Organisational Behavior

Assignment I Submitted to Ms Asma Shahid By Sohail khan (0811264)

Five ways in which organizations can motivate employees
1. Employee recognition programs These consist of wide spectrum of activities they range from a spontaneous and private thank you on up to widely publicized formal programs in which specific types of behavior are encouraged and the procedures for attaining recognition are clearly identified Example naming a conference room or office or training room after the name of the most outstanding employee of the year the naming is done ceremoniously and family of the employee is invited. other methods of recognizing employee are by giving gift certificates and cash rewards. 2. Employee involvement programs Involving employees in decisions that affect them and by increasing their autonomy and control over their work lives ,employees will become more motivated more committed to the organization ,more productive and more satisfied with there jobs. Examples participative management subordinate share a significant degree of decision making power with their immediate superiors. Representative participation workers participate in organizational decision making through a small group of representative employees, Quality circles work group of employees a work group of employees who sit regularly to discuss there quality problems, investigate causes ,recommend solutions and take corrective actions. 3. Job redesign and scheduling programs The ways to reshape the job to make them more motivating Job rotation periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another usually at the same level that has similar skill requirements Job enlargement increasing the number and variety of tasks that an individual performs results in job with more diversity. Job enrichment the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of his or her work. The three popular scheduling options flex time flexible work hours example all employees are required to be at their jobs during common core period but they are allowed to accumulate their other two hours before and after core time. Job sharing an arrangement that allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 48 hour week .telecommuting refers to employees who do their work at home at least two days a week on a computer that is linked to their office. 4. Skill based pay plans Pay levels are based on how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do it leads to higher employee performance, satisfaction, and perception of fairness in pay systems. 5. Flexible benefits Allow employees to pick benefit that most meet their needs. Thus each employee choose a benefit package that is individually tailored to meet his or her need. e.g modular plans, core plus & flexible.


Linking recognition programs and reinforcement theory

Rewarding a behavior with recognition immediately following that behavior is likely to encourage that its repetition, recognition can take many forms you can personally congratulate the employee in private for a good job. You can send a handwritten note or e-mail message acknowledging something positive that the employee has done.


Linking employee Involvement programs and motivation theories

To make and implement situations Theory Y is consistent with participative management while theory X aligns with more traditional autocratic style of managing people. In terms of Two-factor theory employee involvement programs could provide employees with intrinsic motivation by increasing opportunities for growth, responsibility, and involvement in the work itself. Similarly the opportunity to make and implement decisions, and then seeing them work out can help satisfy employee’s need for responsibility, achievement, recognition, growth, and enhanced self esteem. So employee involvement is compatible with ERG theory and efforts to stimulate the achievement need .

3. Linking job redesign and scheduling to motivation theories
The enrichment of jobs can can also be traced to two factor theory, by increasing the intrinsic factors in a job such as achievement,responsibility and growth employees are more likely to be satisfied with the job and motivated to perform it. A common theme among the scheduling options of flextime, job sharing, and telecommuting is flexibiliy,each gives employees greater dicretion over when to come to work how much time is spent at work or where the work is done.expectancy theory indirectly addresses flexibility in the importance placed on linking rewards to personal goals.with todays employees increasingly concerned about conflicting demands from work and personal responsibilities, a flexible work schedule is likely to be perceived as a deirable reward that can help achieve a better work/life balance.

4. Linking skill based pay plans to motivation theories
Skill based pay plans is cosistent with ERG theory employees whose lower order needs are subtantially satisfied , the opportunity to experience growth can be a motivator. There is also link between Reinforcement theory and skilled based pay ,skill based pay encourage employees to develop there flexibility ,to continue to learn ,to cross train to be generalists rather then specialists and to work cooperatively with others in organisation.To the degree the management wants employees to demonstrate such behaviors, skill based pay should act as a reinforcer. In addition skill based pay may have equity implications when employees make their input-outcome comparisons ,skill may provide a fairer input criterion for determinig pay then factors such as seniority and education,the use of skill based pay may help optimise employee motivation.

5. Linking flexible benefits and Expectancy theory
Giving all employees the same benefits assumes that all employees have the same needs . of course we know this assumpyion is false , thus flexible benefits turn benefit expenditure into a motivator. Consistent with expectancy theory that organisational rewards should be linked to each employees individual goals.