You are on page 1of 60

TheLarhidaarSaroopofSriGuruGranth

SahibJi

(TheconnectedwordsformofSriGuru
GranthSahibJi)

By
BhaiRamSingh
SquadronLeaderRetd.

Englishtranslationby
SardarGurmukhSingh
(PrincipalOfficer,UKCivilServiceRetd.)

Karnehaar'nbhulanhara
TheCreatorerrsnot

DEDICATED
to
SacredSriGuruGranthSahibJiSuccessorEternaltotheThroneofSriGuruNanakSahibJi

CONTENTS

Pronunciationscheme ......................................................................................................................... 4
Quotations ...........................................................................................................................................6
AfewwordsaboutthisEnglishtranslation .........................................................................................7
IntroductoryWords .............................................................................................................................9
PREFACE .............................................................................................................................................11
Chapter1OnlytheRareGurmukhContemplates...........................................................................13
Chapter3ItisthroughtheGuru'sWordthatoneisemancipated.................................................23
Chapter4TheImportanceofMataSulakhaniJiinGuruGhar........................................................29
Chapter5ThevaluablecontributionofthePaatthbodhFunctionatAmritsar .............................34
Chapter6RespectforGurbaniinthepastandnow .......................................................................37
Chapter7TheLordisdescribedaccordingtoeachperson'sintellect............................................41
Chapter8WhatanAbsurdity! .........................................................................................................45
Chapter9WhattheGurusays,acceptthatasforthegood ...........................................................48
GlossaryofthemostcommonlyusedGurmattwords......................................................................53

Pronunciationscheme

GurmukhiisthealphabetinwhichthePanjabilanguageismostcommonlywritten.Therefore,
PanjabiisthelanguageofPanjab,whileGurmukhiisthealphabetinwhichitiswritten.TheSikh
Scriptures,SriGuruGranthSahibJiiswritteninGurmukhi.

Gurbani(Bani)istheGuru'sWord.GurShabadmeansthesame.ThesearethehymnsinSriGuru
GranthSahib.

TherearenoRomanequivalentlettersforsomeGinthealphabet.Forthisreasononly
approximatepronunciationofmanyPanjabiandGurbaniwordscanbewritteninRomanletters.
Inthispublication,asimplemethodhasbeenusedtoproduceadditionalsoundssothatallPanjabi
andGurbaniwordscanbepronouncedwithleastguidance.Theseadditionalpronunciationaids
areasfollows:

aa=asinpart
aaee=combinationofaa(asinpart)andee(asinkeen)e.g.asinthewordmaaeeinGurbani
meaning"mother".
ai=asinTaiwan;somai=maaay.
ay=asinhay.
ay=underlineday,asinpair.
o=underlined"o"asthelongsoundof"o"inthewordmole.
au=asinpauper
aaya=sayaaayaabriskly(pronounce"ay"inthemiddleasinhay)
aayia=sayaaeeaabriskly.
ayia=sayayeeaabriskly.
aayiay=sayaaeeairbriskly.

ThefollowingsoundsareclosesttotheactualPanjabiletters,whicharenotfoundintheEnglish
alphabet.ItwouldbebestifthereadercanseekinitialguidancefromonewhocanspeakPanjabi.

tth=asinthewordpaatth,therecitationofGurbani.
tt=pronouncedasin"th"inthinorthrow.
rh=asinthewordKarha,theironbracelet,anarticleoffaithwornbytheSikhs.So,Beerh(Holy
VolumeofSriGuruGranthSahib)ispronouncedasbeerhwhererhispronoundasinsarhak
(road)inPanjabi.
dh=asintheworddharam,meaningreligion(orprinciple).
bh=asinthewordbhaaee,meaningbrother.
nh=asinthewordkanha,meaningoneeyed.
II=usedtostresstheIsoundasinchallna,meaning"towalk"inPanjabi."Chalna"withsingle"I"
wouldbetheHindiversionwithsofter"I".
u=uwhenunderlinedshouldbepronouncedasinput.SoKurbaanshouldbepronouncedas
"Koorbaan"whereooisasharpsound.Otherwisetheletter"u"isusedasin"cut"or"mud".
chh=pronouncedbetween"ch"and"sh"sounds.
n=usedwhen"n"isanasalsoundonlyasinOnkar,theCreator.Thuskanwhere"n"isanasal
soundonly,isacrowwhilekaan(inHindi)orkann(inPanjabi)wheretheletternishard,isanear.

Apostrophesign'isusedtoseparateconsonantssothateachneedstobepronouncedseparately
assuche.g.'ns'kee=nasakeebutwherethe"a"soundisshortenedtoasharphalfsound.
"r"isalwayspronouncedhardasinthewordkurbaanabove.Soinupkaar(gooddeed)the"r"is
hardandthewordispronouncedas"oopkaara"butleavingthe"a"attheendsilent.

UseofitalicsfornonEnglishwords
ThemeaningofallnonEnglishwordsisgivenintheglossaryNonEnglishwordsareshownin
italicstostartwithbutnotaftersomerepeateduse,although,italicscontinuetobeusedforthe
lesscommonwords.ItalicsarenotusedfortheSikhwordswhicharenowincommonusagee.g.
wordslikeKhalsa,Gurdwara,SriGuruGranthSahibetc.

Gurbanitranslationsources:
TranslationofSriGuruGranthSahibJibyS.ManmohanSinghJihasbeenusedasthefirst(literal
translation)sourcewithsomeminorEnglishusageorclarificationchanges.Thesehavethenbeen
crosscheckedwithProf.SahibSinghJiandothersourceswhereconsiderednecessary.

Gurbaniquotations
SriGuruGranthSahibJipagenumbersaregivenas:GGSp.number.

Quotations

(Wordsinbracketsarenotpartofthequotationsgivenbelowandareforthepurposeof
translationorexplanationonly.)

"ItisagravesintoreciteBani(theGuru'sWord)incorrectly."
SinghSabhaPatraka,Page121,November,1979
GianiGurditSingh,GeneralSecretary,CentralSriGuruSinghSabha

"Itisimpropertodoprakaashof(i.e.tomakeavailableforworship)Beerh(VolumeofSriGuru
GranthSahibJi)withseparatedwords."
ResolutionNo.2682,dated21stJanuary1945,ChiefKhalsaDiwan.

"UntilthereisadecisionaboutthisbythePanth....Beerhwithseparatedwordsshouldnotbe
printed,norshouldtheprakaashbedoneofBeerhwithseparatedwords."
(ResolutionNo.7dated1stJanuary1950.DharmikCommitteeofShromaniGurdwaraPrabandhak
Committee.

AfewwordsaboutthisEnglishtranslation

SardarGurmukhSingh,
PrincipalOfficer,
UKCivilServiceRetd.

TherearetwomainaimsofthistranslationfromPanjabitoEnglishoftheLarhidaarSaroopSri
GuruGranthSahibbySquadronLeader,BhaiRamSinghJi.

Firstly,tomakeavailabletoawiderSikhaudience,BhaiRamSinghJi'spersuasiveargumentsbased
onGurmatt(accordingtotheGuru'steaching)traditionthatonlytheconnectedwordsform
(LarhidaarSaroop)ofSriGuruGranthSahibJiwasbestowedwiththestatusofGuruship.Bhai
SahibJihasarguedthatthisandonlythisPooranSaroop(perfectholyform)hasclaimtotheGur
gaddi(Guru'sThrone)ofGuruNanak.Hearguesequallystronglywhyweshouldnotdoprakaash
(makeavailableforreadingandworship)ofthecontroversialpaddshedSaroop(separated
wordingform).TheseindepthargumentsinGurmattidiomaticPanjabiarebasedonGurmatt
traditionandonSikhhistoricalanecdotes.Inaddition,thedeepspiritualityaspectmakesthetask
ofeffectivetranslationmostchallengingontheonehandandabsorbingontheother.Indeed,at
itsbest,thispublicationinEnglishmayberegardedasaninterpretationofBhaiSahibJi'swork.

Therefore,thefirstaimistomaketheseargumentsavailabletothosewhoareeithernotableto
readPanjabi,orwhofinditeasiertoreadsomeofthedeeperSikhi(Sikhwayoflife)conceptsin
English.Thereismuchfoodforspiritualthoughthereandmuchusefulmaterialforresearch
studentsofSikhi.

ThesecondaimofthisandothersimilartranslationsinEnglishshouldbeoneofthehighest
prioritiesofSikhliteratureinthe21stCentury.Thisaimiseducationofthenextgeneration,
broughtupintheWesternenvironment,inoriginalGurmattconceptsandnotroughequivalents
borrowedfromotherschoolsofthoughtandphilosophiese.g.wordsrangingfrom"baptism"to
"elections"and"democracy"whichhavebeenallowedtocreepintoGurmattliteratureand
decisionmakingprocesses.A"Glossary"ofthekeywordconceptsusedintheSikhideologyand
religioustraditionhasbeencompiledandtheusageoftheseisshowninthetextofthebook.The
pronunciationhasbeenmadeaseasyaspossible,although,duetothelimitationofthe26letters
oftheEnglishalphabet,itisnotpossibletosatisfythisaspectentirely.Anyoneshouldbeableto
pickupthesewords(showninitalics)andremembertheminthecontextoftheirusage.Inthis
way,wordconceptsinlinewithGurmatt(Guru'steaching)canbeeasilypickedupand
remembered.TomakeiteasyfortheyoungSikhandnonSikhreaders,suchwordshavebeen
brieflyexplainedinbrackets(asinthisintroduction)whenfirstused,sothatoneneednotreferto
theGlossaryeverytime.Fewerexplanationsaregivenlaterinthebook;hopefully,bythen,the
readershouldalreadyknowthemeaningsofthesecommonlyusedwords.AsIhavearguedinan
earliertranslation,thismethodofpresentationcouldprovetobeamodelforacquaintingthenext
generationwiththeoriginalkeyGurmattwordsandconcepts.

Sometimes,useofGurbani(Guru'sWord)orGurmattwordsisalsoaformof"shorthand"andit
savesspace.Wordslikekautakneedproperunderstanding.Gurmattforbidstheperformanceof
miraclesormagic.TotranslatekautakbyGuruJiasperformanceofamiraclewouldnotbe
appropriate,although,onlythediscerningreaderwouldknowthedifferencebetweenakautak

andamiracle.Therefore,thewordhasnotbeentranslated,although,ithasbeenexplainedinthe
Glossary.

Thereisnogenderdiscrimination(i.e.sexdiscrimination)inSikhi.So,careshouldbetakentouse
genderneutralwordslike"humankind"(insteadof"mankind"),"individual","person"and"one"
etc.(insteadof"he"or"she")wherepossible.Wherethisbecomesawkward,standardusagehas
beenfollowed.Unlesswekeeprepeating"heorshe",dependingupontheintendedmeaningof
thesentence,"he"means"heorshe".

Everyefforthasbeenmadeinthistranslationtoretaintheoriginalstyle.IntryingtoretainBhai
SahibJi'sownstyle,lessattentionhasbeenpaidtostrictrulesofsyntax.(Ifthismeansinventing
"SikhEnglish",sobeit!)Thefootnotesgivefurtherexplanationandbackgroundinformation
wherethishasbeendeemednecessary.

Honestyintranslationorinterpretationismoreimportantthancompleteagreementwithallthat
istranslated.Thistranslationisnoexception.Afaithfultranslationhasbeenattemptedto
preservetheoriginalforceofthearguments.

Finally,asIhavementionedinanothersimilarworkoftranslation,itisakautak(seeGlossary)
indeedthatthisprojecthasbeencompletedinviewofmylimitedexperienceforsuchatask.This
humbleservantisevergratefultoSatguruJiforHisgrace.

GurmukhSingh
SikhEducationWelfareandAdvancement(SEWA)network
Emailsewauk@hotmail.com
February,2001

IntroductoryWords

TheTenformsofGuruNanakSahibwitnessedcountlesskautaks(divinephenomena)andtoiled
intensivelyanduntiringly(Editorialnote:Tointerprettheoriginalwording"kautakraachay"as
performanceofmiracleswouldnotaccordwithGurmatt(i.e.thatwhichaccordswiththeGuru's
teaching).GurmattinterpretationofKautakcanbedistinguishedfromtheperformanceof
miracles.Fromtheperspectiveofdailyhumanexperience,aKautakisanunusualoccurrenceand
itmaytakeplaceinthepresenceofasaintlybeingwhomayactasaspiritualconduitforsuchan
event(duetohisorhernearnessto,andresonancewiththeOneDivinePower).Therefore,sucha
holypersondoesnot"performmiracles"butmayberegardedasawitnesstotheoccurrenceof
supranormalevents.TheWillistheDivineWill(HukaminGurbaniterminology):Hukmayandar
sabhkobaaharHukamnakoay(GGSp.2):AllandeverythingiswithinGod'sWillandnothing
without).Asaresult,thespiritualandphysicaldiscipline(rehat),thewayoflifeandtheidentityof
theKhalsawerecreatedasdistinctattributes(Dependinguponitsuse,thewordKhalsacanrefer
generallytotheSikhnationi.e.theOrderoftheKhalsaortheKhalsaPanth;or,theAmritdhari
Sikhsi.e.thosewhohavebeenformallyinitiatedtotheKhalsastatuswherebytheyfullyobserve
thespiritualandphysicaldisciplineoftheSikhwayoflifecodedintheRehatnama.Khalsamaybe
usedinasingularorpluralsense.Khalsaconnotesauniquefreedomofspiritfromanyformof
bondageotherthanthedirectandinseparableattachmenttotheCreator,theSatguru(theTrue
Guru).Thewordcanmean"Thepure"ormorecommonlyinaproprietarysenseastheGuru's
Khalsa(derivedfromtheancientlandlawtermwhichreferredtoaking'sownpersonallandi.e.
landwhichwasnotfief)).TheholisticformofSriGuruGranthJi,theSikhScriptures,wascreated
distinctandtheGuru'sinitiationtraditionofKhandaydipahul(seeglossary)wasalsowithout
precedent.Whilstthepeoplewereinthehabitofbecomingattachedtohumangurus,theTenth
King(GuruGobindSinghJi)securedtheattachmentoftheKhalsatoGurbani(Guru'sWord
representedbyGuruGranthSahibJi).ForBani(shortforGurbani)istheTimelessBeing:

VahovahoBaniNirankarhaiGGSp.515
ThewonderfulBani(i.e.Gurbani,theGuru'sWord)istheFormlessCreator.

TheperfectGurucreatedtheperfectKhalsaandattachedtheKhalsadirectlytoThePerfectOne:

PooraykakiasabhkichhpooraGGSp.412.
ThecreationofThePerfectisalsoperfect.

TheperfectKhalsa'slifestyleisperfect:cleanliving,honestearningsandpurediet.Thisisthe
generalreflectionoftheKhalsa'sidealspiritualandphysicalpersonality.TheNameoftheTimeless
Beingisideal(ThewordroorhaoinGurbaniusedbytheauthorcanmeanbeauty(sundar),perfect
orideal(uttam)form(ref.:MahanKosh,BhaiKahnSinghNabha)),Hisformandbeautyisideal,
andHisWordisideal(InGurbani(Guru'sWordinSriGuruGranthSahib),theCreatoriscalledby
manynamesattributabletoHisqualities.However,despitethetraditionaluseofthemasculine
case,Heisoutsidegenderclassification).Heisidealandnothingbutideal(perfect).Everythingof
Hisisideal.ThebeautyoftheFormlessOne,theGuru,theTranscendentOne,theGuruGranth
SahibandGurbaniareallidealqualitiesoftheOneandtheSame.

PaarbrahamGurnaahibhedGGS1142.
ThereisnodistinctionbetweentheTranscendentOneandtheGuru.

Thatidealform(ofGuruGranthSahib)isthatinwhichthewordsareconnectedandwhichhas
beencreatedandinstitutedbytheOnewiththeideal(i.e.perfect)form,Himself(referstothe
originalformatofGuruGranthSahibinwhichthesacredwritingiscontinuousi.e.withoutany
spacingbetweenthewords.WordseparationinthepublishedformsofGuruGranthSahibwas
carriedoutbycertainscholarsmainlyinthesecondhalfofthe20thCenturyCE.Theoriginal
versionwasreadandtaughtbyscholarsofGurbaniaccordingtoownresearchandunderstanding
andinheritedknowledgeofwordseparation.Thiswasdonewithhumilityandprayeraskingfor
forgivenessforanymistakesmadeduringthepaatth(readingofGurbani)).Thereisnoscopefor
anyamendmenttothisform.TheformofthisBaniofthemahanpurukh(greatperson)wasinthe
sameformasitwasreceivedfromtheoriginalSourceandinthatsameformtheFifthandTenth
Nanakswroteitsothatitmayberespected,contemplatedandreadbytheworldlypeople(Inthe
SikhtraditionthesameLightofGuruNanaktravelledthroughthetenGuruformsfromGuru
NanakSahibtoGuruGobindSingh.Therefore,notonlyistheconceptoftheGurusingularin
GurmattbutalsoeachofthetenGurusisreferredtoasNanakandgiventhenumberrelevantto
HisplaceintheGurushipsuccession.Thus,theFourthNanakwasGuruAmardasJi).

PooraykakiasabhkichhpooraghattvadhkichhnaahiGGSp.1412
AllthatiscreatedbyThePerfectisperfectandthereisnodeficiencyorexcess.

Theconnectedword(larhidaar)formoftheperfectanduniqueGuru,SriGuruGranthSahibJi,is
alsounique,perfectandofchardhikalla(positivespiritAuniqueKhalsaexpressionindicatingan
uplifting,victoriousandpositivespirit).

Effortshavebeenmadeinthenextfewpagesofthispublicationtoshowwithclaritythatthe
beautifullyperfectformwithdivinepower,thetimelessform,andtheformdeterminedand
institutedaftermostcarefulconsiderationbytheperfectGuruNanak,isinfacttheconnected
wordsform,thelarhidaarform.IthasbeenordainedinGurbanithat:

HambhoolehToomsadaabhoolaGGSp.1213
WeareapttoerrbutYouarealwaysinfallible.

IftheTranscendentGuruisalwaysinfallible(whichisthetruth)thenhewasalsononerringwhen
hepreparedthelarhidaarformofSriGuruGranthSahib.Andwe(theinventorsoftheword
spacedformofSriGuruGranthSahibareforeverinclinedtoerr(showingdistinctwording
accordingtoourownsubjectiveunderstandingandjudgement).

RamSingh
SquadronLeaderRetd.

PREFACE

Bani(TheWord)oftheGuru,BanioftheDivineCourt,BanidescendedfromtheSource,istheBani
oftheCreator.ThisBaniistheimageoftheFormlessBeing(AllGodnames,ofwhichthereare
manyintheSikhtradition,andGodattributes(whichdescribeGod)aregivencapitalinitials.Thus
Guru,CreatorBeing,SatguruandAkalPurakhareallnamestodescribetheOneandonlyOne
Sourceofallcreation,theIkOnkarorWaheguruinSikhism).

AnyattempttounderstandBani,theimageoftheFormlessBeing,throughthefacultyofreason
alone,isnothingbutwilfulness.OnlytheraremindblessedbytheGurucanachieverealisationof
theinnerdepthofGurbani(Guru'sWord).OnlyamindimbuedwithGurbanicanexplainthe
meaningofGurbani;otherwise,thosedwellingintherealmofreasononly,andboastingtheir
abilitytoexplainGurbanientirelyonthebasisofworldlyeducation,arebeingnothingbut
egoisticallyheadstrong.

ItisextremelyimportantforeveryGursikh(SikhwholivesbytheGuru'steaching)toreadandto
contemplateGurbani.Itwouldbefoolisharroganceonthepartofapersonifhestartsmaking
effortstounderstandorexplainGurbaniwithoutlivingthelifeofaGursikhwhorecitesGurbani
andmeditatesonWaheguru'snameatAmritVela(earlymorningseeglossary).

Thisisaproblem,notfortheordinarypeople,butcanonlyrelatetogurmukhs(thosewhoabide
bytheGuru'steachingseeglossary),thosewholiveclosetotheGuruandthosewhomakeeffort
toremainlinkedtotheGuru'sholypresence.Eventhosegurmukhswhoremaineverattachedto
theGurucannotboastthattheyfullyunderstandthepaatth(recitation)ofGurbani,fortheyknow
thattheBaniwhichhasdescendedfromtheBeingwithunfathomableknowledge,isalso
unfathomable.TheknowledgeofGurbaniworddivisionsandpronunciationcomesthroughthe
Guru'sblessingwhiletheGursikhdwellsinGod'sfear,faithandlove,andnototherwise(in
Sikhismthestressisonafearlessspirit.However,fearofGodistheawesomewondermentand
thesubmissionofownwilltoHisWill(Hukam).Such"fear"calledbhaogoeswithloveforGod
calledbhaao.ThistwinlinkofbhaoandbhaaowithGodgotogetherinthespirituallifeofaSikh).
EnlightenmentandunderstandingofBaniisproportionatetothefaithandaffectionfor
WahegurutheWondrousEnlightener.Whendifferentinterpretershaveproduceddiverseword
formationsofGurbani(fromtheoriginalconnectedwordsformat),thentowhatextentisitright
topublishseparatedwordsformsoftheTrueKing(i.e.SriGuruGranthSahib,theSikhScriptures)
accordingtoonesownintellect?Isthisnotasubjectiveapproach?Howcanwe,withour
superficialknowledge,saythatourpaathh(recitation)ofomniscientBaniiscorrect?

WhenthemindofonewhohabituallyrecitestheNaam(meditativecontemplationofWaheguru's
Beingseeglossary)becomespurifiedthroughresonancewiththeDivinepresence(GuruCharan,
literally"Guru'sholyfeet"isinterpretedasGuru'sdivinepresence.Ameditativelinkofahuman
soulwiththispresenceofWaheguruistobelinkedwithGuruCharan)andpraysinallhumilityat
theGuru'sdooracceptingowndeficiencies,thenWaheguruJibestowsthegiftofcorrect
recitation(i.e.wordseparationandpronunciation).Itisonlywhen,throughtotaldedicationthat
onereachesthecountry(i.e.Waheguru'sPlainofultimateTruthalsocalledSachKhand)from
whichtheBanicame,thatonegainssomeunderstanding,nototherwise.

Inconnectionwiththistopic,ChiefKhalsaDiwan,throughitsresolutionnumber2682of21
January,1945,andDharamPracharCommittee(ofShromaniGurdwaraPrabandhakCommittee)

throughitsGurmatta(resolutionpassedinaccordancewithGurmaryadai.e.Guru'stradition(see
glossary))number7of1January,1950,forbadetheprintingandpublicationofseparatedword
Beerh(Scriptures),becausedoingthisisimproper,inappropriateandharmfultothePanth(short
forKhalsaPanthortheSikhnation).

Howcanthatwhichwasimproper,inappropriateandharmfulforthePanthupto1950,be
beneficialforthePanth,appropriateandpropernow?Howcanyesterday'smanmatt(egoistic
knowledgeseeglossary)becometoday'sGurmatt(Gurucentredknowledge)?Thehastewith
whichlarhidaar(connectedwords)forms(ofSriGuruGranthSahib)arebeingtakenoutofsightis
leadingtheSangat(holycongregation)tobelievethatlarhidaar(connectedword)formis
improperandharmfulforthePanth.

EfforthasbeenmadeinthispublicationtoexplainthedistinctivenessofGurmatt(Guru'steaching)
sothatGursikhsdonothaveanydoubtsabouttheGuru'sauthenticForm.

Chapter1OnlytheRareGurmukhContemplates

GurmukhAnidealGuruorientedSikh

1.TheAlmightyWaheguru(WondrousEnlightener),accordingtoHis(DespitestandardEnglish
usageof"He"inthemasculinecase,itmustberememberedthattheCreatorBeingisabove
genderinSikhi(Sikhideologyandwayoflife.ThewordSikhiispreferredtothemorelimited
EnglishversionofSikhism))ultimateWillandprogrammeovertheages,throughHisskilfuldesign,
wastoassumetheformofGuruNanakSahibJiintheageofKalyug(thefourthVedicdivisionof
time),andsoHedid(Theoriginalexpressionisdhurdhurandhariinwhichdhur=dependingupon
usage,canmeanfromthebeginning;fromthesource;or,totheend(e.g.thetypicalPanjabi
expressiondhurdasaath=companionshiptotheendofajourney)anddhurandhar=signifies
adoptionofacharacteristic(onitsownitcanalsomean"powerful").Theexpressionhasbeen
interpretedto"ultimate").GodHimselfassumedtheformofGuruNanakSahibandstartedthe
pathofGursikhi(theSikhwayoflifeaccordingtotheGuru'steaching).TheGuruHimselfwalked
onthepathofGursikhiandpreachedotherstodothesamethroughGurbani.Treadingonthe
pathofGursikhi,GuruSahibJienactedthe(instructive)childhoodanecdotes;becameherdsman
offemalebuffaloes(majhhian,calledmajhh(singular)ormajhhian(plural)inPanjabi);received
punishmentfromfatherfordoingsachasauda(dealoftruth,Referstotheanecdoteinwhich
GuruJifedsomehungryasceticswiththemoneygiventohimbyhisfatherfordoingprofitable
business);managedapublicprovisionsstore;didfarming;journeyedtomanycountriestopreach
Sikhi,sufferedhotsummers,coldwinters,andthehardshipsofwilderness;remainedthirstyand
hungry,andwassoldasaslave.HepaidaheavypricefortreadingthepathofGursikhi.

2.BhaiLehnaJibecameaSikhofGuruNanakSahibJiandalwaysremainedinhispresence
(BecameNanakII,GuruAngadJi,ontakingoverGuruNanakSahibJi'smissionin1539C.E.).He
renouncedhisownegoisticthoughtandacceptedtheorderandthewilloftheSatguru(True
Guru)ashismainaimandobjectiveinlife.Howdifficultandexactingitistogiveupone'sown
selfcentredthinking.HegavehisalltotheSatguruandfocusedonlyontheHukam(willororder)
oftheSatguru.Hecompletelyforsakeshisowncleverness.Hedidnotdothisforalimitedperiod
onlybutwasdeterminedtoremainonthispathfortherestofhislife.Onlythemostrarebeingis
blessedwithsuchtotalrenunciationofownthought(toreplaceitwiththatoftheGuru'sthought).
IftheMastersaidduringthedaythatitwasnight,theservant(Sikh)saidwithtotalfaith"YesSir,it
isnight".IfthemasteraskedtheSikh(i.e.BhaiLehnaJiinthiscontext)toclimbatreeandshake
itsbranchessothatsweetswouldfall,theservantobeyedimmediately.Theservantobeyedevery
orderoftheSatgurubelievingittobetrueandlivedaccordingly.Givinguphisownegocentric
mind,hesoadoptedtheGuru'sthoughtthatthroughtheGraceoftheGuru,fromaservanthe
becameNanak(asNanakII,GuruAngadDevJi).

3.TakealookatthelifeofAmardasSahibJi(latertobecomeNanakIII,GuruAmardasJi).Inold
age,whenanordinarypersonislookingforthesupportofawalkingsticktomovearound,looks
forrelativesforphysicalcare,AmardasJitookoverthedifficulttaskofbringingwatertoKhadur
SahibforthedailybathofGuruAngadSahibJi.HebroughtwaterfromtheBiasRiverwhichflowed
aboutninekilometresaway.Hewouldstartwalkingtowardstheriverjustbeforemidnight
carryingagaagar(alargemetallicpitcher)sothatfreshwatercouldbetakenintimeforthe
morningbathofSatguruJi.TherewasnomainroadbetweentheBiasRiverandKhadurSahib.The
routefollowedfootpathsandoverstones,mounds,thornybushesandthroughfieldsand
wilderness.Inthosedaystherewasnolighting(onroadsetc.)ortorchesandonecouldnotsee

evenone'sownhandstretchedinpitchdarkness.Notonlythat;AmardasJiwalkedbackwards
whengoingtotheriverandalwayskepthisfacetowardsKhadurSahib.Heneverturnedhisback
towardsGuruSahib.Howverydifficultissuchsewa(servicewithhumilityseeglossary).Indark
nightsHedidsuchhardsewacarryingthegaagaronhishead,notcaringforthedarknessofthe
nights,theheatofthesummers,thechillingwindsofthewintersandwalkingeighteenkilometres
dailythroughwilderness.Thissensationalgreatservicewascarriedoutnotoveraperiodofdays,
weeksormonthsbutwasperformedwithoutbreakfortwelveyears.AmardasSahibJiremained
fullofdedicatedenthusiasmforSatguru'ssewaoverthisperiod.Notevenathoughtcrossedhis
mindtouseahorse,amuleortheserviceofayoungworkertocarrythewater:

Jaldhovoehseeskar.......GGSp.813
Icarrywaterwiththishead(ofmine).

Suchwashistotalsacrificeofpersonalcomfortandsuchwastheexactinghighpricehewas
preparedtopayfortreadingthepathofGursikhi.Theextentofthisgreatsacrificeandsewawould
dawnonthelikesofusifwehadtoundertakeitevenforonenight.Whatwastheoutcomefrom
thepaymentofsuchahighprice?ThroughtheGuru'sblessing,AmardasJibecameonewiththe
GuruandwascalledGuruAmardasJi.

4.Continuingwiththesametradition,letusdodarshan(experiencethedivinesightofsee
glossary)ofGuruArjanDevJi.WalkingonthepathofGursikhihesatinthechaunkra(crosslegged
seeglossary)positiononahotironplatewhilehotsandwaspouredoverhishead;andhe
enduredsittinginacauldronofboilingwaterandthattooinextremeheatinthehottestmonth
(June).One'shairsstandonendwhenonevisualisesthesescenes.Somuchsufferingwhichbreaks
allbarriers.Hesacrificedhislifeundertheshadowofextremetortures.Hepaidsuchexactinghigh
pricefortreadingthepathofGursikhi.

5.WitnessthemartyrdomofSriGuruTegBahadurJiandthesufferingheunderwentintheiron
cagebeforehismartyrdom;thesacrificesofGuruGobindSinghSahibJi:Hesenthisownfatherto
givehislifeatDelhifortheprotectionofthepersecuted.HehimselfsenthistwoSahibzaaday
(Princes)tododharamyodh(battlefortherighteouscause).TwoSahibzaadaswerebrickedalive.
GuruJi'smotherbecameamartyr.UnlimitednumberofGuruJi'sdearSikhscourteddeath
willinglyinbattles.TheywalkedonthepathofGursikhiwhileundergoinggreatsuffering,received
Guru'sblessingandfoundabodeattheirrightfulplace(i.e.atSatguru'sholyfeetinSachKhand,
thePlainofTruth).

6.WhywasthispathofGursikhiwhichrequiresextremesacrifice,sufferingandhardshiptotread,
preachedbyWaheguruJi(theWondrousEnlightener)byplacingHisDivineLightfromGuruNanak
SahibthroughtenGuruFormstoGuruGobindSinghJi?ThiswasalldonesothattheDivineLight
ofGurushipcouldbeplacedintheconnectedwordsformofSriGuruGranthSahibJiforever,so
thatfollowingtheguidanceofSriGuruGranthSahibJi,enjoyingthenectarofNaamBani(i.e.
contemplatingWaheguru'sNameBeingandrecitingHisWord)andmakingasuccessoftheirlives
theymayproceedinrobesofhonourtotheLord'sCourtwiththeirfacesradiatingdivinelight.This
isalookintothetruelifeofGursikhi,thelifeofGursikhiwhichisalifeofhardshipandwhich
demandsahighprice,thelifeofGursikhiwhichisboughtforthepriceofownheadbytheone
whotreadsit:

Maytomolmahigeelaeejeesattay.GGSp.694
Ihaveboughtitdearinexchangeformysoul.

7.Nowtakeaglimpseattheeasy,comfortableandenjoyablelifeof,socalledGursikhi.The
comfortablelivingandcleverGursikhsfinditdifficult,requiringtoomucheffortandcostlytodo
thepaatth(recitation)oflarhidaarBani(BanicreatedthroughDivineWillinthatformatof
connectedword).FortheirownconveniencetheyhaveconvertedtheconnectedwordsBanito
separatedwordsBani.TheythinkthatGodmadeamistakebycreatingBaniintheformof
connectedwords,becauseitisdifficulttopreachGursikhithroughlarhidaarBaniandeven
impossibleinthisageofhasteandspeed.Larhidaarpaatthcannotbedonewithoutsomeone's
guidance;secondorthirdyearPanjabistudentscandothepaatthofBaniwithseparatedwords;
and,fourthorfifthyearstudentscanevendoAkhandPaatth(nonstoprecitationofSriGuru
GranthSahibJiseeglossary).

8.TheSikhs,fullofcleverthoughts,neverrealisethatGod,whohadaprogrammerightfromthe
beginningtocomposeBaniintheageofKalyug(seeglossary),andwhospentaperiodofovertwo
hundredyearsthroughtenhumanformstocomposeBani,didthatGodnotknowwhetherthe
rightformofBaniwouldbeintheformofseparatedwordsorconnectedwordsform?Wasthis
knowledgereservedfortheegoisticallycleverSikhswholivecomfortableandlaxlivesthatthe
separatedwordsformwouldbetherightone.Howunbecomingandemptyitisthatignorantmen
madebyGodshouldclaimtobeclevererthanGod.Perhapstheyhaveneverthoughtofthe
followingWordsoftheGuru:

HarjokichhkaraysoaapayaapayOhpoochhnakisaykaraybichaar.GGSp.1135
WhatevertheLorddoesthatHedoesonHisOwn.Heasksandconsultsnoother.

9.OnlythelarhidaarSaroopofGurbaniwastheultimateprogrammeofGuruNanakSahiband
onlythisformisblessedbyGodandacceptabletotheGuru.GuruSahibgavethelarhidaarSaroop
tothisBanitwicefirstinHisfifthhumanform(i.e.byNanakV,GuruArjanDevJi)andasecond
timeinHistenthform(i.e.byNanakX,GuruGobindSinghJi).TheperfectGuruwithHisperfect
wisdomdecoratedSriGuruGranthSahibwithlarhidaarGurbani.IntheHouseoftheGuruonlythe
Guru'swisdomisaccepted.TheGuru'sorderistogiveupownegoisticmind:

MannkimatttiagoHarjanehabaatkatthaynee.GGSp.800.
OGod'sbeingsrenounceyourmind'scleverness(although)thistaskmightbedifficult.

10.TheformofGuruGranthSahibJiwithseparatedwordshasdevaluedthepreciousBaniandthe
advocatesofseparatedwordsformofBanihavetakentheblameforthisdevaluationontheirown
heads.ThepaatthoflarhidaarBanirequireseffort,time,guidanceandfullconcentration.Thisis
notaneasytask;itisdifficult,expensivebutitincreasesrespectforBani.Whendoingthepaatth
oflarhidaarBaniandalsoafterwardsonekeepswonderingaboutthemistakesonemighthave
madewhiledoingpaatth.Inallhumility,themindwouldturntoprayerandaskforforgiveness
fromSatguru(TrueGuru)whileprayingfortheunderstandingtobeabletodocorrectpaatth.In
doingthis,themindwouldremainhumble.ThisaccordswithGurmatt(Guru'steaching):Gurmukh
nimaanahoh(Guru'sfollowerisalwayshumble).

11.Incontrast,thepaatthofseparatedwordsformofBaniiseasy.Itisinone'smindthatonehas
donecorrectpaatthandmadenomistake.Inthisway,asubtleformofarrogancecreepsintothe
mind.NoneedisfelttopraytoGuruJifortheabilitytodocorrectpaatth,neitherdoesthat
thoughtremaininthemind.SuchattitudeisagainstSikhi(Sikhteaching)sentiment.Thatisthe
reasonwhytheMastercomposedlarhidaarBani.

12.GivingseparatedwordsformattolarhidaarGurbanisignifiesouregoisticcleverness,our
turningawayfromtheGuruandamountstoinsolentcriticism.Thosewhosupportthisegoistic
clevernessalsocannotremaininnocent.Theonewhokillsgoats,theonewhosellsgoatstoa
butcherandtheonewhoeatsgoatmeat,theyallshareguilt.OurcleverandcomfortseekingSikhs,
andthoseseekingGursikhiatalowpricedidnotstoponlyatseparatingthewordsofGurbani,but
havealsoother"achievements"totheircredit.TheyarelaxingettingupatAmritVela(earlyinthe
morningseeglossary),takingabathanddoingNaamSimran(recitingWaheguru'sNamesee
glossary)andrecitingthemorningBanis(prescribedGurbanicompositionsintheNitNem).
InsteadofwearingaproperKirpan(Sikhswordsecuredwithatraditionalsash(gaatra)wornover
theshoulderfromrighttoleftsothattheswordissecuredatthehipontheleft)theyare
contentwithasymbolichalfinchKirpanfixedtoawoodencomb.Copyingthem,theSikhladies
toopreferfashioninsteadofSikhrehat(seeglossarySikhdisciplinewhichincludesthekeepingof
thefivearticlesoffaith,thePanjKakkars).ThedisregardforSikhrehatwhichweseetodayisdue
tothemisguidedresearchersseekingcheapSikhiwhichallowsforcomfortablelife.

13.NotonlydoesGurbaniinstructsustorenouncetheegoisticmindbutalsothecompanyof
thosewhoadoptsuchaheadstronglifestyle:

MannkimatttiaagoHarjan....GGSp.800
OGod'sbeingsrenounceyourmind'scleverness.

Manmukhsaokardosteesukhkepushehmitt.
GurmukhsaokardosteeSatgursaolaichitt.GGSp.1421
MakingfriendshipwithanegoisticpersonwhomdoyouaskforpeaceOfriend?(I.e.youareasking
forcontentmentfromthewrongperson.)
MakefriendshipwiththeGuru'sfollowerandattachyourmindwiththeTrueGuru.

ThosewholiveincomfortandseekGursikhicheaplyshouldaskthemselveswhytheancient
warriorSinghs("Warrior"herestandsfortheKhalsawordsurbirwhichconnotesaneveralert
spiritofasaintwarrior.Thestrugglefirstandforemostiswithfiveevilswithin,oflust,
uncontrolledanger,greed,materialisticattachment,andegocentricpride.Thesurbiriseverready
fordharamyudh(righteousstruggleseeglossary)),diamondsoftheGuru,preferredtomount
thetorturewheelsofthecharkharhiwhileearningGursikhicredit(Charkharhiwasmadeupoftwo
largewoodenwheels,oneofwhichhadsharpspikesalongthecircumference;thuswhenthese
wheelswereturned,theskinofapersonmountedonthenonspikedwheelwasshreddedtobits.
AtorturedevicewhichwasusedbytheMughalrulersofIndiaduringtheSikhstruggleforhuman
equalityandfreedom).Whyweretheyfriedincauldronsofhotoil?Whydidtheyprefertobe
scalpedalive?Whydidtheyprefertobesawedinhalves?Choppedupatthejoints?Whydidthey
willinglyaccepttobethrownintofurnaces?Whydidtheybecometargetsforbullets?Whydid
theygettheirheadscutoff?Whydidtheyliebeneaththecrushinghoovesofhorses?Whydid
theyacceptbeatingwithwoodenstaffsandwhydidtheygotojails?Whydidtheyaccepttobe
crushedbytrains?WhydidtheystartontheroadofGursikhi,giveupthecomfortsofhomeand
liveinthejungles(ThisreferenceshouldnotbeconfusedwithsomeasceticlifestylewhichSikhi
forbids.RatherthereferenceistothegreatKhalsastruggleofthe18thCenturywhichresultedin
thefreedomofIndianorthofRiverJamnarightuptoKabul.TheareabetweenJamnaandSatluj
riverswastakenoverbySikhconfederaciestowardsthemiddleofthe1760ssomeyearsbefore
theestablishmentoftheRajKhalsanorthofRiverBias.Allwereequalpartnersinthisruleofthe
peoplebythepeople)?WhydidSikhmothersbearthepainoftheirchildrenbeingcuttopieces
beforetheirowneyes?CouldnotalltheseancientSikhshaveusedtheirownintelligenceand

shrewdnessandsoughtworldlycomforts?Buttheydidnotdothis,becausetothemthepathof
SikhishownbytheGuru(i.e.thepathofGurmatt)wasdear.Trueandpermanentspiritualbliss
andtheGuru'spleasurelayinearningSikhicreditbyfollowingthispath;thatisalsotruetoday:

Chaalaniraalibhagtahkeribikhammaragchallna.GGSp.918.
Unusualisthewayoflifeofthesaints(for)theytreadthedifficultpath.

MisIfakirangakhrhisopaayiaypoorkarram.GGSp.138384.
Difficultitistobelikethesaints.Thatpositionisonlyobtainedthroughperfectdeeds.

14.TravellersonthepathofGursikhinevergaveuptreadingonthispathatanyprice.Having
acceptedthispathtobedearerthanlifetheysufferedallsortsofdifficulties.Theyrespectedthe
injunctionsoftheGuru.InordertogivedirectiontothefollowersofthepathofGursikhi,the
perfectGodthroughtheperfectGuru,accordingtoownperfectlogic,gavelarhidaarformtothe
perfectBaniandinstitutedtheperfectSriGuruGranthSahibJiontheThroneofGuruship.Forthis
reason,onlylarhidaarSriGuruGranthSahibJiblessedandwilledbyGodandasrevealedbythe
Guru,istheultimateandpermanentsuccessortotheGuru'sThrone.Some20thCenturySikhsin
positionsofresponsibilityhavebeendeprivedofgoodsensesothattheyhavedissociated
themselvesfromthelarhidaarSaroop.Theyavoidthisform.Theyrejoicewhentheyseetheform
withseparatedwords.

Chapter2TheGloryoftheTrueGuruPleasestheGursikhs

(GursikhakaymannbhavdeeGurSatgurkeevadiaee.GGSp.310)

(Gurbaniwords:Pleasereferbacktothe"Pronunciationscheme"givenatthebeginningofthis
publication,especiallyaboutthecorrectpronunciationofunderlinedletterse.g.aytobe
pronouncedasinpair,orrhasinkarhatheSikhironbracelet.)

1.ThelifeofGuruNanakDevJipresentstwomainaspectstotheworld.Thefirstaspectisthat
whichwasshownthroughBhaiLehnaJi(latertobecomeNanakIIGuruAngadDevJi);thesecond
istheoneseenbytheworldthroughtheSahibzaadas(Princesi.e.sonsofGuruJi).

2.WhenGuruNanakSahibJiaskedtheSahibzaadastodoanything,thelatter,usingownmind(i.e.
cleverness),offereddifferentwaysofdoingit;which,fromapracticalorworldlyaspectseemed
easierandcorrect.Afterlisteningtocriticismofowninstructionfromchildren,GuruJirepeated
thesameinstructiontoBhaiLehnaJi.BhaiLehnaJi'sresponsewasalwaysimmediateandhe
wouldstartcarryingitoutintheflashofaneye.Inthisway,byacceptingtheGuru'scommand
withoutquestion,hereceivedGuruJi'sbenediction.ThisisbecauseBhaiLehnaJihadrealisedthe
meaningof:

Hukammanniayhovayparvaan....GGSp.471.
ByobeyingHiscommandapersonbecomesacceptable....

NeverdidhequestionorcriticiseSatguru'sorder.Nay,eventhethoughtofdoingthisdidnotcross
hismind.HewasonlyconcernedwithacceptanceofGuru'sorderwhileatthesametimethinking
thatitwashisgoodfortuneforbeinggiventheopportunitytoservetheGuru.

TherespectforandpraiseofSatguruJiliesinthis,thataGursikhbowshisheadbeforeSatguru's
intention;thathebowshisheadinblissfulcontentment;thathebowswithgratitude;and,thathe
bowsintotalexaltation.WheninHisthirdhumanform,GuruNanakIII,GuruAmardasJi,askedfor
aplatformofmasonry(ttharha)tobemadeforownsitting,manySikhsstartedbuildingsuch
platformstopleaseGuruJi.EachtimeGuruJiwastoldthattheplatformshadbeencompletedhe
lookedatandrejectedeachoneofthem.Heorderedtherejectedplatformstoberebuiltbetter
thanbefore.TheGursikhsusingtheirskillsandstaminabuiltimprovedplatformsagaininplaceof
thefirstlot.AgainGuruJirejectedthemandaskedforevenbetterplatformstobebuiltinplaceof
thepreviouslot.Thisprocesscontinuedforafewdays.Bythenmanyintelligentandheadstrong
SikhsthoughtthatGuruJiwasnotapprovinganyoftheplatformswhiletheyhadbeentoilingfor
days;theyfeltthattheycouldnotmakebetterplatforms.InthiswaythenumberofSikhswho
keptrebuildingtheplatformsasorderedbyGuruJistartedtodwindle.Adaycamewhenonly
RamdasJi(laterNanakIV,GuruRamdasJi)remainedsteadfastandkeptpullingdownand
rebuildingtheplatformhewasworkingon.EachtimeGuruJiwouldrejectthenewlybuilt
platformandaskRamdasJitobuildanotherandbetteroneinitsplace.TheotherSikhsstarted
makingfunofRamdasJi.

4.EachtimeGuruJirejectedtheplatformmadebyRamdasJiandaskedhimtomakeabetterone
initsplace,RamdasJiwouldstandupwithfoldedhandsandsay,"SatguruJi,Iamnotclever.Itis
truethatthisplatformisnotgood;pleaseblessmewiththeabilitytomakeabetterplatform."
Withthis,RamdasJiwouldbecomefilledwithenthusiasmandjoythatSatguruJihadkepthim

employedinHisownworkandhadorderedhimtomakeanotherplatform.RamdasJi'swaskeen
onlytoabidebyGuruJi'swillandtocarryonworkinginaccordancewiththeGuru'swishes.He
wasnotconcernedwiththebadorgoodqualityoftheplatform(TheSikhiprincipleillustratedin
thisanecdoteneedstobeunderstood:ASikhwilldotheGuru'sworkwithtotaldedication,doing
hisorherlevelbesttocomplywiththeGuru'swishes.However,astheworkisoftheGuru,sois
theendresult.ASikhneednotconcernhimselfwiththeresultwhichisinGuruJi'sownWill.Thus,
aSikhwholeheartedlyemployedintheGuru'swork,byfreeinghimselffromtheendresult,frees
himselffromthecycleofkaram(karmainvedictradition)).

5.WhentheDivineLightofGuruNanak(whichwasthesameinallGuruforms)hadtestedand
confirmedthattherewasnoegocentricityinBhaiLehnaJi(laterGuruAngadDevJi)andRamdas
Ji(laterGuruRamdasJi),thattheironlydesirewastoaccepttheGuru'sorderwithenthusiasm
andtoremainwithintheGuru'sWill,thentheLightofGuruNanakresidedintheseservants
(saints)andinstitutedthemontheThroneofGuruNanakSahibJi.

6.Wheninthetenthform,theLightofGuruNanak(asGuruGobindSingh)demandedtheheads
ofSikhs,thosewhoofferedthemdidnotquestion,"Whatwillyoudowithourheads?"They
steppedforwardtooffertheirheadsandgavetheirheads.ItwasfortheGurutoknowthe
purposebehindthisdemand.AGursikh'sconcernisonlywiththeacceptanceoftheGuru's
command.AGursikhdoesnotanalyseorquestiontheordersoftheGuru.Adoubtfuland
questioningattituderegardingtheGuru'sinstructionsdetractsfromthefaithintheGuru.Iffaithis
unstablethenallislost.WhatcanonereceivefromtheGuru?Itwasbecauseofthecontinuous
faithintheperfectGuruthattheexpressionutteredbytheGuru"KhalsaismyperfectSatguru"
washeardbytheworld.TheKhalsacarryingouttheGuru'scommandunquestioninglyandexactly
asgivenmergeswithGurusothatthetwoareOneandthesame.

7.However,itisregrettablethatforsometimenow,duetoouregoisticclevernessandcravingfor
praise,ourfaithintheperfectGuruhasbecomeunstable.Wehavestartedfindingadeficiencyin
theGuruSaroop(Guru'sForm).Wethinkthatbyourintellectualprowesswehavesucceededin
makingupforthisdeficiency.How?We,thecleverSikhs,thoughtthattherewaslesspowerinthe
larhidaar(connectedwords)Saroop(Form)ofSriGuruGranthSahibJiforthepurposeof
preachingGursikhiandforpersuadingalargernumberofordinarypeopletoreadGurbani.By
introducingtheseparatedwordsforminpreferencetothelarhidaarSaroop,whichcamefromthe
ultimatesourcethroughGod'sWillandbyGod'sinjunctionandwasinstitutedaspreordained,
therespectandtheneedofthelarhidaarSaroopwaserasedfromthemindsofordinarypeople
whostartedthinkingthatitwastoodifficulttoread.

8.TheperfectGuru(SriGuruGranthSahibJi)isperfectineveryrespect;GuruJiisperfectin
preachingandperfectindarshan(divinesightseeglossary).Thereisnodeficiencyintheperfect
Guru.ForthatreasonthereisnoscopeforanyamendmentormodificationoftheperfectGuru.
BeforemergingwiththeDivineLight(Jotijotsamaonaseeglossary),GuruNanakSahibenjoined
theSikhstofollowGuruAngadDevJiandsaid"FromnowfollowAngadDevastheGuru".Again,
beforemergingwiththeDivineLight,GuruAngadDevJiordained,"Fromnowplaceyourfaithin
AmardasJiastheGuru."ThissameprocedurecontinueduntiltheTenthForm(NanakX,Guru
GobindSinghJi).

9.KalgidharPaatshah(kalgidhar=weareroftheplume,paatshah=Kingi.e.GuruGobindSinghJi),
beforemergingwiththeDivineLight,commandedtheSikhs,"Thisismycommand,thatyoumust
place(total)faithintheGranth(SahibJi)asyourGuru".Havingsaidthis,theKalgidharPaatshah

bowedbeforethelarhidaarSaroopofSatguru,SriGuruGranthSahib,inthetraditionalway(see
mathateknaintheglossary).Itwasdarshan(holysight)ofthelarhidaarSaroopwhichwas
ordainedbyGuruGobindSinghJi.However,wehaveusedourheadstrongclevernesstoconvert
thisapprovedformtotheformwithseparatedwordssothatthepaatth(Gurbanireadingsee
glossary)canbedoneeasilyandquickly.ThesuggestedsinglesheetpaatthbytheKookay(singular
KookacommonusagewordfortheNaamdharisectoftheSikhsseeglossary)andtheSeparated
wordspaatth(inprintedform),botharisefromegoisticclevernessandarecondemnable.The
KookayintendedtosplitupGuruGranthSahibintosinglesheetsbuttheSikhworldregardedthis
asasacrilegeandprotestedmassively;theKookaystoppedfromdoingthismisdeed.Wewereso
hurtwhenweheardaboutthemovetosplitGuruGranthSahibintosinglesheets,regardingitto
beanirreligiousact;thePanthunitedandprotestedstronglytostopit.However,seeingthe
wordsofthelarhidaarSaroopoftheGurubeingsplit(intoseparatedwordsformat)failedtorouse
us.WhydoweregardonetypeofmanmattwhichisharmfultothePanth'schardhikalla
(ascendancy)asnottolerableandtheotherasdesirable?Inbothsituationsdisrespectisshownto
Gurbani.IftheformoftheinvincibleKhalsahasbeenprescribedasdistinctbytheKalgidhar
Paatshah,thenconsideritassetinstonethattheSaroop(holyappearance)oftheGuruisalso
special.AndthatspecialsaroopisthelarhidaarSaroopnotseparatedsheetformorseparated
wordsform.

10.LarhidaarSaroophasbeenshapedbyGod.Spacedwordingformisgivenbyegoisticmentality:

Pooraykakiasabhkishpooraghattvadhkishnaahi.GGSp.1412.
AllthattheperfectLorddoes(orcreates)isperfect.Thereisnodeficiencyorexcess(inwhatHe
does).

WeshouldhavetotalfaithintheaboveGurvaak(Guru'sWordorInjunction).We,whoarewontto
err,thelax,thematerialistic,thecomfortseekinghowcanweappreciatethepraise(greatness)
ofthelarhidaarSaroop?

Hammbhoolehtumsadaabhoola.GGS1213
WeareinerrorYouareforeverInfallible.

TheunerringGuruNanakSahibJideterminedthelarhidaarSaroopofSriGuruGranthSahibJi.No
mistakehasbeenmadeinthecreationofthisSaroop.

Aapkaraykisaakhaykoee.
Aakhanhjaayiayjebhoolahoee.GGSp.114
HimselftheLorddoeseverything.Withwhomcananyonelodgeacomplaint?
ThemortalmaygrumbleifHeweretoerr.

TheunerringGuruNanak,intentionally,aftercarefulthoughtandwithintheWillofGod,created
thelarhidaarSaroopofGuruGranthSahibJiandplacedtheworldlypeopleinthecareofGuru
GranthSahibJi.However,thosemisdirectedpeoplewhosellGurbaniandliveontheproceeds
havedisfiguredtheGodwilledSaroopoftheGuru.Bygivingitthespacedwordingform,they
havedevaluedSikhi.ServiceandpreservationofthelarhidaarSaroopisthetruepraiseofthe
Guru:

GursikhavadiaeebhaavayGurpooraykimanmukhaohvelahathhnaaaya.GGS304

TheeulogyoftheperfectGuruispleasingtotheSikhsoftheGuru(Gursikhs).Theegoisticminded
donothavethatopportunity.

Manmukhs(conceitedpeople)likeonlythespacedwordingformwhichtheyfindeasiertoread.
TheydislikethelarhidaarSaroopbecauseitisdifficulttoread.Howunfortunatearethey!

11.Spacedwordingformistheinventionofegoisticcleverness.Suchclevernessisoneofthemain
characteristicsofhumanbeings,viz.:

EhjaggoduttarmanmukhpaarnapaaeeRaam.GGSp.775
Thisworldisanuntraversableocean.Theegocentricisunabletocrossit.

(Why?)

AnttrayhaomaymamtakaamkrodhchatraaeeRaam.GGSp.775.
Withinhimisselfconceit,egoism,lustwrathandcleverness.

Behold,whathappenstotheproponentsofseparatedwordsformofGuruGranthSahib:

Aanttarchattraaeethhainapaaeebirthhajanamgavaaya.
Yammaggdukhpaavaychotakhaavayanttgayapashttaaya.GGSp.775
Withinhimiscleverness,heisnotapprovedandwasteshislifeinvain.
IntheYam'swayhesufferspain,bearsblowsandintheenddepartsregretfully
(SeeYamintheglossary.Darkangelofdeath.ItneedstoberememberedthattheidiomofGuru
GranthSahibderivesfrompopularlorewithoutnecessarilygivingcredibilitytotheunderlying
beliefs(e.g.inthiscasethebeliefinangelsofdeathorheavenandhell)fromwhichitderives)

Thesecleverpeoplehavemodifiedandinsertedspacesinthepureanddivineformofcontinuous
words(larhidaarSaroop)ofSriGuruGranthSahibJi.Intheirview,bythismodification,they
simplifiedthiscomplexGuruforthebenefitofthepublic.

12.Modificationisneededforthat,theoriginalconstructionofwhichhasbeenleftwithsome
defect.Suchimperfectioniscorrectedthroughmodification.OntheonehandweregardSriGuru
GranthSahibJiastheperfectGuruandontheotherweregardtheGuruasinneedof
modificationthroughinsertionofspacesbetweenwords.Thisislaughableperfectandimperfect
atthesametime!Onecanonlyexpressregretandalwaysregretabouttheintelligenceofthose
whoadvocatewordspacing.EvenmoreregretaboutthoseSikhswho,thinkingthatthelarhidaar
SaroopinstitutedbyGuruNanakSahibisdifficult,haveintentionallyremovedthisoutofsightand
havegivenpreferencetotheproductofhumancleverness,thespacedwordingform.

13.ThelarhidaarcreationofSriGuruGranthSahibJiisamysticactofGod.Continuouswords
(larhidaar)formatinducesmentalandspiritualharmony,humilityandlackofanyegocentricity;
thereisspiritualecstasyandthisSaroop(holyForm)inspiresadesiretodosewa(servicewith
humilityseeglossary)withwondrousawe(oftheAlmightyWaheguru)anddedication(seebhay
bhaavneeintheglossary).ForaGursikh,themeaningofGuru'spraiseistoacceptallthatisseen
(placedbeforetheGursikhbytheGuru):Guru'sinjunction,Guru'swill,Guru'sName(seeNaamin
theglossary)andtheGuru'sdarshan(divinesight),viz.:

TteraNaamroorhao,rooproorhaoattranggroorhaomeroRamaiya.GGSp.693.
YourNameisbeautiful,YourformisbeautifulandverybeautifulisyourloveOmyOmnipresent
Lord.

ThatpreordainedformshownbytheGuruisthelarhidaarSaroop.Nottheinventionofthemind,
thecleverformwithseparatedwords.Come,letusaskforforgivenessforourpastmistakesand
cometotheholypresenceofthelarhidaarSaroopcreatedbyGuruNanakSahibJi.Thisisthetrue
praiseofSatguru(theTrueGuru).

Chapter3ItisthroughtheGuru'sWordthatoneisemancipated

(Avarupao'nkoeesoojhayNanakttariayGurbachnee.GGSp.1186)
ItisthroughtheGuru'sWordthatoneisemancipated,Nanakcanthinkofnootherway.

1.AtthetimeofKalgidharPaatshah(theaigrettewearingTrueKingi.e.GuruGobindSinghJisee
glossary),thefortofAnandpurwasbesiegedbyhundredsofthousandsofenemiesandallsupply
routesforrationswereclosed.Thefoodstoredupinthefortdidnotlastforlong.TheSinghswere
muchtroubledbyhunger(SinghisthecommonnamegiventotheSikhsbyGuruGobindSinghJi
afterthehistoricalAmritSanchaar(initiationtotheKhalsaseeAmritintheglossary)ceremonyat
AnandpurSahibontheVaisakhidayin1699.Although,notallSikhsmaybe"Singhs"andnotall
SinghsmaybeAmritdhari(onewhohastakenAmritinitiation),theuseofthewordSinghfora
SikhhasacertainmartialconnotationinlinewiththeKhalsatradition).Theleavesandbarkof
treesinthefortwerenotofmuchhelpeither.Finally,unabletobearthepangsofhunger,forty
SinghsaskedforKalgidharJi'spermissiontoreturntotheirhomes.TheSatguruaskedthemto
stayonforalittlelonger.Thinkingmoreoftheirownwellbeing,theseSinghsdidnotacceptGuru
Ji'srequest.IntheirselfishnesstheydecidedtoleavebehindtheGuruandotherSinghsandto
returntotheirhomesandfamilies.

2.Realisingtheirdeterminationtoleave,GuruSahibJisaid,"Ifyoudonotwishtoacceptmyword
andaredeterminedtoleave,thenwritethisdisclaimer"YouarenotourGuruandwearenot
yourSikhs".Theseforty,harassedbyhungerandthinkingofonlyworldlycomfortswrotethe
disclaimer(baydava)formallybreakingtheGuru/Sikhlinkandlefttheforttoreturntotheirhomes.
Whentheywrotethisdisclaimer,theydidnotthinkofthepersonalityofGuruJithatHeis:

AmarveparwahohaiTtisnaalsianhapnachallaeenahujjatkarneejai.
TheLordiscarefreeandforever.WithHimclevernessavailsnotnorcanonecavilwithHim.

ThatwithHim:

AapchhodsarnaipavaymannlairajaiGGSp.125051
Abandoningone'sselfconceitoneshouldrepairtoHisrefugeandbowbeforeHisWill.

OnlysuchrespectfortheGurubecomesaSikh.However,thesefortyrelyingontheirownegoistic
mindleftAnandpur.

3.WhentheyreachedtheMajhacountry(anareabetweenriversBiasandRaviinPanjab)andmet
MaiBhago,thenMataJi(Motheri.e.Mai(Maaee)Bhago)askedaboutthewellbeingofKalgidhar
Paatshahandheardallthathadcometopass.MataJiwasamodelofGursikhilove.Herspiritwas
muchpainedwhensheheardabouttheconditionsatAnandpur.Shecondemnedthemandsaid,
"Forhowlongwillyoubeabletosavethislifewhichyouwanttosavefromhungerbyturning
awayfromGuruJi?Whowillcometoyouraidwhenyouleavethisbodymadeofthefive
elements?You,whohavepartedwithyourGuru,whowillgiveyoushelterwhenyoureachthe
DivineCourt?Yourcycleofchaurasi(traditional8.4millionlifeformsthroughwhichasoulevolves
toearntheopportunityforsalvationaffordedbyhumanlifeseeglossary)willnotendinthis
way."Theseunfortunatesoulshadnotpausedtothinkthatif:

KoeevichharhjaiSatgurupaasohliskalamuhjammmaariaGGSp.312.
IfsomeoneseparateshimselffromtheTrueGuruhisfacegoesblackandheisdestroyedbythe
death'scourier.

MaiBhagoJicontinued,"YouhavedoneaterribledeedbyturningyourbacksontheGuru.Your
goodliesinthisthatyoureturntotheholyfeet(presence)ofSatguruJiandaskforforgiveness.
Come,letmeaccompanyyoualso."

4.TheseSinghswerespirituallymovedonlisteningtoMataJi'swordsofdeepfaith;theystarted
repentingtheirmistake;realisationofwhattheyhaddonedawnedonthemandtheypreparedto
returntotheGuruJi'sholypresence.OntheirwaytheyclashedatMukatsarSahibwithadivision
oftheMoghularmypursuingGuruSahib(newsthatGuruJihadalreadyleftFortAnandpur
reachedthemandtheyfollowedGuruJitotheMalwa(areasouthofRiverSatlujthe
southernmostriverofPanjab)).TheseSinghsandMataJifoughtwithgreatbravery.TheMoghul
divisionwasthwarted(havinglostanyenthusiasmtopursueGuruJiaftermeetingsuchtough
resistanceandonfindinghardlyanywaterintheonlywaterholedhaabinthataridland.)

5.GuruSahibJiwaswatchingthisbattlefromhighgroundnearbyandshootinghisarrowswith
deadlyaccuracyinsupport.Afterthebattle,Hereachedthelocationtolookafterthewounded
andtocrematetheShaheed(thosewhohadfalleninbattle)Singhs.GuruJibestowedHisblessing
oneachofthethirtynineSinghswhoweredeadandcametoBhaiMahaSingh(theleaderofthe
forty)who,thoughmortallywounded,wasstillalive.GuruJisaid,"OSingh,Iampleasedwithyou.
Askforwhateveryouwish."BhaiMahaSinghJispoke,"ThesoulsofmycompanionSinghsarein
tormentandnotgettingshelterin(Waheguru's)DivineCourt.Wehavereachedthisplight
becausewedidnotlistentoyourWord.Forgiveusinyourgenerosityandcometoouraid."On
hearingthis,GuruJitookoutthepieceofpaperfromhispocket,onwhichtheseSinghshad
writtentheirbaydava(disclaimer)atAnandpur,andtoreitup.Thefortywereimmortalisedwith
thecollectivetitleofChaaliMuktay(theFortywhohadachievedsalvationThe"ChaaliMuktay"
arenowrememberedinthedailyArdaas(supplication)ofeverySikh).BhaiMahanSinghJi
meditatedontheGuru'sholyfeetandlefthismortalbodyfortheDivineCourt.

6.ThepurposeofmostpreachersforrecitingthishistoricalepisodeistoteachthatGuruSahibis
forgivingandgenerous.HesavesthehonourofthosewhoseekHisprotectionandHesaveseven
thosewhorepentandreturntoHimevenafterdisclaimingHim.ThepraiseofGuruSahibJiis
abundantlyseeninHiseverywondrousactandvisibleexpansiveunfathomablegreatness.Heis
charitableandforgiving.Heforgivesanyone,nomatterhowgreataperson'ssin,whoseeksHis
shelter.However,weneedtodiscussanotheraspectofthisepisodeofbaydava.

7.Inordertoteachtheworldwithclaritythe(spiritual)benefitsofabidingbytheGuru'sWilland
thedisadvantagesoffollowingownegoisticwill,GuruJienactedtheincidentofbaydava,having
sufferedextremehardships,havingsacrificedhiswholefamily,andhavingsufferedthe
martyrdomsofcountlessdearSinghs,sothattheworldmaynotforgetthelessontobelearnt
fromthisepisode(allthathappensisthroughGod'sOrdinanceandWill(Hukam)Therefore,as
thereisnodistinctionbetweenGod'sWillandGuruJi'swill,GuruJi'sownlifeexperienceswere
willedbyGuruJiHimselfforteachinghumanity).Thisepisodewritteninthesacredbloodof
martyrsisnotforamusementorforarousingangertowardsanygroup.Thisepisodewasenacted
byGuruJiforusandourfuturegenerations(untiltheendoftime)tosaveourselvessothatthe
trueobjectiveofhumanlifeisachieved;sothatwegototheDivineCourtwithfullhonour.This
episodeofbaydava,experiencedbytheKhalsa(seeglossary),paintedwithsacredbloodand

decoratedbycountlessmartyrdomsofsaints,isanunforgettable,veryspecialandeducational,
wondroushistoricalcommandmentofKalgidharPaatshah.Howisthat?

8.Thisepisode(aspartoftheGuru'steaching)alertsusandshowsusthewaytosaveourselves
fromchaurasi(i.e.chaurasilakhjooni:cyclesofbirthsanddeathsthrough8.4millionlowerlife
formsseeglossary).ThewayistoplacecompletetrustintheGuruforone'swholelife.Thatisit!
ThereisnotprotectionifonedeviatesevenslightlyfromtheGuru'sway.Excuses,reasoning,
argumentsoregoisticclevernessdonotworkinfrontoftheGuru.Here:

JekobhallalorhaybhalapnaGuraagaydhehdhehpaavaygo.GGSp.1310.
Ifsomegoodpersonseeksowngood,thatpersonshouldlieprostratebeforetheGuru.

Lifehastobedirectedaccordingly.OnlyinthislieswhatisgoodforaGursikh.Owncleverness
whichweevencarryaboutwithusintheGuruGhar(HouseoftheGuru),mustbeplacedaside:

JoGurkahaysoeebhalmaanohGGSp.667.
WhatevertheGurusaysacceptthatasthegood...

Thisadvicemustberememberedwitheverybreath.Thebaydavaepisodeislikeamirrorfor
Gursikhs.

9Placingthismirrorinfrontofus,letuslookinwardsandseehowwemeasureuptotheSikh
ideal.AtleastthefortySikhscouldnotbeartoremainhungryandsotheyturnedtheirbackson
GuruJi.WhohasforcedustoturnourbacksonthesacredlarhidaarSaroopofSriGuruGranth
SahibJi(throughwhichisrevealedtheBodyoftheGurui.e.theGuruPersonality).Wehavebeen
forcedtodothisbythehungerforwealthandthepraiseofthecomfortablywelloffSikhs.We
havenolovefortheGurunorforGursikhi.WeareneitherafraidoftheGurunordowecarefor
theGuru;norareweenthusiasticaboutpreachingGursikhiinaccordancewithGurmatt(according
toGuru'steachingseeglossary).Allwewantismoney.Itisallrighttogetitbyanymeans.There
isnoconcernaboutGursikhibecominglaxorweak.Wearetoobusywithincreasingthenumber
ofcustomers.

10.ForthisreasonitseemsthecontractorswhohavepublishedthespacedwordingformofSri
GuruGranthSahibJihavegivenanunwrittendisclaimer(baydava)toGuruGranthSahibJitothe
effectthat:"OSriGuruGranthSahibJi,theonewhobestowsupontheSangat,theeverlasting
larhidaardarshan(holysightoftheconnectedwordsform)oftheThroneofGuruNanakSahib!
TheKalgidharPaatshahbowedbeforeYouandordainedthattheSikhsfollowYourlead(asthe
Guru),butweandourcustomersarehavinggreatdifficultyindoingYourdarshan(i.e.readingor
doingthepaatth).Wearehelpless.Wecannotbearthisdifficultyanymore;yourSaroop(holy
form)doesnotsuitusandforthisreasonwearebreakingourrelationshipwithyou.Weandour
comfortseekingcustomersarehappyandfeeleasywiththespacedwordingform(ofSriGuru
GranthSahibJi).Younowmakeyourownarrangements."

11.Duetotheirfaithlessness,theadvocatesofspacedwordingformofGuruGranthSahibhave
notonlymadepreparationstosinktheirownboatsbutaredoingthesamefortheinnocentSikh
publicbyleadingthemastrayfrompureGurmatt(teachingoftheGuru).Everypaatthi(reader
seeglossary)ofthespacedwordingformofGuruGranthSahibthinksthatheisdoingcorrect
paatth.Thisisasubtleformofegoism.Hethinksthatothersaredoingincorrectpaatth.Thisisa
subtleformofbackbiting.ThosewhodopaatthfromlarhidaarSaroopcannotbeaccusedof

egoismorthinkingadverselyaboutothers,becausetheycannotpossiblythinkthattheyaredoing
correctpaatthorhavetheabilitytodoit.Sohowcantheycommentaboutothers?TheseGursikhs
standuphumblywithfoldedhandsandclosedeyes,withthetraditionalpieceofcloth,thepalla,
aroundtheirnecks,andpraymosthumbly,"OManifest,Omnipresent,AllPowerfulTrueSatguru
Ji!ItisimpossibleforusignorantbeingstodocorrectpaatthofthissacredBanifromtheDivine
Source,Baniwhichisbeyondourfullcomprehension(Onlyalimitedunderstandingofwhichis
possibleaccordingtoone'sspiritualattainment)".Becharitableandforgiveus,yourservants,for
makingmistakeswhiledoingpaatthandgrantustheunderstandingtodocorrectpaatthin
future."Gursikhs,thediamondsoftheGuru,saysuchprayerscontinuallyinhumilityandwith
muchaffectionforGursikhi.

12.TheseprayersareinaccordancewiththeGuru'sway.

Manntoomattmaanhkarehjehaonkichhjaanhdagurmukhnimanhahoh.GGSp.441.
OmymindtakenotpridethatyouknowsomethingbutbeatruefolloweroftheGuruandremain
humble.

Theyarenotproudoftheirabilitytodocorrectpaatthnordotheydenigrateanyotherpaatthifor
doingincorrectpaatth.Forthisreason,theSatguruwholistenstosuchprayershassaidabouthis
belovedtrueGursikhs(PanjabitextreadsasTattGursikhs(tatt=essence):interpretedasthetrue
followersofGuru'steaching(Gurmatt)):

JaybahrohbhulchukboldaybheekharayHarbhaanay.GGSp.450.
Eveniftheyoutwardlyerrinspeech,stilltheyareverydeartoGod.

Howverybeneficialistheadoptionoftrue(tatt)Gursikhi!Therefore,onlypaatthfromthe
larhidaarSaroopaccordswiththeGuru'steaching(Guru'sway).

13.TheancientfortySinghswrotethebaydaava(disclaimer)andwalkedoutoftheGuru'sCourt
leavingtheGurubehindinHisownCourt.However,thosewhohavedisclaimedtheGuruthese
dayshavecrossedalllimits.TheyhavetakentheGuruoutofGurdwarasandoccupiedthe
Gurdwarasthemselves.Howcanthesepeople,sittingathome,enjoyingtheirwealthwhilehoping
forGuruJi'sdarshan,knowthevalueofGursikhiorhowtorespectSatguruJi?Onlythosevalue
andrespectGuruJiwhoarepreparedtogivetheirlivestohonourGuruJi'scommand;theyfollow
asdirectedbyGuruJi;andtheyliveallaspectsoftheirlivesinaccordancewiththeGuru'swishes.
PraisebetotheGuru(Balihaarjanaisanexpressionofgreatwondermentanddevotion(see
glossary)).TheGuruisalsopreparedtomakeanysacrificeforsuchdevotedGursikhs:

JannNanaksaddakurbaanhttinjochaalehSatgurbhaiGGSp.1415.
SlaveNanakiseversacrificeuntothemwhowalkintheTrueGuru'sWill.

Thus,SatguruJialwayspraisesandregardsGursikhswhoabidebyHisWillandadoptGuru
inclinedbehaviour,asdeartoHim.

14.AppearinginHistenthhumanform,GuruNanakSahibJi(asGuruGobindSinghJi)paidrespect
toSriGuruGranthSahibJibyperformingmathatekna(thisformofrespectreservedonlyforthe
GuruinSikhiandnoother(seeglossaryabouthowthisformofrespectispaid))andaddressedthe
Sikhs,"ThebodyoftherevealedGuruSahibJifromnowonisSriGuruGranthSahibJi.The

darshan(holysight)oftheLightofGuruNanakSahibJicanbebeheldinSriGuruGranthSahibJi."
Inthisway,throughWaheguru'sWill,intheperfectGuruSriGuruGranthSahib:

....HarpooranBrahamnivaasleeo.GGSp.1409.
ThePerfectGodhastakenHisabode.

Waheguru!(OWondrousGiverofSpiritualLight!)

15.TheGursikhsheardtheinjunctionofthePerfectGuru.

PoorayGurkasunupdes.GGSp.295
ListentotheteachingofthePerfectGuru.

AndhowdidtheGursikhsreact?

BachanGuruJopooraykahiomaichheekgantthribaadha.GGSp.1204.
TheWordwhichthePerfectGuruhasutteredthatIhavetiedfirmlyinapieceofcloth.
("gantthri"isabundleusuallytiedinapieceofcloth.Maybeinterpretedas"tiedfirmlytomy
skirt"(asinGGStranslationbyS.ManmohanSingh).Themeaningisthesameandrefersto
unquestioningobedienceoftheGuru'sWord)

HearingthecommandoftheperfectGuru,TheGursikhstookittotheirheartsandplaced
themselvesinthecareofSriGuruGranthSahibJi.UnderHisownsupervision,NanakX,Kalgidhar
Paatshah,HimselfrecitedGurbani(ofNanaksItoVandalsoincludingtheBaniofNanakIX),
directedittobewritteninlarhidaarSaroop(connectedwordsformat)andinstituteditasSriGuru
GranthSahibJi,thepermanentsuccessortotheThroneofGuruNanakSahibJi.SriGuruGranth
SahibJiisGod:

GurParbrahamParmesarsoee.GGSp.1271.
HetheGuruisHimselftheSupremeLordMaster.

SriGuruGranthSahibJiisGurParmesar(theEnlightenerorTeacher,thehighestLordi.e.God.
Parmesar=thesupremeLord(derivedfromparam=supremeorhighest;isvar=lord)).Whatexcuse
wouldthoseadvocatingseparatedwordsformatofSriGuruGranthSahibJi,haveoffindingfault
inGurParmesar?WhatdeficiencywouldtheyspotinGurParmesarforthecorrectionofwhich
theywouldseparatethewordsoftheMahapurakh(theGreatBeingseeglossary).

GurParmesaris:

Naghaatthainabaadhhainaghaattbaadhhothai.DasamGranthSahibp.64
Heisneitherdeficientnorexcessive(regardinganyaspect)nordoesHechangesothatHebecomes
deficientorexcessive.

16.WithwhatcountenanceareweseekingtointroduceamendmentsbyseparatingtheWordsof
suchaperfectGuru?(Itneedstobenotedherethattheunderlyingquestionisnotjustabout
separatingthewordsofSriGuruGranthSahibJiaccordingtoourownlimitedintellect;the
concernisaboutthechangesintheoriginalmeaningintendedbytheGuru,whichwearebound
tointroducebydoingso.WecanneverknowwithcertaintywhattheAllKnowingGuruintended
notwithoutHisGrace(Nadar)).Whomarewetryingtopleasewiththistinkering?Whathas

happenedtoourintelligence?MaytheSatguruhavemercyonusandforgiveus,thenew
disclaimantsoftheGuru(thebaydaviay),bringustooursensesandputusontherightpath.

Jakayjeejayseebudhhoee.
KayhKabirjaanaygasoee.GGSp.343
SaysKabir,asistheintellectwithinone'smindsodoesoneunderstandaccordingly.

Wemustrememberthat:

PooraGurpoorimattjakeepooranPrabhkaykaama.GGSp.630
PerfectistheGuruWhoseinstructionisalsoperfectandperfectaretheLord'sdeeds.

Ourintelligenceisimperfect.Wearedeficientandignorant.GuruGranthSahibJiiscompleteand
omniscient.

Chapter4TheImportanceofMataSulakhaniJiinGuruGhar

(Mata=mother;GuruGhar=HouseoftheGuru)

1.OntheroadgoingfromAmritsartoTaranTaaran,thereisavillagecalledChabba.Duringthe
timesofNanakVI;SriGuruHargobindSahibJi,aladycalledSulakhani,fromafarmingfamily,lived
inthisvillage.Shehadmuchlandbutnochildren.Shetriedmanyritualsandunderwent
austeritiestobeblessedwithchildrenshefasted;sheprayedtogodsandgoddesses;wentto
graveyardsandcrematoriums;carriedoutritualstopleasetheGuggaPir(AChuhanRajputwho
livedinthe11thCenturyCE.HeconvertedtoIslamandwasbelievedtohavesupernaturalpowers.
Peopleprayonhisgravefortheirwishestobefulfilled),gavetocharities,wentonpilgrimages,
madeofferingstodeities.However,herwishtohavechildrenwasnotfulfilled.Undergoingsuch
suffering,heryoungdayspassedandshesatathomeindisappointment.

2.ThosedaysSriGuruHargobindSahibJihadsettledatAmritsarSahib.Oneday,quiteby
coincidence,BhaiGurdasJi(BhaiGurdasJi,thegreatGursikhscholar,wasthescribewhocollated
theoriginalGranthSahib(laterGuruGranthSahib)undertheguidanceofNanakV,GuruArjanDev
Ji)sawMaiSulakhani.Heknewaboutherdisappointmentatnothavingchildren.Heasked,"Tell
meMai(Maipronouncedasmaaeeispolitewayofaddressingagrownupwoman.Depending
uponthecontext,itcanalsomean"Mother"),doyouhaveanyhopefromanywhere?"MaiJitook
asharpsadbreathandreplied,"Ihavenowlostallhope.Ihavetriedeverywhere.Ihavemade
offeringseverywhere."BhaiSahibsaid,"Mai,donotbedisappointed.Theonewhocanbestowon
youthegiftofasonnowresidesatAmritsarSahib.FallatHisHolyFeet(Charan).Heisvery
generous.Hewillgrantyouthegiftofason."BhaiGurdaswas,ofcourse,referringtoSriGuru
HargobindSahibJi.

3.HearingthesewordsofBhaiGurdas,MataSulakhaniJibecamehopefulagain.Thefollowingday,
MataJicamefordarshan(holysight)ofGuruSahibJiandprayedforthegiftofason.GuruJisaid,
"Mai,asonisnotwritteninyourfortune."HearingthisMataSulakhanilostallhopeandreturned
home.BhaiGurdaswentespeciallytoaskMataJi,"MataJi,tellme,whatdidGuruJisay?"With
greatpaininherheart,MataJisaid,"GuruJisaidthatthereisnosoninmydestiny."

4.HearingthisBhaiGurdasJisaid,"Mata,goonceagain,andthistimetakeareedpen,inkpot
andapieceofpaperwithyou.Tomorrow,GuruJiispassingthroughbysuchandsucharoute;go
andmeethimontheway.PayyourrespectstoHim,holdthereinofHishorseandsaythus,"O
charitableGuruJi,YouaretheOnewhowritesthedestiniesofall.Ifyouhavenotwrittenbefore
(thatIshouldhaveason)thenpleasewritenow."

5.MataJididexactlythat.Thefollowingdayshetookareedpen,aninkpotandapieceofpaper
withherandmetGuruJiwhenhewaspassingthrough.ShepaidherrespectstoGuruJiandheld
thereinofHishorseandsaid,"Takethispaperandreedpen.Pleasewritethegiftofasonforme.
Inanycase,YouwereTheOnewhowouldhavewrittenitinmydestiny.IfYoudidnotwriteit(in
mydestiny)before,pleasewriteitnow."GuruJisaid,"Mai,youhavebeentaught(i.e.putup)by
somestrong(knowledgeable)personality.GivemethepaperandthereedpensothatIcanwrite
asonforyou."Waheguru!

6.Havingdippedthepenintheinkpot,GuruJiwasabouttowritethefigure"1"onthepaper
whenthehorseliftedhisfronthoof,broughtitdownwithathud,blewhisnostrilsandshookhis

head.Duetothissuddenmovementthefigure"1",whichinGurmukhiisloopedandclosedatthe
top,wasleftopenlikeahookandthusbecamefigure"7"inGurmukhi.GuruJisaid,Mai,instead
of"1"thefigure"7"hasbeenwritten".MaiJi'spromptresponsewas,"Andquiterighttoo!
ActuallyIdoneedsevensons."ShetookthepaperfromGuruJi,touchedGuruJi'sCharan(Holy
Feet)andwhilerepeatedlybowingtoGuruJi,camehomerunningasifherfeetwerenottouching
theground.

7.MataJigavebirthtosevenchildrenofwhomtheyoungerfoursonsdidgreatserviceinthe
armyoftheKalgidharPaatshah.Weallknowthissaakhi(anecdoteoftentoldfromGurdwara
stagesseeglossaryforsaakhi).However,wewanttogointothedeepermeaningofthissaakhi.
Thatisthis,thatGuruSahibhadbeenblessingpeopleinHisprevioushumanforms(asNanakIto
V).WhydidHeblessMataSulakhaniinwriting?WhydidHeplaythegameof"1"and"7"?(The
word"khel"meaningsportorgameisoftenusedinGurbani.ThewholecreationisWaheguruJi's
khelinwhichweallarethepieces.However,inthepositiveGursikhitradition,thehumanlifedoes
giveusarealchoice.Itisinthisareawhichrequiresclearunderstandingthroughstudyofthe
Gurmattbasedspiritualstepsofudham,ghaalandNadarofWahegurothatSikhidiffersfrom
mostotherreligioustraditions.(Udham=effort;ghaal=dedicatedpursuanceofspiritualobjective
regardlessofhardship;Nadar=Waheguru'sBlessingtoreachtheultimategoalofhumanlife
whichisonenesswiththeOne)).Whydidhenotblessherorallyandsay,"Iblessyouwithason."
or"Verywell,youwillhaveoneson."MataSulakhaniwouldhavebeensatisfiedwiththat.ButHe
didnotdothis.HewroteHisblessing.Andthattoowaschangedfrom"1"to"7"bythe
unexpectedmovementofthehorse.

8.Thesceptical,educatedandclevertypesoftodaycanraisemanyquestionsaboutsuchsaakhis,
andtheydo.FromtheGurmatt(Guru'steachingseeglossary)aspect,discussiononthissubjectis
asfollows:

TheKhalsaknowsthat:

NanakGuruGuruhay*poora....GGSp.882
ONanakperfectistheGreatGuru....
*Pronunciation:remembertopronounceayasinpair.

Pooraykakiasabhkichhpooraghattvadhkichhnaahi.GGSp.1412
Allthatisdone(orcreated)bythePerfectisperfectandthereisnodeficiencyorexcessinit.

ThebelovedSikhsoftheGurualsoknowthat:

Karnayhaarnabhullanhaara...GGSp.253
TheDoerisnotforgetful(doesnoterrandisinfallible).

WhattheGuruSahibJiwroteorwhatgotwrittenbyHim,isthesame.Throughthisanecdote,
GuruSahibJiwantedtodemonstratethatthethoughtordeedoftheperfectGuruisthesame
thing.MataSulakhaniJigavebirthtosevensonsinheradvancedageandthisisrecordedinSikh
history.ItisproofthatwhateverGuruSahibJididorwhateverresultedthroughGuruSahibJior
wecansaythatwhateverGuruSahibJiaskedtobedoneinHisownpresenceonlythatisright,
thatistrueandacceptableintheLord'sCourt.Whateverisconsideredordonebyignorantbeings
throughtheirownclevernessisallmanmatt(theresultofegoisticmind)andnotacceptableinthe
LordsCourt.

9.BhaiGurdasJi,MataSulakhaniJi,reedpen,inkpot,inkandGuruJi'shorse,alltheseweremere
actorsinGuruJi'sunfathomablegame(yeteducationalfromtheSikhiaspect)leadingtoGuruJi
bestowinghisblessingonMataJi.Throughthiskhel(game),whichstartedwithaprayerforone
sonbyMataSulakhaniJi,GuruSahibJiexplainedindirectlytothewholeworld,"Oegoisticclever
peopleoftheworld:

Karnayhaarnabhulanhara...GGSp.253.
TheDoerisnotforgetful(doesnoterrandisinfallible).

Guru'sworkisGod'sWillandforthatreasonisacceptableintheGod'sCourt.Thereisneverany
mistakeintheGuru'swork:
AapaypattikalamaapupparlaykhbheToon.GGSp.1291.
YouYourselfarethetablet,YourselfthepenandYouYourselfarewritingonit.

10.Forthisreason,theGursikhswhounderstandtheGuru'sway,aredevotedtothelarhidaar
SaroopofSriGuruGranthSahibJicreatedbyGuruJi.Theybelievethattheproductionofthe
spacedwordingformofGuruGranthSahibJiiswrittenevidenceofcriticismbyheadstrongclever
SikhsofthesacredandperfectworkofGuruSahibJi.TheSikhsoftheGurudonotapproveofsuch
criticism.BydeviationfromtheGuru'spathinoneareaduetoourowncleverness,otherlapses
(fromtheGursikhiaspect)creepintoourlives.

11.TheperfectOmniscientGuru,accordingtoHisperfectmind,absoluteandtimelessscheme,
createdthesacredlarhidaarSaroopofSriGuruGranthSahibJi:

PooraGurpoorimattJakipooranPrabhkaykaama.GGSp.630
PerfectistheGuruWhoseinstructionisalsoperfectandperfectaretheLord'sdeeds.

Withwhatcouragethenarewemoderndayignorantbeingscarryingonwiththeprakaash
(keepinginDarbarSahibforpayingrespectanddarshanseeprakaashkarnaintheglossary)of
theseparatedwordsformofGuruGranthSahibJiinsteadofthelarhidaarSaroop?Itmustbe
remembered:

PrabhbhanhaApnhabhaavda......GGSp.1258.
TotheLordonlyHisOwnWillisacceptable.

GoddoesnotacceptthewilloftheadvocatesoftheformofGuruGranthSahibwithseparated
words.ItshouldbeabundantlyclearfromthesaakhiofMataSulakhaniJithatGuruJinevermakes
amistake(Letthereaderpauseandreflect.ThekeyGurbaniconcepthereisthateverythingthat
hashappenedandwillhappeniswithinGodsWill(Hukam).NothinghappensoutsidethatHukam.
Hukamoperateswithin,aswellasindependentlyof,thespacetimecontinuuminwhichwelive.
However,withourtimeboundintellect,weperceivetheoperationofthatHukamsequentiallyin
timepast,presentandfuture.Waheguru'sHukamtranscendsthisarrangement.Thekautaks(so
calledmiraclestothelimitedhumanmind)andMataSulakhaniJi'sstoryneedtobelookedatwith
afullerunderstandingofHukamortheSatguru'sWillasexplainedabove.Inthetimesequential
humanlanguage,MataSulakhanihadnosoninher"destiny"(theinevitablefatefromahuman
perspective)buttheGuru'sNadar(GraceauniquelySikhconceptseeglossary)fellonherand
her"destiny"fromthatmomentincludedsevensons.Eventheapparentaccidentalwriting(from
thehumanunderstandingaspect)ofthefigure"7"insteadof"1"wasnotso,fortheGurumakes
nomistake:evenwhatcausedtheaccidentwaswithinHisWill.Thisisfantasticfromthehuman

perspectivebutnotfortheOmnipotentWaheguruWhoisoutsidetimeandspacelaws).Forthis
reason,throughseparatedwordsformofGuruGranthSahib,weshouldnotcontinuetocommit
thesinoftryingtoprovethatGuruSahibmadeamistake.WhateverhasbeendonebyKalgidhar
Patshah,weshouldacceptthatwithrespect.Onlyinthisliesourwellbeing.Otherwiseweare
boundtosuffer.AstheGurusays:

Jojokaraysoeemannleho.Binmaanayrallhovayhkheh.GGSp.896.
WhatevertheLorddoes,acceptthat.Withoutacceptingthat,youshallmingleindust.

Therefore,theadvocatesofspacedwordingformsshouldreflectandgiveupthismalpracticefor
theirowngood.

12.Itisnottheway,thattoteachthecorrectpronunciationofthepreciousBani,allBanishould
bepresentedintheseparatedwordsform.Gurbanidictionarycanbeofaidtoaconsiderable
extentforthispurpose.Thesupportersofseparatedwordsformgivetheexcusethat:"Itis
difficulttoreciteBanifromlarhidaarSaroop;mistakesaremade;childrencannotdopaatth(read)
fromthis;childrencandopaatthfromtheformwithseparatedwords;mistakesarenotmade,or
veryfewmistakesaremade;itisbettertobeabletodopaatththannot."etc.

13.Thosewhosupportthisviewperhapsdonotdistinguishbetweengurmukhlivingand
manmukhlifestyle.GurmukhlivingisinaccordancewiththeGuru'steaching(withduerespectfor
theGuru'swork).Manmukhlivingisaccordingtoownmind(notcaringforwhattheGurusaidor
whathedid).AllrememberGodthegurmukhs,themanmukhs,thedevoteesofthelarhidaar
Saroopandthesupportersoftheformwithseparatedwords.Sowhereliesthedifference?The
answertothisquestionisgivenbyGuruJiHimself:

ManmukhHarHarkartthakaymayl'ns'keedhoay.GGSp.39.
TheconceitedhavegrownwearyofrepeatingGod'sNamebuttheirdirtcouldnotbewashedoff.

Subjecttotheirowncleverness,themanmukhsdorememberGodalot,theyworshipanddo
paatth,butthedirtoftheirsinsisnotwashedaway:

KabirRamayRaamkahokahebaymaahebibayk.
EkanekaymilgayaeksamaanaekGGSp.1374.
KabirHimaloneyoucall"Ram"WhoisOmnipresent,weshoulddiscriminatebetweenthetwo
whilementioningthem.
OneRamtheGodispervadingamongstallwhiletheother(RamChandar)iscontainedin
himselfalone.

Alldosimran(reciteandmeditateontheName)ofWaheguru,however,thereisadifferencein
doingsimran.Whatisthatdifference?Itisthis,thatthemanmukhwithhisthousandsof
headstrongcleverideaswhilerepeatingGod'sNamejoinsthethrongofthosecaughtupinthe
viciouscyclesofbirthsanddeaththroughmanylifeforms(chaurasilakhjooniseeglossary),
whilethegurmukhtheonewhoacceptstheGuru'swork,whotreadstheGuru'spath,who
respectsallthatisdonebytheGurubecomesonewithGodwhilerecitingGod'sName.Both
groupsrememberGod,thefirstaccordingtoownclevernessandthesecondaccordingtoGuru's
mindorteaching.Thatisthedifference:

GurmukhlaadhatheGurmukhfoundHim;and,manmukhgavaayathemanmukhclevertypes,
lostHim.

Gurmukhlaahalay,gaimanmukhchallaymooIg'vaijio.GGSp.74.
TheGuruwardsreap(spiritual)profitandleave(thislife)whilethemindwardsloseeventheir
capitalanddepart.
(GuruwardsandmindwardsarenounsforGurmukhs(thosewhofollowtheGuru'sway)and
manmukhs(thosewhofollowtheirownmindorcleverness))

Chapter5ThevaluablecontributionofthePaatthbodhFunctionatAmritsar

(Paatth=Gurbanireadingorrecitation;bodh=understanding,comprehension)

1.ThefirstPaatthBodhFunctioncommencedatTejaSinghSamundriHall,Amritsar,on23
August,1979,andconcludedon15September,1979.Inthisfunctionrenownedscholarsof
KhalsaPanthtookpart.Theyincludedcommentatorsandinterpreters(ofGurbani),Sikhpriests,
scholarsofSinghSabhas,wellknownprofessorsandacademiciansoftheuniversitiesofPanjab,
expertsofPersian,Hindi,SanskritandPanjabi,principalsoftheSikhMissionaryCollege,
representativesofmanyfamousinstitutes,theSantsofHarkhowalandSultanpur,thepriestsof
SriDarbarSahib,Amritsar,manyotherscholarswithindepthunderstandingofGurbaniand
devoteesoftrueGursikhi.

2.Tosupportthediscussionofthescholarsmentionedabove,theirattentionwasdirectedto
thewritingsmentionedbelow:
(a)VaaranBhaiGurdasJi,
(b)Teeka(interpretation)ofBhaiKahnSinghJiNabha,
(c)TeekaBhaiSahibBhaiVirSinghJi,
(d)TeekaProfessorSahibSinghJi,
(e)TeekaPunditTaraSinghJiNirotam,
(f)AnnotatedEdition,and
(g)Laganmaatrandivilakhanta(ThedistinctivenessofvowelsymbolsUnliketheEnglish
alphabet,inGurmukhitherearevowelsymbolsforvowelsoundsandnotletters.Therearenine
ofthesesymbols(i.e.excludingthe"mukta"lettersi.e.theconsonantsoundsontheirown,the
twonasalsymbolsofbindeeandtippeeandtheadhakstresssymbol.))bothworksofBhaiSahib
BhaiRandhirSinghJi.

3.Themainobjectiveofthisfunctionwasthecorrectpaatth(wordidentificationfromlarhidaar
Saroopandcorrectpronunciation)ofGurbani.Forthis,bygivingprioritytotherulesofgrammar,
itwasregardedasessentialtopayattentiontothepointsmentionedbelow:

(a)Thecorrectseparationofwords,
(b)partialandcompletepausesattherightplaces,
(c)thecorrectpronunciationofimplied(unwritten)nasal(binday:NM)andstress(adhak:`)
vowelsymbols,
(d)pronunciationofletterh(hahahletterinGurmukhi)onitsown(muktacase)andwith
onkarh(usharposound)andsihari(isharpehsound)vowelsymbols,
(e)thepronunciationofGurmukhilettersyayiaXandayrhaA,and
(f)pronunciationofdoublevowelsymbols.

Notes:
(i)TheexpertsinPersianandSanskritlanguageswereinfavourofplacingdotsbelowcertain
letterstocreatenewletters,sothatPersianandSanskritwordsinGurbanicouldbepronouncedin
accordancewiththerulesoftheselanguages.

(ii)Opposingviewsfornotplacingdotsbelowsuchletterswerealsogiven.Stresswasplacedon
pronouncingGurbanionlyinaccordancewiththethirtyfiveletterscreatedbyGuruSahibJi(the
Gurmukhiletters);thatonlysuchpronunciationshouldberegardedasbeinginaccordancewith

Gurmatt(Gurusteaching).SothataccordingtotherulesofGurmatt,inthepronunciationof
Gurbani,otherthantheoriginalthirtyfiveletters(thePainteeofGurmukhi)nootheramended
lettersshouldbeincluded;Gurbanishouldbepronouncedwithinthepronunciationparametersof
theoriginallettersinwhichGurbaniiswritten.

4.Thisgatheringofintellectualscorrectedthepronunciationerrorsofmanycontemporary
paatthis(thoseproficientatreadingGurbanifromSriGuruGranthSahibJi).However,therewere
someconnectedwords,ontheseparationofwhichnoconclusionscouldbereached;thiswas
becauseguidanceofpublishedinterpretationsofGurbani(teekas)anddictionariesbyreputable
scholars,andtheopinionsofthescholarspresent,differedregardingthecorrectseparationof
groupingsofconnectedwords.Suchgroupingswereleftforfurtherdiscussion(theproblem
describedhererelatestoconnectedlettersinalinethelarhidaarSaroopoftheoriginalGuru
GranthSahibwhichneedstobereadandseparatedintomeaningfulwords.Inmanyplacesitis
possibletomakeoutdifferentyetmeaningfulwordsfromthesamesetofconnectedletters).

5.GianiGurditSinghJi,GeneralSecretaryofCentralSinghSabha,gaveexamplesinhisspeech
fromSikhhistoryandsaid,ItisagravesintoreadBaniincorrectly.(SeeSinghSabhaPatrikaof
November,1979,page121.)Therefore,thepresentformsofGuruGranthSahibwithseparated
words,whichhavemanyerrors,areinfactthemeansofdoingincorrectpaatth;andaccordingto
theconsideredviewsofGianiGurditSinghJi,theyarethemeansofenablingthosewhodopaatth
fromthemtocommitagravesin.TheresponsibilityforthissinfallsonthoseleadersofthePanth
whohavearrangedforthepublicationofGuruGranthSahibwithseparatedwords.

6.WhatneedstobeconsiderednowishowwouldthefinaldecisionbereachedbythePanth
abouttheseparationofthosewords,aboutwhichtherearedifferingviewsamongst
contemporaryscholars,andtherehavebeendifferingviewsamongstscholarsofthepast?Thisis
notsuchanissuewhichcanbesettledbyamajoritydecision.Aunanimousdecisionisnotpossible
becausetheopinionsofclassicalscholarslikeProfessorSahibSinghJi,BhaiSahibBhaiVirSinghJi
andtheintuitivescholar,BhaiSahibBhaiRandhirSinghJi,andothers,havenowbeensetinstone.

7.Nevertheless,itisnecessarytofindasolutiontothisproblem.Itmustnotbelefthangingin
between.Forthisreason:

(a)TostopthepreachingoftherecitationofincorrectBani(duetoincorrectwordformations)and
forliftingtheburdenofsinfromtheshouldersoftheleadersofthePanthwhoprovideothers
withthemeans(i.e.spacedwordingformsofGuruGranthSahib)ofrecitingincorrectBani,
henceforth,alltheformsofthesacredSriGuruGranthSahibJishouldbepreparedintheformof
connectedwords(larhidaarSaroop).

(b)FortheguidanceofpaatthisaCorrectBaniGuideshouldbepublished.Insuchguidance,
opinionsofscholarsabouttheseparationofdifficultgroupingsofwordsshouldbenotedandit
shouldbewritten,Suchandsuchseparationwouldappeartobeclosertothetrueposition.In
thiswaytheviewsofthepresentdayscholarscanalsobeincluded.Itwouldnotseemproperto
writeanythingmore,becausebeingsoflimitedintellectcannotsitinjudgementaboutthecorrect
recitationoftheBanioftheAllknowingGuruSahibJi.Theycanonlygivetheiropinion;notthe
finaldecision.

8.ThecorrectrecitationofGurbaniisimpossiblewithoutthefullGraceofGuruSahibJi.Thistopic
relatestoperception.ThereisanurgentneedforthePanthtoconsiderthistopicindepthand
withgreatreverence.Thedecisionaboutthecorrectrecitationofwords(i.e.wordformationand
pronunciationfromconnectedwordsform)cannotbereachedthroughvotesnorcanitbemade
dependentontheinsistenceofsomecontemporaryscholar.

9.BearinginmindtheneedforpayingfullrespecttoGurbani,religiouseducationcommitteesand
organisationsshouldundertaketheserviceandresponsibilityofreintroducingthesacred
larhidaarSaroopofGuruGranthSahibforprakaashatplacesofworship.Thisisanurgently
needed,onerous,farsightedbutworthwhilestepforensuringthechardhikalla(ascendancy)of
theKhalsa.OtherwisethenegativetrendoflaxityinthePanthwillcontinueatanevergreaterand
moredamagingpace.

Chapter6RespectforGurbaniinthepastandnow

Acopyofbothsidesofthesheetofanannotatededitionofapothi(OnepartvolumeofGuru
GranthSahibJi)publishedaboutninetyyearsago,isgivenbelow:

(Wordinginbracketsisforexplanationonlyandisnotpartoftheadvertisement)

(1stpage:)

<siqgurpRswid
IkOnkarSatGurparsaad
FourthVolumeof
SriGuruGranthSahibJi
ForthebenefitofthedevoteeSinghsofGuruJiMaharaj(GreatKing)
PrintedwithlovingcarebyDevoteeofSatguru
MunshiHiraNand
OwnerVidiaParkashakPressLahore
YantralyaVidyaPrakashak
Lahore,DarwajaSheranWala,MahallaNavan

(2ndpage:)

OfficeSriDarbarSahibSriAmritsar
ChetarVadi5Samat1945(AncientIndianBikramilunarcalendarinwhichtheyearis57years
aheadoftheCommonErayear)

IkOnkarSriWaheguruJikiFateh

Throughthisadvertisementitisbeingmadecleartoeveryonethatnoonemustcollatethese
Pothis(partvolumesofGuruGranthSahib)intoonecover(i.e.collatethemintoonevolume);
anyonedoingthisagainstthisadvertisementwillberegardedasdesecratingSriGuruGranthSahib
JiandhewillbeanswerablebeforeSatguru(TrueGuru)inthisworldandthenextandtheperson
willhavetoanswertothePanthundervariousprovisionsofthepenalcode.

Signed:
SardarMaanSinghSahibC.I.E.SardarBahadur
MajorRasaldar
HonoraryMagistrate
ManagingAgentofGurdwaras,
SriAmritsarPresidentSinghSabhaSriAmritsar

Itisclearfromthisfirstsheet(twopages)ofthesePothisthattheywereprintedforthebenefitof
thedevoteeSinghsofSriGuruGranthSahibJiintheformofseparatevolumesandtheaboveis
thetitleofthefourthPothi.

2.Asproducedabove,ontheinsidepage,thereisageneraladvertisementfortheSangat(holy
congregation.Thewordinthiscontextmaybereadinthesingularorthepluralcaseandappliesto
allSikhsandnonSikhswhomaysitintheSangat.Theoriginalexpression"aamSangat"(common

Sangat)isnotnecessaryasthereshouldbenodistinctionbetweenspecialandcommonSangat.
ThegreatestandthemostdistinguishedsitinthesameSangatatthesamelevelwithout
distinction).Itstextdeservesspecialattention,"NoonemustcollatethesePothis(volumesofpart
ofGuruGranthSahib)intoasinglevolume(i.e.puttheminonecover)Ifanyonedoesactagainst
thisadvertisement,suchapersonwillberegardedasdesecratingSriGuruGranthSahibJi(Itneeds
tobeunderstoodbythereaderthatthecompleteSriGuruGranthSahibJiismuchmorethana
"book";itismuchmoreeventhana"holybook";itistheveryWordofWahegurutheWondrous
EnlightenertheGiverofdivineknowledge.TheCompleteSriGuruGranthSahibisthelivingTrue
GuruoftheSikhs.Themergingofseparatevolumes(Pothis)intoOneCompleteSriGuruGranth
Sahibproducesmuchmorethanthesumtotaloftheparts.ThissingularlySikhconceptaboutthe
SikhGuruneedstobeclearlyunderstoodandrespectedaccordingly).Suchapersonshallbe
answerabletoSatguru(TheTrueGuru)inthisworldandthenextandthepersonwillhaveto
respondtothePanthundervarioussectionsofthepenalcode(i.e.criminallaw)."

3.ThesePothisareaboutsixandahalfincheswideandtenincheslong.SetsoffourPothiseach
canbeseeninAkalTakhatSahib.ThesePothiswereprintedinconnectedwordsformat.Itwas
clearthatthesePothisweretobeusedbydevoteeSinghsforteachingandlearningpurposes.

4.About90yearsago(bearinginmindthatthisbookofBhaiRamSinghJiwasfirstpublishedin
January,1984),suchcarewastakentoensurefullrespectforSriGuruGranthSahibJi,thatPothis
whichwerepublishedapartfromSriGuruGranthSahibJiinsmallervolumescouldnotbebrought
togetherasonevolume,becausebydoingthisitwouldnotbepossibletoensurefullrespectfor
Maharaj(TheGreatKingi.e.SriGuruGranthSahibJi);thereisalwaysapprehensionofdesecration.
IfsomeonedidtryeventobringthosefourPothistogetherinonecover,thenactioncouldbe
takenagainstthatpersonunderthecriminallaw.

5.ThepositionregardingrespectforGurbanitodayissuchthatbusinessesarebeingrunby
businessmenandshopkeepers,ofsellingsmallsizesacredBeerhs(volumesofsacredSriGuru
GranthSahib)thesizeoftheseBeerhsissmallerthanthePothismentionedaboveandisabout
thesameassmallbooksandGutkas(smallGurbanibooksseeglossary).Nopalangh(highand
largebed),norumaala(largescarfoffineclothforrespectfullycoveringtheGuruGranthSahibJi),
nochaur(aspeciallydesignedwhiskseeglossaryforfunction),nochanani(canopy)andneither
thecleanlinessnorpurityoftheplace(wherethesesmallBeerhsarekept).Thesearebeingcarried
aboutlikeordinarybooks.Ninetyyearsagotherewasthelegalthreatforthoseguiltyofany
desecration.However,todaynolawwillhelpinenforcingandkeepinguprespectforGurbani.

6.RespectforGurbaniatthetimewassuchthateventhePothisforstudentswerepublishedin
formofconnectedwordsandnoonedaredtopublishBaniinseparatedwordsform.However,
now,notonlythePothisbuteventhesacredBeerhsofSriGuruGranthSahibarebeingpublished
inseparatedwordsform.Theshopkeepersandbusinessmenstartedthispracticeofmanmatt
(whatisopposedtoGuru'steaching)formakingmoney;nowevenourleadingorganisationslike
theShromaniCommitteeareapartytothespreadofthismanmatt.

Theyarerespondingtothe(misplaced)needsofthepeoplebypublishingseparatedwordsformof
Beerhsinsteadoftheconnectedwordsform;eventhoughtheseorganisationsthemselvespassed
resolutionssomeyearsagoagainstthepublicationofBeerhswithseparatedwords.Forexample:

(1)ResolutionNumber2682dated21stJanuary1945oftheWorkingCommittee(ChiefKhalsa
Diwan):(Wordinginbracketsistoclarifythemeaningofcertainwordsonly)

"ThematterofdoingAkhandPaatth(continuousreadingtocompletionofSriGuruGranthSahibJi
seeglossary)fromBeerhswithseparatedwordswaspresentedtogetherwiththeopinionsof
advisors,itwasdirectedthatneitherisitpropertodothePrakaash(ReferstoSriGuruGranth
Sahibjiwhenitisopenfordarshanandforreadingseeglossaryforprakaashkarna)ofSriGuru
GranthSahibJifromsuchBeerhsnorisitpropertodoAkhandPaatthfromsuchBeerhsanditis
notappropriateanditisharmfultothePanthtopublishandbindseparatedwordsform(ofSri
GuruGranthSahibJi)inonecover.AcopyofthisdecisionshouldbesenttotheShromani
GurdwaraPrabandhakCommitteeanditshouldalsobepublishedincommon(public)
newspapers."

(2)Gurmatta(ResolutionpassedaccordingtotheGuru'steachingseeglossary)Number7of1st
January,1950bytheDharmikCommitteeofShromaniGurdwaraPrabandhakCommittee:
"GurmattaNumber1637dated28thMay,1950,oftheExecutiveCommitteeoftheShromani
Committeeaboutthepublicationortheprakaash(seeprakaashkarnaintheglossary)ofthe
separatedwordsformofSriGuruGranthSahibJi,aboutwhichtheadviceoftheDharmic
Salahkaar(ReligiousAdvisory)Committeewasasked,waspresentedandpassedtotheeffectthat
untilsuchtimeasthematterisdecidedbythePanth,anyoneindividualororganisationshouldnot
publishseparatedwordsformBeerhsnorshouldsuchaBeerhsbeplacedinprakaashstate(for
holysightandpayingrespectstoi.e.fordarshan,andforreading).

7.Itissurprisingthat,accordingtotheopinionsofthesetwoleadingorganisations,theprakaash
ofBeerhsinseparatedwordsformwasharmful,improperandunjustifiablein1950;howcanthe
prakaashoftheseBeerhsbehelpful,properandjustifiabletoday?Howdidthismanmatt(egoistic
cleverness)becomeGurmatt(Guru'steaching)?

8.ShromaniCommitteepassedtheresolutionthat:"Untilsuchtimeasthematterisdecidedby
thePanth,anyoneindividualororganisationshouldnotpublishseparatedwordsformBeerhnor
shouldsuchaBeerhbeplacedinprakaashstate".CantheShromaniCommitteesaywhichmeeting
ofthePanthwasheldbeforepublishingBeerhswithseparatedwords,whenandwherewasthis
meetingheldandwhichorganisationstookpartinit?TheCommittee,bybreachingitsown
resolutionandpublishingBeerhswithseparatedwords,hascommittedagravesin.Iftheseleading
organisationsthemselvesgetcarriedawaybymanmatt(antiGuru'steachingandegoistic
behaviour)thenwhocanweturnto,tosaveusfromthispredicament?

9.IfwecannotsafeguardfullrespectforSriGuruGranthSahibthenwehavenorefuge.IfDharam
Prachaar(religiouspreaching)committeesarenotgoingtoabidebyreligiousresolutionsthenwhy
aresuchresolutionspassed?Forwhosesatisfactionaretheseresolutionspassed?Whyarethese
resolutionscalledGurmattas(Guru'sresolutionsseeglossary)?AGurmattaisworthyofrespect
andworthyofpreaching.InsuchresolutionstheGuruisawitness,whichiswhyitiscalled
Gurmatta.ThenwhyareGurmattasbeingbreached.TobreachaGurmattaistoridiculea
Gurmatta.Thisisasin.

10.DharamPracharCommittee(ofShromaniGurdwaraPrabandhakCommittee)spentfiveyears
debatinganddiscussingthisissueandreachedtheconclusionthatprakaash(seeglossary)of
separatedwordsformshouldnotbedonewithoutconsultingthePanth(i.e.atageneralgathering
oftheKhalsaPanthi.e.theSikhnation).Theendresultofthisindepthdeliberationwasthat
withoutevenconsultingthePanth,theCommitteestartedrapidprintingandpublicationofBeerhs
withseparatedwords(spacedwordingformats).

11.CanthepresentGursikhs,holdingpositionsofresponsibilityattheParcharCommittees
(PreachingCommittees)oftheChiefKhalsaDiwanandShromaniGurdwaraPrabandhak
Committeepleasetakethetroubletoexplainwhythesetwoleadingorganisationshavenot
themselvessafeguardedtheresolutionspassedtomaintaintherespectofGurbani?Isthistheway
theGurmattaswouldberespectedinfuture?WouldthisbecalledSikhi(theSikhwayoflife)in
future?

Chapter7TheLordisdescribedaccordingtoeachperson'sintellect

(Aapaapnibudhhayjetee.BarnattbhinbhinTohehtaytee.)
You(MyLord)aredescribedinvariouswaysaccordingtoeachperson'sownintellect.
BaynteeChaopaee:GuruGobindSinghJi

1.Noone,otherthantheOmniscientSatguru,hastheknowledgetodescribe,reciteand
pronounce,ortounderstandDhurkiBani(Dhurki=thatwhichcomesfromthesource.Theword
Dhur(asaSikhscholarpointedoutonce)isalocationoutsidetimeandspace.Therefore,itis
thereatthebeginningandattheend.Forexample,thegeneralexpressionDhurdasaathis
companytotheend.DhurkiBaniisalsotheBaniwhichremainswithabeing(aGursikh)tothe
end)whichhasdescendedfromtheultimatesource,theGod'sCourt(Dargah).Ignorantbeings
simplydonothavesuchability.Theworldlybeingscanonlyconjectureaboutthecorrect
recitationandpronunciationofGurbani(Inthiscontext"pronunciation"includesboth,correct
identificationofwordsintheconnectedwordformatofGuruGranthSahibandcorrect
pronunciation).

Examples
(Translation/editingnote:Thischapterishighlyrelevanttothetopicunderdiscussion.Inhisbook,
BhaiRamSinghJihasnotgiventhemeaningsofthePangatees(Gurbanilines)quoted.Ina
translationofthistype,itisimportantthatthereader(especiallytheWesternreader)should
knowhow,withdifferentpossiblewaysofseparatingtheGurbaniwords,sometimescompletely
differentandsensiblemeaningscanbederived.WiththeaidofoneortwoGurbanitranslations
anddictionariestohand,andownverylimitedknowledgeofGurbani,Ihaveattemptedtoshow
thedifferenceinmeaningwithdifferentseparationofGurbaniwords.Anyerrorsinattemptingto
dothisareentirelymineandIseektheforgivenessofGursikhscholarsGurmukhSingh)

Underlinedgroupingsofwordsshowsthevariationsinwordreparationandmeanings:

(a)GGSp.329

Sagal'tjeengagandaoravau(Shabdarath)
(Sagal=all;'t=nothingbut;jeen=saddle)
Allarebutthesaddle(oftheLord),direct(yourthoughts)towardstheheaven.

Sagalatjeengagandaoravau(Prof.SahibSinghJi)
(Saglat=Omnipresent:jeen=saddle.)
RegardtheLordasOmnipresent,directyourthoughtstowardsheaven.

Sagaltajeengagandaoravau(TeekaFaridkot;andBhaiVirSinghJi)
(tajeen=abandonment)
Theabandonmentofeverythingistocourse(i.e.direct)yourthoughtstowardsheaven.

(b)GGSp.480

HammaskeenKhudaaeebunday*Tumrajassmannbhavay(Shabdarath;TeekaFaridkot)
IamahumbleslaveofYours,Yourpraiseispleasinguntomymind.
*"u"pronouncedasin"mud".

HammaskeenKhudaaeebundayTumrajasmannbhavay(BhaiVirSinghJi;Prof.SahibSinghJi)
IamahumbleslaveofGod,(but)egoisticpower(ofadministration)pleasesyou.

(c)GGSp.536

Jaasanbaasanns'hejkaylkarnamay....(Shabdarath;TeekaFaridkot)
(OMaster)worthyofpraise.Enjoyerofblissfulplaysandembodimentofmercy....

Jaas'nbaasans'hejkaylkarnamay......(Prof.SahibSingh)
ThosewhohavenootherdesireandwhoalwaysenjoyspiritualblissOembodimentofmercy....

(d)GGSp.537

Birakhiktaryah.Bahobandhehparyah(Shabdarath)
(Birakh=tree;ik=one;taryah=gathered)
Gatheredunderonetree.Aretieddowntomanifoldbonds.

Birakhikatryah.Bahobandhehparyah(Prof.SahibSinghJi;TeekaFaridkot)
(Birakh=tree;ikatryah=gatheredtogether)
Gatheredunderatree.Aretieddowntomanifoldbonds.

(e)GGSp.537

Ankaomayrya.Vichghoomanghirya(Prof.SahibSinghJi;Shabdarath)
Says"mine,mine"tovariousattachments.Whichentangleoneinawhirlpool(ofattachments).

Anakomayrya.Vichghoomanghirya(TeekaFaridkot)
(Anak=many;omayreeaa=inPanjabithemeaningbecomescleareras"Auhmayree"meaning
"thatismine".)
Many(worldlypossessionsorrelationships)are"mine"(hesays).Whichentangleoneina
whirlpool(ofattachments).

(f)GGSp.618

Bhalosamooratpoora(Shabdarath,TeekaFaridkot)
(Bhalo=good:samoorat=auspicioustime,poora=whole.)
Itisagoodandwhollyauspicioustime.

Bhalo'smooratpoora(Prof.SahibSinghJi)
(Bhalosmoorat=thattime)
Thattimeiswhollyauspicious.

(g)GGSp.620

Jiopaipindjinsaajya(Shabadarath;Prof.SahibSingh)
(Jio=life;pai=infused)
Hewhofashionedthebodyandinfusedlifetherein.

Jeeupaipindjinsaajya(TeekaFaridkot)

(Jee=lifeforms;upai=created)
Hewhofashionedthebodyandcreatedlifeforms.

(h)GGSp.795

Aittaykookarhaobaygaana(Shabdarath;Prof.SahibSinghJi)
(kookar=dogs;hao=I)
AmongstsomanydogsIamastranger.

Aittaykookrahaobaygaana(GurbaniLaganMaatrandiVilakhnta,BhaiSahibRandhirSinghJi)
(kook=prayerfromtheheart.Kook=literallyisalongwailingsounde.g.thekookofasteam
engine;thewordisalsoshortforkookpukaar=soutingforhelp:rahao=remain)
Despite(my)longingprayers(I)remainastranger.

(i)GGSp.701

ManntannnirmalkaratkiaroHarSinchaysudhasanjor(Shabarath)
(sudha=elixir(seeAmritintheglossary);sanjor=thoroughly)
Makingmyheartandbodythepurelittleplots,IthoroughlyirrigatethemwithGod'selixir.

ManntannnirmalkaratkiaroHarSinchaysudhasanjor(BhaiSahibBhaiRandhirSinghJi)
(sudhasan=wherenisanasalsoundonly.sudhasang=?withAmrit?jor=join;power.)
(Possibleinterpretation;Myheartandbodyarelikepurelittleplots,andthesearethoroughly
irrigatedbytheLordwithHisAmritNamewhenIlinkupwithHim(i.e.meditateonHisName.)

(j)GGSp.1362

Partriaravanjahehsayeetalaajiah...(Shabadarath)
(talaajiah=theyshallsuffershame)
Theywhogotoenjoyothermen'swomentheyshallbutsuffershame.

Partriaravanjahehsayeetalaajiah....(BhaiSahibBhaiRandhirSinghJi)
(Talaajiah=?possiblythesamemeaningasabove)

(k)GGSp.1408

Panchaharnedaleo...(Shabadarath)
Overcomethefivesenses...

Panchahrundaleo...(run)(BhaiSahibBhaiRandhirSinghJi)
(Panchah=thefive(senses)run=tocry/toregret;daleo=destroyed)
Possibleinterpretation:Destroyed(controlled)the(wandering)fivesensesthroughrepentance.

2.Examplesofinterpretationaccordingtoeachperson'sown(subjective)perceptionaregiven
above.Therearemanyothersuchexamples.Gurbaniisunfathomable;noscholarcansaythathe
hasdiscoveredthetruemeaningofGurbani.TheinterpretationofGurbanihasnolimit.Onlya
personblessedbyGuruSahibJireceivesthewisdomtounderstand.Thereareverymanypossible
waysofreadingBaniinSriGuruGranthSahibJiandtherearedifferingviewsamongsttheSikh
sagesandscholars(aboutthecorrectseparationofwordsfromtheoriginalconnectedwords

format).Withtheexistenceofsuchhundredsofdifferencesanddisagreements,whichoneof
theseseparatedwordsversionsofGuruGranthSahibJiarewegoingacceptandwhicharethe
oneswearegoingtoreject?Allcannotberight.Sowhyshouldwetakeuponourheadsthesinof
doingincorrectwordseparationofGurbani?Itisbettertorefrainfromsuchanact.

3.ItisincumbentupontheleadersofthePanththattheyshouldstoptheprintingofBeerhswith
separatedwordsforthwith.TheyshouldreinstitutethelarhidaarSaroopsandpreparePaatth
guidebooksfortheguidanceofthepaathis(thosewhoreadpaatth);onlytheviewsof
acknowledgedscholarsandmahanpurash(reveredandspirituallyaccomplishedGursikhs)should
bementionedinthesePaatthguidebooks.

Chapter8WhatanAbsurdity!
(Theoriginalheadingis"HaanerSaaeenda!"whichliterallytranslatedmeans"Godsent

darkness!"andinPanjabiusageitisusedinthesamewayastheexclamations"GoodHeavens!"or
"GoodGod!")

1.EveryefforthasbeenmadeintheearlierchapterstoexplainthataccordingtotheGuru'sway,
thesacredlarhidaar(withconnectedwords)Saroop(holyform)ofSriGuruGranthSahibJiis
correct,itisintheformassessedandinstitutedbytheAkalPurakh(theEternalBeing)andcomes
fromtheultimateDivineSource.TheseparatedwordsformatofGuruSahibJiistheresultofthe
thinkingofwilfulpeople.Thissubjectissubtleandrequirescarefulthoughtandunderstanding.
However,despitealltheeffortsofar,ifsomehavenotbeenabletofullygrasptheunderlying
reasons,thenthisisonemoreattempttohelpthemtounderstand.

2.WhenthosewhodopaatthfromlarhidaarSaroopofGurbani,areunabletoagreeaboutthe
separationofwords,howdotheyaccuseeachotheraboutincorrectrecitation?Someonemight
saythattheseparationofwordsaccordingtotheteeka(interpretationandexplanationof
Gurbani)ofProfessorSahibSinghJiiscorrect,anothermightsaythattheseparationaccordingto
thedictionaryofBhaiKahnSinghNabhaJiiscorrect,anothermightagreewiththeguidancegiven
byBhaiSahibBhaiRandhirSinghJi,somemightagreewithonetaksaal(schoolofGurbaniand
Sikhitraining)andsomewithanother.However,noonedarestolifthisdoubtingfingeratSriGuru
GranthSahibJithatthesemistakesarethoseofSriGuruGranthSahibJi,becauseinSriGuru
GranthSahibJithecompleteBaniisincludedinconnectedwordsformat.Torecitecorrectlyor
incorrectlyfromthelarhidaarSaroopistheactofthepaatthis.DuetothelarhidaarSaroop,Guru
SahibJiisfreefromanyerrorsofwordseparation.TheGuruisperfectandwithoutanyerror.We
areimperfectandalwayscapableofmakingmistakes.

3.LetusbringourattentionnowtotheseparatedwordsformofSriGuruGranthSahibJi.Many
suchformshavebeenprintedbythebazaarbusinessmenandmanybytheShromaniCommittee.
NotoneoftheseformscansatisfyalltheinterpretersandenunciatorsofGurbani.Whichever
interpretingauthorityontheseparationofwordsinGuruGranthSahiboneacceptsandfollows,
oneremainsfaithfultothatauthorityandregardstheothersasincorrect.Forthisreason,these
paatthisperceiveerrorsprintedintheseparatedwordsformsofGuruGranthSahibJi;theypoint
totheseerrorsandregardtheirownopinionascorrect.Forthisreasontheresponsibilityfor
incorrectwordseparationandrecitationisplacedonSriGuruGranthSahibJi.Someexamplesof
thesemistakesareasfollows:

(1)Oneinterpretersays,Aitaykookarhaobegaanapaatthiscorrect.
Theothersays,Aitaykookrahaobegaanapaatthiscorrect.

(2)Onesays,darsareetawordseparationiscorrect.
Anothersays,darasreetaseparationiscorrect.

(3)Onesays,panchahrundaleopaatthiscorrect.
Anotherregards,panchaharnedaleopaatthascorrect.

(4)Onesays,Sabadsuratkeeneevrakhaeeiscorrect.
AnotherclarifiesSabadsuratkeeneevarkhaeeascorrect

(5)Oneregards,Satgurprasaadseparationascorrect.
Anotherthinks,SatGurprasaadseparationascorrect.

Andsotherearedifferingviews.

3.SimilarlytherearemanyotherShabads(Gurbanicompositions)inwhichtherearedifferences
ofopinionregardingthecorrectseparationofwordsamongstqualifiedscholars.Howmany
scholarswouldbesatisfiedwithoneformofseparatedwordsGuruGranthSahib?Itisimpossible
foronesuchformofGuruGranthSahibtosatisfyeveryone.Anyprofessionalinterpreterof
Gurbaniwhoisnotsatisfiedwillfindfaultwith(whatinhissubjectivevieware)wordseparation
mistakes.ThenwhereistherespectforseparatedwordsformofGuruGranthSahib?

4.Whatanabsurdsituationthisis!TheGuruiswrongandweareright!Regretandalwaysregret!
ByseparatingthewordsofGurbanifromthelarhidaarformsentbytheGuru,itmaybesaidthat
GuruSahibJihasbeencompelledtoreciteincorrectGurbani.Shame!Itmustberememberedthat
SriGuruGobindSinghJiperformedthematthatekan(paidrespectseeglossary)beforethe
larhidaarSaroopandhandedovertheGurgaddi(holyThroneofGuruship)tothisSaroop.This
larhidaarSaroopistherightfulsuccessortoGurgaddiandhastherighttofullrespectfromallthe
Panth.LarhidaarSaroopistheonlyformwhichbearswitnesstotheperfectionandcorrectnessof
Gurbaniandisfreefromwordseparationerrors:

HammbhoolehTumsaddaabhoola...GGSp.1213.
Weareliabletoerr,Youareforeverinfallible.

TheseWordsoftheGuruapplytolarhidaarSarooponlyandnottheformwithseparatedwords.
Otherwise,wemust,ofcourse,respectGurbaniineverycondition(inconnectedwordingor
spacedwordingformats).

5.ErrorsrelatingtotheseparationofwordshaveoccurredinSriGuruGranthSahibJionlydueto
theattempttoseparatethewords(intheprintedversions).Duetotheseerrors,SriGuruGranth
SahibJihasbeenmadethetopicforargumentanddebate.Theguiltandresponsibilityforthisfalls
onthosewhohaveseparatedthewordsofGurbani(inprint)andthisguiltdoesnotdeservetobe
excused.Topreachtheuseofseparatedwordsform,ortoagreewiththeuseofthisformalso
cannotsaveusfromthisguilt.

6.Forthisreason,thePrakaash(availabilityfordarshan(holysight)andreading)ofthelarhidaar
SaroopofSriGuruGranthSahibJiinplacesofworshipisproperandright.Theseplaceswhere
GuruGranthSahibJiisplacedwithrespectfordarshanandreadingmaybeGurdwarasandplaces
likedharamsaalswheretravellersrest,andinhomeswhereroomsarespeciallypreparedforthe
prakaashofSriGuruGranthSahibJi.Onlyinthisway,theallegationofincorrectrecitationof
GurbaniwillnotbepassedontoGuruSahibJibutwillliewiththepaatthis.Inthatcasethefault
willliequiterightlywiththepaatthisandnotwithGuruSahibJi.Theloversofseparatedwords
formBeerhshaveforcedtheblameforincorrectrecitationofGurbanionGuruSahibJi.

7.ThisisahumbleprayerbeforeresponsibleindividualsofthePanththat,inordertorectify
mattersinfuture,theyshouldmakeeveryefforttoreinstatethelarhidaarSaroopofSriGuru
GranthSahibJi;andtheyshouldnotcarelesslyplacetheseSaroops(holyforms)infire.

8.Itisnotpraiseworthytoremainobstinateforthewrongreasons.OnlytheSatguruknowsthe
correctseparationofwordsorthoseotherswillknowwhoreceivethefullblessingofGuruSahibJi.
We,ignorantbeings,cannotsaywithconvictionthatsuchandsuchwordseparationisabsolutely
correct.Yes,eachpersoncanonlyformasubjectiveviewaccordingtoownintellectualability.

9.Therequiredeffortshouldbemadetodocorrectpaatth.

Chapter9WhattheGurusays,acceptthatasforthegood

(JoGurkahaysoeebhalmaanoh)

1.ManyGursikhsthinkthatfortheglobalpreachingofGurbani,translationsofGurbanishouldbe
carriedoutinmanylanguagesoftheworld,sothatpeoplearoundtheworldmayknowaboutthe
SikhreligionandbenefitfromGurbani.Forthepurposeoftranslation,itisnecessarytoseparate
thewordsofGurbani.Withoutsuchaninitiative,itwouldbedifficulttotranslateGurbani.These
Gursikhsthinkthatforsuchinitiatives,themostaccurateformofseparatedwordstranslationof
SriGuruGranthSahibJishouldbeprepared;thisshouldbebasedontheworksofclassical,
learnedandspirituallyperceptiveGursikhs,authoritativeteekas(Gurbaniinterpretations),and
shouldtakeintoaccountthethinkingoferuditecontemporaryscholars.

2.ThesegoodintentionedthoughtsforpreachingGurbanigloballyaretobewelcomed.However,
theuniversaltruthsofGurbani,relevanttoalltimesandplaces,canonlybesuperficiallyconveyed
inotherlanguages.ThedeepermeaningsofGurbanicannotbeconveyedintheirtrueform
throughanytranslationorinotherlanguages;neithercanthepower(authorityandspiritualforce)
oftheGurushipofSriGuruGranthSahibJiinstilledintoatranslation(Itneedstoberemembered
thatGurbaniisforboth,themindandthespirit.Itneedstobementallyunderstoodandspiritually
experienced.Indeed,theUnbhauPrakaas(JaapSahib,GuruGobindSinghJi)isspontaneous
spiritualenlightenmentandisaspiritualexperience.ThelanguageofGurbanihasboth,cognitive
andconativecontentanditisaimedatboth,mentalandintuitivefaculties.Itawakensperceptive
insightandthedormantspiritofabeing.Therefore,itisaghaadhbodh(unfathomable)and
beyondhumantranslationorinterpretation).So,thisisahumblerequesttothedevoteesof
Gurbanithatwhilst,sofarasishumanlypossible,theyshouldenlightenotherpeopleintheir
respectivelanguagesabouttheuniquenessandgreatnessofGurmatt(Guru'swayseeglossary),
theyshouldalsopersuadethemthatiftheytrulyseektoclimbupthestepstounionwiththeLord
thentheyshouldlearnPanjabi(Gurmukhi)andgetimmersedinthisgreatworkofGurbani;only
thenwouldtheyrealisethetruesensetheambrosialNaam(God'sNameseeglossary).

3.ThesecondpointaboutpreachingtheSikhreligionisasfollows:TheTimelessBeing,according
Hisdivinepreordainedprogrammewastoshowapermanentpathforthesalvationofthebeings
ofKalyug(thelastofthefouragesintowhichtimeisdividedseeglossary);followingthispathit
wouldbepossibletoseekunionwithParmatma(TheSupremeSouli.e.God).Theguidancealong
thispathistobegivenbyGurbanireceivedfromthePrimeSourceintheformofSriGuruGranth
SahibJi.ForbringingtheworldlybeingstothispaththroughthespiritualexperienceofKhanday
BaataydiPahul(KhalsainitiationceremonyseeAmritintheglossary)untiltheendoftime,itis
ordainedthatthecentralinstitutionofthePanjPiaray(theFiveBelovedOnesseeglossary)isto
bemaintained.

4.Inordertosatisfythisneed,theAkalPurakh(theTimelessBeing)HimselfarrivedasSriGuru
NanakSahibJiintenhumanforms:

PaarbrahamGurnaahibhed...GGSp.1142
ThereisnodifferencebetweentheTranscendentLordandtheGuru.

KalgidharPatshahJi(GuruGobindSinghJi)heldtheinvestitureofthePanjPiarayin1699C.E.He
himselfwatchedthisperfectwayoflifeworkingforthebenefitofhumankindfornineyears.In

1708C.E.afterpassingtheGurgaddi(Guru'sThronei.e.Guruship)tothelarhidaarSaroop
(connectedwordsform)ofSriGuruGranthSahibJi,KalgidharPatshahJi'sspirituallightmerged
withUniversalLight.

5.ItcannotbeacceptedthatAkalPurakh,Whoseveryworkofcreationisperfect,inwhosework
thereisnoexcessordeficiency,thatHewasnotawarewhethertheformmostsuitableforSri
GuruGranthsahibJi,WhowastoleadthePanthinfuture,wouldbelarhidaarSarooporseparated
wordsform.WhatwouldtheBajanWaalay(keeperofthefalcon)Satguru(GuruGobindSinghJi)
thinkofthoseSikhswhowanttorenouncethelarhidaarSaroopHeHimselfendowedwiththe
Gurgaddi,andreplaceitwiththeformwithseparatedwords?WhatsortofSikhswouldHeregard
themas?WouldthetreatmentoftheseparatedwordsformasbetterthanthelarhidaarSaroop
beregardedasenhancingtherespectofKalgidharPaatshahJiintheSangatorwoulditbe
regardedasdetractingfromthatrespect?

6.Gurbaniinjunctionis:

HohsaavdhaanapnayGursion.GGSp.895.
BeattentiveinthecompanyofyourGuru.

Meaning:"OGursikh,standattentivelybeforetheGuru,donotmoveheedingyourownwill,wait
fortheGuru'sorderandactuponitassoonasyoureceiveit."Onthecontrary,itdoesnotmean
thatyoutryandshowoffyourownintellectbycriticisingtheGuru.Theveryexistenceoftheform
withseparatedwordsisproofofcriticismoftheGuru'swork(thelarhidaarSaroop).GuruJisays
aboutthosewhofindfaultwiththeGuru:

(1)JoGurgopayaapnhasobhallanaahipanchohownlaahamoolsabhgaavaaya.GGSp.304
HewhodisavowshisGuruisnotagoodpersonOsaints,helosesall(spiritual)profitandcapital.

(2)JinGurgopyaaapnhattistthaur'ntthao.
Halattpalattdovaygaidargehnaahitthao.GGSp.314
HewhodisavowshisGuruhasnoplaceorabode.
Thisworldandtheworldhereafter,helosesboth,andfindsnoroominGod'sCourt.

(3)JinnaGurgopyaaapnattenarrburiaree.
Harjiotinkadarsannakarohpaapisthattiaree.GGSp.651
Evilarethepeoplewhoconceal(disavow)theirGuru(religiouspreceptor).
OdearLord!Letmeavoidtheirsightfortheyaresinnersandmurderers(i.e.destroyersofsouls).

Waheguru,Waheguru,Waheguru!(Lord'sName(Waheguru!=WondrousGiverofSpiritualLight!)
UtteredinaweandrepentanceatthethoughtofwhatwearedoingtotheWholeFormofour
Guru,GuruGranthSahibJi)

7.ThetopicoftheselinesofGurbaniisGurgopnaistheactofdetractingfromtheGuru'spraiseor
greatnessorimportance;toregardone'sownintellectashigherthanthatoftheGuru'sandto
placeoneselfaheadoftheGuru.ItmeanstopushbacktheGuru'sworkandtoplaceonesown
workinfront.Gurbanidoesnotregardsuchapersonasagoodpersonwhostoopstosuch
behaviour.Themeaningoftheabovementionedlinesisveryclear.Thepenshiversinattempting
togointothemeaningoftheseGurbanilines.MayGuruJiforgiveus.

8.TheabundancyoftheBeerhsinseparatedwordsformhaveeitherbroughtabouttheenclosing
incupboardsoftheGurucreatedandinvestedlarhidaarSaroop;ormostly,theyhavebeensentto
GoindwalSahibtobeputinceremonialfire(thetraditionalwayofdisposingoftheoldBeerhsof
GuruGranthSahib).ThisistheplightoftheGuru'swork(thelarhidaarSaroop)broughtaboutby
ourinclinationtoBeerhswithseparatedwords.Howsadandregrettable!

9.Thismattercanonlybeconcludedasfollows:

JoGurkahaysoeebhalmanoh.......GGSp.667.
WhatevertheGurusaysacceptthatasforthegeneralgood....

ThisdoesnotmeanthatoneshouldacceptasgoodwhatGuruJisaysbutnotwhatGuruJidoes.
Both,whatGuruJisaysanddoes(Hiswork)arefortheguidanceoftheGursikhs.Thelarhidaar
SaroopofSriGuruGranthSahibJiistheworkoftheGuru.KalgidharPatshahJipayedrespectto
thisSaroopbyperformingmatthatekna(seeglossary)andinstitutedthisSaroopontheThroneof
GuruNanakSahibJi.ThiswasguidanceforustoremainattachedtothisSaroop.Inthesameway,
KalgidharPaatshahJigaveusguidancetotakeAmrit(i.e.undergoKhalsainitiationceremonysee
glossary)fromthePanjPiaray(seeglossary)andbecomeKhalsa(seeglossary).Forthewise,these
twoexamplesoftheGuru'sworkfortheguidanceoftheGursikhsshouldbesufficient.

10.GurbanirepeatedlyproclaimstheGuru'spraiseandrespect.

JoTudhbhavaysoeechanga........GGSp.795.
WhatsoeverYoudesire(MyLord)isforthegood.

EvenifweconcentrateonthislineregardingtheAkalPurakh(TimelessBeing)andGuruasOne
Entity,thenthemeaningofthislinewouldbeunderstoodasfollows:ThatwhateversuitstheAkal
Purakh,thatis,theGuru,isforthegeneralgood,andthesameshouldappealtotheGursikhs,
becauseweseekguidancefromtheGuru.Takingthissamelogicfurther,ifKalgidharPatshahJi
preferredthelarhidaarSaroopofSriGuruGranthSahibJi,thenwhyshouldnotthesameSaroop
appealtoGursikhs?Thesupportersofseparatedwordsformshouldnotclosetheireyeswhen
readingthislineofGurbani.

11.AlleffortshouldbemadeforthecorrectreadingofGurbanii.e.correctwordseparationofthe
connectedwordsformatofGurbaniwhenreadingandpronouncingwords.However,thelarhidaar
SaroopofSriGuruGranthSahibJi,therightfulincumbentofGurgaddiistheformpreferredand
createdbyKalgidharPatshahJi,anditmustbepreservedandmaintained.Andonlythelarhidaar
Saroopwillprevail.

12.ThosedevoteeswhoarekeentotranslateGurbaniintootherlanguagesforthepurposeof
preachingandspreadingthemessageofGurbani,perhapstheyhavenotpaidattentiontothis
aspect,thatonlyNaam(Waheguru'sNameseeglossary)andBanihelptowardssalvation,andfor
thesethereisnotranslation:

Gurbanigaavehbhaaee.Ohsafals'daasukhdaaee.GGSp.629.
Brother,singtheGuru'sWord.Thatiseverfruitfulandpeacegiving.

OnlysingingoforlisteningtoGurbaniisblissfulandsuccessful.Suchimpact(spiritualforce)can
neverberetainedinatranslation:

AmritBaniammiorassamritHarkaNaao.GGSp96263.
NectaristheGuru'sWord,sweetisitsrelishandambrosialistheLord'sName.

OnlyGurbaniandNaamaretheAmritrass(Divinenectar,thesweetdrinkofimmortality),their
translationcannotbecomeAmritrass.

13.Amrit,withdivinepower,ispreparedwiththedoubleedgedsword,thekhanda,inaniron
bowl,thebaata,whilefivecompositionsofGurbani,theFiveBanis,arerecited(TheGurmatt
PanjabiexpressionAgammikallavartaonwalaAmritcanbestbeunderstoodasfollows:The
initiateexperiencesthedivinepowerofAmrit,thenectarofimmortality,preparedbythePanj
Piaray(seeglossary)astheyreciteGurbani.Thisexperienceisamanifestationofthehiddendivine
powerofAmrit.Agammikallaishiddenordivinepowerwhichisexperienced(vartaonwalaisthat
whichmakessomethinghappen)throughtakingAmrit.Thistranslationillustratesthecomplexity
ofanyattempttoconveytheexactmeaningofaGurmattorGurbaniexpressionsothatitis
understoodexactlyinthewayitisimmediatelyunderstoodintheoriginallanguage).Itisnot
possibletoreadatranslationoftheFiveBanisandpreparethespirituallypotentbaataofAmrit.
ThosewhosupportthepreachingofSikhishouldpersuadepeopleintheirownlanguagestolearn
toreadandwriteGurmukhisothattheyareabletomakeanefforttoreadandunderstand
Gurbaniinitstrueform.Onlythosewhoarepersuadedinthiswaywillbeabletotakeanyfirm
stepstocomeclosertoGodaftertakingAmritandmeditatingonNaamandBani;nototherwise.
Ourownpeopleinlargenumbers,whoknowthePanjabilanguage,ofthesemanywhoareableto
readandwriteGurmukhi,arewonderingarounddevoidofanyknowledgeofNaamorBani.Why
arethosewhoadvocatethepreachingofSikhi,notpayinganyattentiontothesepeople?Whowill
teachthemtheimportanceofGurbani?Itseemspreachingisonlyanexcuse.Intheirmindsthere
isbutoneaim:toopposethelarhidaarSaroopandtopopularisetheseparatedwordsformof
GuruGranthSahib.Thisisahumblepleatothemthattheyshouldtryandunderstandthat
separatingthewords(inprintform)istheinventionofignorantheadstrongbeings,andthe
larhidaarSaroop(connectedwordsform)isthecreationoftheAllKnowingGuruSahibJi.The
Guru'sinjunctionis:

MannkimatttiagoHarjanehobaattkatthaynee.GGSp.800
OGod'speoplerenounceyourmind'scleverness(although)thistaskisdifficult.

Realpleasure(ofachievement)liesindoingwhatisdifficult.Anyoneispreparedtotackleeasy
work.

MisaIfakiragakhrhipaayiaypoorkaramm.GGSp.1383
Difficultitistobelikethesaints,thatpositionisonlyobtainedthroughperfectdeeds.

TheneedistounderstandtrueSikhiandtoadoptitafterunderstandingit.Sikhishouldnotbe
consideredfromtheaspectsofcaseordifficulty.ThepreachingofSikhicannotbedonebyjust
talking.ThispreachingcanonlybedonebylivingthelifeofSikhi.Lookwhathasbeendonetothe
SikhRehat(prescribeddisciplineofSikhiincludingthePanjKakkar,thefivearticlesoffaith)by
thosewhowanttomakeiteasytopractice.TheKirpan(Sikhsword)hasbeenshortenedbystages
tohalfaninchlength.TheKirpan,insteadofbeingwornfromaswordsashisnow(beingsosmall)
fixedtotheKangha(woodencomb).Kachhehra(pairofKhalsashorts)haslostitsoriginalshape
andtakenonsomewesterndesign.TosavetheKara(ironbracelet)fromrust,itisnolongermade
ofiron.Kangha(theKhalsadesignwoodencomb)isonlykeptforthepurposeofkeepingritualistic
Rehat,otherwiseforactuallycombingthehairweuseordinaryplasticcombs.Notonlydowenot

weartheKeski(smallKhalsaturbanwornatalltimes),wehavestarteddislikingit.Thesamegoes
forthedisciplineofgettingupearlyinthemorningatAmritVela(seeglossary).Insteadofgetting
up,wefindanyexcusetokeeponsleepinguntillate.Wehavehandedovertofilmactorsthe
responsibilityofpreachingSikhiinsteadofdoingthisourselves.Inotherwords,fromeveryaspect,
easeandcomforthavebecomeourmainaims.Furtherdebateispointless:

KoeeaaaymilaygogahkeeIaygomehgaymoI.GGSp.1316
Ifanypurchaser(oftrueGursikhi)befound,hewouldtakeitataveryhighprice.

ThisservantseekstheforgivenessoftheSangatforanyexcessesoromissions.

WaheguruJikaKhalsaWaheguruJikiFateh.

GlossaryofthemostcommonlyusedGurmattwords.

PreparedBy:GurmukhSingh(Principal,UKCivilServiceRetd.)

AkhandPaatth:NonstopreadingofSriGuruGranthSahibJicompletedinaboutfortyeighthours;
thatis,onthethirddayfromthedayofthestartoftheAkhandPaatth.

Amrit:Theambrosialwater(waterofimmortality)preparedduringtheKhalsainitiationceremony
ofAmritSanchaar.ThisisalsocalledKhandayBaataydiPahul.To"takeAmrit"istobeinitiated
intotheOrderoftheKhalsa,theBrother/SisterhoodoftheKhalsa(withspiritualparenthoodofSri
GuruGobindSinghJiandMataSahibKaurJi).

Amritvela:EarlymorningwhenGursikhsshouldriseandstartNaamsimran.Thetimeofthestart
ofAmritvelaisgivenasoneandaquarterpeharbeforemorning(sunrise).Therearethreehours
inapeharandeightpeharsmakeaday/nightperiodi.e.24hours.

Ardaas:Congregationalprayer(supplication)duringwhichtheSangat(theHolyCongregation)
standupwithfoldedhands.ArdaasissaidbyoneGursikhwhiletheotherslistenwithintentand
usuallywithclosedeyesforconcentration.

Bani:Literalwordspokenbyadivineperson.ShortforGurbanii.e.Guru'sWord.Gurshabad
meansthesame.

Bhaybhaavnee:AnexpressionsuggestiveofwondrousaweoftheAlmightyCreatoroftheinfinite
wonderfulcreation,mixedwithtotaldevotionanddesiretoserve.

Beerh:ReferstothesacredBeerh(theBookorthevisibleform)ofSriGuruGranthSahibJi.

Chanani:CanopyoverSriGuruGranthSahibJi.

Charan:Guru'sHolyFeet.ReferencetoconcentrationintotalhumilityontheGuru'sWordi.e.
Gurshabad.ToacceptGuru'sCharaninyourmind(hirda)istoaccepttheGurShabadinyourmind.
Guru'sdarshan(spiritualandvisualexperience)alsohasasimilarmeaning.

ChardhiKalla:Expressionoftheuplifting,victoriousandpositivespiritofSikhi.ForexamplePanth
dichardhikallameanstheeverpositiveandvictoriousdispositionoftheOrderoftheKhalsaPanth.
Nevertoacceptdefeatunderanycircumstances(assymbolisedbyGuruGobindSinghJi)is
anotherwayofexpressingthechardhikallaspiritoftheKhalsa.

Chaunkra:TositinthecrossleggedpositionliketheIndianyogis.TheSikhsangat(congregation)
alwayssitsinthispositiononthefloortoconfirmtheSikhiprincipleoftotalequalityandhumility
ofallhumankind,withoutdistinction,beforeoneGod.

Chaur:Aspecialappliancewithawoodenhandlewithlonghair,forwavingfromsidetosideover
SriGuruGranthSahibJi.InPanjabonecanseebeautifulChaursmadeofpeacockfeathers.A
Chaurisasymbolofroyaltywhenitiswavedovertheheadofakingorsomeotherroyal
personage.TheGuruPersonalitiesandSriGuruGranthSahibJipersonifyTheTrueKingi.e.the
LightofGuruNanakinthisworld.(TheotherpurposeaChaurserves,especiallyinIndia,istokeep

theinsectsawaybutitismainlythesymbolicaspectwhichisimportant.Itshouldnotbecalleda
flywhisk!)

Chaurasilaakhjooni:TraditionalIndianbelief,originatingfromVedicliterature,in8.4millionlife
forms.Thehumanlifeisthemostsuperiorandisanopportunityforthesoultoreachhigher
spiritualplanesortoreturntothecycleofthechaurasilaakhjooni.Thismessageisalsoaconstant
themeofGurbani.

Darbar(Guru'sDarbar):Thewordmeansaroyalcourt.TheDarbarhallintheGurdwaraor
elsewheree.g.ataGurmattcamp,istheSangathallwherethereisPrakaashofSriGuruGranth
SahibJi.Historically,theSikhGurus,especiallyGuruJi'sfromSriGuruHargobindJitoSriGuru
GobindSinghJiheldcourts(darbars)inthesamewayasthemaharajasandkingsofthetime.At
thesedarbarsGuruSahibheardpetitions,settleddisputesandalsoreceivedvisitorsand
dignitaries.Indeedthesewereinthenatureofroyalcourtswithjudiciary,legislativeandpolitical
functions,despitetheunderlyingreligiouslanguageandidiom.LikeAkalTakhat,theywerecentres
ofmiripiri(seebelow).

Darshan:SpiritualexperienceofseeingandbeinginthepresenceofGuruJi.

Dharamyodh:Struggleforarighteouscause.ThisSikhconceptmustbedistinguishedfroma
religiousware.g.theconceptofJihaadinIslam.Adharamyodhisnotawartopropagateown
religionbuttodefendthemeekandtheweak.Indeed,adharamyodhmayevenbeindefenceof
another'sreligion.

FiveBanis:TheFiveBanisinthemorningare:JapjiSahib;JaapSahib;TenSwayyas;Chaupai;and
AnandSahib(full).(RehrasandKirtanSohilaarerecitedintheevening).

GranthSahib(SriGuruGranthSahibJi):SikhholyscriptureswhichhavethestatusofJagatJot
Guru,thelivingGuru,theEnlightener.

Gurbani(Bani):TheGuru'sword.GurShabadmeansthesame.ThehymnsinSriGuruGranth
Sahib.

Gurgaddi:Guru'sThroneorGuruship.

Gurmatt:Literallythewordmeans"Guru'smindorGuru'steaching".Therefore,Gurmattisthe
Guru'sway;itistheGuru'steachingregardingallaspectsofthelifeofaGursikh.Ifanaction,
behaviour,customorprocedureisinaccordancewiththeteachingsofGurbani,thenthatis
Gurmatt.Ifnotthenitismanmatti.e.inaccordancewithown,selfcentredandconceited
approachtolife.SikhrehatisthehubofGurmattaroundwhichaGursikh'slifeshouldrevolvein
harmonyandselfdiscipline.HumilityandsewaaretheessentialcomponentsofGurmatt.

Gurmatta:ThisisaresolutionpassedunanimouslybytheassembledSangat(Sikhholy
congregation)inaccordancewithGurmatti.e.Guru'steaching.ThereforeithastheGuru's
authority;itisGuru'sresolution.Traditionally,theGurmattaspassedbytheSinghsassembledat
AkalTakhatatAmritsar(theSarbattKhalsa)directedtheaffairsoftheKhalsaPanth(theSikh
nation),especiallyinthe18thCenturyC.E.ThePanjPiaray(seebelow)selectedfromtheSangat
maypassaGurmattaatlocallevel.

Gurmukh:Literally,"OnewhofacestheGuru".Thatis,onewhofollowstheGuru'sWord(Gurbani)
inthoughtandactionwithoutreservation.Oppositeofmanmukh(seebelow).

Gurmukhi:AlphabetinwhichthePanjabilanguageismostcommonlywritten.Therefore,Panjabi
isthelanguageofPanjab,whileGurmukhiisthealphabetinwhichitiswritten.TheSikhScriptures,
SriGuruGranthSahibJiiswritteninGurmukhi.Gurmukhihadthirtyfiveletterstostartwithand
theGurmukhialphabetiscalledPainty(meaningthirtyfive)forthatreason.However,fivemore
modifiedlettershavebeenaddedforthespellingofother,mostlynonPanjabiwords.

GurShabad:(alsoseeShabad)Guru'sWord.AhymninSriGuruGranthSahibJi.

Gursikhi:Guru'sSikhiistheSikhideologyandwayoflifewhichfullyaccordswiththeGuru's
teachinginGurbani(theGuru'sWordinSriGuruGranthSahibJi)asinterpretedbytheKhalsa
Panth.

Guru(inSikhism):IstheEnlightener.TheGuruinSikhiismorethanaguru(teacher)whoimparts
knowledge.TheGurualsohastheabilitytochangeaperson'snatureandhabitsandputhimor
heronthepathtosalvationi.e.theunionofthesoulwiththeLord,theWaheguru.Gurbani
(Guru'sWord)istheGuru,andultimately,TheGuruisWaheguru,theUltimateReality.Forthe
Sikhs,theTenGurupersonalitiesofGuruNanakDevJisymbolisedGurbaniGuru(GurMooratGur
Shabadhai:TheGuru'simageistheGuru'sWordBhaiGurdas).Therewasnodistinctionbetween
theGuruandtheGuru'sBani(Word).SriGuruGranthSahibJiisthecompilationoftheSachiBani
(TrueBani)asapprovedbytheGuru.PassagesinSriGuruGranthSahibJimakeitclearthatany
baninotapprovedbytheTrueGuruHimself(andthereforenotincludedinSriGuruGranthSahib
Ji)isnotGurbaniorSachiBani(SatgurubinahorkachihaibaniGGSp.920).AlsobyGuruGobind
SinghJi'sinjunction,SriGuruGranthSahibJiistheLivingGuru.

GuruGhar:Literally,Guru'sHouse.GuruGharistheGuru'sSchoolorteachingsi.e.theGuru's
sphereofinfluence,theSikhfaithandwayoflife,aswellastheGurdwara.

GuruGranthSahib:SikhHolyScriptures.SeeGuruGranthSahibabove.

Gurvaak:(Gur=Guru;vaak=sentence)WordutteredbytheGuru.Dependinguponthecontext,the
expressionmeanswhattheGuruhassaidortheGuru'sorderorboth.

Haomai:Selfcentredprideinownclevernessandimportance.OppositeoftheGodcentred
qualityofhumilitywhichaccruesfromsewa(selflessservice).Haomaiisamajorhumandefect;
suchadisease(rogpronouncedasrowg)ofarroganceorconceitcanonlybecuredthrough
prayer(Ardaas)andGuruJi'sblessing.HaomaiislostifoneunderstandsHukam(seebelow)

Hukam:Hukammeans"order".ItalsomeansWaheguru'sWill(HukamRajaaee).Thestressof
GurbaniisonunderstandingtheHukam.SuchunderstandingandacceptanceofHisWillgetsridof
one'shaomai(egocentricbehaviour)replacingitwithhumility.

Jotijotsamaona:Light(humanspirit)mergingwiththeDivineLight.Theexpressionisusedforthe
departureofanyofthetenGuruJisforSachKhand(seebelow).GuruJijotijotesamagaimeans
GuruJi'sspirit(lightoflife)mergedwiththeUniversalSpirit(DivineLight).

Kachhera:(sayKashehra)AgileshortsofKhalsadesignseePanjKakkar.

KalgidharorKalgidharPaatshah:(Kalgidhar=theweareroftheaigrette,Paatshah=TrueKing)
oneofthemanyformsofaddressforGuruGobindSinghJi.IntheIndiantraditionofdescriptive
namesforheroesanddeities,theothernamesforGuruGobindSinghJiincludeBajanWala=the
KeeperoftheHawks;NeelaydaSwaar=theRiderofthebluesteedavarietyofArabiansteeds;
andDasmeshPita=Tenth(GuruNanak),theFather(oftheKhalsa).

Kalyug:ThefourthandfinaldivisionoftimeinVedicliterature.Seealsoyug,forGurbani
translationoftheyugs.

Kangha:WoodencombSeePanjKakkar.

Kara:IronbraceletseePanjKakkar.

Kautak:UnusualeventorexperiencecausedbyGuruJi.Mysteriousorunexplainedspontaneous
happening.SuchkautaksbyGuruJi(s)mustnotbeinterpretedasperformanceof"magic"or
"miracles".Theydidnotperformmiraclesforthesakeofitortoglorifythemselves;infactGuru
Jiswereagainsttheshowofmagicormiracles.However,asaintlypersonfullyinharmonywith
theUltimatePowerandReality(WaheguruJi)sometimesbecomesthemediumforWaheguru's
HukamorWillinaspontaneousway.TheWillisthatofWahegurubutthecreditsometimesgoes
toWaheguru'struedevoteeasindeedeachGuruJi(i.e.GurupersonalityofGuruNanakDevJi)
was.

Katha:(thpronouncedasintheme)SermononSikhicoveringinterpretationofGurbani,Sikh
traditionandhistory.Onewhodoeskathaiscalledakathakar.

Kesh:UnshornhairwhichallSikhsarerequiredtokeep.SeePanjKakkar.

Keski:AsmallturbanwhichiswornbymenandAmritdhariwomenallthetime.Gursikhswearthis
onitsownwhenathomeorunderthenormaldastar(Sikhturban)whenmoreformallydressed.

Khalsa/KhalsaPanth:ThewordKhalsamaybeusedforanindividualorthecollectivebodyofthe
OrderoftheKhalsa.ItwasalmostcertainlyusedbyGuruSahibane.g.byGuruHarGobindJiina
proprietarysenseasGuru'sownKhalsa.ThewordwasinuseinthelandlawofIndiaatthetimeto
indicatethatlandwhichbelongeddirectlytothemonarch"i.e.landwhichwasnotgivenbythe
monarchtosomelocalchieftoruleover.ThusGuru'sKhalsahasdirectlinkwiththeGuruwithno
otherhumanintermediary.ThereforetheKhalsasalutation:WaheguruJiKaKhalsa,WaheguruJiKi
Fateh:theKhalsaisoftheWonderfulEnlightener;Whoisalwaysvictorious."Thewordalsodoes
mean"pure"inArabicandwouldalsoapplytotheGuru'sKhalsa.However,onewhoallows
humanmediationbetweentheGuruandhimselforherself,cannotclaimtobetheGuru'sKhalsa
inSikhi.KhalsahasbeendefinedbyGuruGobindSinghJiasfollows"JagatJotjapaynisbasar
MeditatingdayandnightontheLightwhichisAwake.HavingfaithonlyintheOneandnoneother.
AbsorbedinHisSplendour,andHisLove;neverbelievinginfastsandtombs,templesoridols.Not
forpenancesnorbathingatholyplaces,norfortheYogis'selfmaceration;notrecognisingany
otherbuttheOne.Whenone'sinnerselfisthoroughlyilluminatedwiththeCelestialLight;Only
thencanonetrulybeconsideredasKhalsa."(SarabLohGranth).

Khanda:Doubleedgedsword.InpaintingsofBabaDeepSinghJi,hecanbeseenwieldingakhanda
inhisrighthandwhilecarryinghisheadonthepalmofhislefthand.ItisalsotheKhandainthe
centreoftheKhalsainsigniacalledbythesamename"Khanda".Ashorterandbroaderversionof

theKhandaisusedforstirringtheAmritwaterduringtheAmritSancharceremony.Khanda
representstheUnityofWaheguruintheSikhtraditionwiththetwoedgesrepresentingthe
worldlyandthespiritualsovereigntyofWaheguru.

KhandayBaataydiPahul:(seeAmrit)

Kirpan:Sikhsword.(SeePanjKakkar.)

Kookay:MembersoftheNamdharimovement(seebelow).Kook=loudcryorshriek.Membersof
thisoffshootofthemainstreamKhalsaPanthtradition,getintospiritualecstasy,inwhichstate
theyletoutcriesofexaltation.Therefore,theirpopularnameofKookay(plural)orKooka
(singular).TheNamdharimovementwas"promoted"byBabaRamSinghJiinthemiddleofthe
19thcentury.ItwasareformationmovementwithinSikhismlayingstressonNaamsimran(see
below)andasimplewayoflife.ItwasalsothebeginningoftheindependencemovementinIndia
againsttheBritishoccupation.ItisdoubtfulifBabaRamSinghJiwantedtostartanewsect.

LarhidaarSaroop:Istheoriginalconnectedwordingform(i.e.inwhichtherewerenospaces
betweenwords)ofSriGuruGranthSahibJi.Apaatthi(onewhoreadsSriGuruGranthSahibJi)
requiredextensivetuitionfromSikhscholars,sothatthecontinuouswordformatwasread
correctly.Thewordingwaspublishedinseparatedwordformattowardsthemiddleofthe20th
century.Thisiscalledthepaddshed(padd=word;shed(shayd)=space).

Mahapurakh:(Maha=great;purakh=man)However,ifusedtodenoteGod,thenthemeaning
wouldbe"theGreatBeing"asGodinSikhiisabovegenderclassification.

Manmatt:Egoistic,headstrongcleverness.OppositeofGurmatt(seeabove).

Manmukh:Anegocentricpersonwho,througharroganceratherthanthroughresearchin
humility,followstheclevernessofownvacillatingmind.Amanmukhmentality,devoidofany
derivedexperienceorwisdom,leadsapersonastrayandawayfromhigherhumanvaluesorthe
spiritualgoalinthislife.

Maryada:Traditionorthemannerinwhichceremoniesandritesshouldbeperformed(see,for
exampleRehatMaryada).Sikhimaryadashouldnotincludeuselessritualssoroundlyrejectedby
GuruNanakDevJi.However,regrettably,manySikhsthesedaysaremisledbyselfproclaimed
sants(saints)tofollowantiSikhiritualsinthenameofmaryada.GurmattasdeterminedbyPanj
PiaraymustguideGurMaryada.

Mathatekna(ortekan):InSikhi,payingrespecttoGuruJiduringtheperiodoftheTenGurusand
thesedaystoSriGuruGranthSahibJionly.MathatekanintheGurdwaraisperformedasfollows:
ApproachGuruJiwithfoldedhands,godownontheknees,balancingyourselfonthepalmsof
yourhands,bowforwardandtouchyourforeheadontheground.Youthenstandup,foldyour
hands,bowtotheGuruJiandmoveaway.SomeGursikhsalsosayaveryshortprayerwhile
performingmathateknaandastheystandupafterpayingthisrespecttheywhispertheKhalsa
salutation:"WaheguruJiKaKhalsa,WaheguruJiKiFateh."collectivelytotheGuruandthe
Sangat.Today,thisformofrespectisstrictlyreservedforSriGuruGranthSahibonly.(Justfolding
yourhandsandbowingyourheadslightlyinrespectforanotherGursikhoranelderlyorsaintly
personisasignofrespectandnotmathatekan.)

Naam:Waheguru'sName.Waheguru'sBeing(TimelessSpirit),theattributesofwhichare
describedintheMoolMantar,theBasicPreceptatthebeginningofSriGuruGranthSahibJi.

Naamsimran:TodoNaamsimranistoreciteGod'sName(fortheSikhsthemostfrequentlyused
NamesareWaheguru(WondrousEnlightener)andSatNaam(TrueNameoftheGodBeing)so
thattheveryPresenceoftheUltimateReality(thelkOnkar,Waheguru,AkalPurakh,Nirankarand
calledbymanyotherNames)isexperienceddeepinthemindorhirda.Morethanthat,thewhole
mindandbodyshouldexperiencetheGod'sBeinginandaroundus.ThatisNaamsimranwith
everybreathforitbecomesaninseparablepartofone'sownbeing.NaamsimranisGod
experience.

Nadar:AuniquelySikhconceptwhichseeshopeforanyoneatanytimethroughWaheguru's
NadarGrace.ThiswherethepositiveSikhthoughtpartscompanywiththetraditionalnegative
conceptofdestinyortheVedickaramphilosophy.Waheguru'sbenevolent"look"(attention)can
fallonanyoneatanytime.Andso,withGuru'sNadar,receivedthroughtherighteouspathand
prayer,everyonehasarealchoiceandopportunityinthislifetofreeoneselffromthecycleof
karmaandbirthanddeath.

Namdharisect:(alsocalledKookayseeabove)

NitNem:PrescribeddailyrecitationofspecifiedBanis(Gurbanicompositions).

Paatth:ReverentialreadingofSriGuruGranthSahibJioranyotherreligiousworklikeGuru
GobindSinghJi'sDasamGranth.(SeealsoAkhandPaatth)

Paatthi:Onewhoreadspaatthi.e.GurbanifromGuruGranthSahibJi.

PanjBanis:SeeNitNem.

PanjKakkar:ThefivearticlesoffaithwhichAmritdhariKhalsa(SinghsandSinghanis)mustkeepas
partoftheKhalsarehat(discipline).

PanjPiaray:TheFiveBelovedOnes.ThefirstfiveSikhswho,ontheVaisakhidayin1699,
respondedtoGuruGobindSinghJi'scallandofferedtheirheads.TheywerethefirstfiveSikhsto
beinitiatedintotheOrderoftheKhalsa;and,atGuruJi'srequest,collectivelyinitiatedGuruJi
HimselfasaKhalsa.TheinstitutionofPanjPiaraystartedwiththatfirstAmritSancharceremony
onVaisakhi1699,andfiveAmritdhariSinghs/SinghanisactasPanjPiarayforAmritSancharand
representthehighestauthorityforreligiousandotherpurposesregardingdecisionsaffectingthe
KhalsaPanth.ThePanjPiarayarealwaysAmritdhariandvolunteerforthissewa.Theyarenever
electedbut,ifneedbe,theyareselectedbytheSangatorbydrawinglotsafterArdaasbeforeSri
GuruGranthSahibJi.

Panth:AnallembracingwordforthespiritualandworldlycollectivebodyoftheKhalsaPanth,the
OrderoftheKhalsaortheSikhnation.SeealsoKhalsa.

Pothi:ApartofGuruGranthSahibJipublishedasaseparatevolume.Sometimes,itbeannotated
i.e.meaningsofthemoredifficultwordsmaybegiven.

Prakaashkarna:ReferstoSriGuruGranthSahibJiwhentheHolyScripturesisopenfordarshan
(holysightandreading)andmathatekan.Thetermisalsousedgenerally,whenGuruJiisavailable
fordarshaninsomeGursikh'shouseinaspecialroompreparedforthepurposee.g.,"Hehad
PrakaashofSriGuruGranthSahibJiinhishouse."

Rehat:PhysicalandmentaldisciplinewhichaGursikhisrequiredtokeep.ToooftenSikhrehatis
associatedwiththephysicalappearanceandrituals(keepingthePanjKakkar)anddoingNitnem
only.EverySikhshouldkeepacopyoftheRehatMaryadaandstrivetopracticeboth,theinner
andphysicaldisciplines.

Rumaala:LargescarfmadeoffinematerialforcoveringSriGuruGranthSahibJi.Rumaalasare
presentedtotheGurubydevotedSikhswithgreatreverence,usuallyfollowingtheBhog(see
above)ceremony.

Sachkhand:ThePlainofTruthortheUltimateRealitywhereresidestheFormlessWaheguru
outsidetimeandspace(SachKhandvasayNirankar).Sachkhandneedstobeunderstoodinthe
waydescribedinthe37thstanzaofJapJiSahib,startingSachkhandvasayNirankar.

Saka:AsensationalepisodeinSikhhistoryliketheSakaofNankanaSahibortheSakaof
JallianwalaBaag.ThesakasandmanyGuruorSikhsaakhis(seebelow)arethelandmarksofthe
mosteventfulSikhhistorytodate.

Saakhi:Dependinguponcontextandsource,asaakhimaybeananecdote,historicalepisode,
mythologicalorevenfictitiousstory,usuallywithareligiousmoral.Therearemanysaakhis(true
episodes)relatingtothelivesoftheSikhGurusandgreatSikhs.However,therearealsohundreds
ofteachingstoriesfromtheancientscripturesandsomeofthesearementionedinSriGuru
GranthSahibJibecauseoftheirteachingcontent.SomesaakhisofSriGuruNanakDevJie.g.Guru
JivisittoMecca,havebecomeverypopularandarereciteddailybySikhpreachersandSikh
parentstotheirchildren.MostofthesearehistoricalasarethesaakhisofgreatSikhmartyrslike
BhaiManiSinghJiandgreatsewadarslikeBhaiGhanaya.

SangatorSaadhSangat:Holycongregation.Agatheringforreligiouspurpose.

Satguru:TheTrueEnlightener(sat=true;guru=giveroflighti.e.knowledge).

Sewa:Selflessserviceintotalhumilityandwithoutexpectationofanyreward.Sewaisacentral
themeofSikhianditmaytakemanyformsfromcleaningthefootwearoftheSangatata
Gurdwaratocommunityserviceinanyform.Sewamustbedoneonanonediscriminatorybasisas
didBhaiGhanayaduringthesiegeofAnandpurwhenheofferedwatertofriendandfoealike.In
theSikhtraditionsewamayrequireextremesacrifice,insuchcasesthepersonfeelsblessedby
theLordandoffershisorherprayerofgratitude.

Shaheed:Ashaheedisamartyrwhohaddiedforarighteouscause.

Shabad:(alsoseeGurShabad)AnyhymninSriGuruGranthSahibJi.Guru'sWord.Alsousedina
deepspiritualsenseasTheWordwhichputsthesoulintouchwithUniversalSpirit.ThatWordor
mysticalformulainGurmattis"WAHEGURU"."WaheguruGurMantarhai".

Sikhi(Sikhism):TheSikhwayoflife.ThewordSikhiispreferredtothemorewesternisedword
Sikhismwhichhasadifferentconnotation.

Yam:(pronouncedasj'mmwithsoftj)Darkmessengersofdeath.

Yug:OneofthetraditionalfouragesintowhichVedicliteraturedividestimeintheorderSatyug
(1728000years),Treta(1296000years),Duapar(864000years)andKalyug(432000years)(Source:
AsadiVaarsteekbyProfSahibSingh,SinghBros.,Amrisar).InSatyugthedrivingforceisdharam
(desiretodoone'sdutyandadherencetoacodeofconducti.e.rehatseeabove)andthevehicle
(i.e.humanexperience)iscontentment(santokh);inTretathedrivingforceischivalry(jor:
strengthsignifyingthequalityofthesaintwarriors)andthevehicleiscontroloversensualdesires
(jatth);inDuaparthedrivingforceishighconduct(satth)andthevehicleismeditation(tapp);and
inKalyug,thedrivingforceisfalsehoodanddeception(koor)andthevehicleisthefire(agan)of
desire(formoreandmore).Thus,Gurbani,byusingtheidiomofthefouryugsandtheir
characteristicsshowstherelationshipbetweengoodorbaddrivingforcesandtheirimpactonthe
humanbeing(bodyandmindexperience),whichotherwisehasbeenmentionedasthehighestlife
form,nay,comparedwithGod'shouse:HarMandar(HarMandarehsarirhaigianratanpragat
hoay:ThisbodyistheLord'smansionwhereinisrevealedthejewelofDivinecomprehensionSGGS
p.1346).TheGurmattteachingisthatthesocalledfouryugsresidesimultaneouslyinthehuman
bodyandmind.However,thereisacceptancethatthecharacteristicsofKalyugarepredominant
inthemodernmaterialisticageandWaheguru'skirtan(meditativesingingofHisQualities)has
beenofferedbytheGuruasthemedicinefortheailinghumanbodyandmindsufferingfromthe
fireofdesire.