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CCNA1

Final Exam Review

Binary / Hexadecimal
Conversion
Binary
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111

Hex
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07

Binary
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111

Hex
08
09
0A
0B
0C
0D
0E
0F

Hexadecimal / Decimal Conversion


Hex
01
09
0A
0F
10
11
19
1A
1F
20
2F
30
FF

161 x 0 + 160 x 1 = 0 + 1 =
161 x 0 + 160 x 9 = 0 + 9 =
161 x 0 + 160 x 10 = 0 + 10 =
161 x 0 + 160 x 15 = 0 + 15 =
161 x 1 + 160 x 0 = 16 + 0 =
161 x 1 + 160 x 1 = 16 + 1 =
161 x 1 + 160 x 9 = 16 + 9 =
161 x 1 + 160 x 10 = 16 + 10 =
161 x 1 + 160 x 15 = 16 + 15 =
161 x 2 + 160 x 0 = 32 + 0 =
161 x 2 + 160 x 15 = 32 + 15 =
161 x 3 + 160 x 0 = 48 + 0 =
161 x 15 + 160 x 15 = 240 + 15 =

Dec
01
09
10
15
16
17
25
26
31
32
47
48
255

Determine Subnet Address from


IP Address and Subnet Mask
Determine the subnet address of host 130.30.2.40 255.255.255.224
Number of Subnets = 211 = 2048 (borrowing 11 bits - 3bits from 4th octet)
Magic Number = 256 224 = 32 or 2 host bits = 25 = 32
Subnet Addresses - (0.0) and (255.224) are not usable
(0.0) 0.32 0.64 0.96 0.128 0.160 0.192 0.224 (note: 224 = 11100000)
1.0 1.32 1.64 1.96 1.128 1.160 1.192 1.224
2.0 2.32 2.64 2.96 2.128 2.160 2.192 2.224
3.0 3.32 3.64 3.96 3.128 3.160 3.192 3.224

255.0 255.32 255.64 255.96 255.128 255.160 255.192 (255.224)

The host with address 130.30.2.40 is on Subnet 130.30.2.32

Determining the Proper


Subnet Mask
Bits
Class Borrowed

Usable
Subnets

Remaining
Host Bits

Usable
Hosts

2 22

2- >4M

22 2

>4M - 2

2 14

2 16382

14 2

16382 - 2

26

2 62

62

62 2

Number of subnets = 2x 2, where x = number of bits borrowed


Number of hosts = 2x 2, where x = number of remaining host bits
222 2 = 4,194,304 2 = 4,194,302

Class C Subnetting Chart


Slash format

/25

/26

/27

/28

/29

/30

Mask

128

192

224

240

248

252

Bits Borrowed

Value (weight)

128

64

32

16

Total Subnets

16

32

64

Usable Subnets

14

30

62

Total Hosts

64

32

16

Usable Hosts

62

30

14

9.2.6 Public and private IP addresses

9.2.4 Class A, B, C, D, and E IP addresses

9.2.4 Class A, B, C, D, and E IP addresses

1 Class-A network
16 Class-B networks
256 Class-C networks

9.2.8 IPv4 versus IPv6

Calculating Data
Transmission Times
Bandwidth is measured in Mbps
File Size is usually measured in Mbytes
Must convert Mbytes to Mbits
Mbits = Mbytes * 8
Time to transmit = file size * 8 / bandwidth

Transport Layer Features


TCP is a connection oriented, reliable transport protocol
that implements flow control and error correction
Three-way handshake, Sequence numbers, windows,
and expectational acknowledgments
UDP is a connectionless, unreliable transport protocol that
runs over reliable networks. It is considered very efficient
because it has little overhead compared with TCP. It does
not use sequence numbers or windowing, and is considered
a best effort delivery protocol that does not do error
correction.

Properties of Electric Charges


and Electric Forces
Atoms are composed of neutrons (neutral
charge), electrons (negative charge) and protons
(positive charge).
It is generally assumed that current flows from a
negative to a positive due to the flow of electrons
in materials that have an abundance of free
electrons.
Unlike charges attract one another
Like charges repel one another

Conductors, Insulators and


Semiconductors
Conductors are materials that allow the free flow of electrons
under the influence of a potential difference across the
material. Materials include copper, silver, gold, aluminum,
lead, tin, etc. (Most metallic materials are conductors,
although some are better conductors than others.)
Insulators are materials that do not support the flow of
electrons. In other words, they dont have free electrons.
Materials include plastics, wood, glass, etc.
Semiconductors are materials that have special properties
that allow them to control the flow of electrons. They may
behave as conductors or insulators depending on external
stimuli. Materials include silicon, germanium, selenium, etc.

Characteristics of
AC and DC Voltages
DC voltages have unchanging polarities
DC voltage causes current to flow in one direction, from
negative to positive.
AC voltage reverses its polarity, changing in a sinusoidal
manner from positive to negative and back to positive during
every cycle. Each cycle is called a period and the inverse of
the period is called the frequency of the signal.
AC voltages are normally used to carry power through
transmission lines, because it can be delivered efficiently
over large distances.

Testing Cable for its Information


Carrying Capacity
Attenuation factors are important in determining whether a
particular cable type will be suitable for carrying signals of a
particular bandwidth. Attenuation generally increases as
frequencies increase. A cable that works at low frequencies
or in low bandwidth applications may not be suitable for
high frequency, high bandwidth applications.
Attenuation is affected by a cables physical characteristics,
including its dimensions and materials used in its
construction. Its resistance, capacitance and inductance
affect its attenuation (loss in signal strength over distance).
A cables analog bandwidth is measured in MHz and
determines its ability to work in a particular application.

High Speed Ethernet


Implementation
1Gbps, 10Gbps or 100Gbps implementations are still
expensive compared to low speed Ethernet alternatives
(100baseTX).
Generally they are not used in connectivity between
workstations or between workstations and backbone switches.
They are used extensively to interconnect backbone switches,
servers, and access links.

Router Connectivity
Interface

Cable Type

Console Port (RJ45)

Rollover cable

Serial (DB60)

Serial cables (DCE or DTE)

Ethernet (RJ45)

Cat 5, Cat 5e, Cat 6

Ethernet (AUI)
Transceiver to RJ45/coaxial
(Attachment Unit Interface) connector (transmitter/receiver)

ISDN Channels
ISDN base rate interface (BRI) Integrated Services Digital
Network (128Kbps 2B+D, dial-on-demand (DOD) service)
2 B-channels - 64Kbps channels for data transmission
1 D-channel - 16Kbps channel for control and signaling
information
ISDN primary rate interface (PRI) - Integrated Services
Digital Network (1.544Mbps T1 23B+D service)
23 B-channels 64Kbps channels
1 D-channel 64Kbps channel

Common Features of
100BASE Technologies
100BaseTX, 100BaseFX
Frame formats are identical
Timing is identical
Both use multi-stage encoding (1st level encoding, followed
by line encoding)
Both use 4B/5B as a first level encoding scheme
TX uses multilevel transmit 3 (MLT-3) line encoding
FX uses NRZI line encoding

Gigabit Speeds on Cat 5e Cable


( 1000BASE-T )
Complex task on Cat5e cable
Cat5e can carry up to 125Mbps over a single wire pair
1000Base-T uses of all four pairs of wires in full-duplex
mode, simultaneously.
Full-duplex transmission on the same wire pair allows
250Mbps per pair; multiply this by 4 pairs gives a total of
1000Mbps.
Uses 8B1Q4 encoding with 4D-PAM5 line encoding.

Applications of
Standard Ethernet
Interior cabling of buildings (inter-building connections)
Vertical wiring (patch cables)
Horizontal wiring (wiring in ceilings from workstations outlets
to wiring closets)

Effects of Adding Hubs


Increases the size of the collision domain, but only a single
collision domain exists.
Decreased bandwidth
Increased the chance of collisions
Decreased network performance

TCP/IP Applications
and Protocols
Telnet
Application service that allows you to login to a
remote server
FTP, TFTP

Applications used for file transfer

PING
connectivity

Application that allows you to check

ARP
Protocol that broadcasts an arp request to obtain
a MAC address that matches a given IP address
Proxy ARP Feature implemented on a Router whereby the
router responds to the ARP request with its own MAC address,
if the broadcast is for a host that does not exist on the local lan.

TCP and UDP Port Numbers


Port Numbers range from 0 65535 (numbers below 1024 are considered
well-known port numbers)
Application Layer

Transport Layer Port Numbers

FTP data
FTP control

21
20

Telnet

23

SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol)

25

DNS (Domain Name System)

53

TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)

69

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)

161

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)

80

POP3 (post office protocol ver 3)

110

IMAP4 (Internet Message Access Protocol)

993

FTP Port Assignments


Connection oriented file transfer
ftp-data

20/tcp

File Transfer [Default Data]

ftp

21/tcp

File Transfer [Control]

FTP can be used to transmit either ASCII or binary


information between a server and a local client
running FTP
Separate port numbers are used for communicating
control information and data.

Replacing Hubs with Switches


Causes segmentation (micro-segmentation) of the LAN into
separate collision domains when the switch is configured for
Full duplex.
Switches create separate collision domains but still only one
broadcast domain.
No wiring changes required.

Reasons for
Excessive Broadcasts
ARP requests are generated to get the MAC address that
matches a particular IP address.
RIP updates every router using rip broadcasts its complete
routing table to all of its neighbours every 30 seconds
Video-Over-IP applications Broadcast addresses are often
used to send information out to multiple hosts simultaneously.

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)


STP is used to eliminate switching loops from occurring on
Layer 2 networks
STP constantly monitors switch ports so that the protocol
knows all links that exist in the network.
When more than one link exists, STP disables the secondary
link(s) until needed. These redundant links are shut down,
putting a stop to any data loops in the network.
The STP process elects a root bridge in the network that will
decide on the network topology. These can be only one root
bridge.The root bridge ports are called designated ports, and
these operate in what is called a forwarding state. Forwarding
ports send and receive traffic. (continued)

The STA is used to determine the cost to assign to each link


based on bandwidth. The port that has the lowest cost to the root
bridge is called the root port, which sends and receives traffic.
Ports that are determined to have the lowest-cost path to the
root bridge are also called designated ports and , like the root
bridge ports, they operate in forwarding state.
Other ports on a bridge are considered nondesignated, and will
not send or receive traffic. This is called blocking mode.
STP is enabled by default on on most Cisco switches with
Ethernet or Fast Ethernet ports.
STP exchanges information using bridge protocol data units
(BPDUs).
(continued)

The ports on a bridge or switch running STP can transition through four
different states:
BLOCKING Wont forward frames, listens to BPDUs. All ports are in
blocking state by default when the switch is powered up.
LISTENING Listens to BPDUs to make sure no loops occur on the
network before passing data frames.
LEARNING Learns MAC addresses and builds a filter table, but does not
forward frames.
FORWARDING Sends and receives data on the bridge port.
Once a switch determines the best path to the root bridge, that port
becomes the designated port, and all other ports will be put into blocking
state.
If a switch determines that a blocked port should now be the designated
port, it will go into listening state. The port will check all incoming BPDUs
heard to make sure that the switch wouldnt create a data loop if the port
goes into forwarding state.

8.1.6 Spanning-Tree Protocol

You must know the five STP states and their purpose.

8.1.6 Spanning-Tree Protocol

Function of each OSI Layer


Layer 7 Application Provides a user interface
Layer 6 Presentation Presents data, Handles processing such as
encryption
Layer 5 Session Keeps different applications data separate.
Layer 4 Transport Provides reliable or unreliable delivery, performs error
correction and flow control. Data is broken into segments. (TCP, UDP)
Layer 3 Network Provides logical addressing, which routers use for path
determination. Encapsulates segments into packets or datagrams. (Routers)
(IP)
Layer 2 Data Link Combines packets into bytes and bytes into frames,
provides access to media using MAC addresses, performs error detection
but not correction. (switches, bridges)
Layer 1 Physical Moves bits between devices, specifies voltage, wire
speed and pin-out of cables. (repeaters, hubs, media)

Routing Protocols
RIP ver 1.0

IGP

distance vector (classful routing only)

RIP ver 2.0

IGP

distance vector (classless)

IGRP

IGP

distance vector (proprietary)

EIGRP

IGP

hybrid (proprietary)

OSPF

IGP

link state routing protocol

IS-IS

EGP

link state routing protocol

BGP

EGP

link state (border gateway protocol)

Know the difference between Routed vs Routing Protocols


IP is a routed protocol and all of the above are routing
protocols

Cat5e Cable Types


Straight-Through Standard (568a or 568b on both ends)
Switch or Hub to Router
Workstation to Switch or Hub
Cross-Over (568a on one end and 568b on the other end)
Switch or Hub to Another Switch or Hub
Workstation to Workstation (peer to peer)
Rollover (1-8 on one end goes to 8-1 on the other)
Router or Switch Console to PC Serial Port

Xtalk is another form of noise

Fiber has no Xtalk


no electrical signals
no generation of electromagnetic waves

CAT 5e & 6c

The Power budget or Link budget


(Watts,Volts,dB)

light waves on optical fiber


radio waves in the air

802.11b
802.11b may also be called Wi-Fi or high-speed wireless and
refers to DSSS systems that operate at 1, 2, 5.5 and 11 Mbps.
All 802.11b systems are backward compliant in that they also
support 802.11 for 1 and 2 Mbps data rates for DSSS only. This
backward compatibility is extremely important as it allows upgrading
of the wireless network without replacing the NICs or access points.
802.11b devices achieve the higher data throughput rate by using a
different coding technique from 802.11, allowing for a greater
amount of data to be transferred in the same time frame.
The majority of 802.11b devices still fail to match the 11 Mbps
throughput and generally function in the 2 to 4 Mbps range.

802.11a
802.11a covers WLAN devices operating in the 5 GHZ transmission
band.
Using the 5 GHZ range disallows interoperability of 802.11b devices
as they operate within 2.4 GHZ.
802.11a is capable of supplying data throughput of 54 Mbps and with
proprietary technology known as "rate doubling" has achieved 108
Mbps.
In production networks, a more standard rating is 20-26 Mbps.

802.11g
802.11g provides the same throughout as 802.11a but with
backwards compatibility for 802.11b devices using Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation technology.
Cisco has developed an access point that permits 802.11b and
802.11a devices to coexist on the same WLAN. The access point
supplies gateway services allowing these otherwise incompatible
devices to communicate.

Miscellaneous Topics
MAC addresses
48bits = 12 hex digits
Peer-to-Peer network: Maximum of 10 hosts

URL
Example:

http://www.slctech.org/work

http:// protocol to use


www type of site (ftp, www, etc)
slctech.org domain name of the web site
/work identifies the folder where the web page is located

DNS
.us

United States

.ca

Canada

.edu

education

.com

commercial

.gov

government

.org

non-profit

.net

network service

.mil

military

.int

international database

DNS is used to translate a


web addresses into their
corresponding IP addresses

7.1.2 10BASE5

no more than 5 segments separated by more than 4 repeaters, and no more than three populated segments

8.2.2 Collision domains

7.1.9 Fast Ethernet architecture

7.1.9 Fast Ethernet architecture

7.1.1 10-Mbps and 100-Mbps Ethernet

802.2

8.2.3 Segmentation

9.1.6 Comparing the OSI model and the TCP/IP model