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CANCER

CANCER, A TITLE GIVEN TO A COLLECTIVE GROUP OF RELATED DISEASES THAT CAN BE


ALSO KNOWN AS MALIGNANT TUMOUR, IS AN ABNORMAL GROWTH OF CELLS, WHERE IT
HAS THE POTENTIAL TO SPREAD TO OTHER PARTS OF THE BODY. BECAUSE ITS SPECIFICITY
IS LOW IN COMPARISON TO BODY CELLS, CELL DIVISION OF CANCER CELLS ARE

EXPLAIN

HOW UNCONTROLLED CELL DIVISION CAN RESULT IN THE

FORMATION OF A TUMOUR
In the body, cells grow and divide to become new cells where the body needs
them. Old cells that are damaged, die and new cells take their place. But when
cancerous cells are developed, this normal body process is distorted.
Abnormal cells are developed when one or more of the genes are damaged or
altered (mutation). Because the nuclear information is changed, the cell acts
dissimilar to its previous specific function.
These abnormal cells divide uncontrollably where they are not needed, and old
or damaged cells survive when they should die. The unstoppable formation of
new cells cause tumours. Most cancer tumours are solid tumours.

http://www.patient.co.uk/health/what-is-cancer
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/what-is-cancer

UNSTOPPABLE.

IDENTIFY

VARIOUS FACTORS THAT CAN INCREASE THE CHANCES OF

CANCEROUS GROWTH

AGE

Most people diagnosed with cancer are 65 years old or above. This is due
to the long period of time that cancer take to develop. It could also be
due to the prolonged exposure to carcinogens and a weakening of the
bodys immune system. Although it is common that cancer is found in
adults, cancer is not exclusively an adult disease. It can be diagnosed at
any age.

DIET

A diet high in unsaturated fat has been linked to increased risk of colon,
breast and possibly prostate cancer. People who drink large amounts of
alcohol are at much higher risk of developing head and neck and
oesophageal cancer. A diet high in smoked and pickled foods or in
barbecued meats increases the risk of developing stomach cancer.

FAMILY HISTORY

Only a small portion of cancers are due to an inherited condition. If


cancer is common in your family, it's possible that mutations are being
passed from one generation to the next.

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Tobacco smoke contains carcinogens that increase the risk of developing


cancers of the lungs, mouth, throat, esophagus, kidneys, and bladder.
Exposure to pesticides is associated with a higher risk of some types of
cancer (for example, leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma).
Extended exposure to ultraviolet radiation, primarily from sunlight,
causes skin cancer. Ionizing radiation is particularly carcinogenic. X-rays
(including computed tomography [CT]) use ionizing radiation, and people
who have many tests that use high doses of x-rays have an increased
risk of cancer.

DRUGS AND MEDICAL TREATMENT

Certain drugs and medical treatment could increase the risk of cancerous
growth. Estrogens in oral contraceptives may slightly increase the risk of
breast cancer, but this risk decreases over time. Long-term use of
testosterone or other male hormones (androgens) may slightly increase
the risk of liver cancer.
Treatment of cancer with certain chemotherapy drugs and with radiation
therapy may increase the risk of people developing a second cancer
years later.

INFECTIONS

The human papillomavirus (HPV, which causes genital warts) is a major


cause of cervical cancer in women. and penile and anal cancer in men

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/basics/risk-factors/con20032378
http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/cancer/overview-of-cancer/risk-factorsfor-cancer

EXPLAIN

FIVE KNOWN CAUSES OF CANCER

UV
LIGHT___________________________________________
Both basal cell and squamous cell cancers (the most common types
of skin cancer) tend to be found on sun-exposed parts of the body,
and their occurrence is related to lifetime sun exposure.
Most of us are exposed to large amounts of UVA throughout our
lifetime. UVA rays account for up to 95 percent of the UV radiation
reaching the Earth's surface.
UVA is the dominant tanning ray. A
UVA is the dominant tanning ray. A
tan results
tan results from injury
to the from
skin'sinjury to the skin's
DNA;
the
skin
DNA; the skin darkens in an darkens in an
attempt
imperfect attemptimperfect
to prevent
furtherto prevent further
DNA
damage.
These imperfections,
DNA damage. These imperfections,
mutations,
can lead to skin
or mutations, canorlead
to skin cancer.
cancer.
UVB,ofthe
chief cause of skin
UVB, the chief cause
skin
reddening
andtosunburn, tends to
reddening and sunburn, tends
damage
the skin's more superficial
damage the skin's
more superficial
epidermal layers.epidermal
It plays a layers.
key roleIt plays a key role
in the development
of
skin
cancer.
in the development of skin cancer

TOBACCO________________________________________
__
Smoking accounts for 87% of lung cancer deaths in men and 70% in
women. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men
and women, and is one of the hardest cancers to treat. Poisons in
tobacco smoke can chemically modify or damage a cell's DNA.
Poisons in cigarette smoke can weaken the bodys immune system,
making it harder to kill cancer cells. When this happens, cancer cells
keep growing without being stopped.

DIET AND
EXERCISE___________________________________
Physical activity may protect against colon cancer
and tumour development through its role in energy
balance, hormone metabolism, insulin regulation, and by decreasing
the time the colon is exposed to potential carcinogens.

INFECTION________________________________________
__
Worldwide approximately 18% of cancer deaths are related
to infectious diseases. Viruses are the usual infectious agents that
cause cancer but cancer bacteria and parasites may also have an
effect.

WHAT

IS METASTASIS?

LIST AND EXPLAIN


DIFFERENT
WAYS IN
WHICHorCANCER
BE TREATED
Metastasis
is the spread
of a cancer,
tumour,
disease CAN
to another
part of
the body from its original site through the bloodstream. When cancer cells

SURGERY
break
away
from a tumor, they can travel to other areas of the body through
__________________________________________________________
the bloodstream
or the lymph system (which contains a collection of vessels
that carry fluid and immune system cells).
Surgery is local treatment to remove the tumor. Tissue around the
tumor and nearby lymph nodes may also be removed during the
operation.
(Local treatment: Treatment that affects the tumor and the area
close to it.)

RADIATION
THERAPY_________________________________________________
In radiation therapy (also called radiotherapy), high-energy rays are
used to damage cancer cells and stop them from growing and
dividing. Like surgery, radiation therapy is a local treatment; it
affects cancer cells only in the treated area.

CHEMOTHERAPY_________________________________________________
___
Treatment with drugs to kill cancer cells is called chemotherapy.
Most anticancer drugs are injected into a vein (IV) or a muscle.
Some are given by mouth as pills. Chemotherapy is systemic
treatment, meaning that the drugs flow through the bloodstream to
nearly every part of the body.
Angiogenesis literally means creation of new blood vessels. Angiogenesis is
an essential component of the metastatic pathway.
HORMONE
The process
of angiogenesis is controlled by chemical signals in the body.
THERAPY_________________________________________________
These vessels provide the principal route by which tumor cells exit the
of cancer,
including
most breast and prostate cancers,
primary Some
tumor types
site and
enter the
circulation.
depend on hormones to grow. For this reason, doctors may
A blood supply
is necessary
tumors
to grow
beyond
few getting
millimeters
in
recommend
therapyfor
that
prevents
cancer
cells afrom
or using
the hormones
size. Tumors
can causethey
this need.
blood supply to form by giving off chemical
signals that stimulate angiogenesis.
Sometimes, the patient has surgery to remove organs (such as the
ovaries or testicles) that make the hormones. In other cases, the
doctor uses drugs to stop hormone production or change the way
hormones work.
Like chemotherapy, hormone therapy is a systemic treatment; it
affects cells throughout the body.

BIOLOGICAL THERAPY
(IMMUNOTHERAPY)_______________________________

MALIGNANT BRAIN TUMOURS-GLIOBLASTOMA (GBM)


Generally, brain tumours are graded from 1 to 4, a malignant brain tumour
is either grade 3 or 4. GBM is rated grade 4. Most malignant tumours are
secondary cancers, which means they started in another part of the body
and spread to the brain.
Origin:
These tumours are one of a group of tumours called gliomas. GBM
develops from the lineage of star-shaped glial cells, called astrocytes, that
support nerve cells.GBM develops primarily in the cerebral hemispheres
but can develop in other parts of the brain, brainstem, or spinal cord.
Potential Causal Agents:
As with tumors elsewhere in the body, the exact cause of most brain
cancer is unknown. Genetic factors, various environmental toxins and
radiation to the head have all been linked to cancers of the brain.
Increasingly research is pointing towards genetic mutation.
Impact of the Cancer on Individuals and Society:
Brain tumours can affect people of any age, including children, although
they tend to be more common in older adults.

Symtoms:
The symptoms of a malignant brain tumour depend on how big it is and
where it is in the brain. Common symptoms include:

severe, persistent headaches


seizures (fits)

persistent nausea, vomiting and drowsiness

mental or behavioural changes, such as memory problems or


changes in personality

progressive weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, vision

problems, or speech problems


Possible Treatment:
Surgery will usually need to be carried out to remove as much of the
tumour as possible. This may be followed by radiotherapy and/or
chemotherapy to kill any cancerous cells left behind and reduce the
chances of the tumour regrowing.However, malignant tumours will often
eventually return after treatment.

BONE CANCER-EWING
SARCOMA

Ewings sarcoma is a primary bone cancer that affects manily children and
adolescents. Its one of a group of cancers collectively known as the Ewing
sarcoma family of tumours-ESFT or sometimes just EFT. Its the second
most common bone cancer in children, but its also relatively uncommon.
Origin:
Primary bone cancer is cancer that originates in bone cells. Researchers
think that Ewing's sarcoma begins in a certain kind of primitive cell. Ewing
tumors that grow in bone are typically found in the long bones of the legs
and arms, or bones in the chest, trunk, pelvis, back, or head.
Potential Causal Agents:
In all Ewing family tumors, a change occurs in a cell to move a gene called
EWS on chromosome No. 22 next to a section of DNA on one of several
other chromosomes that causes the EWS gene to turn on. No one knows
why this happens. It is not inherited; rather it occurs after the child is
born.

Impact of the Cancer on Individuals and Society:


Ewings sarcoma primarily involves children older than age 10, teens and
adolescents, and young adults, usually up to the age of 30. Slightly more
boys than girls are prone to get the disease. For unknown reasons, it
occurs most often in whites and is extremely rare in African-Americans or
Asian-Americans.
Compared to adult cancers, risks of most childhood cancers, including
Ewing's sarcoma, cannot be affected by making lifestyle changes.
Symtoms:
A tumor that has spread can cause a child to feel very tired and to lose
weight. If it has spread to the lungs, it can also cause breathlessness.
Tumors near the spine can cause unexplained weakness or even paralysis.

Pain or swelling, most commonly in an arm or leg, chest, back, or


pelvis; the pain gets progressively worse, and does not subside.
A swelling, which may or may not feel warm

Swelling and limited range of motion of a joint


Fever for no known reason

A bone that breaks with no apparent cause

Possible Treatment:
For localised Ewing tumor, treatment usually begins with chemotherapy to
shrink the tumor before it's treated with surgery or radiation. In addition to
shrinking the main tumor, the chemotherapy is intended to kill cancer cells
that may have already spread but have not yet been detected. If for some
reason surgery can't be done or if surgery leaves some cancer cells
behind, radiation is used to kill the cells

Explain five known causes of cancer


http://www.skincancer.org/prevention/uva-and-uvb/understanding-uva-anduvb
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/radiationexposureandcancer/uvra
diation/uv-radiation-does-uv-cause-cancer
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer#Causes
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/tobaccocancer/cigarettesmoking/c
igarette-smoking-illness-and-death
http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/campaign/tips/diseases/cancer.html

What is metastasis?
http://www.cancer.org/treatment/understandingyourdiagnosis/advancedcancer
/advanced-cancer-what-is-metastatic
http://pathol.med.stu.edu.cn/pathol/listEngContent2.aspx?ContentID=608

What is angiogenesis?
http://www3.uah.es/farmamol/Public/AnnReviews/PDF/Medicine/Angiogenesis_
metastasis.pdf
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/treatment/types/immunotherapy/angioge
nesis-inhibitors-fact-sheet
http://www.lungevity.org/about-lung-cancer/lung-cancer-101/treatmentoptions/angiogenesis-inhibitors

List and explain different ways in which cancer can be treated


http://www.medicinenet.com/cancer_detection/page3.htm

Brain Tumours
http://www.gizmag.com/drug-mechanism-fights-brain-cancer/37322/
http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/brain-tumour-malignant/Pages/Introduction.aspx
http://www.cbtrus.org/factsheet/factsheet.html
http://braintumor.org/brain-tumor-information/understanding-braintumors/tumor-types/#glioblastoma-multiforme

Bone Cancer
http://www.webmd.com/cancer/ewings-sarcoma
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/ewings/HealthProfessional/
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