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GERMAN ATV-DVWK

RULES AND STANDARDS

Advisory Leaflet
ATV-DVWK-M 206E
Automation of chemical phosphate removal

November 2001
ISBN 3-937758-63-1

Publisher/marketing:
GFA the publishing company of the German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste,
Theodor-Heuss-Allee 17 y D-53773 Hennef
Tel. ++49-22 42 / 8 72-120 y Fax:++49 22 42 / 8 72-100
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ATV-DVWK-M 206E

Die Deutsche Bibliothek [The German Library] CIP-Einheitsaufnahme


ATV-DVWK, German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste:
ATV-DVWK Rules and Standards (Medium combination) / ATV-DVWK, Wasserwirtschaft,
Abwasser, Abfall. - Hennef : GFA, Publishing Company of the ATV-DVWK
Formerly under the [German] title: Abwassertechnische Vereinigung: ATV-Regelwerk
Advisory Leaflet
M 206E. Automation of chemical phosphate removal
ISBN 3-937758-63-1

The main fields of activity of the ATV-DVWK are technical-scientific subjects and the economic as well as the
legal concerns of environmental protection. The politically and economically independent association works
nationally and internationally in the fields of pollution control, wastewater, water-hazardous substances,
waste, hydraulic engineering, hydraulic power, hydrology, soil protection and contaminated sites. The ca.
16,000 members are active in municipalities, engineer offices, authorities, firms and associations and also in
universities. Of these there are 10,000 specialists with personal membership; these are engineers, scientists,
lawyers, business persons, operating personnel and technicians. Via the corporate membership in the ATVDVWK there is access to ca. 160,000 specialists.
All rights, in particular those of translation into other languages, are reserved. No part of this Advisory Leaflet may
be reproduced in any form by photocopy, microfilm or any other process or transferred into a language usable
in machines, in particular data processing machines, without the written approval of the publisher.

Publisher:

ATV-DVWK Deutsche Vereinigung fr Wasserwirtschaft, Abwasser und Abfall e.V.,


Theodor-Heuss-Allee 17, 53773 Hennef

Marketing:

GFA Gesellschaft zur Frderung der Abwassertechnik e.V., Hennef

Setting and printing of the German original:

DCM, Meckenheim

GFA Gesellschaft zur Frderung der Abwassertechnik e. V., Hennef 2001

2 November 2001

ATV-DVWK-M 206E

Foreword
Since the publication of Advisory Leaflet ATV-M 206 Automation of the Chemical Removal of Phosphate in
July 1994 a continuous technical further development has taken place in this field. As a result of the increasing expansion of process analysis technology in wastewater treatment plants, the further development of
regulation and control strategies as well as new knowledge on the combination of a deliberate biological with
a chemical removal of phosphorus a revision and amendment of the 1994 edition has become necessary.

Authors
The original German Advisory Leaflet ATV-DVWK-M 206 was elaborated by the ATV-DVWK Specialist
Committee KA-13 Automation of wastewater treatment plants. The following have collaborated in the
preparation:
Dr. rer. nat. J.-U. Arnold, Bergisch-Gladbach
Dr.-Ing. P. Baumann, Stuttgart
Dipl.-Ing. U. Blhm, Berlin
Dr.-Ing. P. Hartwig, Hannover
Dr.-Ing. U. Jumar, Magdeburg
Dipl.-Ing. E. Michel, Waldbronn
Dr.-Ing. J. Reichert, Viersen
Dr.-Ing. S. Schlegel, Essen (Chairman)
Dr.-Ing. H.-H. Schneider, Berlin
Dipl.-Phys. Ing. W. Worringen, Dsseldorf

November 2001

ATV-DVWK-M 206E

Contents
Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................3
Authors ..........................................................................................................................................................3
User Notes......................................................................................................................................................5
1

Area of Application ........................................................................................................................5

Abbreviations .................................................................................................................................5

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................5

Basic Elements and Process Description ...................................................................................6

Continuous Measurement of the Phosphate or Phosphorus Concentration ..........................7

5.1
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.3
5.4

General.............................................................................................................................................7
Measurement of Orthophosphate (SPO4)..........................................................................................7
Molybdenum Blue Process ..............................................................................................................7
Vanadate Molybdate Process ..........................................................................................................8
Measurement of Total Phosphorus (CP) ..........................................................................................8
Operation and Maintenance.............................................................................................................8

Automation Concept involving Metal Salts and Sodium Aluminates ........................................8

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.3.1
6.3.2
6.3.3
6.3.4
6.3.5
6.3.6

Preamble ..........................................................................................................................................8
Measuring Sites and Dosing Points .................................................................................................8
Control and Regulation Concept for Phosphate Removal ...............................................................10
Control according to Timeplan .........................................................................................................10
Control according to P-Load ............................................................................................................11
Control according to Wastewater Flow ............................................................................................11
Regulation of SPO4 ............................................................................................................................12
Other Control Concepts....................................................................................................................14
Substitutional Value Strategies ........................................................................................................14

Storage and Dosing Technology ..................................................................................................15

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.4
7.5

General.............................................................................................................................................15
Dosing Facilities ...............................................................................................................................16
Storage and Dosing..........................................................................................................................17
Liquid Precipitants ............................................................................................................................17
Non-Pourable Precipitants ...............................................................................................................18
Pourable Precipitants .......................................................................................................................19
Measurement of the Precipitation Concentration.............................................................................21
P-Removal by Raising the pH-Value................................................................................................21

Economic Efficiency ......................................................................................................................21

Ordinances, Standard Specifications and Standards ................................................................22

4 November 2001

ATV-DVWK-M 206E

User Notes
This Advisory Leaflet is the result of honorary,
technical-scientific/economic collaboration which
has been achieved in accordance with the principles applicable therefor (statutes, rules of procedure of the ATV-DVWK and the Standard ATVDVWK-A 400). For this, according to precedents,
there exists an actual presumption that it is textually
and technically correct and also generally recognised.
The application of this Advisory Leaflet is open to
everyone. However, an obligation for application
can arise from legal or administrative regulations, a
contract or other legal reason.
This Advisory Leaflet is an important, however, not
the sole source of information for correct solutions.
With its application no one avoids responsibility for
his own action or for the correct application in specific cases; this applies in particular for the correct
handling of the margins described in the Advisory
leaflet.

Area of Application

This Advisory leaflet applies for activated sludge


and fixed bed plants for the treatment of wastewater which essentially originates from households or
from facilities which serve commercial or agricultural purposes provided that the harmfulness of this
wastewater can be reduced using biological processes with the same result as with wastewater from
households.

2
AbwV
XSS
SPO4,des
CP,MV
CP,Part
CP
CCOD,InB
I
PT
F

Abbreviations
Abwasserverordnung [German Wastewater Ordinance
Concentration of suspended solids
(0.45 m)
PO4-P design value at the dosing point
e.g. in mg/l
Monitoring value for the Ptot concentration
in the effluent e.g. in mg/l
P-concentration in the effluent of the plant
due to residual suspensions e.g. in mg/l
Measured concentration of phosphorus,
e.g. in mg/l
COD in the inflow to the biological reactor
Inhabitant
Total number of inhabitants and population equivalents
Safety factor as empirical value, e.g. in
mg/l

f
FM
k
mMe

Safety factor
Precipitant
Proportionality factor
Effective metal content of a precipitant
solution, e.g. in mol/l
mP,SS
Phosphorus content of the suspended
solids, e.g. in mg/kg
SPO4
Orthophosphate-P
Q
Wastewater flow at the point of the Pconcentration measurement, e.g. in m3/h
QPF
Precipitant flow, e.g. in m3/h
UV
Ultraviolet
VAwS
Verordnung ber Anlagen zum Umgang
mit wassergefhrdenden Stoffen und ber
Fachbetriebe [German Ordinance on
plants for the handling of water-hazardous
substances and on technical operations]
WGK
Wassergefhrdungsklasse [German Water Hazard Class]
WHG
Wasserhaushaltsgesetz [German Water
Resources Management Law]
-value Ratio of mol metal to mol phosphorus related to the P-content in the influent to the
precipitation reactor.
In order to be able to assess the effectiveness of the precipitation the -value
must actually be related to the P-content
at the dosing point. In these cases higher
values result than this normal operational
definition.

Specific weight of the precipitant solution,


e.g. in kg/m3

Introduction

Through legal regulations ( 7a WHG; AbwV) the


permitted phosphorus content in the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants is limited. With
plants 10,000 PT up to 100,000 PT a monitoring
value of 2 mg/l, with plants > 100,000 PT of 1 mg/l
is to be maintained. More extensive requirements
are possible in individual cases.
Phosphates are removed through biological processes and through chemical precipitation. Aim of an
automatic dosing of precipitant/flocculation agent is
to achieve an extensive removal of phosphates
from the wastewater with as small as possible employment of chemicals in order, in addition to the
costs of precipitant, in particular to minimise the
expenses for a disposal of the addition precipitation
sludge produced. This should also be sought in
order to keep the salting of the water low.

November 2001

ATV-DVWK-M 206E

Basic Elements and


Process Description

Phosphorus is a wastewater content substance


which can lead to eutrophication with discharge into
a slowly moving or static body of water. In most
water bodies the phosphorus content determines
the degree of algae growth. In wastewater it usually
originates from domestic discharges. Although a
reduction of the specific total phosphorus production from ca. 5 to approximately 1.8 g/(I y d) through
the very extensive reduction of the phosphate component in detergents, the normal concentrations in
the influent of municipal wastewater treatment
plants with 5 - 10 mg/l, however, lie as a rule still so
high that an extensive removal is required. In individual cases, however, lower concentrations can
also occur which can be traced back to either the
dilution of the wastewater with infiltration water or to
a higher component of industrial discharges. The
latter usually only shows small phosphorus concentrations.
A part of the phosphates contained in the influent is
carried out both with the primary sludge (ca. 10 - 15
%) and also incorporated in the biomass and removed with the surplus sludge. Integration into the
surplus sludge can, as a rule, can be estimated as
1 % of the added BOD5 or 0,005 y CCOD,InB (comp.
ATV-DVWK A-131E). A small P/BOD5-ratio therefore requires less expense for extensive removal
measures.
A deliberately executed, increased biological Premoval can be achieved in the aeration stage
through a special process technology (suitable
switching in of anaerobic zones). The biological
removal of P, however, does not always suffice in
order to maintain safely the required monitoring
value in the effluent. Therefore, as a rule, the possibility of dosing precipitant/flocculation chemicals
is also planned for these cases.
In general acidic iron salts as iron sulphate, iron
chloride, iron chloride-sulphate, aluminium salts as
aluminium chloride, the alkaline reacting sodium
aluminate or, in special cases, also lime hydrate
are applied as precipitants. For further basic information attention is drawn to the appropriate literature (ATV-DVWK-A 202E and the ATV Manual
Biological and advanced treatment of wastewater
[Not available in English]).
The dosing of precipitant must be capable of being
matched to the fluctuating influent and/or effluent
values. With this, due to competing reactions, dosing has to be more or less hyperstoichiometric.
Every overdosing, however, leads to a formation of

November 2001

hydroxides or carbonates which, due to increased


sludge formation, are unwanted. For the adjustment
of the dosing with plants with exclusively chemical
phosphate removal a -value of 1.5 is set. As,
however, usually phosphate is increasingly removed biologically, in practice the -value, elated
to the P-content in the influent to the precipitation
reactor (as a rule the aeration stage) very frequently lies under 1.0.
With the addition of lime hydrate the precipitation of
phosphates takes place through the raising of the
pH value. With this, insoluble calcium phosphates
are formed using the calcium ions contained in the
wastewater. With the exception of very soft water
there are sufficient calcium ions available. The correct selection of the pH value at the dosing point is
dependent on the local conditions. With preprecipitation pH values up to 9.3 are permitted.
With a dosing of lime hydrate into the aeration
stage a pH value of 9.0 may normally not be exceeded in the effluent of the plant, as ammoniac,
toxic to fish, can result due to the high pH value in
the bodies of water.
The chemical P-removal takes place in two steps,
the rapid chemical reaction (precipitation) and the
subsequent agglomeration of the small flocs into
larger, easily separable floc formations (flocculation). Here, for the chemical reaction, a rapid, energy-intensive admixture of the precipitant into the
wastewater is required. The flocculation itself on
the other hand requires only a very small input of
energy. Frequently points can be found in a wastewater treatment plant at which the admixture is ensured without additional input of energy. For example, overflows can be used for this. If necessary the
required turbulence can also be created through
the incorporation of chicanes or input of additional
energy (e.g. employment of pumps). An alternative
is also to improve the utilisation of precipitants by
dosing the precipitant at several points of the aeration tank or over the complete width of the channel.
In larger plants the production of a separate precipitation and flocculation reactor can be sensible with
new construction measures.
Depending on the place of dosing one differentiates
the dosing into pre-precipitation, simultaneous precipitation and post-precipitation.
With pre-precipitation the precipitant dosing takes
place in the grit chamber or in the inlet to the primary settling with separation of the flocs in the primary settling tank. Due to the negative effects on
the denitrification (reduction of the BOD5 load) it is,
however, rarely employed. With a high component
of industrial wastewater with high BOD5 and phosphorus concentrations or a downstream fixed bed
plant, this process can, however, be employed

ATV-DVWK-M 206E
thoroughly practically for the relief of the biological
stage. In any case attention is to be paid that for
the subsequent biological process still sufficient
phosphorus remains in the wastewater.
Simultaneous precipitation is currently the most
widely employed process with which the addition of
precipitant takes place directly into the activated
sludge stage; the separation of the flocs takes
place in the secondary settling tank. In addition to a
good utilisation of the precipitant an improvement of
the sludge index often presents itself as a positive
side effect of simultaneous precipitation. The low Pconcentrations normal today in the wastewater
usually allow the maintenance of the monitoring
values of 2 mg/l and 1 mg/l respectively using this
simple to operate method with sufficient efficiency
of the secondary settling stage.
If, with regard to an especially weak performance
receiving water an even lower P-concentration is
required usually additional measures have to be
taken. Such measures are:

filtration, sieving or similar for separation of


suspensa; polishing ponds can also support
this.
post-precipitation in the form of flocculation
filtration:
in order not to load the filter with too high a
quantity of precipitation sludge, flocculation filtration, depending on the required effluent
value, assumes a previous partial removal to 1
to 2 mg/l P.
conventional post-precipitation:
this takes place in a separate stage following
the secondary settling tank. It consists of precipitation and flocculation tanks as well as the
separation stage with a further secondary settling tank or a flotation plant.

quire a certain maintenance expense and the employment of chemicals. As comprehensive information for the employment and operation of process
analysis equipment including the systems for the
pre-treatment of samples are contained in ATVDVWK Advisory Leaflet M 269 [Not available in
English], the essential analysis processes for the
determination of phosphorus compounds are only
gone into briefly in the following sections.
Using process analysis equipment both orthophosphate (SPO4) and also Ptot (CP) can be determined.
With measuring equipment for the determination of
Ptot at most a coarse filtration may be placed upstream for the protection of the equipment, as an
extensive separation of suspended solids which
contain phosphorus leads to considerably reduced
findings.
The determination of the precipitable orthophosphate compounds, on the other hand, takes place
as a rule following a sample pre-treatment, in order
to be able to analyse reliably the then extensively
solid matter-free wastewater. The sample pretreatment systems which come into question are
described in detail in ATV-DVWK-M 269.

5.2

In the continuous analytics of orthophosphate up to


now two photometric processes have gained in significance. With both processes polyphosphate and
organic phosphorus compounds are not recorded.
Depending on the application purpose there are, at
the forefront, requirements for higher accuracy, DIN
conformity or economic efficiency. The measuring
process is to be selected accordingly.

5.2.1

Continuous Measurement of the Phosphate or Phosphorus


Concentration

5.1

General

The continuous measuring facilities with process


analysis equipment today employed for monitoring,
control and regulation of the removal process operate according to expensive physical-chemical
measuring processes. For this reason and due to
the content substances in the wastewater, they re-

Measurement of Orthophosphate
(SPO4)

Molybdenum Blue Process

With the molybdenum blue process (EN 1189) orthophosphate with ammonium molybdate in an acid
medium converts into complex phosphorus molybic
acid. This is subsequently converted using reduction agent into phosphorus molybdenum blue. The
light attenuation brought about by the colouring is
determined photometrically and is a measure for
the orthophosphate concentration. The process
covers the range from 0.01 to 5 mg/l SPO4 and is
therefore particularly suitable for precise measurement with low concentrations. With higher concentrations the process has to be appropriately adjusted (e.g. through dilution of the wastewater sample). The chemicals used are, however, relatively
expensive and are of only limited use.

November 2001

ATV-DVWK-M 206E
5.2.2

Vanadate Molybdate Process

With the vanadate molybdate process (yellow process), orthophosphates react in the acid medium with
ammonium molybdate and ammonium vanadate into
yellow ammonium phosphorus vanado-molybdate.
The light attenuation brought about by the colouring
is determined photometrically and is a measure for
the orthophosphate concentration. Yellow wastewater
content substances influence the measured value.
This effect, as a rule, can be compensated through
special automatic calibration procedures. The process
covers a range from 0.1 to 20 mg/l SPO4. In comparison to the molybdenum blue process the chemicals
are inexpensive and last longer.

5.3

Measurement of Total Phosphorus


(CP)

Total phosphorus measuring equipment, as a rule,


functions in accordance with the molybdenum blue
process, but following previous digestion. Some
equipment also allows the separate determination
of the orthophosphate content.
Digestion, as a rule, takes place through the heating with peroxodisulphate and sulphuric acid (modelled on EN 1189), partially under pressure, in order to shorten the degradation times. A degradation
though UV radiation can only be applied for samples free of solid matter.
The measurement of the total phosphorus content
requires the inclusion of all solid matter in the digestion, as the greatest part of the phosphates are
bonded to solid matter. Therefore it must be guaranteed that an unfiltered sample is analysed. In
addition care is to be taken with sampling and
preparation that a homogenous sample is produced.
The lower limit of the measurement range of total
phosphorus measuring equipment with the molybdenum blue process lies between 0.01 mg/l and
0.1 mg/l P. The upper limit of the measurement
range varies between 5 mg/l and 15 mg/l P.

5.4

Operation and Maintenance

Process analysis equipment for the determination


of phosphorus compounds requires a significantly
higher maintenance expense than normal process
measurement equipment such as, for example, for
temperature or pH-value. Information on the gen-

November 2001

eral equipment requirements, for measures of quality assurance, for maintenance and servicing as
well as the necessary training measures are to be
found in Advisory Leaflet ATV-DVWK-M 269.

Automation Concept
involving Metal Salts
and Sodium Aluminates

6.1

Preamble

Although only the dissolved phosphates can be


determined with precipitation the actual objective is
the observation of the monitoring value for the total
phosphorus concentration in the plant effluent with
the lowest possible costs. With the choice of
whether to integrate in a regulation/control of the
Ptot (CP) or only to record the dissolved orthophosphate compounds (SPO4), the selected measuring site and dosing point as well as the intended
control or regulation strategy are by all means to be
taken into account. More detailed information is
given by Table 1 in the following section. As, with
precipitation, as far as possible phosphate loads
should be taken into account, an integration of the
wastewater flow into the automated concept is fundamentally to be recommended.

6.2

Measuring Sites and Dosing Points

In principle, for regulation and control tasks, various


procedures come into consideration. Fig. 1 reflects
schematically the possible measurement sites and
dosing points in wastewater treatment plants as
well as their suitability for this. The actual arrangement of measurement sites and dosing points is,
inter alia, dependent on:

the local conditions (arrangement of tanks and


pipeline layout),
the selected automation concept (comp. Chap.
6.3),
the process technology (chemical or combined
biological-chemical phosphate removal, precipitation process) and
the precipitant used.

ATV-DVWK-M 206E

Fig. 1:

Measurement sites and dosing points

With pre-precipitation using acidic metal salts or


sodium aluminate, the phosphate or Ptot concentration is measured conveniently in the influent to the
primary settling tank (B). Using this measurement a
regulation of the input of precipitant into the grit
chamber (A) or a control with input into the influent
of the primary settling tank (B) is possible. The
problem of a continuous measurement at this
measurement site corresponds with that in the influent to the biological reactor (comp. Table 1).
With simultaneous precipitation the dosing of
precipitant can take place at various points in the
system. A regulated input into a possibly available
anaerobic stage or into its effluent (E) is basically
not practical as the process of biological phosphate
removal is not finished here and the take up of redissolved phosphate takes place first in the aerated
stage.
Frequently the precipitant is dosed into the return
sludge circuit (C) and the phosphate content measured in the effluent of the aeration tank (F or G).
This process has disadvantages due to the delay
and dead times existing here. In addition there is
only a little phosphate in the return sludge available
for the reaction with the precipitant. The precipitant
is used for the formation of metal hydroxide so that
it has only limited availability for P-removal in the
activated sludge stage. Through this, as a rule, an
overdosing must take place. With input into the in-

fluent of the aeration tank (D) a certain overdosing


must also take place, because the removal through
incorporation of phosphorus into the surplus sludge
has to be estimated. With a measurement in the
effluent to the biological reactor the influence of the
time delay on the regulation behaviour is to be
taken into account. Furthermore attention is to be
paid that the measured value in the effluent of the
biological reactor does not correspond with the actual value in the plant effluent as subsequent influences such as, for example, balancing of concentrations or redissolving events in the downstream
treatment stages (in particular with systems with
biological phosphate removal) are not recorded.
The best control reaction is to be expected if the
precipitant is dosed into the effluent of the aeration
tank or possibly into the last tank of a cascade (F).
Measurement takes place conveniently in the influent to the secondary settling stage (G). With this
variant a particularly careful mixing of the precipitant in the wastewater is to be ensured so that at
the not far removed measuring site the precipitation
reaction is extensively completed. Dosing in the
influent to the secondary settling stage G) has also
shown itself to be favourable. With unfavourable
conditions here, however, only a control can be
realised, measurement then takes place before the
dosing point.

November 2001

ATV-DVWK-M 206E
The dosing into the effluent of the aeration tank (F)
with a measurement in the effluent of the secondary settling stage (H), due to the long retention
time of the wastewater in the secondary settling
tank leads to large dead times. Therefore a rapid
reaction of changes of the P-load, which occurs
particularly with combined wastewater influents, is
impossible.
With a post-precipitation the precipitant dosing
takes place before the downstream stage (H). For
Table 1:

regulation measurement is carried out in the effluent of this stage (I), with control in (H). The flocculation filtration with both concepts can be realised.
In addition to the measuring site the measurement
parameter for the control and regulation tasks is of
particular significance. As an example Table 1
shows an overview of possible combinations of
measurement sites and measurement parameters
with the mainly applied simultaneous precipitation.

Combinations of measurement sites and measurement parameters with simultaneous


precipitation
Measurement
parameter

CP

SPO4

Measurement site
Influent biological reacPossible
The incorporation of P in the surplus sludge is to be
tor
taken into account by estimation. A continuous sampling must take place so that the sample is not influenced by a pre-treatment which, possibly, can lead
to a separation of particularly bonded phosphorus.
This can, however, be guaranteed with difficulty at
this measurement site.
Effluent biological reacImpractical
The phosphate bonded in the sludge flocs but which
tor
is not precipitable is also recorded therefore is not
suitable for inclusion in the regulation of the precipitation.
Effluent secondary
settling stage

Impractical for an inclusion


in the regulation*
The monitoring parameter is recorded completely.
The delay time is, however, too large for an inclusion
in the regulation.

Possible
At this measurement site only 60-75 % of the
phosphorus compounds are already available as
orthophosphate. The phosphate component which
can be removed chemically has to be estimated.
In this case the incorporation of P in the surplus
sludge is also to be taken into account.
Preparation of the sample at this measurement
site can be expensive.
Practical
Direct recording of the precipitable P-component,
through short delay times suitable for inclusion in
the regulation (with suitable dosing site).
Disadvantage: no complete recording of the monitoring parameters.
Impractical
As for the effluent of the biological reactor but,
due to long delay time not suitable for inclusion in
the regulation.

Although an input (proportional regulation) of the precipitant depending on the phosphorus concentration in the effluent of the secondary settling stage
(both SPO4 as well as CP) is not to be recommended, such a measurement can, however, provide information on the effectiveness of the precipitant input and, under certain circumstances, enables an iterative adjustment of the precipitant input. Taking into account the real wastewater flow the regulation of the Ptot concentration in the effluent of the wastewater treatment plant in combination with a subordinate regulation of the PO4-P concentration in
the effluent of the biological reactor (cascade regulation within the sense of control engineering) can increase the certainty of maintaining the monitoring values.

6.3

Control and Regulation Concept for


Phosphate Removal

6.3.1 Control according to Timeplan


With constant precipitant dosing in general a considerable overdosing of precipitant has to be undertaken as otherwise load peaks cannot be covered
with certainty. With regard to the costs of precipitant
and with the higher sludge yield associated with the
input of precipitant, this strategy is not to be recommended for large plants. The quantity of precipitant can already be reduced effectively through the
specification of different day and night dosing quantities.
A further improvement is also possible through the
dosing according to a specified load hydrographic
curve. With hydrograph control one is concerned in
principle with the replacement of a measured quantity with an empirical value. Representative daily

10

November 2001

hydrographs of the phosphate load are determined


through measurements and placed in automation
systems for control. Here, it has shown itself to be
sensible to record hydrographs working days as
well as for both weekends and holidays separately.
Industrial discharges must, under certain circumstances, also be recorded separately. For practical
purposes the hydrographs are determined in the
effluent of the activated sludge stage as, through
this, the influence of the biological phosphorus removal is taken into account.
In principle control according to a hydrograph is,
however, not in a position to react to unforeseen
variations of the phosphate load. As, for example,
the efficiency of the biological phosphorus removal
can also vary, a safety reserve must always be created with this concept through overdosing. The hydrograph should be capable of being amended
simply by operating personnel and thus matched to
the changing requirements.

ATV-DVWK-M 206E

Fig. 2:

Control according to P-load

6.3.2 Control according to P-Load


With this process the product from the wastewater
flow at the site of the P measurement and the
phosphorus concentration for the control of the dosing facility is used (comp. Fig. 2).
The precipitant flow QFM here results as

QPF = k . Q . CP (Eqn. 1)
with:
QPF
k
Q
CP

precipitant flow, e.g. in m3/h


proportionality factor, e.g. in l/mg
wastewater flow at the site of the
measurement of the P-concentration,
e.g. m3/h
= measured phosphorus concentration,
z. B. mg/l

=
=
=

The proportionality factor k (here for example for


precipitant containing iron) is

k = f . . 55.8/30.9. 1/ . 1/mMe (Eqn. 2)


Here the following is taken into account:
f

=
=
=

safety factor
-value, e.g. 1.1 mol Fe/mol P
specific weight of the precipitant
solution, e.g. 1200 kg/m3
= effective metal content, e.g. 87 kg
mMe
Fe/1000 kg precipitant solution
55.8/30.9 = ratio of the mol masses of iron and
phosphorus
The safety factor f is to be set according to operating experience and normally lies between 1.0 and
1.5.
This concept can be realised with simultaneous
precipitation basically in two process engineering
variants (comp. Fig. 1):

Variant a: Measurement site for CP and dosing


point in the influent to the aeration tank
(D)
Variant b: Measurement site for SPO4 and dosing
point in the effluent of the aeration tank
(F or G)
With Variant a the proportionality factor k must also
take into account the estimated incorporation of
phosphorus in the surplus sludge. The concept
therefore contains a large uncertainty which has to
be balanced through higher precipitant dosing.
With Variant b the biological P-removal - both
planned and unplanned is completed and therefore no longer requires to be taken into account in
the proportionality factor. Using this concept
changes of the phosphorus concentration can be
reacted to very rapidly and accurately.
The load-controlled dosing can be applied particularly where other concepts, for example due to
large delay and dead times or control engineering
unfavourable arrangement of the reactors, cannot
be applied. With this process, however, no direct
control of the effectiveness of the precipitation is
possible.

6.3.3 Control according to Wastewater


Flow
The control of the precipitant dosing according to
the wastewater flow is a simplified variant in comparison with control of the P load. This concept is
suitable when the P-concentrations in the influent
vary only slightly. With combined wastewater flows,
which cause a reduction of the P-concentration,
such a procedure, however, leads to a significant
overdosing.

November 2001

11

ATV-DVWK-M 206E

Fig. 3:

Control according to wastewater flow

Fig. 3 shows a typical characteristic curve for the


control of the precipitant dosing according to the
wastewater flow. With the undercutting of the value
b) for the quantity of wastewater the proportionality
factor k between wastewater flow and precipitant no
longer applies, rather the dosing remains at a constant level. With a long-term undercutting of a limiting
quantity of water c), which is to be determined empirically, a dosing of precipitant can possibly be dispensed with. If the wastewater flow exceeds the
restart limit d), the dosing of precipitant is restarted.
If the limiting quantity of water c), with the lowering of the water flow, is not achieved or is undercut,
the dosing of precipitant remains up to the
achievement of the value b) at a constant level.
The selection of the limiting value must be in such a
way that stable dosing conditions are set, that
means no too frequent changing between switching
in and out. In particular it must be checked in normal plant operation whether the restart limit d) can
be set smaller or larger than b).

In smaller and more medium sized plants this strategy, an effective and economic application of precipitant can be realised without additional technical
measuring expense.

6.3.4 Regulation of SPO4


The most favourable solution for technical regulation is an addition of precipitant into the effluent or
the outlet area of the aeration tank, whereby the
dosing of the precipitant is undertaken dependent
on the orthophosphate concentration. Through a
locking in of the wastewater flow (or the load) this
regulation can be improved further. In both cases a
continuous measuring of the SPO4 is necessary
which, with thorough mixing, can take place several
metres, otherwise up to 20 m or more behind the
dosing point.

November 2001

12

ATV-DVWK-M 206E

Fig. 4:

Control of the orthophosphate concentration

In order to guarantee the maintenance of the monitoring value for the phosphate concentration (CP) in
the effluent of the wastewater treatment plant the
design value for SPO4 at the measuring site must be
smaller than the monitoring value. That is necessary in order to take into account the P-load which
is contained in the residual suspended matter
which is contained in the effluent. The Pconcentration, which is contained in the solid matter, results from the percentage by mass of the
phosphorus of filterable solids and their concentration in the effluent of the plant:
CP,Part =

mP,SS CXSS

SPO4,des
with:
SPO4,des
CP,MV
CP,Part
F

= CP,MV CP,Part F

(Eqn. 4)

= orthophosphate design value in mg/l


= monitoring value for the Ptot concentration in the effluent in mg/l
= P-concentration through negative lift
in mg/l
= increased factor of safety as empirical
value in mg/l

Fig. 4 shows the regulation concept for simple


regulation of the phosphate concentration.

(Eqn. 3)

with:
CP,Part = P-concentration due to residual suspended (in mg/l)
mP,SS = P-contents of dry matter in the sludge (in
mg P/g SS). This value is normally
25 35 mg P/g SS
CXSS = concentration of the filterable solids
(in g/l)
Furthermore an increased factor of safety F to
take into account the resolution effects in the
downstream treatment stages of non-precipitable
phosphate compounds as well as uncertainties in
measurement of the process analysis equipment is
required which, on the basis of operational experience, is to be set at about 0.2 mg/l SPO4.
Thus there results as PO4-P design value for the
regulation of the P-dosing a concentration SPO4,Spec
of:

The quality of regulation can be improved still further through the locking in of the wastewater flow
as influence quantity (comp. Fig. 5). This is particularly interesting with plants with combined biologicalchemical phosphate removal. Here, with hydraulic peaks, resolved phosphate is often displaced in surges from the anaerobic zone into the
aerobic zone. With too short retention times for an
extensive take up of phosphate or with short-circuit
flow, the phosphate concentration in the effluent of
the activated sludge stage can increase very rapidly. This effect can be countered through a disturbance variable compensation depending on the
quantity of water as this affects a timely increase of
the dosing quantity. Attention is to be paid that the
locking in of influencing quantities is so arranged
that, following the start up of a combined wastewater inflow, it remains effective for a certain time
only.

November 2001

13

ATV-DVWK-M 206E

Fig. 5:

Control of the PO4-P concentration with locking in of the influencing quantity of the
wastewater flow

6.3.5 Other Control Concepts

6.3.6 Substitutional Value Strategies

The control concepts described can be expanded or


combined taking into account the existing process
technical conditions in the practical case. For example the regulation of the PO4-P concentration with a
locking in of the wastewater flow shown as an example in Fig.5 can be so expanded that, in accordance with the model of Fig. 2, not the wastewater
flow but rather the P-load is locked in as influencing
quantity. Furthermore it can be practical or necessary to carry out the locking in not as a static locking
in but rather that this is done via dynamic elements,
for example as moderating locking in (comp. Section 6.3.4).

The above presented automated concepts assume that the actual phosphorus concentrations present are available reliably and as far as
possible continuously as measured values. In
order that a failure of the measurement signal,
for example during a calibration or with an
equipment fault is not associated with negative
consequences for the process control, substitutional values must therefore be secured for the
automation which, in place of the real process
values, ensure emergency operation. Furthermore, it is to be defined when the measured
value is to be considered as faulty and, instead
of this, a substitute value is to be applied.

In individual cases so-called knowledge based


regulation systems are also employed of which
fuzzy controls have achieved the highest degree of
familiarity. With these approaches, control is defined
in the form of verbally formulated, blurred rules. Assuming a clear number of these rules, control solutions result which are characterised in general
through transparency and good reproducibility. The
necessary process knowledge for the design of such
control systems corresponds with that for the design
of the simple conventional control and regulation
described in Sections 6.3.1 to 6.3.4. The dynamic
systems behaviour of a fuzzy control system can be
interpreted as non-linear characteristic diagram. Due
to the few plants managed by this type of regulation
a detailed handling of this area is not included in the
scope of this Advisory Leaflet.

Within the scope of the substitute value strategy it is determined which of the following
processes are to be applied for the creation of
substitute values:

declaration of a fixed value as default


value,
specification of characteristic curves,
adoption of measured values from a train
operated in parallel,
employment of the last undisturbed value
with or without extrapolation in time,
employment of auxiliary parameters.

The following can be viewed as criteria for a


measured value fault with the activation of a
substitute value strategy:

November 2001

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ATV-DVWK-M 206E

fore place particular requirements on the dosing


facilities.

so called live zero monitoring of the 4 20


mA signal of the measuring transducer,
status report (self-monitoring) of the analysis
equipment,
deviation from the plausible range of measured
values through monitoring of the upper and
lower boundary values,
operation of a maintenance switch with calibration procedures.

Storage and Dosing


Technology

7.1

General

The precipitants containing iron and aluminium


as well as milk of lime are classified as weak
water hazarding substances (WHC 1). The facilities for the storage and dosing of chemicals
are to be established and operated in accordance with the requirements of the respective
[German] Federal State (e.g. Ordnance on the
Handling of Water Hazarding Substances and
on Specialist Operation [In Germany = VAwS]).
The aqueous solution of acidic precipitants
based on iron and aluminium salts is, as a result of the low pH-value and the high salt concentration, extremely corrosive. All parts in contact with the solution must therefore be made
resistant to acid, for example covered in plastic
or with a suitable coating. With the employment
of GRP, attention should be paid that the plastic
coating is acid- and alkali-resistant, in order that
acidic or alkaline precipitants can be stored as
desired.

Common precipitants are summarised with their important physical and chemical data in Table 2. Solubility, density and viscosity depend strongly on the
temperature and the substance contents and thereTable 2:

Physical and chemical data on the most common precipitants


Product supplied

Precipitant (main component))

Examples for normal solution

Typical form of delivery

WHC

Percentage by
Prec

Active
subst.

Density or
bulk density
3

Viscosity

Operating
temperature

Iron(III) chloride
Iron(II) chloride
Iron(III) chloridesulphate
Iron(II) sulphate

FeCl3
FeCl2
FeClSO4

Solution (32-42 %)
Solution (20 30 %)
Solution (ca. 40 %)

1
1
1

%
40
20
41

%
13.8
8.7
12.3

g/cm
1.43 (20 C)
1.36
1.52

mPa y s
10 (20 C)
3 (20 C)
42 (15 C)

C
> - 12
> - 15
> - 10

FeSO4 . 7H2O

3 (20 C)

>-2

AlCl3

30

17.8
19.6
6

1.2 (20 C)

Aluminium chloride
Polyaluminium
chloride
Aluminium
sulphate
Sodium aluminate

Crystalline bulk material


Solution (30-40 %)

1.3 (20 C)

10 (20 C)

> - 20

Al(OH)3-xClx

Solution (5-10 %)

5.9 7.5

1.3

10 (20 C)

> -15

Al2(SO4)3

Solution

24

1.27

10 (20 C)

> -15

NaAl(OH)4

Solution (5-12 %)

7.3 11

1.3 (20 C)

20 (20 C) * to
200 ** (20 C)

> - 20

White fine lime


CaO
White lime hy- Ca(OH)2
drate
Milk of lime
Ca(OH)2
*
**
***, ****

Powder
Powder

1
1

0.8 1.0
0.4

Suspension
(20-40 %)

20

1.1 (20 C)

> 200 (20 C)


**
100-150 ***
800-1200 ****

>0

5 % Al content
11 % Al content
10 % solution; different values through different grain size distribution

Table 3 contains information on the resistance of various material compared with aqueous solutions of
the precipitant.

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ATV-DVWK-M 206E
Tab. 3: Resistance of various materials to aqueous solutions of precipitants at 20 C (1 = good
resistance, 2 = limited resistance, 3 = non-resistant)
Material:
Aqueous solution of:
Iron(II) chloride
Iron(III) chloride
Iron(III) chloride-sulphate
Iron(II) sulphate
Sodium aluminate
Aluminium chloride
Aluminium sulphate
Aluminium hydroxide chloride
Milk of lime
*
**

St 35,
St 37

1.4301
(V2A)

1.4571
(V4A)

GCI*,
NGI**

Titanium

PVCU

HD
PE

GRP

3
3
3
3
1
3
3
3
1

3
3
3
2
1
3
2
2
1

3
3
2
1
1
2
1
2
1

3
3
3
3
1
3
3
3
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1

GCI = grey cast iron


NGI = nodular graphite iron

Precipitants based on iron and aluminium salts and


sodium aluminate are yielded as by-product in the
metal and chemical industries. They can contain
residues and foreign material which complicate the
employment in wastewater treatment. Type and
share of these substances as well as the observation of the permitted limiting values are to be given
or guaranteed by the producer. Maximum values
are, inter alia, contained in ATV-A 202E.
Pour able precipitants tend, with longer storage to
material compacting and hardening (bridge building). Therefore special measures for storage are
necessary in particular with hygroscopic products.
(see Chap. 7.3.3).
Sodium aluminates are as a rule also not stable for
longer than six months. Here precipitation and
hardening can take place.

7.2

Dosing Facilities

The dosing facilities and the pipelines associated


with these must satisfy the requirements of the
VAwS. Also with regard to the material used the
same requirements are to be applied as for facilities
for disposal (so-called produce treat use plants
[in German: HBV plants: Herstellen Behandeln Verwenden]) and for warehousing (so-called store fill
tranship plants [in German: LAU plants: Lagern
Abfllen Umschlagen] ).
As the dosing facility functions as final control element its delivery range is to be agreed with the required delivery performance in the actual and design condition (expansion status). A too high dosing
performance is frequently applied, whereby the
dosing accuracy in the lower operation range is
affected adversely or too high quantities of precipitant are always applied. The highest dosing
performance per hour should therefore be no more

16

November 2001

than 15 % of the daily performance. In case the


pump is dimensioned too large an intermittent dosing can in emergency further reduce the consumption of precipitant. Exceptions here are formed by
plants with deliberate biological phosphate removal.
Here, if required, even a separate pump to cover
peak loads can be practical.
The precipitants in general are dosed through dosing pumps or under gravity, e.g. from a levelling
bulb, through a fitting. With plants with several dosing points it is recommended to carry out dosing
from a ring circuit in order to ensure an even distribution and to avoid incrustation. Ring circuits
should also be employed with suspensions which
tend towards depositing. As dosing pumps mainly
reciprocating and rotary pumps are used, such as
diaphragm pumps, piston diaphragm pumps and
eccentric screw pumps as well as, less often, hose
pumps. Due to their form reciprocating and rotary
pumps maintain with higher accuracy the dosing
quantities (design values) specified by the control
or regulation facility. For circulation mainly centrifugal and eccentric screw pumps are employed.
Connections for flushing, air removal and emptying
are to be supplied in sufficient numbers for running
up and running down. They should be installed at
points where depositing and precipitation takes
place.
Externally laid pipelines are to be insulated and
equipped with concomitant heating. With frost-free
laying in the ground this can be dispensed with.
They are basically to be produced as pipe-in-pipe
systems which have a gradient to a visible outlet or
manhole. They are to be checked before commissioning and subsequently according to the provisions of the applicable VawS.
The output with reciprocating and rotary pumps,
depending on the system, is influenced by the

ATV-DVWK-M 206E
number of revolutions per minute, piston stroke or
number strokes per minute, with eccentric screw
pumps by the revolutions per minute, with shut-off
devices by the duration of the opening time and
with regulator devices by the degree of opening.
The dosing and circulation pumps should as far as
possible be set up in the vicinity of the storage
tanks, in order to keep the suction lines short. Fundamentally the suction line should be a nominal
width larger than the pressure line. With piston and
piston diaphragm pumps operating behaviour is
improved by pulsation dampers.
With dosing using pumps care is to be taken to
provide a sufficient back pressure on the delivery
side. With several dosing points and different delivery heads the pressure drop is to be taken into account. Therefore appropriate measures, such as
pressuriser valves or separate dosing pumps, are
to be planned. For the layout it is to be noted that
the performance data of the dosing facilities are

Fig. 6:

related to clean water, but precipitants have a


higher viscosity and density. In particular, the different viscosity of the precipitant depending on
temperature and metal content is often not taken
into account. The high - in comparison with iron
salts viscosity of sodium aluminate with higher Al
contents (ca. 10 %) and low precipitant temperatures is to be noted particularly in this case.

7.3

Storage and Dosing

7.3.1 Liquid Precipitants


The necessary equipping of a plant for the storage
and dosing of liquid precipitant is shown in Fig. 6.
Here the storage tank (1) is represented with double walls. Single-wall tanks are to be placed in collecting troughs without outlet which have the same
capacity.

Storage and dosing station for liquid precipitants

November 2001

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ATV-DVWK-M 206E
The following details are pointed out:

start-up facilities (10,14), which can be replaced by a filling connection for process water
as an alternative (17).
flap trap with strainer basket (16).
overflow valve (22) for the security of the pump
membrane and the pressure side pipeline system.
the delivery flow can be determined using suspended solid particle flowmeters or MIF (24).
with larger plants the continuous registration of
the precipitant flow using MIF is sensible for
operating reasons. At least one container
should be firmly installed for the gauging of capacity in litres in order thus to be able to check
the dosing simply at certain time intervals.
leakage monitoring (29), which indicates leaks
in the dosing station and the pipeline system
and which possibly automatically activates a

Fig. 7:

18

ventilation valve on the suction line in order to


avoid a siphoning of the tank.
expansion fittings are to be provided for the
maintenance intensive systems.
in order to avoid overfilling with certainty, a
second, independent measuring systems (digital limit selector) should be installed.
with a change of precipitant the system in
particular the tank is to be washed out carefully as precipitant residues can react with the
new product (precipitation). Furthermore the
plant must be approved for the new precipitant.

7.3.2 Non-Pourable Precipitants


Fig. 7 shows the system setup of a facility for the
dosing of iron(II) sulphate, in which the installations
for storage, dissolving of the salts and the storage
of the solution (1) are combined in one structural
unit.

Storage and dosing station for non-pourable precipitants

November 2001

ATV-DVWK-M 206E
Attention is drawn particularly to the following:

7.3.3 Pourable Precipitants

Fig. 8 shows the necessary equipping for the storage, preparation and dosing of milk of lime as lime
hydrate. In general lime hydrate is delivered in silo
vehicles and transferred into the storage silo (6).
The delivery of precipitant is supported pneumatically via air cushions (5). The blower (2) should, as
far as possible, be mounted directly on the silo. An
automatic monitoring of the cleaning intervals and a
monitoring of the pressure difference of the exhaust
air filters (12) is recommended. The filling level is
monitored using mechanical detectors (7, 8), for
example rotating blades, pivoting forks, or monitored via the silo weight through continuous measurement equipment (15), for example: pressure
pickup. Cellular wheel sluices prevent the shooting of the silo content material and serves as initial
distributors for the downstream spiral conveyer (14)
or container scales. The material is transported via
the spiral conveyor (14) by charge into the batching
and storage tanks (16). The addition of dilution water (13) is controlled via the filling level (19). Normally the silo material, as no high demands have
for accuracy have to be placed on the mass flow, is
added via metering screws proportional to volume.
By means of special structural design, for example
as hollow screw, opposed double-lead screws or as
metering screw with superimposed rotational and
axial movement, a self-cleaning effect is achieved
and encrustation prevented.

it is recommended that the cover of the filling


opening (6) is equipped with load-relieving
weights or springs for easy handling. As faulty
filling cannot be avoided the tank should be
provided with openings, safeguarded by sieves
(5) for the introduction of flushing water. With
the planning of the structure and the access
routes attention is to be paid that vehicles can
approach and dump their cargo without problem.
in order to avoid a spilling of crystalline salt during filling, the dissolving bunker must be extensively emptied before charging (19).
the consumption of precipitant solution is completed automatically through the addition of solution water (7).
dosing takes place in Fig. 7 from the levelling
tank (11). Attention is to be paid to the careful
retention of undissolved salt in the dissolving
chamber.
for improved dissolving it is expedient to pump
over the solution (17, 18).

In addition the last five bullet points in Section 7.3.1


are to be taken into account.

November 2001

19

ATV-DVWK-M 206E

Fig. 8:

Storage and dosing station for pourable precipitants

The milk of lime is dosed, from the storage tank,


from a ring circuit (23), for example via rubber pinch
valves (24).
The dosing of milk of lime, in addition, sets special
requirements:

concentration of the suspension: 5-10 %,


maximum 15 %.
with several dosing points as well as with long
transport paths it is practical to dose from a ring
circuit. The suspension is pumped around this
in order to avoid sedimentation.
ring circuits and dosing pipelines are for practical purposes made from fabric reinforced plastic hose ( > 1, radius of curvature > 5 times
). Baffles and changes of cross-section are to
be avoided; flow rate > 1.5 m/s.
dosing pipeline outlets from the ring circuit may
branch upwards only in order to avoid sedimentation of the milk of lime.
rubber pinch valves have proved to be
successful as dosing fixtures.

dosing lines, as far as possible, should discharge below the water level.
ring circuits should always be filled, when idle
with water. Longer pipelines should be flushed
with water on completion of dosing.
connections for the acidulation of the pipeline
system are to be provided.

In addition the requirements from the last three bullet points in Section 7.3.1 are to be considered
analogously.
Below some peculiarities with pourable precipitants
are additionally pointed out:

with the storage of pourable iron(II) sulphate


and iron(III) chloride it is necessary to protect
the silos from the sun as the products upwards
from ca. 40 C tend to form lumps.
with hygroscopic precipitants the exit opening
of the dry material screw conveyor (14), the
screw mouth, is particularly sensitive to backing-up, as the moist air rising from the solution
tank below condenses here. In this case an asNovember 2001

20

ATV-DVWK-M 206E
sociated heating and an automatic gate valve
below the screw outlet opening should be provided. However, basically, the screw mouth
should be easily accessible in order to be able
to carry out possible necessary cleaning tasks.

7.4

Measurement of the Precipitation


Concentration

The density and concentration of the precipitant are


linearly dependent on each other. Thus the density
can be used in order to determine the salt content
of the precipitant solution. This can take place
manually discontinuously by means of spindle
measurement according to Beaum, continuously
using a differential pressure measurement or a using a mass flowmeter in accordance with the Coriolis principle. The concentration of the working substance is to be taken from the data sheet of the respective supplier.

7.5

P-Removal by Raising the pH-Value

With a precipitation using hydrated lime, the dosing


system must be so designed that, despite variations of the flow of wastewater, the desired pH
value can be maintained at +/- 0.1 pH precisely, as
the pH value to be maintained in the effluent lies
very close to the operating point of simultaneous
precipitation (pH = 8.6 9.0).
Gel electrodes with short reaction times have
shown themselves to be suitable for pH measurement. The manufacturers offer electrodes which are
especially suitable for the dosing of milk of lime
(e.g. electrodes with Teflon diaphragms). The electrode brackets should have large flow openings so
that they cannot clog. In addition they must be
mounted in such a way that the electrodes are easily accessible for maintenance and can be wetted at
every water level. In addition, it is an advantage for
regular mechanical cleaning to employ an automatic electrode cleaner with which the electrode(s)
can be washed or acidated at short intervals. The
acid flushing facility must be designed in such a
way that no tangles can form on the spray elements. Systems which clean the electrodes in a
separate tank can be an advantage here. During
cleaning the control facility (automatic) must be interrupted and the last dosed quantity of lime kept
constant until the pH electrode is again ready for
operation.
It is recommended that, in addition to the control
electrode an additional further electrode is applied
for the monitoring of the system.

Economic Efficiency

The economic efficiency of the measures for the


automation of chemical phosphate removal is to be
checked carefully in every case. As a rule, savings
with the required quantity of precipitant as well as
with sludge treatment and disposal counter the expenditure for measurement and control technology.
Advantageous, but barely appraisable, is the stable
maintenance of the monitoring value.
Already the installation of simple controls (input of
precipitant dependent on specified characteristic
curves or dependent on flow of wastewater) is
worthwhile even for smaller plants. Upwards from a
certain design capacity the employment of process
analysis equipment in combination with the previously described regulation and control concepts is,
however, more economic.
The total system of the measurement system is
always to be considered for the assessment of the
costs. In addition to investment costs for the analyst, a possible necessary space for the accommodation of the system, the pre-treatment of samples
and the continuous transfer of samples, in particular also the running costs for reagents, replacement
parts and expendable items, servicing and maintenance and other incidentals are to be included
(comp. ATV-DVWK M-269). To be added to these
are the costs for automation.
Cost considerations according to the Cost Comparison Calculation (KVR) Directive of the LAWA
[German Federal State Working Group Water]
show that the employment of process analysis
equipment, depending on local conditions, as a rule
is economical upwards from a connection capacity
of some 40,000 PT. Frequently such equipment is
already present for other reasons (e.g. monitoring
of documentation and operation). Then it is possible to combine these also into the regulation and
control concept, if necessary the equipment for this
can be transferred to suitable positions (comp.
Chapter 6).
The economic efficiency of process control with
solely chemical P-removal is substantially dependent on the variations of the P-concentration at the
dosing point. Thus, with relatively constant Pconcentration, only a limited amount of precipitant
can be saved and the precipitation sludge yield reduced. If the chemical P-removal is employed to
supplement biological P-removal, although the Pconcentrations at the dosing point in the outflow of
the biological stage overall are significantly smaller
than without biological P-removal, the variations in

November 2001

21

ATV-DVWK-M 206E
concentration can, in certain cases, be large due
the varying process behaviour of the biological Premoval. Here, through process control, there is the
possibility of stabilising the biological P-removal
through prevention of a large input of precipitant
and thus indirectly reduction of the requirement for
precipitant and the sludge yield.
Furthermore, it is pointed out that an adaption of
the storage and dosing facilities also contributes to
the economical efficiency of phosphate removal. In
particular with very small plants it is not practical to
install very large storage tanks as here, with complete filling, the precipitant has to be stored too
long. This is to be noted particularly with sodium
aluminate and pourable precipitants. Although
higher costs result with smaller storage tanks and
smaller delivery quantities, the investment costs of
smaller tanks are lower and the operation simpler.

Ordinances, Standard
Specifications and
Standards
[Translators note: References available in English are
shown as such. For those references with no known official translation a courtesy translation is provided in
square brackets]

EN 879
EN 881

EN 882
EN 883

EN 887
EN 888
EN 889
EN 890

22

Aluminium sulphate, iron-free, for


treatment of water intended for
human consumption: 1992
Aluminium chloride, aluminium
hydroxide chloride and aluminium
hydroxide
chloride
sulphate
(monomer), for treatment of water
intended for human consumption:
1997
Sodium aluminate, for treatment
of water intended for human consumption: 1997
Polyaluminium chloride hydroxide
and chloride hydroxide sulphate,
for treatment of water intended
for human consumption: 1997
Aluminium iron sulphate, for
treatment of water intended for
human consumption: 1992
Iron(III) chloride, for treatment of
water intended for human consumption: 1998
Iron(II) sulphate, for treatment of
water intended for human consumption: 1998
Iron(III) sulphate, for treatment of
water intended for human consumption: 1998

November 2001

EN 891
EN 935

EN 1189

EN 12255-13
DIN 19 611

DVGW W 622

Iron(III) chloride sulphate, for


treatment of water intended for
human consumption: 1998
Aluminium iron chloride and aluminium iron hydroxide chloride
(monomer), for treatment of water
intended for human consumption:
1992
Water quality determination of
phosphorus by the ammonium
molybdate spectrometric method:
1996
Wastewater treatment plants,
Part 13: Wastewater treatment
through addition of chemicals
Weikalk zur Wasseraufbereitung
Technische Lieferbedingungen
[White lime for the processing of
water Technical delivery conditions], Issue 1983-04
Dosieranlagen fr Flockungsmittel und Flockungshilfsmittel
[Dosing facilities for flocculants
agents and flocculation aids.

ATV-DVWK-A 131E
Dimensioning of Single-Stage Activated Sludge
Plants, (2000)
ATV-A 202
Verfahren zur Elimination von Phosphor aus Abwasser [Processes for the Removal of Phosphorus
from Wastewater] (1992)
ATV-DVWK-M 269
Prozessanalysengerte zur Bestimmung von N, P
und C in Abwasseranlagen
[Process Analysis Equipment for the Determination
of N, P and C in Wastewater Systems] (2000)
KVR-Richtlinie [CCC Directive]
Leitlinie zur Durchfhrung dynamischer Kostenvergleichsrechnungen
[Guideline for the carrying out of dynamic cost
comparison calculations], Publ.: LAWA, Kulturbuchverlag Berlin GmbH, ISBN 3-88961-228-8
NN
Verordnung ber Anlagen zum Umgang mit
wassergefhrdenden Stoffen und ber Fachbetriebe (VAwS), lnderspezifisch
[German Ordinance for plants on the handling of
water-hazardous substances and on specialist operation (VAwS), specific for each German Federal
State]
NN
Herstellung, Lagerung und Dosierung von Kalkprodukten
[Production, storage and dosing of lime products];

ATV-DVWK-M 206E
Bundesverband der Deutschen Kalkindustrie e.V.,
Kln (1992), pH-gesteuerte Dosierung von Kalkmilch zur simultanen Phosphorelimination auf
Klranlagen
[pH controlled dosing of milk of lime for simultaneous phosphorus removal in wastewater treatment
plants]

NN
Herstellung und Dosierung von Kalkmilch
[Production and dosing of milk of lime]; Bundesverband der Deutschen Kalkindustrie e.V., Kln (1986)

November 2001

23