
simultaneously at their correct
positions. They then follow a
common
route
(with
automatically
staggered
Waypoints and Times) back to
diagram 9
the airfield for landing.
In a Formation Flightplan there will be one button in the Aircraft Strip of the
Flightplan Window for each aircraft in the formation. A is the Formation Leader
- you. Clicking on an aircraft letter selects that aircrafts flightplan for viewing and
editing.
All aircraft in a formation will have exactly the same number of waypoints and legs
in their flightplans. Some will be formation waypoints, where the Formation
Leaders waypoint automatically determines the position of the corresponding
waypoint for every other aircraft currently in the formation. Others are independent
waypoints, where each aircrafts position and all other waypoint attributes can be
set individually, within certain limits.

Limitations on Waypoint Editing


Insertion or deletion of waypoints can only be done when the waypoints or legs
affected are common to all the aircraft in the formation. This is why the skeleton
flightplan generated for a multi-aircraft mission includes a Turning Point between
Take-off and Target, and another between Target and Approach Point. If these
waypoints were not included youd find it much less convenient to insert new
waypoints in the flightplan - dont delete them.

19

Split and Formate


The rightmost button in the Tool Strip of the Flightplan Window will show two
alternative legends according to the nature of the currently selected waypoint Split or Formate. When the selected waypoint is a formation waypoint, it will
show Split, and clicking on the button will make this into an individual waypoint
for all aircraft in the formation. Youll be able to see the effect of this on the map,
since the individual waypoints will automatically spread out from the original
position. Each independent waypoint will be of the same Type (Turning Point or
Target) as the formation waypoint which was split to produce them. All other
waypoint attributes except position will also be inherited.
You can now use the buttons in the Aircraft Strip of the Flightplan window to select
the flightplan of any aircraft in the formation. Each aircrafts independent
waypoints may be dragged about or edited in any way you like, provided that its
physically possible for each aircraft to fly its independent track and rejoin the
formation on time at the next formation waypoint. If youre asking for the
improbable or the impossible, youll see a WARNING or ERROR in the Problems
window.
When the selected waypoint is an independent waypoint, the button will show
Formate. Lets say that your currently selected waypoint is D, an independent
waypoint, and youve selected aircraft Bs flightplan. Clicking on Formate will
turn D into a formation waypoint at the same position. The formation waypoint
attributes will be inherited from the original independent waypoint.
The skeleton flightplan automatically generated from the Tasking Message will
give every aircraft an identical Time-On-Target. If the targets are closely spaced,
this would result in your aircraft blowing one another up. As we suggested above,
you will need to adjust direction, altitude and time of attack to ensure that this
doesnt happen.

SECTION 3 - COMMAND LEVEL


At this level, you have complete command authority. At Campaign level you had
the job of turning a Task into a flightplan; at Command level you create the Task
as well. You will need to exercise all the skills you have already learnt in mission
planning and flying, but in addition you will need to make the all-important
decisions about what targets to strike, and how to divide your resources.
In order to select Command on the Flight Options page, the pilot whose log is
currently selected must be Command-qualified, holding the rank of Wing
Commander or Group Captain. As with the Campaign option, the Mission
Selection Screen for Command level presents a selection of starting scenarios,

and allows you to select any one of the three War Zones. In addition, you can save
one Command game per War Zone to reload and continue later.

The Mission Planner in Command Mode


When you commit to a Command scenario, you will see that the Mission Planning
Screen looks exactly as before except that the Map Screen Button which used
to read Briefing or Task is now titled Command. Also, if you click on the
Flightplan button straight away, the Flightplan window will not appear. This is
because you havent yet created any Tasks, which can only be done by calling
up the Command Window.

The Command Window


This window allows you to review intelligence data to help in selecting your
objectives, and then issue the orders to accomplish them. It contains a strip of
buttons at the top, and its lower portion (the Priority Target Finder) closely
resembles the Target Finder called up by the Targets button.
Situation
This calls up the Situation Report window, which provides a summary of the
overall military situation.
Air Power
This button calls up the Air Power window, which summarises the location, nature
and strength of air force units on both sides.
Relocate
Click on this button to call up the Relocation window, which shows buttons
corresponding to all serviceable Allied airfields.
Your current base airfield will be highlighted - to shift your Tornados to another
airfield, just click on the appropriate button. When you use this facility to shift your
base, all flightplans for the tasks you generate in this round should be set up for
landing at the new base. Tornados landing elsewhere (including the old base) will
incur the normal time-penalty for ferry flights.
Tasking
The Tasking window called up by this button allows you to allocate Tasks to
formations of Tornados, or single aircraft. Once you have created a Task, you can
create the flightplan(s) for that Task. The window shows the number of Tornados
available for operations, both IDS and ADV. When you first call up this window
in each round, one line will be displayed showing a Mission number followed by
a button showing the type of Tornado assigned, with a Cycle button beside it. This

20
button will initially show None, but by clicking on the Cycle button it may be
changed to read IDS or ADV, depending upon availability of the type.
When the type is changed to something other than None, two further buttons
appear to the right, each with a Cycle button beside it. The first shows the number
of aircraft assigned to the formation, defaulting to 1. The associated Cycle button
can be used to change the number of aircraft between 1 and the maximum
available, and as this figure is changed the availability figure will fluctuate
accordingly. You cant change the figure to 0, but the same effect can be achieved
by selecting a Type of None. The rightmost button can be used to display a
description of the mission type as a reminder of your intentions.
When you create a Task by assigning aircraft to it, a mission number for a further
Task will appear on the line below, up to a maximum of four Tasks or until all
available aircraft are assigned. You may only modify aircraft assignments for the
latest Task in the list - if you change your mind and want to modify tasks earlier
in the list, you must delete all later tasks by setting their aircraft types to None,
in order from the last backwards. You should also bear in mind that you will
ALWAYS fly aircraft A in the first Task in the list. Once a Task has been created
by assigning aircraft to it, its flightplan may also be created in the normal way by
calling up the Flightplan window. You can select which Tasks flightplan to edit
by clicking on the appropriate mission number in the Tasking window.

Priority Target Finder


This system gives you easy access to processed intelligence data, showing you
which facilities are most important to the enemys war effort. Which category of
target you set out to strike should be determined by the broader view you gain
from the Situation Report and Air Power windows. The quantity and quality of
intelligence available will govern the quantity and quality of the evaluations
provided by the Priority Target Finder.
Like the Target Finder, the Priority Target Finder shows two columns; the left
being used to select a broad class of targets, and the right to display a complete
list of all the individual items in this class. The items on the right are each marked
with one of three symbols, a tick, a cross or a question mark. A tick indicates that
intelligence can offer you targets of this type, whereas a cross tells you that no
information is available - better intelligence is needed. A question mark indicates
that intelligence is still being evaluated - targets arent available yet, but they will
be sometime soon. When such items are ready, the symbol will change from a
question mark to a tick.
The Priority Flag markers work just like the Category Flags, they are automatically
enabled when this window is open, but when its closed you can use the Key
window to control whether or not they are displayed.

Class: Command
This class selects enemy headquarters, where known, and flags the most
important. Destroying an HQ may have serious effects on the coordination of
enemy forces and the efficiency of the enemy supply system.
Command: Rear HQ
These are permanent hardened facilities normally well behind the line of battle
and very well defended.
Command: Field HQ
These are the headquarters of force commanders close to the front line.
Class: Comms
Communications targets are important in themselves, and vital for the potential
effect on intelligence.
Comms: Main Node
These are permanent facilities, easily recognisable by the microwave relay tower
on the site.
Comms: Field Relay
These are temporary camouflaged installations providing secure communications
between the battlefield rear area and the main comm. net.
Class: Logistics
This class of targets covers the enemy supply system - perhaps the most
important class of all. As a result of this, all roads and railways leading towards
the battlefield will be vital channels of supply - if you can cut these channels the
enemys fighting power will be very seriously reduced.
Logistics: POL Installations
POL is the standard military abbreviation for Petrol, Oil, Lubricants. If stocks of
these are seriously depleted, all vehicles from trucks through tanks to aircraft will
be seriously affected, though airfields normally have large stocks on site in wellprotected underground tankage.
Logistics: Main Depots
These are main centres of supply - major stockpiles holding huge quantities of
everything needed to supply armed forces.
Logistics: Forward Dumps
These are small, dispersed, camouflaged stockpiles which supply the needs of
local forces and are replenished in turn from the major stockpiles.

21
Logistics: Choke Points
Choke points are places where transport routes can be cut with maximum effect
and efficiency - in Tornado, all choke points are bridges.
Class: Politics
This is a miscellaneous category for targets which are not strictly military.
Politics: Power Station
Depriving the enemy population of power may have a significant effect on morale
- provided that it is already depressed.
Politics: SCUD Launchers
The classical political distraction target, familiar to all Gulf War fans. If you decide
to go looking for them, dont expect to find them exactly where intelligence said
they were.
Politics: Decapitation
A Decapitation (beheading) strike is designed to take out your enemys political
leadership, on the assumption that their successors will either be more willing to
talk, or will paralyse the military command structure by fighting among themselves
for power.
Politics: NBC Capability
NBC is for Nuclear/Biological/Chemical weapons. If this category of target is
offered, they represent research and manufacturing sites rather than stockpiles.
Class: Battlefield
These targets represent places where you might directly influence the land battle.
Battlefield: Direct Support
These are Close Air Support targets - enemy forces in contact with allied forces.
Battlefield: Reserves
As the name suggests, these are the locations of enemy armoured units in
reserve.
Battlefield: Repair Centre
If you can knock out or seriously damage these major repair centres it can have
a devastating effect on enemy ground forces, because repair of anything worse
than minor breakdowns and battle damage will slow down severely or stop
altogether.
Class: Counter Air
These are all types of target which are important to the air war in different ways.

Counter Air: Airfields


If Allied intelligence is good enough, you can already see from the Air Power
Window which aircraft types the enemy is operating from which airfields, and that
information should be a useful guide in choosing airfield targets.
Counter Air: EWR
Its easy enough to find EWR sites using the ordinary Target Finder, but this
facility will highlight the EWR stations which are most valuable to the enemy,
taking the distribution of targets into account.
Counter Air: Defences
This is intended to highlight the densest defences masking the most valuable
targets.
Counter Air: C
This is C-cubed rather than C-three, and stands for Communications, Command
and Control. If intelligence can identify a coordinating centre for enemy air
activity, this is how it will be shown.

22

DEBRIEF
Ending or Aborting your Flight
At the end of your flight, you must use the key combination c Q to leave the
cockpit. For any flight outside the Simulator or the 2-player option, you must land
and bring the aircraft to a halt before you do this, or you will be considered to have
aborted the flight, and you will not be allowed to log it.
No matter how you started a flight, at the end of every one youll see the Debrief
Screen. For every type of flight except when using the Quickstart option or Group
Captain deFaults log, or if you aborted, youll be presented with the choice of
whether or not to log the flight and add the flying time and achievements to the
log record. If you died, went missing or were captured in the course of the mission,
logging the flight (by clicking on the OK button) will mean that the current log will
lose its Active status, and you wont be able to use it again.
If you decide not to log the flight, click on the Cancel button and the mission and
its outcome will completely disappear from the record.
You cant be killed or captured in the Simulator, in a 2-Player game, or under the
Quickstart option. All other types of flying involve some degree of risk, whether
from flying accidents or enemy action.
Bombing Accuracy
This only applies to the Bombing Range mission available in Training, where you
must drop a single weapon on the practice target. Four types of message are
possible:
Score: 50 at 1', or 180 at 6 are examples of typical scores. The first figure is your
miss distance in feet, the second gives the miss direction in clock-face terms. For
example; 180 at 6 would mean that your bomb fell short by 180 feet, 30 at 3'
would mean that your bomb fell 30 feet to the right of the target. Note that you must
make your attack run flying directly North (a heading of 360), or the clock figures
wont be meaningful. Miss distances of greater than 500 feet will not be scored.

Leaving the Debrief screen


This is done by clicking on one of the two buttons in the lower part of the screen.
The text on these buttons will change according to the situation, but will always
start with either OK, or Cancel. When you are flying under a Log identity you
created yourself, provided that you did not abort the flight one button will show OK
- Log Flight, and the other will show Cancel - Do not log. Be sure that you
understand the consequences before you choose to log the flight.
When you leave the Debrief screen, you may find yourself on any one of a wide
variety of screens, depending on the nature and the outcome of your flight.
Quickstart Flights
You will always be returned to the Main Screen.
Simulator Flights
If this was a start airborne exercise, you will always return to the Mission
Selection Screen. If the exercise started on the runway (which means that you
reached the cockpit by way of the Mission Planner), the OK exit will take you
back to the Mission Selection Screen, while the Cancel exit will return you to the
Mission Planner, giving you the opportunity to review the flight plan and try again,
or leave using the Exit button.
Training (& Mission)
The Cancel exit will always return you to the Mission Planner. If you click on OK,
what happens will depend on the outcome of the flight. If the pilot is still Active,
youll find yourself on the Mission Selection Screen. If your pilot lost Active status
through death or dismissal, youll be returned to the Log screen to choose another
pilot, and when you leave there youll be on the Mission Selection Screen.

Delta Hotel

A dead hit, a perfect score.

Campaign (& Command)


Cancel will always return you to the Mission Planner and set the clock back,
regardless of the outcome of the mission. If you click on OK with your pilot still
Active and the Campaign unfinished, the military situation will be updated to take
account of everything which happened during your flight, and you will be returned
to the Mission Planner to fight the next round. If your pilot lost Active status, the
Campaign will end and youll be returned to the Log screen to choose another
pilot.

No Spot

The bomb wasnt seen. Presumably you didnt drop it.

Quitting Tornado

Splash

No score - a miss distance of over 500 feet.

The most convenient way to do this is by using the System command available
from the Options button. Alternatively, you can use the Exit button to step back
through successive screens to the Main Screen. Selecting Exit from there will
give you the choice of quitting the program.

23

ELEMENTARY FLYING TRAINING


STARTING THE SIMULATOR
Once the Main Screen is displayed, click on the
large triangular Flight icon, which will divide into
three parts. Click on the part marked Simulator,
and you will be presented with the Mission
Selection Screen. Click on the first choice in the
list, marked IDS - Free Flight - Airborne, and a
window will appear, giving details and showing
two buttons. Click on the one marked Confirm.
After a pause for loading, youll find yourself in
the air.

Main Screen

Quick Cockpit Tour


Hit 8, which turns on the AFDS (Autopilot and
Flight Director System) in its Altitude and Heading
Hold mode, which means that the aircraft will
continue on in a straight line unless you tell it
otherwise. A green light on the panel illuminates
to tell you the AFDS has control. The yellow light
beside it means that the Autothrottle is already
engaged.

Simulator, Training or Combat

Using the Look Down key in either cockpit gives you a view of your own legs and more importantly, the kneepads which display a range of configuration
options. Most of these are intended to allow you to set up the detail level of the
outside visual to suit your preferences and the speed of your computer, but the
important item for the moment is option 7 on the right-hand pad. This lets you
select which of the available devices youre going to use as your control stick the basic steering control of the aircraft.
As with all these kneepad options, you switch the settings by pressing the number
key (from the horizontal row on top of the typewriter keypad - NOT the numeric
keypad) corresponding to the
number of the item - in this
case, the 7 key. Each press
advances the setting through
the range available. These keys
work the same way in all view
modes. Now select the control
device you want but DONT
move it.
Switch back to the Front Cockpit
view, and youre ready to start
your first flying lesson.
Look Down View

FLYING THE
AUTOPILOT
AND READING
THE HUD.

Hit and hold the Look Left Key, and youre


looking out of the left side of the cockpit. Release
the key and youre looking forward again. The
Look Right Key does exactly the same on the
other side.
Once youve returned to the forward view, hit the
Back Cockpit key. Youre now looking at the
Navigators Panel. Though the panel and the
pilots ejector seat block the view forward, you
can use the Look Left and Right keys to see out
- and you can also call up various camera views
on the displays (more about this later). Hit the
Front Cockpit key to return there, then hit the key
again and youre looking up and forward. Hit it
again to return to the standard front cockpit
view.

Look Down - Choosing your Control Stick

Pilot's Cockpit

Navigator's Cockpit

The first thing we asked you to


do was to switch on the autopilot
- now lets put you in control of
it. If you look at the MultiFunction Display (MFD) screen
in the centre of the instrument
panel, youll see that this is
showing something like AFDS:
ALT/HDG, followed by ALT
6000, HDG 270 and IAS 400.
diagram 10

24
These figures mean that the aircraft is trying to fly
itself due West - a heading of 270-at an altitude
of 6000 feet above sea level (flat ground level in
this case), and the Autothrottle has control of the
engines and is trying to maintain an Indicated Air
Speed of 400 knots. This is the Altitude/Heading
Acquire and Hold mode of the AFDS. You tell it
which way to fly and how high, and the aircraft will
turn, climb or dive as necessary to fly in the right
direction at the right height.

Pitch Ladder are at an angle on the HUD - theyve stayed parallel with the horizon
outside - and they always do. Notice that the turned-down inner ends of the ladder
bars point down at the ground - this, too, is always true.

MFD in AFDS Mode

Look up at the Head Up Display (HUD) - diagram 10. At the top left you can see
the Indicated Air Speed figure - it should show 400 (knots). At the top right is the
Altitude figure - this should read 6000 (feet). Across the bottom of the HUD is a
strip of figures above a scale marked in dots, and under both is a short vertical
line, which should be directly below the figure 27. This is the Heading Strip, and
its telling you that the aircrafts compass heading is 270- all the figures on the
heading strip represent TENS of degrees. These are the actual readings telling
you how fast, how high and in which direction the aircraft is currently flying.
You should also take a look at the pairs of horizontal bars with turned-down inner
ends which appear in the wide central section of the HUD. These are called the
Pitch Bars (collectively the Pitch Ladder), and each is marked with an angle in
degrees, at 10 intervals.
In this AFDS mode, your control stick does not fly the aircraft directly. Instead,
you use it to alter the autopilots instructions, and the autopilot then flies the
aircraft to carry them out. Lets tell the aircraft to turn North. Move your control
stick slightly right while watching the HDG (Heading) line on the Multi-Function
Display (MFD) screen. You should see the heading figure start increasing
towards 360 (at which point it snaps back to 0), and the aircraft will start
manoeuvering to follow. Set the Heading figure to somewhere between 0 and
10, moving the stick right or left to nudge the number up and down - but dont
worry about an exact value for the moment. If youre using an analogue joystick,
the further you push the stick, the faster the numbers change. If not, then the
longer you hold the stick over, or the key down, the faster the figures will change.
If you hold the stick over too hard for too long and the AFDS heading figure goes
past 090, the aircraft will reverse its direction of turn because its now quicker
to turn left than right to get there! Just set the heading figure somewhere near 0
and let the AFDS sort it out for itself.
If you look back up at the HUD and the outside world, youll see that the aircraft
has rolled - banked - to an angle of about 45, and the figures on the heading strip
are sliding across as the heading changes. You can also see that the bars of the

When the aircraft rolls level again, you


should see that the reading on the
Heading Strip is the same as the
heading figure you set on the AFDS
display (diagram 11). Now look at the
ALT figure on the AFDS display. Pulling
back on the stick will nudge this figure
up, pushing forward will nudge it down.
Set the figure to about 10000 feet. The
aircraft will raise its nose and start
climbing. On the HUD, you can see the
Altitude figure changing, and the pointer
on the clock swinging clockwise
around it (diagram 12).
Half-way up on the right-hand side of
the HUD is the VSI - the Vertical Speed
Indicator (diagram 13). This is shown
as a vertical bar which rises or falls
from a centre position as the aircraft
climbs or dives. Its scale is calibrated
with dots at intervals of 5 feet per
second. If the rate of climb or descent is
bigger than the scale allows (and it
often is), the bar extends to the end of
the scale and stops. The precise rate of
climb or descent is only normally
relevant in the last stages of a landing,
but the movements of the bar serve as
a reminder of what the aircraft is doing.
If you look at the Pitch Ladder, you can
see that its showing that the aircrafts
nose (represented by the circle-andtwo-lines symbol in the centre of the
HUD) is pointing above the horizon.
Now hit the 8 key again, which will
reset the Altitude Hold target to your
current height. Were about to reverse
your last action and command the

diagram 11

diagram 12

diagram 13

25
aircraft back down to its original height, but the aircraft will probably accelerate
in the dive. With the wings swept forward for low-speed flight the aircraft will
complain if asked to fly too fast. Hit the S key, pause for a second or two and
then hit S again. This will ensure that the wings are fully swept back for highspeed flight.

Pull back gently on the stick, and hold it slightly back. This should produce two
results:

Now push the stick forward to set the AFDS desired altitude back to 6000 feet no lower. You can see that the aircraft puts its nose down, the VSI changes from
showing a climb rate to a rate of descent, and the pointer on the Altimeter clock
is now swinging anticlockwise as the Altitude figure winds rapidly down. Looking
at the Pitch Ladder, you can see that whereas all the bars above the horizon are
solid, all the bars below the horizon are drawn as broken lines - another useful
reminder that your nose is pointed at the ground.

When the nose is roughly level with the horizon, relax the back pressure on the
stick and try to keep the nose on the horizon. The outside world and the Pitch Bars
on the HUD are the easiest visual references to use for this kind of manoeuvering.

LEVEL TURNS AND AUTOTRIM


Remember the green and yellow lights near the top left of the panel? The green
light is on when the autopilot has control, and the yellow light is on when the
autothrottle is engaged.
When the aircraft is flying straight and level again, hit the q key. The green light
should go out. Congratulations, youve just switched off the autopilot. If the
aircraft was flying stably before you turned it off, nothing very much will change
unless you move the control stick.
During all of the following exercises feel free to use the P key to pause while you
catch up, read ahead or try to work out whats going wrong. Hitting P again will
restart the simulation. If you end up in a situation you cant handle, quit the
simulator by holding down c and Q simultaneously, then restart.
Move the control stick a short way to the left, and then release it to spring back
to the centre. The aircraft should bank to the left and then stop rolling. If it doesnt
stop rolling, move the stick right and
then release. Try to set up a bank angle
of about 45 and stop it there, but you
dont have to be exact.

If youre trying to fly with the keyboard you wont be able to use the stick this way.
Because there is no way of reading how hard youre pulling back, the stick force
just increases as you hold the key down longer. Theres no way of reducing the
stick force short of releasing the key altogether. All is not lost, however. Raise the
aircrafts nose until its level with the horizon or climbing slightly - the HUD VSI
is a useful aid for this - and then quickly hit the Autotrim key (on most machines
this will be the 5 key on the numeric keypad).
Autotrim is always available when the aircraft is upright, regardless of whether
or not youre using the keypad as your control stick. When you engage Autotrim,
you can move the control stick right or left to bank the aircraft to any angle short
of about 80, and the Autotrim system will pull back as hard as necessary to
maintain the same rate of climb or descent. Autotrim is cancelled when you make
any pitch input (that is, when you pull back or push forward on the control stick),
or when the bank angle approaches 90 and it just isnt possible to keep the nose
up any longer by simply pulling back on the stick.
At any time when the aircraft is not banked beyond 60, you may re-engage the
AFDS in Altitude and Heading Hold mode by hitting key 8, at which point it will
take the current heading and altitude as the values to hold. If you try to re-engage
the autopilot while the aircraft is rolled further than this limit all hell will appear to
break loose as red lights start flashing and sirens sounding. Its just the aircrafts
way of making sure that you know that the autopilot is NOT flying the aircraft for
you even though you tried to switch it on - you still have control. Cancel the
Warning by hitting the * (numeric pad) or ' key and everything should return
to normal.
You can also see that the steeper the angle of bank, the harder you need to pull
to maintain level flight, and the faster you turn (diagram 14). How hard can you
pull? The Tornados wings are built to support 7.5 times the aircrafts weight as
a safe maximum, so at most you can make the Lift Vector seven and a half times
longer than the Gravity Vector.

If you now look at the HUD and the


outside world, you should see that two
things are happening:
The aircraft is turning slowly to the left.
The nose is dropping, and the aircraft
is starting to dive and pick up speed.

The rate of turn increases.


The nose should rise again. If it doesnt, hold the stick back further.

Autopilot & Autothrottle Engage


Indicators

26

Positive G and G-LOC


As you may have realised, if youre pulling this hard, you, the pilot, are being
pushed down into your seat with 7.5 times the force of gravity. If you keep this up
for too long, you will black out. Since this
usually means that you stop pulling, the
force becomes less, blood returns to
your brain, and you wake up again unless youve crashed or been shot
down meanwhile. The situation is
sometimes known as G-LOC: G-induced
Loss Of Consciousness. The G-force
reading is shown on the G-meter (upper
right centre) on the instrument panel.
G Meter

THE
AUTOTHROTTLE
If you havent already done
so, hit 8 again for Heading
and Altitude Hold, and watch
the HUD Airspeed figure until
it becomes steady. All this
time youve been flying with
the engines under control of
the Autothrottle, which is
throttling the engines to try
and maintain the requested
diagram 15
Indicated Air Speed, which is
shown on the AFDS display on the MFD. Just as the control stick (which flies the
aircraft manually) is used to change the autopilots orders when the AFDS is flying
the aircraft, so the throttle controls (which normally vary the engine RPM
manually) are used under Autothrottle to change the desired speed up and down.
The 0 key is used to switch Autothrottle on and off, and the yellow indicator light
next to the green AFDS indicator turns on when the Autothrottle is engaged.
When you switch from manual throttle to Autothrottle, it takes the current
Indicated Air Speed figure as its target speed. When you switch from Autothrottle
to manual throttle control, the engine RPM and reheat settings stay at the last
value commanded by the Autothrottle.

Limits of the Autothrottle


diagram 14

Negative G
When youre flying straight and level and you want to dive, the obvious way to do
this is to push the control stick forward to lower the nose. For small corrections
this is a perfectly valid method, but pushing forward to enter a steep dive is not
a good idea. The risk of red-out is one excellent reason to avoid this practice, the
other is that its a slow way to manoeuvre - just not good enough in combat.
The reason its slow is because the aircrafts negative-G limit is less than its
positive-G limit: -3 G against +7.5 G. Diagram 15 gives some idea of the
maximum turn rates available by pulling +7.5 G as against pushing -3 G.

Autothrottle is an enormously useful feature, and youll probably want it switched


on most of the time youre flying. For the moment, dont set the Autothrottle target
speed below about 250 knots - with the aircraft in its current configuration (i.e. with
the wings swept back as far as they will go), the aircraft will stop flying and stall
not far below this speed.
Other limitations exist mainly because
the Autothrottle controls ONLY the
throttles. If it wants to accelerate the
aircraft, all it can do is throttle up. If it
wants to decelerate, all it can do is
throttle back. But if the aircraft is climbing
at a steep angle, the engines simply
cannot develop enough thrust to
Secondary Control Surfaces
Position Indicator

27
accelerate that much weight uphill, or even prevent the speed from dropping. If
the aircrafts nose is pointed down in even a moderate dive, the aircraft will
accelerate as it coasts downhill even though the Autothrottle has cut the engines
back to idle thrust (63% RPM).
You can cope with the first situation (the climb) either by climbing at a gentle angle
which the engines can sustain (generally less than 20 nose-up) or by accelerating
to a high speed in level flight before pulling back into a steep climb (a zoom
climb). In this case you will lose speed in the climb, but you started with a high
speed, so you can carry on climbing for some time before the speed falls to a
dangerously low figure.

At ground level an Indicated Air Speed of 200 knots means that your True Air
Speed is 200 knots. At 30000 feet, an IAS of 200 knots means that your TAS is
about 327 knots. In both cases you can look at the IAS figure and know that your
speed is dangerously low - in fact, with wings fully swept back, the Tornado would
quite possibly have stopped flying and started falling at 200 knots IAS.

To handle the second situation (unwanted


acceleration in a dive), use the Airbrakes. If you
look at the Airbrake Position Indicator (lower left
on the Panel) youll see a needle flick in and out
as you deploy and close the Airbrakes. This
technique will work for moderate dive angles,
but there is a limit to the effect.

Angle of Attack

Manoeuvre Drag
There is another source of drag which can make
it impossible for the Autothrottle to maintain its
target speed, and this is the drag caused by
manoeuvering. When you pull back hard on the
stick you are forcing the wings to generate a
large amount of lift, but it is impossible to do this
without also generating a large amount of drag.
If you set the aircraft up in level flight at a
constant speed under Autothrottle and then enter
a steep hard turn, you will see the Airspeed start
to decay, while the Autothrottle cuts in maximum
thrust and still cant keep up.

At ground level Indicated Air Speed is exactly the same as True Air Speed: speed
through the air. As the aircraft climbs, however, the outside air pressure and
density fall. The higher you go, the thinner the air. The amount of lift generated
by your wings depends largely on the speed and density of the air flowing over
(and under) the wing. At higher altitudes and lower air densities you need to fly
faster just to stay in the air. The Indicated Air Speed figure takes air density into
account, and so for any given aircraft weight, wing sweep and flap setting the
aircraft will always stall (i.e. stop flying) at the same IAS. If the pilot used a TAS
figure the stall speed would increase with altitude, which would be confusing and
dangerous.

Airbrake on

Airbrake off

STALLING
Indicated Air Speed - IAS
Indicated Air Speed (IAS) is one of four common ways of expressing an aircrafts
speed. The others are True Air Speed (TAS), which represents the speed relative
to the air youre flying through, Ground Speed, which is actual speed over the
ground, and Mach Number, which represents your speed as a multiple or a
fraction of the speed of sound at your current altitude.

Use the AFDS in Altitude and Heading Hold mode to set the aircraft up in straight
and level flight at an altitude of at least 8000 feet, with the autothrottle at about 400450 knots. When youve done
this, turn the Autothrottle off
by hitting 0, but leave the
autopilot engaged. Use Slam
shut to bring the engines down
to idle thrust - you should see
the RPM gauges drop to a
figure of 63%.
Now watch the HUD Airspeed
Indicator, the Pitch Ladder,
diagram 16
and the vertical strip meter on
the left side of the HUD, opposite the VSI. This is the Angle-of-Attack (Alpha)
meter (diagram 17). With the engines idling, the airspeed will drop, but you may
want to use the Airbrakes carefully to bring your speed down to about 250 knots
- let your speed decay naturally from that point.
You should see that as the speed drops, the
autopilot maintains the set altitude. In order to do
so it raises the nose more and more, which will
show up on the Pitch Ladder. At the same time
the Alpha meter shows a steadily rising trend.
diagram 17

28
Finally the stall point is reached, the
nose drops uncontrollably. The AFDS
system realises that it cant handle the
situation and turns itself off - and tells
you so by sounding an alarm and
flashing the Attention-Getter lights. Now
its time for you to act: slam the throttle
open and push the control stick forward
(youre trying to accelerate to flying
speed as fast as possible). As soon as
you see that the aircraft is actually
pitching down in response to your
command, pull the stick back GENTLY
and level off. To cancel the Warning, hit
the * key on the numeric keypad or the
' key.

Engine r.p.m. Gauges

was beginning to approach sonic speeds at


different places at different times. Shockwaves
are constantly forming and collapsing in a chaotic
pattern, causing turbulence and shaking the
aircraft. If you had carried on accelerating without
sweeping the wings back, the effect would have
grown more severe, and eventually the aircraft
would become uncontrollable and/or shake itself
to pieces. Sweeping the wings back delays the
formation of the shockwaves until you reach a
higher speed.

67 sweep, zero flap

WING SWEEP
The further forward the wings are
swept, the lower the stalling speed.
The further forward the wings are swept,
the better the aircraft turns.
Whatever the sweep angle, the Alpha Meter is
a more consistent indicator of an approaching
stall than the Airspeed Indicator.

Secondary Control Surfaces


Position Indicator

diagram 18

Mach Number
Starting with the aircraft flying level at about
5000 feet with 25 sweep at about 400 knots
under Autothrottle. Now set the Autothrottle for
about 480 knots and watch carefully as the
aircraft accelerates. Before youve reached the
target speed youll hear a rumbling, buffeting
noise and possibly notice some vibration. When
you do, sweep the wings back to the mid-sweep
position and the buffeting should stop.

25 sweep, zero flap

Now set the autothrottle for about 600 knots. Once again, as the aircraft
accelerates, you will hear and/or see buffeting, which will disappear if you sweep
the wings back all the way to 67. You can now accelerate past the speed of sound
(Mach 1) all the way to the limits of the aircrafts performance at the current
altitude before you will experience any further buffeting.
The critical Mach numbers (the numbers you shouldnt normally exceed) are:

Youve just run into what are called


compressibility effects - the fringes of what used
to be called the Sound Barrier. Though the
aircraft as a whole is nowhere near the speed of
sound yet, the airflow over parts of the wings
45sweep, zero flap

at 25 sweep:

Mach 0.73

at 45 sweep:

Mach 0.88

at 67 sweep:

Mach 2.20

29

AUTOMATED
LANDINGS

Hit/Hold Key - Airbrakes


Use Airbrakes to bring the speed down to 350
knots.

The AFDS in Approach mode will fly the


approach path for you and manage the
throttle. All you will have to do is deploy
airbrakes, wing sweep, flaps and gear
at the appropriate times.

Hit Key - Sweep Forward (to 25 sweep)


As you do this you should see the throttles close
briefly. Youve just lowered the stalling speed,
so the AFDS can fly the approach more slowly.

Landing Practice for AutoApproach


From the Main Screen, select Flight,
then Simulator. From the Simulator
Missions, select Landing Practice.
Having clicked on Commit, you will find
yourself in the cockpit. Hit the Pause
key. You are straight and level at 4000
feet ASL heading towards a runway,
just outside ILS (Instrument Landing
System) range, with autothrottle set at
450 knots and wings at 45 sweep. The
HUD shows the standard nav display.
Unpause and wait a few seconds. As
you come in range of the ILS system,
youll see the HUD symbology change the centre symbol becomes a small
open cross, and a larger open cross
appears off-centre. This will always
happen when you enter range of an ILS
system if the HUD is in nav mode (i.e.
diagram 19
not a weapon aiming mode). Take a look
at diagram 19, which shows your situation in plan view. The sequence of
operations from here should go like this - you may want to use the Pause key to
stay ahead of the instructions:
Hit Key - AFDS Approach Mode. (6)
The aircraft will start manoeuvering to put the large cross on the HUD in the centre
WITH the aircraft on the runway heading. The throttles will also be adjusted as
the autothrottle seeks the correct approach speed for the aircraft weight and
configuration. The aircraft should start to slow down.

Hit Key - Flaps Down


Do this once, for the moment, to lower Manoeuvre
Flap. You will see the Flap/Slat position indicators
droop to the first position.

25sweep, manoeuvre flap

Hit/Hold Key - Airbrakes


Bring your speed down to less than 280 knots.
Hit Key - Flaps Down
Now youre below the limiting speed for Mid
Flap. This will have a large effect on the stalling
speed, so you should see the throttles close
again.

25 sweep, mid flap

Hit/Hold Key - Airbrakes


Bring your speed down to less than 225 knots.
Hit Key - Flaps Down
Now youre slow enough for Full Flap, which will
bring your approach speed down to the slowest
possible.
Hit Key - Gear Switch
Watch the Gear Indicator lights to make
sure it does come down and lock. Initially
there will be no lights, then three reds
as the gear travels, then finally three
greens to show that all three legs are
locked down. If the throttles are still
closed at this point, use the Airbrakes
to slow the aircraft still more, until the
engine RPM gauges rise from idle thrust
and reach a steady value. You should
now be in a stable approach,

25 sweep, full flap

Gear Position Indicator

30

Operational Conditions

descending smoothly toward the


runway.

When you arrive at an Approach Point in Track Mode, the AFDS will automatically
engage Approach Mode, and the aircraft will start to follow the ILS beam down
to the runway. From this point on, the procedure is exactly the same as for the
Landing Practice sequence.

Now look for the Approach Progress


Indicator light (upper right on the panel),
and wait for it to start flashing. When it
does...
Hit Key - Cancel Autopilot
The aircraft should continue stably and
smoothly down the approach, handsoff, since everything is already set up.
Watch the HUD Altimeter as you
approach the runway threshold, and as
the figure reaches 50 feet, start pulling
back gently on the stick, until you can
see the rate of descent start to slow
down.
As the main gear touches down (you
should hear and see the thump, as well
as the 0 reading on the HUD altimeter),
release the stick and...

TAKING OFF
Secondary Control Surfaces
Position Indicator

Approach Progress Indicator

Hit/Hold Key - Thrust Reversers


The Thrust Reverser buckets close over
your engine nozzles and divert thrust
forward, slowing you down. Watch your
airspeed, and at about 70 knots..
Hit Key - Slam Throttle Shut
Release Key - Thrust Reversers

Thrust Reversers

Hit Key - Wheelbrakes


You must disengage the Thrust
Reversers before your speed drops
below about 50 knots, or your engines
will start re-ingesting their own exhaust,
which will do them no good at all. Close
the throttle first, or youll just accelerate
again.

From the Main Screen select Flight, and then the Simulator. On the Mission
Selection Screen, choose the option Free Flight (from runway). You will find
yourself in the Mission Planner. If this is
your first take-off, just click on the button
marked Take-off, on the right-hand
side. You will find yourself in the cockpit,
on the runway, with engines idling and
Medium Flap selected, all ready to go.
Step 1. Fully open the throttle. Youll
see the Engine RPM gauges rise till
they show 100%. At the same time, the
Fuel Flow gauge will show a moderate
rise. Now release the Throttle control.
Light up Reheat (Afterburners), by fully
opening the throttle again. The Engine
RPM gauges will stay on 100%, but
both Reheat Indicators will light, and the
Fuel Flow gauge needle will spin
clockwise and jam itself against the
stop. The aircraft is now at absolute
maximum power, held only by the brakes
- you may notice some vibration.
Step 2. Release the Wheelbrakes,
watching the indicator to make sure it
goes out. The aircraft will start rolling.

Fuel Flow Indicator

Wheel Brake Indicator

Step 3. Watch the HUD Airspeed


Indicator, and stand by with the Control
Stick. When the speed reaches 140
knots, pull the stick back and hold it
back. If the aircraft is lightly loaded the
nose will immediately start to rise, if its
heavy this wont happen until you have
Wheel Brakes

Landing Gear Position Indicator

31
more speed. Hold the stick back until youre pitched up about 8-12 according to
the HUD Pitch Bars, from just below to just above the first bar above the horizon.
Now release the stick.
Step 4. Watch the HUD Altimeter. As soon as it leaves 0 youre off the ground.
You will also see the HUD VSI indicator rise to show that youre climbing. Check
the Airspeed to see that youre still accelerating. If you are, hit the Landing Gear
Switch to retract the undercarriage. Check the Gear Indicator, which should
change from three green lights (gear locked down) to three reds (not locked down
or up), and finally go out altogether (locked up).
If youre not accelerating, youve got the nose too high - push it down a little carefully!
Step 5. Watch the HUD Airspeed Indicator. When you reach 215 knots, hit Flaps
Up twice. Youll see the Flap Position Indicator rise from Mid-Flap to Manouevre
Flap to No Flap. Youre now cleaned up and ready to fly.
In short form, the drill goes like this:
Throttle OPEN, Reheat ON FULL
Wheelbrakes OFF (at 100% RPM and Max. Reheat)
Pull back (at 140+ knots)
Gear UP (at 10+ feet)
Flaps UP (at 215 knots)
After Take-off, you will normally (in the Tornado IDS) be levelling off quite low
while you continue to accelerate to cruising speed - it should be quite safe to
engage Track mode autopilot as you pass about 200'. Normal practice would be
to cut Reheat as you pass 300 knots, and make the switch from 25 sweep to 45
sweep at about 350 knots. Operationally, your next task will usually be to turn on
the AFDS in Track mode and watch the Time Early/Late indicator on the HUD,
fine-tuning your speed with the autothrottle in order to arrive exactly on time at
your first en-route waypoint.

32

ADVANCED FLYING TRAINING


More about Flaps and Slats
DONT exceed the flap limiting speeds! Here they are again:

Flap Limiting Speeds


Manoeuvre Flap:
Mid Flap:
Full Flap:

450 Knots IAS


280 Knots IAS
225 Knots IAS

One consequence of the interlock system is that you cant sweep the wings and
change the flap setting at the same time; you must do one thing first and then the
other.

If youre below the limiting speed for Manoeuvre Flap you can use it to turn more
tightly than you can with the flaps fully up, and the extra drag is hardly worth
worrying about.

Terrain-Following with the AFDS - a demonstration


Select the Simulator, and call up the IDS - Free Flight (from Runway) option.
Select Take Off in the Mission Planner, and once youre in the cockpit, get the
aircraft off the ground. Fly straight ahead (a heading of 270), and once youve
cleaned the aircraft up for cruising flight, engage the Autothrottle with a speed
setting of about 420 knots. Now climb straight ahead to about 2000 feet. When
you get there, hit the 9 key to put the AFDS into Terrain Follow (TF) mode.
Youll see the mode change on the AFDS MFD display and the ALT status will
change to 1500 RIDE (maintain a Ride Height of 1500 feet). If you look at the HUD
altimeter, youll see that a letter T has appeared below the digital altitude figure,

which is prefixed by the letter R to show that this is a radar altitude (height above
ground) rather than a barometric altitude (height above sea - or flat ground - level).
If youre over hills, youll see that the aircraft is now pitching up and down under
automatic control to maintain 1500 feet above ground, as closely as it can. If
youre not above hills at the moment, look about to find some, and use left or right
Control Stick movements to set the Heading Acquire figure to steer towards
them, just as you would in Altitude/Heading Acquire mode. Moving the stick
forwards or backwards will change the Ride Height figure, which can be set to
1500, 1000, 750, 500, 400, 300 or 200 feet. Set the Ride Height down to 200 feet
by stages, pausing briefly each time to let the aircraft stabilise at the new Ride
Height.
As you reach about 500 feet youll notice that the
E-Scope (the display above and to the left of the
MFD) is starting to show an undulating green
zone in its bottom section. As the Ride Height is
reduced further, the green zone will rise up the
display. The zone represents the profile of the
ground directly ahead of the aircraft, shown
relative to the fixed mark on the left-hand side of
the display. As the aircraft moves, the
ground profile shown in the E-Scope
scrolls in on the right and out on the left.
Now set the Autothrottle to a higher
speed, say 550 knots, not forgetting to
adjust wingsweep as necessary, and
try to find some more hills. As the
aircrafts speed increases, so the TF
system needs to look further ahead for
obstacles. The vertical scale of the EScope remains the same, but the
horizontal scale changes to compress a
greater distance into the fixed width of
the display. What this means in effect is
that the slopes start to look steeper. The
faster you go, the more dramatic the
effect becomes.
The TF system is smart and trustworthy,
but it does have limits. The system allows
itself a margin of error below the set Ride
Height, and flashes the B-risk indicator

E-Scope

E-Scope

B-Risk Indicator

33
(a red light below the E-Scope) when it exceeds that margin. If the B-risk indicator
is flashing frequently, you should either slow down or increase the Ride Height
if the situation allows. There is also an absolute limit below the safety margin. If
the radar altitude falls this low, the system goes into panic reaction. It instantly
rolls the wings level and pulls up hard away from the ground, then automatically
disengages itself and sounds a warning to tell you.

TEL (Time Early/Late) Displays


On the way to and from the target, Tornado IDS will normally fly in widely-spaced
tactical formations, and its impossible to hold your place in the formation by eye.
When the mission flightplan is created, most of the waypoints are tagged with
planned times-of-arrival. When the aircraft is flying towards a selected waypoint
which has a set time-of-arrival, the navigation systems continuously calculate a
predicted time-of-arrival on the basis of your current position and speed. The
difference in seconds between the planned and predicted figures is shown as the
Time Early/Late.
When the TEL HUD display is active, it appears as a short vertical line and three
horizontally-spaced dots just below the HUD Airpeed indicator. The vertical line
moves sideways between the centre position
and the outside dots, left for late and right for
early. If youre right on time, the line is below the
centre dot; if its at the left dot youre 30 seconds
late or more; at the right dot youre early by 30
seconds or more. Smaller deflections left or right
indicate smaller deviations from the schedule.
diagram 20
While the TEL displays make really accurate timekeeping much easier, you'll find
it difficult to achieve this in practice unless you have some idea of what speed the
mission plan required over each leg of the flight plan. This subject is treated in
much more detail in the Mission Planner chapter, but in general you won't go far
wrong if you assume that the flight plan expects a cruising speed of 420 knots,
rising from 500-600 knots for attack and egress runs.
The drill for adjusting your speed to stay on schedule might go something like this:
1 Adjust Autothrottle setting for the nominal speed over the current leg of the
flightplan.
2 Wait for the aircraft speed to adjust to the new setting and watch the TEL
indicator. If youre late, adjust the speed upward, if early, reduce it. Remember
that the adjustment wont affect the TEL calculation until the actual aircraft speed
has changed.

When the aircraft reaches the currently selected waypoint while in AFDS Track
mode, the next waypoint in the flightplan is automatically selected and the aircraft
turns towards it. If its a target, youll need to hit arm air-to-ground weapons. The
AFDS can fly most planned attacks for itself, though youll need to fly loft profiles
manually, and weapons cannot be released unless you hold down the Commit
button. If the aircraft reaches an Approach Point within an allied ILS beam while
under Track mode control, the AFDS will automatically switch to Approach mode
for landing. If you want to fly parts of the flightplan manually, youll have to
advance the selected waypoint yourself at the end of each leg, using the Skip
Waypoint command (see below).
When you reach a waypoint and the aircraft turns onto the next leg, the TEL
displays will not be active until the nose is pointing in the general direction of the
next waypoint.

Desperate Measures: Skipping Waypoints


Its very simple to use; just move to the back seat, call up the PLN display if its
not already visible, and hit the Skip Waypoint key (probably N) to advance the
currently selected waypoint to the next in sequence. You can use this command
from the front seat if you wish, but its easier to see whats going on if you watch
the PLN display.
You can repeat the comand as many times as you like, and cycle all the way
through the list again if you overshoot, but if you leave the AFDS in Track mode
while you do it, be aware that the aircraft is going to twitch all over the place in
response to the flurry of rapidly changing steering demands. Even more
significantly, the altitude authority mode and height setting may change from
waypoint to waypoint, possibly running you into a hill. To avoid this problem,
disengage the AFDS and either fly the aircraft manually or re-engage in plain TF
mode until youve selected the right waypoint.

SETTING UP YOUR OWN APPROACH AND


LANDING
Finding a runway, placing an Approach Point
Finding a runway isnt difficult if you use the map displays. The Full-screen map,
zoomed well out, is probably the best one to start with. Use this to find an airfield
which is neither too close, nor too far away, and remember roughly which way it
is from your current position (remember, the map rotates so that your aircraft is
always flying straight up the screen).
Now switch to the back cockpit and call up the Scrollable map on one of the Tab
displays. Use a+left click to centre on your current position, zoom right out and

34
scroll the map in the right direction to find your target airfield. Refer back to the
Full-screen map if necessary to find your way. When you bring the airfield onscreen you will be able to see that the active runway (the one you want to use)
is shown in a contrasting colour.
With the airfield on screen and
the Scrollable Map zoomed
right out, click the left mouse
button to place waypoint T about
7 or 8 runway-lengths from the
airfield, in line with the runway.
You now have a home-made
approach point. Hit T to make
waypoint T the currentlyselected waypoint, and you can
engage Track mode to fly you
there.

Why put the


Approach Point there?

diagram 23

How to line up for your Approach


diagram 21

Diagrams 24A,B and C illustrate a number of situations and possible ways of


dealing with them.

As you can see from diagram


22 the ILS beams cover a spikeshaped zone which is widest
and highest at its furthest point
from the runway. This is about
60000 feet (10 nautical miles or
18 kilometres) from the runway
threshold. Since all the active
runways youll find in Tornado
are about 8000 feet long, this
means that the big end of the
wedge is almost exactly 8
diagram 22
runway-lengths from the middle
of the runway. Youll have to enter the ILS zone and point the aircraft in roughly
the right direction before the ILS displays will activate and AFDS Approach mode
can be engaged.
You can see from diagram 23 that the beam is 8000 feet high at extreme range,
and the AFDS will find it easiest to line up for the approach if you enter the beam
near the centre, so set the AFDS for Altitude hold (still under Track mode) at about
4000 feet.
diagram 24A,B,C and D

35
As you approach waypoint T,
call up the Local Map on the
MFD, select Base Origin display
(aircraft at the bottom, not in the
middle) and look out for the letter
T marking the position. When
you get close, cancel the
Autothrottle and disengage the
AFDS, then start your turn. If
you make it a tight turn youll
lose a good deal of speed as
well as staying closer to your
reference point.
Once youre in the beam you
can engage the AFDS in
Approach mode, but if youre
crossing the centreline at too
great an angle and too high a
speed youll fly straight out of
the other side of the beam before
the AFDS can line up (see
diagram 26). If this happens,
the AFDS will turn itself off and
sound a warning.

down to indicate which way it is to the centre of


the ideal approach path. When you are in the
centre of the path the two crosses are exactly
superimposed.

diagram 25

For comparison you can call up the MFD ILS


display by using the D key (MFD Function
Select) to cycle through the possible displays.
Here the ILS display shows fixed dashed
crosshairs equivalent to the aircraft datum on
the HUD, and moving solid crosshairs which
correspond to the larger moving cross. This
display also shows, clockwise from top left;
Aircraft Heading, Bearing to the airfield (to runway
midpoint), Range to the airfield in nautical miles
(to runway midpoint) and Time-to-go in minutes
and seconds.
diagram 27

Reading and Reacting to the ILS


display
diagram 26

SEMI-AUTOMATIC AND MANUAL


LANDINGS
Semi-automatic Approach:- ILS and Autothrottle
In this type of approach well use the ILS (Instrument Landing System) as a
manual steering cue, and leave speed management to the Autothrottle. Your
aircrafts ILS displays are driven by transmitters and aerials on the ground,
pointing up the approach path. There are effectively two fan-shaped radio beams;
one (the Localiser) to tell you whether you are to the left or to the right of the
runway centreline, and the other (the Glideslope) to tell you whether you are
above or below a steady 3 slope which meets the ground at the runway
threshold. See diagram 22 for a full schematic.
The easiest form of the display to use is the one which automatically appears on
the HUD when you enter ILS coverage with the HUD in standard NAV mode (i.e.
no weapon aiming displays). On the HUD ILS display, the aircraft datum in the
centre is shown as a cross and a second, larger cross moves left, right, up and

On the face of it, then, reaching the ideal approach


path is simply a question of flying the aircraft
towards the cross on the HUD. Its not quite that
simple - there are two other points to bear in
mind. The first is that the ILS display is only
telling you where you are relative to the ideal
approach path - it is NOT telling you if youre
pointed in the right direction to stay there. To
stay in the centre of the localiser beam (the leftright reference) you need to be pointing in the
same direction as the runway youre
approaching. If youre landing on runway 09 the
aircrafts got to be on a heading of 090 as well
as in the centre of the beam. Dont make big,
radical manoeuvres to try to reach the centre of
the beam - the closer you get to it, the smaller
your corrections should be.
This is a highly important point, and one which
many people find difficult to grasp: if the ILS
display is telling you that the runway centreline
is off to the left of your current position, its NOT
telling you to keep turning left until you reach it.
If youre approaching runway 09 and the ILS

MFD - ILS active

MFD - ILS (not active)

36
shows that the centreline is off to the left, what you should be doing is taking up
a heading to the left of 090 (say 080 or 085), so that you reach the centreline
before you arrive at the threshold. In the same way, if the ILS showed the
centreline to the right, you should take up a heading to the right of 090 (say 095
or 100), hold that until the ILS shows you that you are close to the centreline, and
then bring the heading back towards 090. If you correct your heading in this way
but find that the ILS is not creeping back towards the centre, only then should you
make a bigger correction.
The second point to remember is that the glideslope beam (the up-and down
reference) slopes down. You cannot track the glideslope centreline unless the
aircraft is descending steadily.

Setting your Approach Speed


Recommended Approach Speeds at 25 Wingsweep

Light case:
33000lb / 15000kg - Virtually empty aircraft
Medium case: 45000lb / 20400kg - No external stores, full internal fuel
Heavy case:
60000lb / 27200kg - Near maximum take-off weight
The medium-weight case is probably the most useful: set the Autothrottle to about
210 knots to bring you within flap-limiting speeds, lower the flaps all the way and
then set 165-180 knots. If youre carrying more weight than this it would normally
be sensible to dump some of it using the External Stores Jettison option before
starting the approach.

MANUAL APPROACHES
Manual Approach with ILS

diagram 28

diagram 29

Normally you think in terms of controlling speed with the throttle and controlling
rate of descent or climb by pointing the nose up or down. At the low speeds
involved in flying an approach, however, it is actually easier to reverse this
convention. Think in terms of controlling speed by raising the nose (to slow down)
or lowering the nose (to speed up), and controlling rate of descent by opening the
throttle (to descend more slowly) or closing the throttle (to descend faster). Lets
give some examples of how the process works:
1 Speed correct, but BELOW the glideslope
You respond by throttling up to raise the engine RPM figure one or two per cent.
Now watch your airspeed. As soon as this starts rising above the target figure,
raise the nose slightly to bring the speed back on target. The end result is that
youre still at the correct approach speed, and youre descending more slowly
than you were.
2 Speed correct, but ABOVE the glideslope

diagram 30

diagram 31

Throttle back a little. As the airspeed drops below the target, lower the nose a little
to recover the speed.

37
3 ON the glideslope, but speed
LOW
Lower the nose slightly, and
watch for the speed to start
rising. As it reaches the correct
figure, raise the nose slightly. If
this leaves you below the
glideslope refer to example 1.
4 ON the glideslope, but speed
HIGH
Raise the nose a little till the
speed starts to drop, wait till
youre close to the target speed
and then lower it a fraction to
stabilise at the new speed. If
this leaves you above the
glideslope, deal with the
problem as in example 2.
Until youve got the feel of the
situation its best to be very,
very cautious, and make the
smallest possible control inputs.
Line up on the localiser (leftright reference) first, and then
devote most of your attention to
matching the glideslope by
juggling speed and rate-ofdescent. Be wary of trying to fly
to a fixed rate-of-descent in feet
per second as shown on the
HUD or the VSI; the higher your
approach speed, the faster you
must descend to match the fixed
3 glideslope.

diagram 32

centreline. If you point the aircraft


straight down the beam, itll be
blown sideways by the
crosswind component. Be
especially careful at and after
touchdown when flying this sort
of approach - you may need to
do some brisk steering to avoid
veering off the runway. If you
can afford a good long roll after
touchdown, you can mitigate the
effects of a crosswind by flying
a faster approach than usual.
This will mean that you can point
the nose closer to your intended
path. Conversely, a slow
approach with a heavy
crosswind will be very difficult
to fly accurately.

diagram 34

LANDING DAMAGED AIRCRAFT...


You can practice various emergencies quite easily in the Simulator. Want to try
a wheels-up landing? Simple! Just leave the gear up. It is possible, but you must
touch down very lightly. Lighten the aircraft as much as possible first. For a
flapless landing, leave the flaps up. Pretend that the wing sweep mechanism has
failed, and try landing with 45 or 67 sweep. Try a landing with the engines at idle
thrust - without touching the throttles.

...On Damaged Runways

diagram 33

LANDINGS AND WIND DIRECTION


Theres a Simulator exercise called Crosswind Landing Practice which you can
try out. Youll find that in order to fly a straight line down the centre of the beam
you will need to keep the nose pointing a few degrees to the upwind side of the

Keep your eyes open on the approach, and use the forward-looking camera at
night. If your runway is damaged, youve either got to stop before, land after or
swerve around the craters - or land on another runway. If you dont want to divert
or you cant for lack of fuel, you must either land on one of the long taxiways or
use a disused runway (these are the ones with white crosses at the threshold).
Provided that they havent been damaged in the attack, these surfaces should be
perfectly suitable, though respectively narrower and shorter than the main
runway, and of course theres no ILS.

38

EMERGENCIES
Jettison External Tanks only
Releases the drop tanks on your inboard pylons to save weight and drag.
The green Jettison light illuminates to confirm separation.
Jettison Tanks and Offensive Stores
This is the option you need if hard-pressed by an enemy fighter in close combat,
or in the event of engine damage. It dumps all external stores except AIM9L airto-air missiles for self-defence.
The amber and green Jettison lights illuminate to confirm separation.
Jettison All External Stores and Internal Fuel down to 1000 lbs. /450 kg.
This option is intended for use just before landing a damaged aircraft, if the
situation demands it. All external stores
are dumped without exception, and all
internal fuel bar 1000 lbs with which to
complete the approach, leaving you with
an aircraft in its lightest possible powered
configuration.
The red, amber and green Jettison lights
will all illuminate to confirm that the stores
are gone and the fuel dumped.
Jettison Lights

Ejection
There are two situations in which ejection is definitely the only way out. These are
an engine fire, which (for our purposes) will always result in a catastrophic
explosion within a few seconds, or a loss of control with no prospect of recovery
before the aircraft hits the ground. If and when an engine fire is detected the
warning system will go off and the condition will be flagged on the Warning Panel
in the back cockpit. Loss of control can occur in many different ways, but you will
probably be in no doubt when it occurs.

SPILS, SPINS AND SPIN RECOVERY


Spinning
Spinning is a hazard associated with stalling. When it is working, the SPILS
system in the Tornado detects any incipient spin problem at the stall point and
acts to correct it before the spin can become established. Like any other system

in the aircraft, however, the SPILS system may be disabled by combat damage
or random failure. If this happens, any stall may develop into a spin - so you need
to know how to recover once the spin has started.

Spin Recovery
The Tornados spinning characteristics and recovery drill are unusual for two
reasons: first, it is a swing-wing aircraft and the nature of the spin changes with
wing-sweep setting; second, it is unlike most other aircraft in that it has no aileron
control surfaces on the wings, moving the tail surfaces differentially instead.
Lets set up the problem in the Simulator. Select one of the Free Flight (Airborne)
exercises. When you arrive in the cockpit, turn off the SPILS system. This should
probably be done with the C+I key combination, but check with the Control
Summary for your machine (Secondary Flight Controls section). Be careful when
doing this: just hit the key once, because the control toggles SPILS on/off and
theres no indicator apart from the one on the warning panel in the back, which
only illuminates when the system fails due to damage, and NOT when you switch
it off deliberately. Now sweep the wings right back to 67, cancel Autothrottle and
go to full reheat (Slam Open twice). Let the aircraft accelerate to high speed on
the level, then cancel reheat (just Slam Shut while in reheat), leaving the throttles
at Max. Dry power (100% RPM). Pull the aircraft up into a near-vertical climb and
take your hands off the controls.
The aircraft will zoom-climb to a
high altitude, losing speed
rapidly. At about 220 knots IAS
you should see the nose begin
to drop in the stall. Now apply
full sideways stick - the direction
doesnt matter. Suddenly the
aircraft goes crazy - the HUD
references and the instruments
are all over the place and the
horizon flashes past your nose
at short intervals and strange
angles. Hit 1 for an external
view and youll see that the
aircraft is tumbling end over end
in all three axes as it falls. This
is characteristic spinning
behaviour when the wings are
fully swept.

diagram 35

39
Now hit the Sweep Forward key twice, to bring the wings to 25 sweep. As the
wings move forward you should see the wild tumble stabilise into a rapid rotation.
If you move back to the cockpit you will see that the horizon is now fairly stable,
but the aircraft is twirling like a propeller. In order to recover from the spin you must
first identify which way the aircraft is rotating. This one excellent reason why you
should bring the wings to 25 sweep first, because it is extremely difficult to tell
which way youre going if the aircrafts in a full-blooded tumble.
Having identified which way youre turning: APPLY AND HOLD FULL BACKWARD
STICK AND PRO-SPIN AILERON! In other words, hold the stick right back and
to the side you would normally use to bank in the direction youre already turning.
This is almost the exact opposite of the spin recovery drill used in most aircraft,
which is classically performed by centering the stick, pushing it forward and
applying opposite rudder. This classical procedure is utterly useless in a spinning
Tornado.
Having applied full backward stick and pro-spin aileron, you will need to hold the
stick in this position for a variable length of time, which will never be less than a
couple of seconds and sometimes a good deal longer. Meanwhile watch the
Altimeter and the Airspeed Indicator.
In a steady spin the Airspeed Indicator will show a very low figure, far below
normal flying speeds. One of the first signs that the recovery process is working
will be a steady rise of speed. As the figure climbs towards the normal ranges you
should also see that the rotation rate is slowing. When it stops, the aircraft is under
control again, so immediately center the stick and (if you can still afford the height
loss) push the nose down to accelerate faster.
Heres the Spin Recovery Procedure again, in short form:
Once you realise that the aircraft is spinning:
1 Eject immediately if there is insufficient height for a recovery (say 20000 feet),
otherwise monitor altitude closely throughout the recovery process.
2 Command full forward sweep to 25.
3 As soon as the direction of rotation is identified, apply and hold full backward
stick and pro-spin aileron.
4 First sign of recovery will be a sustained increase in airspeed.
5 When rotation ceases, accelerate to a safe speed as quickly as possible.

EXTERNAL VIEWS
(a) Tracking view
When first selected, you will be positioned immediately behind your aircraft,
following at a fixed distance. If your prefer, you may use the zoom in and out
facility to adjust your perspective at either normal or fast rate.
When youve had enough of looking at tailpipes, try the adjust tracking controls.
These allow you to swing your viewpoint around your aircraft in either direction,
quickly or slowly, to give you a full 360 outside view. The reset option will
position you behind the aircraft again and for good measure we have the toggle
lo/hi feature which puts you level with your aircraft or slightly below it.
(b) Satellite view
Select this option for a birds eye view looking directly down onto your aircraft.
Select again and youll get a worms eye view looking up from underneath!
(c) Remote view
This option allows you to hop outside and watch your aircraft from a fixed position.
The viewpoint is fixed at the position of your aircraft at the moment of selection,
and turns to follow your aircraft as you manoeuvre.
(d) Drone view
Drones are the numerous computer-controlled aircraft and ground vehicles
moving around the combat area simultaneously to yourself. By repeatedly
pressing drone view select you may observe their activity and impress your
friends. Zoom and track controls are available. You may also switch between
allied and enemy drones, aircraft or ground vehicles.
(e) Weapon view
Again, zoom and track adjust is available. Just prior to impact, air-to-ground
weapons will switch to a plan view to help assess accuracy of delivery.
(f) Spectator view
When you select Spectator view, the viewpoint is frozen in space wherever it
happens to be at that moment (unless its already a Spectator view), while the
action carries on.

40
1000 lb. Laser Guided Bombs (LGB)
LGB are used in conjunction with the launching aircrafts TIALD system. The
navigator slews and zooms his camera view to place the aiming crosshairs on
the precise point he wants to hit, which is illuminated by the laser designator in
the TIALD system. The seeker in the nose of the LGB sees the spot of reflected
laser light and tilts the bombs nose control surfaces to steer towards it.

WEAPONS CONVERSION
AIR-TO-GROUND
The Weapons
1000 lb. General Purpose Bomb (GPB)
A plain and simple unguided bomb, effective against a wide variety of targets.
Quite effective against a hardened target provided you can hit it, and the blast and
fragments will affect softer targets (most vehicles, aircraft etc.) over a fair radius.
Usually delivered four at a time.
1000 lb. Retarded Bomb (RET)
These are 1000 lb. GP bombs fitted with an alternative tail section incorporating
a braking parachute. This means that they can be dropped safely from much
lower altitudes than GP bombs, since the aircraft is much further ahead of the
bomb by the time it hits the ground (see diagram 36). Minimum dropping height
for Retarded Bombs is 100 feet (just enough time for the fuse to arm), as against
1000 feet for unretarded GP bombs.

This degree of accuracy makes laser-guided bombs the ideal weapon against
hardened installations or major bridges, which must be hit with extreme precision
to cause more than superficial damage.
BL755 Cluster Bomb
Looks like a plain bomb, though
less well streamlined. Is actually
a casing for many smaller
bombs (submunitions). After
dropping, the case splits open
at a preset height (set at 150
feet in Tornado) and ejects the
submunitions in a dense cloud.
This is the weapon of choice
against groups of vehicles or
parked aircraft.
JP.233 Dispensers
JP.233 will make a really
impressive mess of any runway
if used properly. Its main
disadvantage is the fact that
diagram 37
the delivering aircraft has to
overfly the target at low level
holding a straight course for the four seconds needed to dispense the whole load
- manoeuvering strews the things all over the place! It is also a heavy, draggy load
for the aircraft, though the pods jettison automatically when empty.
ALARM (Air Launched Anti-Radiation Missile)
Like any other anti-radiation missile ALARM homes on the transmissions of
enemy ground radars (EWR, search, SAM or AAA radars, for example) in order
to destroy them, but it is far more resourceful than most.

diagram 36

41

Weapon Packages and the Stores Management Display


(SMD)
Weapons for ground attack are grouped
together in Packages. One package
contains all the weapons intended for
one target, which will be released
together as a salvo. You might, for
example, load a package of four retarded
bombs for a planned attack on airfield
installations, and a second package of
two BL.755 to attack targets of
opportunity. The maximum number of
weapons in a single package is four,
and all must be of the same type.

disappears from the SMD and the next package is selected and highlighted,
ready to be armed.
You may override both the assignment of packages and the delivery modes,
attacking any target with any package, using any delivery mode suitable for the
weapons in the package. Hitting the K key will select and highlight the next
package down the list, or skip from the last to the first. Hitting the L key will cycle
through the available delivery modes for the currently selected package. You
cannot do either of these things when the arming switch is on - if you want to
change package or delivery mode you must hit Cancel Arm first.

WEAPONS TRAINING IN THE SIMULATOR


Stores Management Display

The content and status of any weapon Packages loaded can be seen on the
Stores Management Display (SMD), bottom centre in the rear panel, where each
of the top three lines can describe a single package. Suppose that the top line
reads:
X GPB1000x4 LFT
This specifies from left to right the target, if any, for which the package is intended
(X), the type of weapon (GPB1000), the number in the package (x4) and the
Delivery Mode selected (LFT). The Delivery Mode specifies whether you intend
to use manual or automatic release, a laydown or loft trajectory or a laser-guided
attack. Some weapons, like JP.233, have only one delivery mode available.
Others, like GP bombs, offer several options. When you start your attack run and
flip the arm air to ground weapon switch, the HUD will display different aiming
cues according to the delivery mode selected.
Packages are created at the Mission Planning stage, either when you plan an
attack on a specific target, or when you use the Payload window to create
packages to use against Targets of Opportunity. If you planned attacks on two
targets (X and Y) in one mission, and then loaded one more package for
opportunity targets, when you looked at the SMD the first line would show the
package for target X, the second line the package for target Y, and the third line
the Target of Opportunity package, with a dash (-) on the left rather than a letter.
The currently selected Package is shown highlighted. When you turn the arming
switch on, this is the package that will be used in the attack, and the appropriate
line on the SMD will flash continuously. When the package is released the Arm
status cancels itself, the HUD resets to its normal nav mode, the package

Select the Simulator from the Flight options, and look through the options on the
Mission Selection Screen until you find the mission titles with the letters TWCU
- for Tornado Weapons Conversion Unit. Select the first of these, titled IDS TWCU - Freefall Bombs. Make sure that the Simulator Options switch for Infinite
Weapons is ON. Now Commit, and you will move straight to the aircraft, in flight.
Engage the AFDS in Track mode - you will find yourself Terrain-Following at a ride
height of 1000 feet.
Switch to the back seat and
you will see from the Track
display on the left Tab that the
aircraft is approaching the Initial
Point for an attack on target X.
On the SMD you will see that
the first package is selected;
four GP bombs for Laydown
delivery. There are two other
packages loaded, one with two
retarded bombs, and one with
two BL.755 cluster bombs. For
the moment, were going to
attack target X as planned, with
the four GP bombs.

diagram 38

42

Laydown Attack (LAY on SMD)


Laydown bombing is traditional bombing, where the aircraft flies more or less
straight and level over the target to release its bombs. Lining up on the target is
the responsibility of the pilot (or the AFDS in Track mode), but the exact moment
of bomb release is controlled automatically by the bombsight. The automatic
release will not occur, however, unless the pilot or navigator permits it by holding
down the Commit button.
Wait until the aircraft passes
the Initial Point and starts
turning towards X. The first thing
to do is hit the arm air-to-ground
Switch, which you can do from
either seat. From the back seat,
youll see the selected package
on the SMD start flashing. In
the front seat youll see the Late
Arm Switch cover raised, and
the HUD mode will change to
show the Bomb Fall Line, the
CCIP (Continuously Computed
Impact Point), and the Target
Marker, which may well be
partly hidden behind the Bomb
Fall Line (see diagram 38 to
find out which is which).

place, the HUD changes back to normal navigation mode, and the Late Arm
Switch flips back down.
If you hit the Weapon View key just after bomb release youll be able to enjoy a
bombs eye view of the approaching target, followed by a plan view at impact.

Designating a Target of Opportunity on the Ground


Radar
This can be done from the front or back seat. Hit
the R key to turn on the radar and show the radar
image on the centre MFD. The landscape and
fixed objects known to the digital map system
are always shown in dim green shades. When
the radar detects an object which is not in the
map database it displays it as a bright green dot.
This is especially useful for finding vehicles
(including SAM and AAA defences) and trains.
Note that the radar cant see through hills. In the
dead ground behind a crest the display will
show you only stored map data.

diagram 39

For the moment the autopilot has control, but to do this manually, your first step
would be to line up the Bomb Fall Line so that it passes through the Target Marker.
The upper end of the Bomb Fall Line provides you with a Safety Height Cue, so
that the aircraft isnt damaged by flying debris as the bomb goes off. You can see
how this works in diagram 39. If you cant see the Bomb Fall Line at all, youre far
too low - its disappeared off the bottom edge of the HUD! The ideal minimum
height attack is flown with the top of the line right in the centre of the Target Marker,
but for now you might want to allow the normal training safety margin, with the
Target Marker in the gap below the top of the Bomb Fall Line.
The CCIP is the other element of the bombsight symbology. The point where the
CCIP line crosses the Bomb Fall Line is the point where a bomb would hit if
released now. In Laydown attacks, the release is automatic when the CCIP
reaches the Target Marker, but the symbol serves to show you how close you are
to release. Shortly before the CCIP reaches the Target Marker, you must press
and hold the Commit button to permit the automatic release. When release takes

The mouse is used to control a


designator cross which can be moved
around the display - check that the MFDs
green Mouse Active light is on, and if
not, use the T key to turn it on. Just
as with the Local Map display, the radar
display can be zoomed in or out by
clicking left or right mouse buttons with
the c key held down, and targets are
designated by clicking left or cancelled
by clicking right.

MFD Ground Radar Display

Radar ON Light

Manual Delivery (MAN on SMD)


The HUD displays the Bomb Fall Line and the CCIP (Continuously Computed
Impact Point) across it, showing where the bombsight thinks your bombs would
go if released at this moment. No Target Marker is shown, because you havent
told the navigation systems where the target is. You just fly the aircraft to place
your visually selected target at the intersection of the two lines, and then press
the Commit button to drop the bombs.
To change the delivery mode; go to the back cockpit and highlight the package
you want to use using the K key, then hit the L key repeatedly to cycle throught

43
target. The bombs would take
about 20-25 seconds to reach
the target, climbing to 8-9000
feet before they start to
descend.

the delivery mode options for


that package until you reach
MAN. As with any weapon
delivery mode, you must Arm
before you can drop the
package.

Loft Delivery (LFT on


SMD)
A Loft attack also requires that
the target position should be
known to the navigation
systems. A Loft attack comes
in two phases: in the first you
run in at low level and fairly
high speed, starting a good
distance (say 10 miles) from
the target; you line up the Bomb
Fall Line with the Target Marker
and wait for a countdown
clock on the HUD to count
down to zero. When that
happens, the second phase
starts as the HUD changes to
display a rubber triangle
steering cue and another
countdown clock. You pull up
into a climb, trying to place the
cross at the apex of the triangle
(the Apex Marker) in the centre
of the aircraft datum ring. As
you do, the clock winds down.
When it reaches zero the
bombs are released (provided
that the Commit button is down)
and you are free to get the
aircraft out of the way. The
bombs fly on, rising to the top
of a long arc and then curving
down on or near the target.

diagram 40

diagram 41

In a typical Loft attack, an aircraft running in at 550 knots at 200 feet would start
its pull-up about five or six miles from the target and release its bombs just below
1000 feet, climbing at an angle of just over 20 - still four or five miles from the

In a Loft attack, the bombs


travel a very long way from the
release point with no form of
guidance, so absolute
accuracy cant be guaranteed.
In practice, however, youll be
amazed at how much accuracy
is possible. Nonetheless, Loft
bombing is not recommended
for precision attacks. The great
advantage of this form of attack
is that the aircraft need not
overfly the target, and may
never even come within range
of its defences.

diagram 42

Restart the Simulator Freefall


Bombs mission, engage AFDS
Track mode and switch to the
back cockpit. The first package,
(four GP bombs) is already
selected and the delivery mode
is shown as LAY. Hit the L key
to cycle round the delivery
options until the display shows
LFT. When the aircraft turns to
run in on target waypoint X, hit
the arming switch. The HUD
will now show the Target
Marker, a solid Bomb Fall Line,
and a Countdown Clock slowly
diagram 43
unwinding anti-clockwise
around the Aircraft Datum. Use the Bomb Fall Line to line up on the Target Marker,
or let the AFDS do it in Track Mode, and whether manually or under AFDS, set
your altitude to about 200 feet and your airspeed to about 550 knots. The Clock
is counting down to the point where you start pulling up into a climb in order to loft
the bombs. This point, the Pull-up Point, is constantly recalculated on the basis
of range to the target, speed (the faster youre flying, the further you can throw

44
the bomb) and altitude (the higher you are,
the further the bomb will fly). The Pull-up
Point is determined by the maximum range at
which your lofted bombs could reach the
target if released at your current height and
speed in a 45 climb. This is the climb angle
at which you would achieve the theoretical
maximum range.
As the Countdown Clock approaches zero,
stand by. When the Pull-up Point is reached,
the HUD symbology changes, to show
another Countdown Clock and a Rubber
Triangle steering cue. The Clock shows the
difference between the range to the target,
and the distance your bombs would be thrown
if you released them now. The steering cue
directs you to pull up and steer left or right as
necessary to stay lined up with the target; the
small cross (the Apex Marker) moves up and
down, left and right relative to the Aircraft
Datum, the base line of the triangle is fixed
and the middle horizontal line is drawn halfway
between the two, skewing right or left as the
Apex Marker moves. The position of the
Apex Marker in relation to the Aircraft Datum
tells you which way to steer - when youre
pointed exactly the right way, the Apex Marker
is in the exact centre of the ring of the Aircraft
Datum.
Assuming that you are still well lined up on the
target, the Apex Marker will be directly above
the centre of the Aircraft Datum, telling you to
pull straight up. If youve flown this far under
AFDS control, now is the time to cancel it. Pull
back firmly on the stick, and hold it back - the
standard practice is to pull up at about 3.5 G.
As the aircraft pitches up and starts climbing
you will see the Countdown Clock run down
rapidly as your bomb throw distance
increases, and the Apex Marker will also
move down closer to the ring centre. Both of
these signs tell you that youre getting closer

diagram 44

45
to the release point. You may also see the
Apex Marker deflecting sideways. If it does,
bank towards it to line up again, but dont
overshoot on the correction. When the Clock
and the Apex Marker are indicating that youre
nearly at release, hold down the Commit button
and let the stick come forward to the neutral
centre position. At the moment of release, the
HUD reverts to normal nav mode symbology
and the Arm status cancels, as for any other
delivery mode. Diagram 44 shows a complete
sequence of HUD images for a loft attack.
Accuracy in a Loft Attack
As with any other form of attack you must line
up exactly on the target before release, but
because the bombs travel so far in a loft attack
any directional error will result in a miss by a
correspondingly large margin. If you can see
any heading error at all you must correct it
before release or your bombs will be wasted.
The other great factor in loft accuracy is the
pitch rate just before release. Remember that
the bombs will be automatically released the
instant that the throw distance is equal to or
greater than the range to the target. The
bombsight computer repeats its calculations
for bomb throw distance at very frequent
intervals, but each calculation takes time. If you are pulling up steeply, the throw
distances from successive calculations go up by leaps and bounds, and the
throw distance at release may overshoot the target by hundreds of feet. Diagram
45A illustrates this problem, by showing how the predicted bomb trajectory and
impact point change at half-second intervals through a pull-up. You should be
able to see that accuracy in these circumstances is a matter of blind luck. If
instead you let the stick come forward as the release point approaches diagram
45B, the throw distance still increases as the aircraft climbs, but it increases in
much smaller steps. The resulting release will stand a far better chance of being
accurate in range.
Recovery and Escape after a Loft Attack
The moment the bombs are released youre free to turn the aircraft away from the
target and its defences, and you also want to avoid climbing so high that youre
exposed as an easy SAM or AAA target.

diagram 45A

diagram 45B

Delivering Laser-Guided Bombs (LGB on SMD)


You can only laser-designate what the TIALD head under the aircraft can see,
and the higher you are, the further you can see. We suggest an altitude of about
23000 feet. As with Loft attacks, a long run-in is desirable (say 6 miles or more),
but we want a moderate-to-low speed (say 250 knots IAS). An LGB attack is
executed entirely from the navigators seat, with the aircraft under AFDS control.
Select and commit to the Simulator Mission TWCU - LGB Attack. This places
you in flight at 23000 Feet, heading toward a Target Waypoint X on an airfield.
Having assured yourself that the aircraft is heading in the right direction at the
right speed under the AFDS, switch to the back seat. Looking at the Stores
Management Display you will see that you have one package of three LGB
loaded, with the Delivery mode set to LGB. Use the Right Tab Function Select
key to cycle through the right Tab display options till you see a downward-looking

46
camera view (infra-red at night, visible light in daytime) with boxed crosshairs in
the centre. This is the TIALD view. Check that the green light in the corner of the
right Tab is on, indicating that mouse control is active on that display. If it isnt, hit
the T key once or twice until it is on. You will now find that moving the mouse
scrolls the camera image in the corresponding direction, but there are limits to the
field of view. The direction of the aircrafts movement is always up the screen, so
that the image will rotate as the aircraft turns. Push the mouse forward so that you
are looking at the forward edge of the cameras coverage, which is where
approaching targets will first appear, and sweep the field of view from side to side.
The TIALD image can be zoomed by holding down the c key and moving the
mouse forward or back. When zooming, the image locks on the point at the centre
of the display, compensating for the aircrafts movement, unless the trailing edge
of the camera coverage catches up and pushes it forward.

Zoom out as far as possible and move the view


forward and backward between the leading and
trailing edges of the available area, watching
the centre symbol of the display. You should
see that when the view centre is near the
forward edge of coverage (ahead of the aircraft)
the centre cross symbol is surrounded by square
brackets, which disappear when the view is
centred nearer the trailing edge (behind the
aircraft). While the square brackets are shown,
you could drop a bomb and continue to designate
the current centre spot long enough for the
bomb to reach the ground. If the square brackets
are absent, the spot in the centre of the camera
view would be too far behind the aircraft for you
to keep it illuminated till the bomb hit.
Use a wide zoom to search for some
recognisable feature in the forward half of the
available camera coverage and then click the
left mouse button. This locks the view and the
laser designator on the point at the centre of the
image, and sets the Target of Opportunity
waypoint T at this point. Now zoom in closer.
While you are locked on, you may finely adjust
the designator spot by moving the mouse while
holding down the left mouse button. It is normally
best to do this in several stages, starting with a
wide zoom, placing the point, zooming in closer

TIALD Display-OK to drop

and adjusting position, then closer for a further adjustment until you are satisfied
that the laser spot is on the precise point you wish to hit. Clicking the right mouse
button cancels the lock, letting the camera view roll forward over the ground at
the aircrafts speed.
Use the D key to cycle display options on the centre MFD till youre looking at
the Local Map display (with the dotted orientation line down the centre). Hit the
O (letter o) key to switch the map origin (the aircraft position) from the centre
of the MFD down to the bottom centre, so that you can see ahead as far as
possible. As the aircraft approaches Target Waypoint X you will be able to see
it marked on the map, which will help you locate it in the TIALD image.
When the target airfield starts to appear at the leading edge of the TIALD view,
start zooming in to find a target - for the moment, any target will do. Dont bother
to place the lock precisely for the moment, just set it somewhere in the general
area of the target. Hit the arming switch and release the package immediately with
the Commit button. This triggers immediate release of the first bomb. The arming
status will not cancel automatically until the package is empty. This allows you
to release a second and a third bomb manually at intervals of several seconds.
In this way you can either make repeated attacks on one difficult target or guide
each bomb in turn to a different target. An interval of four seconds between bombs
is a good choice for closely spaced targets.
It will be at least 20 seconds before the first bomb reaches the ground from this
altitude, and you can use this time to zoom in and refine the position of the
designator spot. When youre satisfied with this, zoom out a little to give yourself
a more general view. When the bomb arrives you will probably be able to see it
flash into view before striking the target. If you dont change anything, a few
seconds later the second bomb will strike the same spot, followed by the third.
Normally a slow ripple of LGB like this would be used to strike multiple targets
clustered in a group - a HAS (Hardened Aircraft Shelter) complex would be a
classic example. It is simply a matter of shifting the spot quickly after each bomb
strikes. There are limits to how fast the bombs can manoeuvre, so the successive
targets cannot be too far apart. If you wished to strike widely separated targets,
you would need a longer interval between releases.

Delivering JP.233

TIALD Dispaly-too late to drop

Select the Simulator Mission TWCU - JP.233 and start it up. You should be
approaching the Initial Point of your attack run on Target Waypoint X at 500 knots,
at 200 feet. When the aircraft starts its turn to line up on the target, hit the arming
switch. You will see a solid Bomb Fall Line with no Safety Height cue, the Target
Marker and the CCIP.

47
As the CCIP approaches the
Target Marker, hold down the
Commit button. Release starts
automatically and continues till
all
submunitions
are
dispensed. Starting from the
moment of release, the HUD
will display a Countdown Clock.
This counts down through the
four seconds necessary to
dispense the full load.
Remember that any radical turn
will spray submunitions in a
wide curve. You may notice
vibration and noise while the
release continues.

ALARM Attack

Warning Receiver (RWR), swinging the aircraft nose left or right will automatically
switch the designation to whichever is most directly in front.
Once the target is designated, hitting the Fire/Commit button will launch a single
ALARM from the selected package on a direct trajectory. Provided that the
ALARM package is not empty, the arm status will not cancel automatically on
launch. If you want to disarm in order to select Indirect mode or another weapon
package, youll need to do this manually with the Cancel Arm key combination.
When the package is empty, however, the arming status will cancel automatically
and the next package on the SMD will be selected by default. If there is no ground
radar on the RWR within 45 on either side of the nose, no target will be
designated and you will not be permitted to launch in Direct mode.

diagram 46

ALARMS are loaded and


managed in packages like all
other ground-attack stores, and
Direct (DIR) or Indirect (IND)
mode operation is selected
using the normal select
delivery mode key.
Launching ALARM - Direct
mode (DIR on SMD)
In order to launch an ALARM in
this mode you must first select
a package of ALARMs, set the
delivery mode to DIR, then hit
arm air-to-ground weapon.
The HUD symbology will
change to show a Boresight
Marker in place of the aircraft
datum, and the ground radar
diagram 47
emitter most directly in front of
the nose (within an angle of plus or minus 45) will automatically be designated
as the target. The standard Ground Target Marker will be shown on the HUD, and
a Range Clock centred on the Boresight Marker will indicate the range to this
target. Maximum reading of the Range Clock is 40000 metres (130000 feet or
21.5 n.m.). If there is more than one hostile ground radar showing on the Radar

Launching ALARM - Indirect mode (IND on SMD)


In order to launch an ALARM in this mode you must first select a package of
ALARMs, set the delivery mode to IND, then hit arm air-to-ground weapon. The
target will be the currently-selected waypoint, whether from the stored flightplan
or a Target-of-Opportunity. The HUD symbology is identical to that provided in
ALARM Direct mode, showing a Ground Target Marker and a Range Clock with
the same calibration, subject to the same condition that the target must be within
45 of the nose on one side or the other.
Once the system is armed and
a valid target exists, each press
of the Fire/Commit button will
immediately launch one
ALARM at the target. The Arm
status will not automatically
cancel while there are still
ALARMs left in the selected
package.
After launch, each missile will
cruise toward the target at
medium altitude. Shortly before
the target is reached, the
missile will execute a zoomclimb to about 10000 feet and
deploy its parachute. It then
hangs nose-down over the
target, scanning for hostile
radar emission. When it finds
one (or more) active radars, it
will select the one most directly

diagram 48

48
beneath, cut away the parachute and drop on it as a guided bomb. If no target has
appeared by the time the missile has descended to 1000 feet, it will cut away and
drop unguided to the ground.
If the missile is fired at a target beyond effective range, and it detects that its speed
has dropped below a threshold value, it will zoom-climb and loiter wherever it
happens to be at that point. If a threat radar is detected beneath, it will attack it
as normal.

SAMs and AAA, Tactics for ALARM


Radar is used by SAM (Surface-to-Air Missile) launchers, and AAA (Anti-Aircraft
Artillery) vehicles, both to look for targets and to direct fire, thus ALARM can be
used against either - provided you can persuade or trick them into switching on.
If you want to use ALARM in Direct mode to shoot your way out of unexpected
trouble, youd better have it armed and ready so that all you have to do is hit the
Fire button. In the time needed to set up a launch from a standing start youd
probably have flown straight past the threat, for better or worse.

ECM (Electronic Counter-Measures)


If you turn on the Tornados ECM system, SAM and AAA units will find it more
difficult to obtain a lock on you, and fighter radars and missiles may also be
affected.

Cannon
The Tornado IDS carries two and the ADV one integral Mauser BK 27 cannon.
The gun outfit of the IDS is intended for use against ground targets as well as airto-air, and HUD symbology is provided for both uses.
There are in fact three HUD displays associated with the guns: one for use
against a designated ground target, one for a designated air target, and one (the
Standby Sight) which is the default when no target of either type is designated or
within view. To use the cannon in either
mode, you must start by hitting the Arm
Air-to-Air key combination (a+e
on most machines), and you may then
cycle through the weapons available
with Air-to-Air Weapon Select. Youll
know when youve selected Guns
because youll see GUNS x180 in the
bottom left corner of the HUD (on the
ADV the Weapon status panel will also
show GUNS illuminated). In addition, if
ECM ON Light

you have no target currently designated,


the Standby Sight will appear on the
HUD. This is highly distinctive because
unlike all other HUD symbology its
coloured red.
Guns - Standby Sight
The Standby Sight is a simple iron
sight, replacing the aircraft datum symbol
- in other words, it makes no attempt to
show you where your target is or predict
its motion; its only function is to show
you where your cannon shells will go.

diagram 49

Guns - Air-to-Ground
This mode is intended to help you attack Targets of Opportunity - typically groups
of unarmoured or lightly-armoured vehicles, parked aircraft or other grouped soft
targets. In order to use it you must set a ToO waypoint using the Scrollable Map
or the Ground Radar, and select it as the current waypoint. You dont need to have
the radar on, but if it is you must ensure that its in Ground mode, not Air mode.
Once these conditions are satisfied, the HUD will show the Air-to-Ground Guns
symbology whenever the nose is pointed within a reasonable angle of the target.
If youre pointed too far off, the Standby Sight will appear.
The normal Ground Target
Marker is superimposed on the
target, and the aircraft datum
symbol is replaced by the
Boresight Marker, which should
obviously be placed over the
Target Marker and kept there in
order to hit the target. A Range
Clock is shown centred on the
Boresight Marker, giving the
range to the target. If the clock
is showing a complete circle,
the range is 2400 metres (8000
feet) or more. The two marks
on the lower rim of the clock
indicate
recommended
maximum (1500m/4900ft) and
minimum
(900m/3000ft)
ranges.

diagram 50

49
Apart from the obvious problem of hitting the target in the first place, the main
difficulty involved in using the guns to attack ground targets is due to the fact that
you have to dive the aircraft at the ground in order to do it.

AIR-TO-AIR

Its important that you realise and remember that the radar can only see targets
within a wedge-shaped volume in front of the aircraft. If you designate a target
which then passes out of the radars field of view, you will lose lock. If and when
you re-acquire the target, youll need to designate again. Boresight designation
is the quickest and easiest method to use in close air combat - just point your nose
somewhere near the target and hit the key.

Air Radar
Whether you are using guns or missiles in air
combat, you will need the radar switched on in
Air mode to designate targets. If you dont have
radar switched on you will have no indication of
target range, and therefore no sighting
information. You can use the guns with the
Standby Sight, but youll have to estimate
deflections by eye, and youll be unable to use
missiles at all.
Turning on the Radar in Air mode is done by
hitting a R on most machines. This will also
automatically select the Air radar display on the
MFD. The display is a plan view of the volume
ahead of the aircraft nose, showing enemy and
allied aircraft within range as two different types
of symbol. Short-range (2n.m./3.8km.) and
medium-range (10n.m./18.5km.) displays are
available in both IDS and ADV
Tornados, and the ADV also
offers a long-range setting
(30n.m./55km.).

target currently designated, this will work exactly like boresight designate. If
there IS already a designated target, this will designate the next available
candidate, so you can use it to cycle round all targets on the radar, designating
each in turn.

MFD Air Radar Display

diagram 51

There are three different ways


of designating an aircraft as a
target. One is to use the mouse
to point and click on the display.
The second method is to point
the aircrafts nose in the general
direction of the enemy and hit
boresight designate (l
on most machines). This will
select and designate the
nearest aircraft in front of you.
The third method is to hit next
air target (probably a +
l). If there is no air

Guns - Air-to-Air
In order to use this mode: a) you must hit arm air-to-air weapon (probably
a+e) and select the guns using cycle air-to-air weapons, b) the Radar
must be on and in Air-to-Air mode, c) you must have designated an aircraft as
your target.
When youve designated your target a column of four numbers will appear in the
lower right corner of the HUD. In order from top to bottom these show: target
Range in nautical miles; target Altitude in thousands of feet; target Speed in knots
and target Heading in degrees. If you want a mnemonic, think RASH for Range,
Altitude, Speed, Heading. If the target is within the HUD field of view youll see
the symbology shown in diagram 53. The aircraft datum is replaced by a mediumsized cross (the boresight
symbol), a large Air Target
Marker cross will overlay the
target, with a concentric Range
Clock attached, and a small
cross, the Aiming Point, will be
there as well.
If the Range Clock is showing a
full circle, this means that the
target is at least 1000 metres
(3000 feet) away. The two
marks on the lower half of the
clock correspond to the
maximum and minimum
recommended ranges, which
are 600 metres (2000 feet) and
400 metres (1300 feet)
respectively.

diagram 52

diagram 53

50
The Aiming Point is the only part of this display which really needs explanation.
In order to hit a target moving across your field of view, you must allow for the
distance the target travels between the time you fire and the time the shot reaches
the target. You have to aim ahead of the target (lead it) in order to have any
chance of hitting it, unless it is travelling directly towards or away from you. Aim
the Boresight at the Aiming point, not the Target Marker, in order to maximise your
chances of hitting the target.
The history of air combat consistently shows that only a tiny proportion of pilots
are capable of accurate deflection shooting without a lead-computing sight to
help them. Before such sights were available, most gun kills were made at short
range from almost directly ahead or astern of the target, thus effectively
eliminating the need to estimate deflection. Even with sophisticated modern
gunsights, theres still a lot to be said for this method.
When you designate a target, your radar measures its range, bearing, elevation
and radial velocity (by Doppler effect). Each measurement is integrated with the
previous ones to work out speed and precise direction. The gunsight computes
how long it would take your cannon shells to cover the intervening distance,
calculates how much lead is necessary and projects the Aiming Point ahead of
the target. Aim the Boresight at the Aiming Point, not the Target Marker, in order
to maximise your chances of hitting the target.
Launching AIM9L
The following conditions are
necessary to launch an AIM9L:
a) you must hit the arm air-toair key combination, b) you
must use the cycle air-to-air
weapon key to select AIM9L,
c) you must turn on the radar in
Air mode and designate your
target, d) the missile seeker
head must be able to see and
lock on to the designated target.
When the target has been
designated but the missile
seeker cannot yet see it, the
HUD symbology is as shown in
diagram 54. The weapon name
and the number available
appear in the lower left corner,
target Range, Altitude, Speed

diagram 54

and Heading are shown in the


lower right corner. The Air
Target Marker and Range Clock
overlay the target position. In
this mode, the maximum
reading on the Range Clock is
10000 metres (33000 feet). An
Aiming Point is shown just as in
Air-to-Air Guns mode, because
it gives a useful visual indication
of the targets direction of
motion, and a missile fired at
close range may well not be
able to hit the target unless its
launched with some degree of
lead.
The other element of the
symbology is the Lock-on
Diamond. Until the missile
seeker head acquires the
target, this will rest at the centre
of the HUD, surrounding the
Boresight Marker. When the
seeker head picks up the target
and locks on, the Lock-on
Diamond shifts to the Target
Marker and tracks it, as shown
in diagram 55. Lock-on is also
confirmed by an audible signal,
a steady tone.

diagram 55

Launching Sky Flash


To launch a Sky Flash missile
you must hit arm air-to-air
weapon and use cycle air-toair weapon to select Sky Flash.
This will be shown in the lower
left corner of the HUD, and on
the Weapon Status indicator. A
diagram 56
target must also be designated
on the Air Radar, using any preferred method, and to take full advantage of Sky
Flash, the radar should be set for long range. The HUD symbology is almost
exactly like that provided for the AIM9L, except that there is no Lock-on Diamond,

51
and the maximum range reading on the Range Clock is 40000 metres (130000
feet / 21.5 n.m.).

Missile Ranges
Altitude
Drag is less at high altitudes, so the missile reaches a higher speed at burn-out,
decelerates more slowly and travels further.
Target Speed and Aspect
If a missile is launched head-on at an oncoming enemy aircraft, the target and the
missile are travelling toward one another at high speed. The maximum launch
range is greater than it would be against a stationary target, by the distance the
aircraft travels in the missiles flight time.
On the other hand, if a missile is launched at a retreating target the opposite is
true. Maximum launch range against a receding target is considerably less than
maximum range against a stationary one, and its easy to see that once the
missiles speed has fallen below the targets a hit is impossible.
Suggested Ranges
For Sky Flash, which is normally quoted as having a range of 30 miles or so, an
RAF Tornado ADV pilot (interviewed in an unclassified video) has quoted launch
ranges of 20 miles from ahead and 5 miles from astern. We assume that these
are probably figures for fairly high altitude, against a target doing a little less than
Mach 1. At low altitude, these figures might well be halved or worse.

Neither of these countermeasures really gives you immunity from missiles,


though they can help a lot if used properly, and in conjunction with manoeuvre.
The basic principle is that you must use the decoy when the missile is fairly close,
so that the aircraft will be out of the missiles field of view by the time the decoy
has lost its effectiveness. If a missile is approaching from behind, for example,
dumping decoys and continuing in a straight line may do you very little good: the
missile will pass them and you will still be in view. If, on the other hand, you drop
chaff and flares as the missile approaches and then turn hard or dive out of the
way, you may well be more successful.

The Radar Warning Receiver (RWR)


The display itself shows a clock-face of bearing markers on the left, and a
column of text discretes down the right-hand side. When a threat is detected, a
symbol with a characteristic shape is placed on the clock-face at the appropriate
relative bearing, and the matching text on the
right will be lit up. Every time a new threat is
detected, there will also be an audio warning
which sounds rather like a telephone ringing. Its
important to realise that the top of the clock-face
display represents the direction in which your
aircrafts nose is currently pointing, so that a
threat on your right will be shown at 3 oclock whichever way youre heading.
Radar Warning Receiver
Symbols for radars will be shown in green, and on the PC version at least, missile
symbols are shown in two different colours; orange for radar-guided missiles and
red for infra-red (or visually-guided SAMS).

For the AIM9L, the maximum engagement range is limited by the maximum range
at which the infra-red seeker can acquire and lock the target, which we have
elected to set at 8 nautical miles or so. As a rough guide, lets say that sensible
maximum launch ranges at high altitude might be 5 n.m. from ahead or 1.5 from
astern, or half of these figures at low altitude.

Missile Countermeasures: Flares, Chaff and Manoeuvres


Flares have been used to decoy heatseeking missiles for almost as long as they
have existed. However, modern IR seekers are a great deal more discriminating
than they used to be. In some cases they can distinguish between a brightly
burning flare and a warm aircraft, or they may not be fooled for long.
Chaff - radar-reflecting strips dispensed in a cloud - has been in use against
search and gunnery radar for even longer than radar-guided missiles have
existed.

diagram 57

52

AIRCREW NOTES
COCKPIT LAYOUT
Instruments Key
1

Reverse thrust indicators

Attention getter

Autopilot engaged indicator

Autothrottle engaged indicator

Wheel brakes

Landing gear position indicator

Radar altimeter

B risk indicator

Vertical speed indicator (VSI)

10

Indicated airspeed / Mach number

11

Secondary control surfaces position indicator

12

Altimeter

13

Jettison all external stores + internal fuel

14

Jettison all external stores except AIM9-L

22

Head up display control panel

30

Approach progress indicator

15

Jettison external fuel tanks

23

Multi-function display (MFD)

31

Reheat operating lights

16

Angle of attack indicator

24

Mouse active indicator

32

G meter

17

E-Scope (IDS) or weapon status (ADV)

25

Radar on indicator

33

Fuel flow indicator

18

Horizontal situation indicator (HSI)

26

ECM on indicator

34

Fuel quantity indicator

19

Attitude direction indicator (ADI)

27

Radar warning receiver

35

Standby compass

20

Head up display (HUD)

28

Engine r.p.m. indicators (left & right)

36

Oxygen flow indicator

21

Late arm switch

29

Engine temperature indicators (left & right)

Pilot's Instrument Panel

53
Reverse thrust indicators
Illuminated when reverse thrust selected.
Autopilot engaged indicator
Illuminated when autopilot (AFDS) engaged.
Autothrottle engaged indicator
Illuminated when autothrottle engaged.
Attention getter
Illuminates after system failure or warning. Refer to Central Warning Panel in rear
cockpit for identification of problem.
Angle of attack indicator
Mechanical display of angle of attack.
Head up display
See separate section later.
Late arm switch
Moves to its upper (armed) position after weapons armed using arm ground
attack key or arm air attack key. Moves to its lower (disarmed) position by
using cancel arm key. Weapons cannot be fired when the Late Arm switch is
down.

Landing gear position indicator


(a) Three green lights - gear down and locked
(b) Three red lights - gear not locked up or down
(c) No lights - gear locked up
Vertical speed indicator
Moves clockwise for a positive rate of climb and counter-clockwise for a negative
rate of climb (i.e. descent).
Secondary control surfaces position indicator
(a) Upper left - four flap positions:
zero flap
manoeuvre flap
mid flap
full flap
(b) Upper right - slat positions:
zero slat
manoeuvre slat
mid slat
n.b. slat and flap positions are linked and not separately controllable

B risk indicator (IDS only)


Warning light advising you that Terrain Following system is at risk of being unable
to maintain the required safety margin.
Wheel brakes
Illuminated when wheel brakes applied.
Radar on indicator
Illuminated when aircrafts radar is active.

Zero Flaps

Mid Flaps

Manoeuvre Flaps

Full Flaps

ECM on indicator
Illuminated when aircrafts ECM is active.
Approach progress indicator
Illuminates during the approach to an allied airfield, 3500 feet from the runway
threshold.
Reheat operating lights
Illuminate when engine reheat selected.

54
(c) Lower left - airbrake position

Altimeter
Analogue dial showing barometric altitude.

Airbrake on

Airbrake off

25 sweep

45sweep

(d) Lower right - wing sweep:

Jettison indicators
Three lights to confirm successful jettison of:
Left:
all external stores plus internal fuel to
minimum
Centre: all external stores except AIM9-L
Right: external fuel tanks
67 sweep

E-scope (IDS) or Weapon status (ADV)


(a) E-scope (IDS Tornado)
Shows projection of terrain ahead of aircraft when flying
at low altitudes.
(b) Weapon status (ADV Tornado)
The weapons status indicator shows which air-to-air
weapon is selected (highlighted) and armed (flashing).
The pilot may select between guns, AIM9-L Sidewinder
or Sky Flash. The weapon name will not highlight if it is
not available.

Weapon Status on ADV

Altimeter

E-scope on IDS

Attitude direction indicator


Otherwise known as an artificial horizon, this instrument shows the pitch and roll
attitude of your aircraft relative to the ground. For example, pitch up and the
artificial horizon will fall, roll right and the artificial horizon rolls left. A small bug
travels around the circumference of this instrument showing your roll orientation.
This is particularly useful when your aircraft is pitched so far up or down that the
horizon is no longer visible.

Radar altimeter
Indicates height above ground level when below
5000 feet barometric. Non-linear scale with
highest resolution at low altitude.
Indicated Airspeed / Mach number
Analogue dial showing Indicated Airspeed up to
800 knots and digital readout of Mach number.

Level Flight

IAS/Mach number

Rolled 90 right

Flying Inverted

Rolled 90 left

55
Horizontal situation indicator (HSI)
This instrument has two functions:
Firstly, it indicates your aircrafts heading by means
of a bug travelling around the circumference of
the compass rose.

Engine temperature indicators


Individual analogue temperature indicator for
each engine (left and right). Normal reading of
400C at idle and 700C at full reheat. Higher
than this probably means that you are on fire.....

examples:
bug at 12 oclock heading due North
bug at 3 oclock heading due East
bug at 6 oclock heading due South
bug at 9 oclock heading due West

G meter
Shows g force due to aircraft manoeuvres. For straight
and level flight the reading will be 1g with the pointer at the
9 oclock position. Maximum positive g force of 7.5,
maximum negative g force of -3.

Engine Temperature Indicators

Bug at 12 o'clock
flying north

Secondly, it is part of the Instrument Landing System and shows localiser and
glideslope deviation during an approach to an allied airfield.
The vertical needle is linked to the runway localiser and shows deviation from the
runway centreline. A small vertical scale can be seen on the left of the instrument
and this may be used to follow the correct glideslope down to the runway
threshold.

Fuel flow indicator


Very little movement is evident on this instrument unless
reheat is selected. This instrument is then particularly
useful for assessing the extent of reheat in use.
Fuel quantity indicator
Shows total quantity of fuel remaining. Fuel in external
tanks is represented by the red-bordered sector from 12
to 3 oclock on the gauge.
Standby compass
Shows magnetic compass heading of aircraft.

Runway to your left

Below Glideslope

Mouse active indicator


When mouse control is appropriate to more than one current display e.g. with the
radar on the MFD and the moving map on a TV TAB display, control may be
passed between the displays by use of the Select active display key. The
indicator will illuminate to confirm mouse control is active.
Engine rpm indicators
Individual analogue rpm indicator for each
engine (left and right). Normally shows 63% at
engine idle. Full scale deflection of 100% at
maximum dry thrust (no reheat) and throughout
all reheat settings.

Radar warning receiver


This display shows when your aircraft is being tracked by
enemy radar, both ground-based (e.g. SAM or AAA) and
airborne (e.g. fighter aircraft). The display also shows
incoming ground-launched or air-launched missiles, both
infra-red and radar-guided. Discretes on the right of the
display will illuminate as follows:
SAM
AAA
EWR
AC
MSL

Engine r.p.m. Indicators

G Meter

you are being tracked by a SAM


launcher
you are being tracked by anti-aircraft
artillery
you are being tracked by ground-based
early warning radar
you are being tracked by an enemy
aircraft
incoming missile, infra-red or radarguided, ground or air-launched

Fuel Flow Indicator

Fuel Quantity Indicator

Radar Warning Receiver

56
ILS steering marker
The steering marker is linked
to the runway localiser and
glideslope ILS transmitters.
If you are aligned with the
runway centreline and
following the required
glideslope, the steering
marker will overlay the aircraft
datum symbol in the centre of
the HUD. If the marker is off
centre, steer towards it.

Bomb fall line


Line along which the bomb
will fall after release. Safety
height cue gives indication of
safety margin so that pilot may
avoid flying through debris
hemisphere of exploding
weapon.
Continuously computed
impact point (CCIP)
Marker across the bomb fall
line showing the bombs
computed impact point if
released immediately.
Ground target marker
Position of designated target
as seen through the HUD.

Bomb fall line


Line along which the bomb will
fall after release.
Countdown clock
Counts down to the pull up
point and the start of
stage 2.
Ground target marker
Position of designated target
as seen through the HUD.

Countdown clock
Shows the difference between
the range to the target and the
distance your bombs would be
thrown if you released them
immediately. Unwinds as your
aircraft approaches weapon
release. Calibration dependent
upon weapon type.
Rubber triangle
A steering cue consisting of an
apex point (small +), a short
middle line and a long base
line. The position of the base
line is fixed. The apex marker
moves left,right,up and down
relative to the aircraft datum to
indicate a steering demand to
the pilot. The middle line is
drawn half way between the
apex marker and the base line
and moves left and right.

57
Bomb fall line
Line along which the bomb will
fall after release.
Continuously computed
impact point (CCIP)
Marker across the bomb fall
line showing the bombs
computed impact point if
released immediately.
Ground target marker
Position of designated target
as seen through the HUD.

Countdown clock
Appears when the CCIP
reaches the target marker.
Counts down through the four
seconds necessary to
dispense the full weapon load.

Bomb fall line


Line along which the bomb will
fall after release. Safety height
cue gives indication of safety
margin so that pilot may avoid
flying
through
debris
hemisphere of exploding
weapon.
Continuously computed
impact point (CCIP)
Marker across the bomb fall
line showing the bombs
computed impact point if
released immediately.

Boresight
This replaces the aircraft
datum.
Range clock
Displays range to target with
maximum range of 21.5 nm
(40 km)
Ground target marker
Position of designated target
as seen through the HUD.

58
This mode is only available
with a target of opportunity
selected as the current
waypoint.
Boresight
Direction in which your cannon
shells will travel if fired now.
This replaces the aircraft
datum.
Range clock
Displays range to target with
two calibration marks: 900m
and 1500m range

IR Lock diamond
When the missiles IR seeker
has acquired the target this
symbol moves from the centre
of the HUD to the target marker.
Range clock
Shows range to target,
calibrated for AIM9-L.
Aiming point
Prediction of the targets
position. May be used as a
steering cue.

Standby sight
Larger red sight which appears
when cannon armed but no
target is designated.
Aiming point
Prediction of the targets
position. Manoeuvre your
aircraft so that the aiming point
coincides with the boresight
and fire your cannon when in
range.
Air target marker
Position of air target projected
onto HUD display.
Range clock
Displays range to target with
two calibration marks: 400m
and 600m range

Mode is similar to AIM9-L


symbology but without the IR
lock diamond.

59

Navigator/Weapons Officers seat


Instruments Key
Items common with front cockpit
1
Mouse active indicator
2
Landing gear position indicator
3
Attitude direction indicator
4
Horizontal situation indicator
5
Altimeter
6
Indicated airspeed / Mach number
7
Multi function display
8
Mouse active indicator
9
Autopilot engaged indicator
10
Autothrottle engaged indicator
11
Radar on indicator
12
ECM on indicator
13
Mouse active indicator
Items unique to rear cockpit
14
Left TV TAB display
15
Analogue clock
16
Stores management display
17
Right TV TAB display
18
Central warning panel
Navigator's Instrument Panel

Stores Management Display


This small screen is dedicated to the display of
available weapon packages and the selection of
weapon delivery modes. All available weapons
will be listed together with chaff and flare
availability. If necessary, prior to arming, use the
Select weapon package key to highlight the
required weapon during your approach to the
target and use the Select delivery mode key to
specify your method of attack. The highlighted
name will flash once you have armed the weapon.

Stores Management Display

Central Warning Panel


The large panel to the right of the
Stores Management Display is used
to determine the nature of system
failures and warnings. Refer to this
panel when the front cockpit attention
getters are flashing. You may cancel
the attention getters by pressing
master warning reset key.
Central Warning Panel

60
Central Warning Panel
Red Captions:
REV
OXY
FIRE
AUT
ENG
SPILS
UC
FUEL

thrust reversers failure


oxygen system pressure low
engine fire (left or right)
emergency autopilot disengage
engine failure (left or right)
SPILS spin prevention system damaged
gear damaged
fuel low

Amber Captions:
CNFG
flap configuration error
ECM
ECM failure
UC
gear configuration error
AB
air brake failure
SWP
wing sweep failure
WB
wheel brake failure
ADC
air data computer (autopilot) failure
FLPS
flaps failure
MFD1
MFD failure - pilot
MFD2
MFD failure - navigator
HUD
HUD failure
RAD
radar failure
TAB
TV TAB failure (left or right)
RWR
radar warning receiver failure

Kneepad view and options


Select the Look down view for the following user options:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0

Visibility
Ground
Hills
Sky
Horizon
HUD frame
Control device

6 to 25 miles
plain or textured
plain or textured
plain or textured
plain or faded
hidden or shown
keyboard 1 or 2
joystick 1 or 2
Sound effects off or on
Minimise / restore

Options 1 to 6 adjust aspects of


Tornado that will affect the
smoothness with which it runs
on your computer. For example,
reducing the Visibility will mean
that ground objects cannot be
seen until you get closer to
them. Less ground detail on
the screen will give a smoother
simulation
on
slower
computers. Selecting the plain
options in 2 to 5 will also improve
performance on a slow
computer.

Look Down View - system configuration

Option 7 allows you to select different primary flight controls:


(i) keyboard 1 - roll rate and pitch rate proportional to how long key is depressed.
Roll and pitch rates reduce to zero when key released.
(ii) keyboard 2 - roll rate and pitch rate proportional to how long key is depressed.
Roll and pitch rates maintained when key released.
(iii) joystick 1 - single joystick option. Joystick provides pitch and roll control.
(iv) joystick 2 - two joystick option. Joystick 1 provides pitch and roll control.
Joystick 2 provides throttle and rudder control.
Option 0 - Reduces Visibility to 6 miles and selects plain for options 2 to 5 with
single keystroke. This option offers instant frame rate boost - useful in combat.
To restore your previous setting hit 0 again.

AVIONICS REFERENCE
Multi Function Display (MFD)
Mounted centrally on the instrument panel of both pilot and navigator you will see
the Multi Function Display, a distinguishing feature of the GR4 Tornado. This unit
offers a variety of functions, selected by the Centre MFD Function Select key:
(a) Autopilot and Flight Director System (AFDS) and Autothrottle
settings - if active
(b) Local map
(c) ILS
(d) Radar - if active
(e) Forward looking camera

61
(a) Autopilot Flight Director System (AFDS) and Autothrottle
Depending upon the mode selected, the autopilot will take control of your altitude
(ALT), your heading (HDG) and your Indicated Air Speed (IAS). Five autopilot
modes are available:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

Track
Altitude/Heading Acquire
Terrain Follow
Approach
Autothrottle

(i) Track (AFDS TRACK (-) ) - this mode will command the aircraft to follow a flight
plan defined during your pre-flight briefing or to fly to a waypoint set at a target of
opportunity during flight (waypoint T). The aircraft will fly automatically from each
waypoint to the next, adjusting altitude and speed accordingly. The letter of the
next waypoint (e.g. B,C, etc) is shown in brackets at the top of the display. If you
wish to bypass the next waypoint, use skip to next waypoint key. The system
may be toggled between Terrain Follow or Altitude
Acquire when in Track mode by pressing the
Terrain Follow key. Altitude acquire (ACQR) or
ride height (RIDE) may be adjusted with the pitch
control. Heading adjustment is not available in
Track mode (HDG display will read AUTO). Time
To Go (TTG) is displayed as minutes:seconds.
Time Early/Late (TEL) will be displayed if the
waypoint has a predefined time of arrival. The
autothrottle facility is available in this mode.
(ii) Altitude/Heading Acquire (AFDS ALT/HDG)
- this mode enables you to specify a required
barometric altitude and a required heading by
using the normal pitch and roll control inputs in
conjunction with the AFDS display. ALT and HDG
will show ACQR to confirm autopilot acquire mode.
The aircraft will make the necessary manoeuvres
in order to acquire the conditions specified.
Selection of this mode without further control input
will cause the aircraft to hold the current altitude
and heading. The autothrottle facility is available
in this mode.
(iii) Terrain Follow (AFDS TF) - this mode instructs the autopilot to fly your
aircraft at a given ride height (RIDE) above the ground, selectable in seven
stages from 200 feet up to 1500 feet using the normal pitch control input. Roll

control sets desired heading as in Altitude/Heading Acquire mode. The system


will do its best to follow the contours of the ground, thereby minimising your
exposure to enemy radar. Watch for the B risk indicator when travelling at high
speed on the lowest ride heights. This warning
light illuminates when the system believes that it
may not be possible to maintain the desired safety
margin - ignore it and you may find yourself
crashing into a hillside. Either slow down or
increase your ride height. If the radar altitude falls
below the safety margin the AFDS will roll the
wings level, execute a hard pull up, disengage
itself and trigger a warning. The autothrottle facility
is available in this mode.
(iv) Approach (AFDS APRCH) - links the autopilot to the Instrument Landing
System for an automatic approach to an allied airfield. Altitude (ALT), heading
(HDG) and airspeed (IAS) are all under autopilot control (AUTO). Time To Go
(TTG) is displayed as minutes:seconds. An AFDS approach is manually selectable
only if you are within an allied ILS beam and flying towards the airfield. At this point
the ILS marker will be on your HUD and the localiser/glideslope needles will have
appeared on your MFD if it is in ILS mode. The Approach mode is automatically
selected when you arrive at an approach waypoint in Track mode. Once active,
the autopilot will steer the aircraft onto the correct approach path to the runway
and adjust throttle setting for correct speed and
rate of descent. n.b. This is an auto-approach
mode - not an auto-landing mode. During your
hands off approach, it will be necessary for you
to make the appropriate adjustments to wing
sweep, flaps, gear etc. while the autopilot does
the hard work of adjusting speed, heading and
rate of descent. You will also need to cancel the
autopilot just prior to touchdown, flare, land, apply
reverse thrust, brake etc.....
(v) Autothrottle - (AFDS THROT) -this facility
allows you to set a desired airspeed and may be
used independently or in conjunction with AFDS
modes (i) to (iii) described above. Selection is
confirmed by IAS changing from manual (MAN) to
acquire (ACQR) and illumination of the autothrottle
engage indicator. When active, the normal throttle
control is used to set the desired speed on the
AFDS display. The autothrottle system will adjust
the engine thrust accordingly in an attempt to

62
button. Designation may be cancelled with the
right mouse button. If the designator does not
appear to respond to the mouse, check that the
MFD is the active display for the mouse by pressing
the T key.

maintain the demanded speed. However, please


note that this is not possible in all circumstances
e.g. in a steep climb or dive or high g turn.
Finally, if you disengage the autopilot, pitch and
roll control revert to manual (MAN) and the MFD
will confirm AFDS OFF if autothrottle is not active,
or AFDS THROT if autothrottle is active.
(b) Local Map
This is a moving map display orientated about
your present position. The display shows hills,
roads, rivers, airfields (active runway in white)
and waypoints (B,C,D etc). The map origin may
be toggled between the centre of the display or at
the base of the display. Your aircraft is always at
the map origin, heading along the dotted
flightpath. The scale of the map is selectable (i.e.
zoom in and out) from 0.5nm, 1nm, 2nm, 4nm,
8nm and 16nm with a base origin.

The ADV air radar has three selectable ranges: 30 nm (for use with Sky Flash),
10nm (for use with AIM9-L) and 2 miles (for use with guns). The IDS radar has
only the 10nm and 2nm range settings. It is also possible to lock on to a target
visually through the HUD by using the boresight designate key. Please note that
use of the radar at very low altitudes will be affected by terrain masking i.e. it
cannot see through hills!

Local Map Mode

(c) Instrument Landing System (ILS)


Select this display during your final approach to
see the ILS localiser and glideslope indicators.
Additional information on this screen includes
aircraft heading (top left corner), bearing to the
runway mid-point (top right corner), estimated
time to touchdown (lower left corner) and distance
to runway mid-point (lower right corner).
(d) Radar
The radar has two independent modes of
operation,each with on/off control. If the desired
radar mode does not appear as you cycle through
the MFD functions, first check that the radar is
switched on.
(i) air mode - used for detecting, designating and
tracking aircraft. The air radar is a plan view
display showing target range and bearing only.
Both enemy and allied aircraft are shown,
differentiated by symbology. Use your mouse to
move the designator symbol to coincide with the
chosen target and designate with the left mouse

ILS Mode

(ii) ground mode - used primarily for detecting,


designating and tracking military ground vehicles.
The display is a composite image of radar returns
and digital map data which are compared to
identify and highlight vehicles. Due to terrain
masking, vehicle returns may be intermittent
whereas mapped features will always be shown.
Use your mouse to move the designator symbol
to coincide with the chosen target position and
designate with the left mouse button. Designation
may be cancelled with the right mouse button. If
the designator does not appear to respond to the
mouse, check that the MFD is the active display
for the mouse by pressing the T key.

Ground Radar Mode

The IDS radar has six selectable ranges:0.5nm,


1nm, 2nm, 4nm, 8nm and 16nm. The ADV is not
fitted with a ground radar.
(e) Forward looking camera
This display provides a daytime forward view for
the navigator and an image-intensified view for
both crew at night.

Forward Looking Camera

TV TAB displays (navigators cockpit)


Both left and right TV TAB displays offer a variety of functions on a mutually
exclusive basis. Items such as Forward Looking Camera and local map are also
available on the central MFD. Functions are selected by repeatedly pressing the
Left (or Right) Tab Function Select key:
Air Radar Mode

63
It is recommended that you designate targets ahead of your aircraft in order to
give the laser-guided bombs sufficient time to reach their targets. A continuous
zoom facility allows pin-point accuracy. Prior to take-off this equipment does not
function and the TV Tab will display a large cross.

(a) Flight Plan Display (PLN)


(b) Thermal Imaging and Laser Designating (TIALD)
(c) Scrollable map
(d) Local map
(e) Forward looking camera
In the bottom left corner of each of the three displays is a green light which only
ever illuminates on one display at a time. This light is used to show which display
currently has use of the mouse as an input device, and pressing the Select Active
Display key (probably T) will switch the mouse from one display to the next in
a continuous cycle.
It is also possible to switch off each TV Tab display.
(a) Flight Plan Display (PLN)
Normally displayed on the left hand TV TAB,
this option shows your aircraft position relative
to your flightplan. All pre-planned waypoints are
shown (A,B,C etc) plus any target of opportunity
waypoint (T) set during flight. The scale of the
display adjusts automatically in order to keep
both your current position (small circle) and
your pre-planned flight path on the display
simultaneously. Also appearing on the Flight
Plan Display are aircraft heading (top left corner),
bearing of next waypoint (top right corner),
estimated time to next waypoint (lower left
corner) and distance to next waypoint (lower
right corner). n.b. The estimated time will only
be displayed if you are heading in the general
direction of the next waypoint, otherwise
calculation would be impossible.
(b) Thermal Imaging and Laser
Designating (TIALD)
This is a steerable plan view camera with laser
designator. It is capable of looking ahead,
behind and to the sides of your aircraft. Its range
increases with altitude and ideally it would be
used at above 20,000 feet in order to give the
widest field of view. Camera steering and target
designation is by means of the mouse. As the
camera looks ahead of your aircraft, the
designator symbol changes to confirm this fact.

(c) Scrollable map


Like the Local Map, this map display rotates as
the aircraft heading changes, so that the aircrafts
direction of movement is always straight up the
screen. Unlike the Local Map, however, this
display does not scroll automatically to keep your
current position at a fixed point on the screen.
Check that the right Tabs green Mouse Active
light is on, and try moving the mouse about. You
will see that moving the mouse scrolls the map
freely in all four directions.You can also zoom in
and out by clicking the left and right mouse
buttons while holding down the C key.
TAB Scrollable Map

TAB PLN Display

Map scale is selectable from 0.75nm up to 24nm. Unlike the Local map where
your aircraft is fixed at the centre or bottom centre of the display, on the scrollable
map your aircraft symbol scrolls with the map and may leave the display
altogether. Pressing the locate aircraft key will centre the map at your current
position if you are within the boundaries of the map. Pressing the locate target
key will centre the map at the position of waypoint T if set. Additional navigational
data is presented in each corner:
Upper left:
aircraft heading
Upper right:
bearing to position of cursor
Lower left:
estimated time to reach position of cursor
Lower right:
distance in n.m. to position of cursor
n.b. If you are flying away from the cursor position, it is not possible to display an
estimated time.
Setting a Target-of-Opportunity Waypoint
Use the a and left click combination to find your aircraft again, scroll the map
some way ahead of your current position, and find an identifiable feature. For
example, this might be an airfield, a city, a village or a bridge. Now click the left
mouse button on its own. This will create a Target-of-Opportunity waypoint at that
location. If you scroll the map a little away from the point you selected, youll see
that it is marked by a flashing cross. If you click the RIGHT mouse button while
holding down the a key, the map will centre itself on the waypoint again. Clicking
the RIGHT mouse button on its own cancels the waypoint.

TIALD Display

64
Waypoints which are part of the stored flightplan
are labelled in alphabetical order from A to O,
with the letters X, Y and Z used for planned
targets - you can see the stored flightplan on the
Tab PLN display. These waypoints can only be
set up in the Mission Planner. The waypoint
youve just placed is different; its called the
Target-of-Opportunity waypoint, its shown on
the PLN display by the letter T, and obviously
you CAN set this one in flight, at any position you
like (provided that its within the current map
area).

Full-Screen Moving Map


A full screen moving map display is available with zoom controls. The boundaries
of the combat zone are not shown. The map is always centred at your present
point and orientated so that you are flying directly up the screen. Please note that
the simulation continues in real time when this map is displayed. For safety
reasons we recommend that you select autopilot before switching to the map.

TAB Local Map

The only way to select T as the current waypoint


is to hit the T key. Do this now, and check to see
that the T on the Track display is highlighted.
Now engage AFDS Track mode (7), and
watch the aircraft turn and fly towards T.
(d) Local map
This is very similar to the Local Map mode of the
MFD but with selectable ranges from 0.75nm,
1.5nm, 3nm, 6nm, 12nm and 24nm with the base
origin.
(e) Forward looking camera
This display provides a daytime forward view for
the navigator and an image-intensified nightime
forward view for the navigator.
TV TAB Forward Looking Camera

Full Screen Moving Map

65

TECHNICAL SUPPLEMENT
Preferences
IBM PC
By selecting the Preferences icon on the main screen, you may:
a) preset simulation preferences
b) specify sound hardware and which sound effects you wish to hear
c) specify or recalibrate your joystick
d) specify your preferences on several miscellaneous features.
Joystick selection and calibration
Tornado will automatically detect how many analog joysticks you have connected
i.e. either one or two. If you believe that the program is not detecting a joystick,
first check that the trim controls on the joystick are centred. If you have a
Thrustmaster FCS joystick, click the appropriate button. The program will require
you to calibrate the
Thrustmaster joystick and its
coolie hat by moving it to full
travel and then back to centre.
This procedure will only be
necessary once providing
that you save your
preferences. All other types
of joystick may be calibrated
at any time during the
simulation by centering the
joystick and pressing Y.
Certain joysticks may need
to be used on the high
sensitivity setting in order to
achieve better aircraft
manoeuvrability but please
remember that a Tornado is
not an F-16!
Miscellaneous preferences
We have introduced one extra option - Night Level. When this option is Free,
all four night levels will occur i.e. from dusk to pitch black. In normal ambient
lighting conditions, the darker levels (3 and 4) can make the game difficult to play.
By setting this option to Fixed, only levels 1 and 2 will be used by the program.

Two Player
IBM PC
This option allows you to link two computers via modem or a direct cable link and
fly head-to-head combat with a friend. You will need a copy of Tornado on both
computers.
Access to Two Player mode is via the Combat screen:
1 At the Main Screen, select Flight
2 On the next screen, select Combat
3 On the next screen, select Two Player
Set-up
a) Connection via a modem
Please note that playing the Two Player option over a modem will be charged as
a telephone call at a rate appropriate to the charge band. Please seek permission
if you are not the owner of the phone.
The modem interface supports any Hayes-compatible modem (AT commands)
that is capable of at least 2400/2400 baud (V22 bis 2400).
To use a modem for two player missions, proceed as follows:
1 Connect the modem to either COM1 or COM2 serial port and then select the
appropriate port by clicking on COM1 or COM2 button.
2 Click on the modem button to enable the modem controls, open the dialogue
box and initialize it. The dialogue box will display Initialize modem followed by
OK if successful. If a problem occurs you will see a message e.g. transmission
error or no reply, reset modem and retry - see fault finding below.
3 Select the two player menu options for weather, start time, range, difficulty, and
RED or BLUE leader.
4 Decide which player will be the caller. The other player will be the receiver.
5 For the caller to dial a number, click on the Phone no. button, enter the number
(see your modem manual for any special command characters) followed by
E.
6 Select Tone or Pulse dialling and then click on the Dial button. The dialogue
box will say dialling number followed by CONNECT nnnn if successful, where
nnnn is the baud rate. Possible errors are:
i) No dial tone - check that your modem is connected to the phone line
ii) Busy - line is engaged
iii) No answer - receiver not responding
iv) No carrier - receivers phone is answering but his modem not responding

Remember to save your preferences if you decide to change any of them.

NEW.PM5

65

10/1/96, 9:39 AM

66
See below for other error messages.
7 The receiver may use either auto-answer or manual answer. For autoanswer, click on the auto-answer button and wait for the phone to ring. The
dialogue box will say Awaiting call, followed by RING and CONNECT nnnn
when the phone has rung and connection has been established. Alternatively,
if you wish to use manual answer, click on the manual answer button when the
phone rings.
8 As soon as communication between the computers is established, the dialogue
box will print Testing link. When both systems are ready, start conditions will be
confirmed and the game will begin.
9 To abort a call once connection has been made, click on the hang up button.
The dialogue box will confirm this by printing Hang up phone followed by OK if
successful.
10 The Command button is provided to enable you to send commands to the
modem to reconfigure it , check its status, etc. To send a command, click on the
button, enter the command, and then press E. Clicking on the button will
abort entry and the command will not be sent.
11 Any commands that involve a long timeout period may be aborted by pressing
any key.

3 Did you dial the wrong number? Select Hang-up and retry.
4 Have you selected the correct COM port. Check to see which port your cable
or modem is plugged into.
5 Are you clear about who is the caller and who is the receiver? If you both
try to be caller you will get nowhere.
6 If your phone has a call waiting facility, this may disrupt the modem connection
during your game. It should be possible to temporarily disable this feature prior
to starting your game. Check in your phone handbook.

Fault finding when using the modem


Modem messages.
These are the same as the standard Hayes messages with the following
additions:
Unexpected response
expecting OK but got a different response.
Unrecognised response
not a recognised Hayes response.
Transmission error
serial communication problem.
Timeout error
no response from modem.
Key pressed, aborted
User aborted.

Please note that you do not need a


modem in order to use a null modem
cable. Just plug one end of the cable
into a spare serial port (e.g. COM1) on
one of the computers and plug the other
end into a spare serial port (e.g. COM1)
on the other computer. The length of
the cable will limit how far apart you can
physically place the computers, for up
to a maximum of several hundred feet.
Proceed as follows:
1 On the BAUD/PORT window, specify
the baud rate and serial port you wish to
use. The same baud rate must be used
on each computer. For PC users, select
the port in use i.e. COM1 or COM2.
2 Make your menu selection (see below)
3 Decide who will be Red leader and
Blue Leader.
4 Click on START picture.
5 A dialogue box will be opened to
announce Testing link followed by
Transmitting menu data. When both
systems have been initialised with

All errors described for direct link operation also apply.


Problems
1 If the modem is not responding:
a) Check all connections and that the modem is switched on.
b) The modem may be in quiet mode. The modem controller has been written
with a smart receiver which will allow the modem to be in half or full duplex mode,
with short form or verbose responses, but it cannot cope with quiet mode ATQ1.
Try cancelling this mode by sending ATQ0 command.
2 Communication errors when Testing link:
a) Both users should try to re-establish the link by clicking on the START picture.
b) Have you selected a BAUD rate that is compatible with your modem?
c) Try using the lowest baud rate e.g. 2400

NEW.PM5

66

b) Direct link using null modem cable


If you intend to use a direct cable link, a null modem cable must be connected
into a serial port on each computer. For pin connections, see diagram. The plugs
on the end of your null modem cable must match the ports of both computers. The
ports will either be 9-pin or 25-pin, and will probably be male (pins).
If you do not have a null modem cable, you may order one direct from Digital
Integration sales on 0276 684959. Check the ports on both computers before
ordering your cable. As you can see from the diagram, there are three possible
configurations for your cable.

10/1/96, 9:39 AM

67
common start conditions, the message Common menu values set is printed,
followed by Take-off after a short delay to enable you to see the conditions.
6 Testing link may be aborted by pressing any key.
Fault finding when using direct link
1 Are the pin connections correct on your cable? Check the diagram.
2 Have you both selected the same BAUD rate?
Error messages:
1 Timeout - one or both computers are not receiving data. The possible causes
are:
i) Computers not connected to each other
ii) Cable connected to the wrong serial port or incorrect serial port selected
iii) Faulty cable
iv) Different baud rates selected
v) More than 30 seconds had elapsed between both players selecting START
2 Transmission error - this is caused by data corruption, possibly due to an
excessively long cable or an electronically noisy environment. Try re-routing
the cable.
3 Checksum error - see Transmission error.
4 Error - both RED leader or both BLUE leader. Both players have selected the
same option. One player must change.
Two player menu selections
Both players should select the same start conditions on the GAME window:
Weather:
Light cloud
or
Overcast
or
Light fog
or
Thick fog
Time:
8am to 6pm
day
6pm to 8pm
night level 1 - dusk
8pm to 10pm night level 2
10pm to 12pm night level 3
12pm to 2am night level 4 (darkest)
2am to 4am
night level 3
4am to 6am
night level 2
6am to 8am
night level 1 - dawn
The take-off time dictates the light level which does not change during flight.
Opponent:
Cheats:

NEW.PM5

In visual range or
Beyond visual range
ON or OFF

67

This option offers infinite fuel, maximum manoeuvrability, no G-LOC, 10 Sky


Flash, 10 Sidewinders and infinite cannon. If identical conditions are not
selected, the computer will set both players to the more difficult condition of the
two.
The objective of the game is simple - shoot down your opponent. As each player
succeeds, the game will pass to the Debrief screen to present the score. Either
player may then elect to continue the game or quit. At this point, modem users
will be confirmed as Off Line. Details of Two Player operation cannot be stored
in your Pilots Log.

Faulty items
If you purchased Tornado direct from Digital Integration and you are unhappy
with the product for any reason, it is our company policy to offer a full refund
providing that the product is returned to us in a re-saleable condition within 14
days of purchase. If you are having trouble with installation then please call or
write to Customer Support. If you suspect that any of the discs are faulty, please
return just the discs to Customer Support and we will exchange the items for
tested replacements. We regret that it is not possible for us to offer full refunds
to customers who purchased any of our products from retailers or mail order
companies. In these cases, your request must be addressed to the vendor.

ERRATA AND ADDITIONS


Last minute additions...
p 28 - 2nd para. - There are no keystrokes that may be substituted for mouse
commands in the Review mode.
The q key may be used instead of the Exit button when in the Mission Planner.
Pressing keys S and 5 together will reverse cycle through the computer
controlled aircraft.
Explore mode in Debrief - introduced so that you can evaluate target area
damage before leaving the Debrief screen.
Only the players aircraft can use loft delivery mode or ALARM in direct mode.
Computer-controlled allied aircraft do not have this capability.
When AA is selected on the Mission Planner KEY, the small circles represent
AAA threats and the larger circles represent SAM threats.
When in the Mission Planner you may notice slight delays when closing
windows. This phenomenon is due to the Mission Planner performing numerous
calculations in parallel to your planning. The effect is more noticeable on slower
machines and is quite normal. This parallel computation can also temporarily
inhibit movement of the mouse pointer.

10/1/96, 9:39 AM

68
Make sure that you take-off promptly when you start a multi-aircraft mission.
The other aircraft in the formation will not wait and you will risk colliding with them
if you delay your take-off run. If your mission involves a particularly heavy
weapon load (e.g. JP233 plus ALARM), you are advised to climb to your first
waypoint at a very shallow angle, thus allowing your aircraft to accelerate as
quickly as possible to the first desired speed (usually 420 kts). By not engaging
the autopilot Track mode until you have reached this speed will minimise how late
you become during the take-off leg. It may also help if you select a lower ride
height during the climb-out than was planned.
If you experience "window corruption" on the Mission Planner screen, type a
R to clear and redraw the screen.
For any last minute comments please see file: README.DOC on disc.
Detailed changes, by chapter...
GETTING STARTED
References to the Mission Planner and Mission Planning functions should be
ignored.
Preferences
Review stills - removed
Curve segments - removed
Contour interval - removed
Windows solid/transparent - removed
Logs
The maximum number of logs is 16.
FLIGHT OPTIONS
References to the Combat Command option should be ignored.
The Campaign option now consists of a set of 8 preplanned missions for each war
zone. No mission planning is necessary. Progress through a campaign depends
upon the successful completion of each mission in turn. Successful completion
of a campaign will earn promotion to Wing Commander. Completion of all three
campaigns will earn promotion to Group Captain.
MISSION SELECTION SCREEN
References to the Command scenarios should be ignored.
References to the Mission Planner should be read as Flightplan Screen.
Situation Menu for Missions
Free Fire combat missions are not available due to the absence of the Mission
Planner.

NEW.PM5

68

Situation Menu for Campaigns


Each war zone has a single Campaign consisting of 8 pre-planned missions.
Progress through a campaign depends upon the successful completion of each
mission in turn.
Situation Menu for Command
This has been removed as the Command option is not available on the Amiga.
Choice of War Zone
The map image for each war zone has been replaced by a digitised photograph.
Section 1 - Map basics
Map screen buttons:
Targets
Briefing
Point data
Flightplan
Summary

Key buttons:
Contours
Rivers and lakes
Power lines
ILS coverage
Flightplan (current and other)
Category flag
Priority flag
Ground forces

function removed
function removed
function removed
renamed Waypoint
replaces the summary button on the Flightplan
window

renamed hills
renamed water
abbreviated to Pwr lines
abbreviated to ILS cover
combined into a split key
function removed
function removed
abbreviated to Grnd unit

All about waypoints


All attributes (e.g. speed, time, position, type etc) - are fixed.
Flightplan and waypoint data
Clicking on the Map Screen button marked Waypoint brings up the Waypoint
Window. At the top of the window you will see the waypoint type e.g. Turning,
Initial, Target, Approach
etc. Beneath this is the
waypoint strip with a
button corresponding to
each waypoint in the
flightplan e.g. A,B,C etc.
Clicking on any button will
display information about
Waypoint window
the waypoint.

10/1/96, 9:39 AM

69
Beneath the waypoint strip are four boxes displaying autopilot mode (e.g. terrain
following, altitude hold), aircraft number and letter (e.g. 017 A,B,C), local time
(planned time of arrival at waypoint) and speed (planned speed over the leg
leading to the waypoint).
Two additional boxes appear in the waypoint window for target waypoints and the
approach and take off waypoints:
Target
Approach
& take off

Weapon
Delivery
Head wind
Cross wind

weapon type e.g. 1000 lb GPB


delivery mode e.g. loft, laydown
wind component along runway when landing
wind component across runway when landing

It is not possible to introduce additional waypoints or to change the flightplan in


any way.

3) WARNING MESSAGES
Problem
message warning***..\dataxchg\layer.in
Reason
Not enough files in CONFIG.SYS
Answer
Set Files = 15 and Buffers = 20 in CONFIG.SYS
Problem
message "warning ***..\tripleA\samdata"
Reason
Not enough space on hard disc.
Answer
Free up at least 1 MB of space (make sure Files=15 in
CONFIG.SYS)
4) MSDOS 6.0
If you are using DBLSPACE with MSDOS 6.0 either with your original set up or
a boot disk you will need to load DBLSPACE high. Add or adjust the following
line in your CONFIG.SYS.
devicehigh=c:\dos\dblspace.sys
When not using the boot disc make sure Files & Buffers are set to at least Files=15
and Buffers=20.

The Flightplan Profile feature is not available.


AIRCREW NOTES
Kneepad view
5 Horizon - function not available
6 HUD frame - renamed ironwork
7 Control device (port 2) - options include digital joystick or analogue joystick or
second mouse.

PC Trouble Shooting
1) JOYSTICK
a) Keep your hand off the joystick when selecting Take-Off. Once on the runway
the computer will have re-calibrated the joystick for you.
b) If you have a joystick port on your soundcard as well as an individual joystick
card make sure that the joystick port on the sound board is disabled.
c) If you are using a single joystick on a dual joystick card, then use Port 1.
d) Ensure Trim Wheels are set to centre position.
e) When using an intelligent games card e.g. Quickshot Smart Card, please
ensure that the appropriate software driver is loaded. Modify your boot disc as
necessary.
2) SOUND CARD
a) SoundBlaster Pro - The DMA has to be set to 1.
b) SoundBlaster & SBPro - IRQ in general should be 7, however if problems
occur try 2, 3 or 5.
c) If the sound effects are intermittent when using soundBlaster, use the adlib
option.

NEW.PM5

69

5) DRDOS 6.0
If your DRDOS 6.0 version is dated 08/91 you will need to update to at least 04/
92. Make sure that you have a fully DRDOS 6.0 compatible mouse driver.
When not using the boot disc make sure Files & Buffers are set to at least Files=15
and Buffers=20. The Tornado boot disc does not cater for DRDOS 6.0 at the
moment, so the CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT should be edited for the
boot disc as follows:
CONFIG.SYS
AUTOEXEC.BAT
Device=C:\drdos\emm386.sys
*** Set mouse=C:\mouse
/F=none /K=auto /B=ffff /R=auto
*** C:\mouse\mouse.com
** Device=C:\sstordrv.sys /hidma
C:
** Device=C:\devswap.com
CD C:\tornado
Hidos=on
call tornado.bat.
Files=15
*** Modify according to location of
Buffers=20
mouse driver
** omit these lines if not using
NOTE: you will also need to edit your
SuperStor.
tornado.bat file. Line 4 at present
reads...Loadhigh Amp. For DRDOS
6.0 replace with HiLoad Amp.
6) MICROSOFT
MOUSE DRIVER V.9
Tornado will not work with this Mouse driver. Use an earlier version.

10/1/96, 9:39 AM

70

Tornado README file


Please register
Send in your pre-paid registration card to ensure that you receive details of
product updates and special offers.
Tips
1 Enemy interceptors will have difficulty tracking you if you are terrain following
at low altitude and at high speed. This may mean breaking formation temporarily
to fly ahead and your route may no longer match the flightplan due to the wider
turns at each waypoint.
2 Take particular care when terrain following at high speed with 67 wing sweep.
3 When landing with a high crosswind, you may find that the auto-approach
system cannot remain centred in the ILS beam. This is when all that practice at
manual landing comes in handy

CUSTOMER SUPPORT
If you have any questions about Tornado or any of our other products, please
contact Customer Support at:
write

Digital Integration Ltd


Watchmoor Trade Centre
Watchmoor Road
Camberley
Surrey, GU15 3AJ

phone

0276 678806 (UK only)


Between 2pm and 5pm, Monday to Friday

email address

digint@cix.compulink.co.uk

It helps us enormously if you have already returned your registration card but
please be prepared to provide the following information:
Name
Address
Product name
Computer
Description of problem and how it occurred
Error messages appearing on screen

NEW.PM5

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10/1/96, 9:39 AM

71

NEW.PM5

71

10/1/96, 9:39 AM

72

INDEX
A
Aborting your flight 22
Advanced flying training 32
Air radar
Field of view 49
Target designation 49
Air tasking message 15
Airbrake 27, 54
Aircrew notes 52
Altimeter 52, 54, 59
Amiga manual addendum 68
Analogue clock 59
Angle of attack 27
Angle of attack indicator 52, 53
Approach and landing
How to set up 33
Approach progress indicator 52, 53
Attention getter 52, 53
Attitude direction indicator 52, 54, 59
Autopilot and flight director system
Altitude / Heading acquire mode 61
Approach mode 61
Autothrottle 61
Track mode 61
Autopilot engaged indicator 52, 53, 59
Autopilot, introduction 23
Autothrottle 26
Autothrottle engaged indicator 52, 53, 59
Autotrim 25
Avionics reference 60

53

C
Campaigns
Level one 15
CAP station, setting up 17
CD-Rom Installation instructions

NEW.PM5

Debrief 22
Debris hemisphere 43
Defences 21, 42
Defensive pods 14

Head up display
AIM9 mode 58
Air to air guns mode 58
Air to ground guns mode 58
ALARM mode 57
ILS Mode 56
JP.233 mode - release 57
JP.233 mode - running in 57
Laydown bombing mode 56
Loft attack mode - stage one 56
Loft attack mode - stage two 56
NAV mode 56
Sky Flash mode 58
Head up display symbology
Aiming point 58
Air target marker 58
Bomb fall line 42, 56, 57
Boresight 57, 58
Continuously computed impact
point 42, 56, 57
Countdown clock 56, 57
Ground target marker 42, 56, 57
Heading strip 24
ILS steering marker 56
IR lock diamond 58
Pitch ladder 24
Range clock 57, 58
Rubber triangle 56
Safety height cue 43
Standby sight 48, 58
Vertical speed 25
Horizontal situation indicator 52, 55, 59

E
E-Scope 32, 52, 54
ECM (Electronic Counter-Measures) 48
ECM "on" indicator 52, 53, 59
Elementary flying training 23
Emergencies
Ejection 38
Engine fire 38
Engine r.p.m. indicators 52
Engine temperature indicators 52, 55
EWR 21
Explore mode 5
External views
Drone view 39
Remote view 39
Satellite view 39
Spectator view 39
Tracking view 39
Weapon view 39

B
"B" risk indicator

Central warning panel 59


Chaff 51
Cheating 6
Cockpit, quick tour 23
Command level 19
Customer support 71

72

70

Flares 51
Flight options 7
Formation flightplans 18
Free fire missions 15
Fuel flow indicator 52, 55
Fuel quantity indicator 52, 55
Fuel tanks 14
Fuel weight 14

G meter 52, 55
Ground radar
Target designation
Ground speed 27

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42

73

I
ILS display 35
Indicated airspeed / Mach
number 27, 52, 54, 59
Installing and Running Tornado 3
Instrument panel
Navigator 59
Pilot 52

J
Jettison indicator lights

52, 54

K
Key, mission planner
Kneepad view 60

Secondary control surfaces position indicator 52, 53


Simulator options 8
Situation menu 8
Skipping waypoints 33
Speeds, fixed, free and bound 17
Spin recovery 38
Stalling 27
Standby compass 52, 55
Stores management display 41, 59
System Requirements 3

Negative g, effects of

L
Landing
Automated 29
Manual 36
Semi-automatic 35
Wind direction 37
Landing damaged aircraft 37
Landing gear position indicator 52, 59
Landing practice for auto-approach 29
Late arm switch 52, 53
Level turns 25
Look down view 60

M
Mach number 27, 28
Manoeuvre drag 27
Map screen buttons 9
Briefing 9
Centre 9
Fit 9
Flight plan 9
Key 9
Met. report 9
Payload 9

NEW.PM5

Point data 9
Take-off 9
Targets 9
Tidy 9
Met. report 13
Missile countermeasures 51
Missiles, effective range 51
Mission planner 9
Mission rehearsal 13
Mission selection screen 8
Mouse active indicator 52, 59
Multi function display
Forward looking camera 62
Local map 62
Radar 62

73

26

O
Options.../Exit Buttons 4
Oxygen flow indicator 52

P
Payload window 13
PC Trouble Shooting 69
Positive g, effects of 26
Preferences 65
Contour interval 5
Control device 4
Curve segments 5
Ground detail 4
Hill texture 4
Horizon, graduated 4
Ironwork 4
Panel lighting 5
Review stills 5
Sky, clouds 4
Sound and music 5
Visual range 4
Windows 5
Protection (PC version) 65

Radar
Air mode 49, 62
Ground mode 62
Radar altimeter 52, 54
Radar "on" indicator 52, 53, 59
Radar warning receiver 51, 52, 55
Recalibrate joystick 4
Reheat 30
Reheat operating lights 52, 53
Reverse thrust indicators 52, 53
Review 5

T
Taking off 3031
Target classes
Battlefield 21
Command 20
Counter air 21
Logistics 2021
Politics 21
Target finder 16
Target of opportunity
Designating on ground radar 42
Target-of-opportunity waypoint 63
Terrain following 32
Terrain masking 62
Thrust reversers 30

10/1/96, 9:39 AM

74
Times, fixed, free and bound 17
True airspeed 27
Turning circles 16
TV TAB displays
Flight plan display (PLN) 63
Forward looking camera 64
Local map 64
Scrollable map 63
Thermal imaging and laser designating
Two-player option 7, 65

V
Vertical speed indicator
Visibility 13

52, 53

W
War zones 8
Waypoints
Approach point 11
CAP end 11
CAP start 11, 17
Deleting 16
Dragging 15
Initial points 11
Inserting 16
Placing 15
Selecting 16
Setting and moving 15
Split and formate 19
Take-off point 11
Targets 11
Timing 17
Turning points 11
Weapon delivery modes
Laser-guided (LGB) 45
Laydown (LAY) 42
Loft (LFT) 43
Manual (MAN) 42
Weapon packages 41
Weapon status (ADV) 52, 54
Weapons
1000 lb general purpose bomb

NEW.PM5

74

63

1000 lb retarded bomb 40


ALARM (Air Launched Anti-Radiation Missile) 40, 47
Guns, air-to-air 49
Guns, air-to-ground 48
JP.233 dispensers 40, 46
Weapons conversion 40
Weapons training in the simulator 41
Weather, effects of 13
Weight, effects of 30
Wheel brakes 30, 52, 53
Windows
Air power 19
Flightplan 12
Flightplan profile 12
Flightplan summary 12
Problems 9
Relocation 20
Situation report 19
Target waypoint 17
Tasking 19
Waypoint 12
Wing buffet 28
Wing sweep 2829

Z
Zooming of displays
Air radar 62
Ground radar 42
Scrollable map 63

40

10/1/96, 9:39 AM