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AQA Mathematics

5361 and 6361

Core 1
Syllabus
&
Past Paper questions

You may not use any calculator


in this module

Straight lines:

The equation of a straight line in 'gradient intercept' form is: y mx c


Other forms are y y1 m( x x1 ) and ax by c 0

A line segment joining ( x1 , y1 ) and ( x2 , y2 ) has mid point


and gradient m

x1 x2 y1 y2
,
2
2

y2 y1
x2 x1

Lines which are parallel have the same value for m.

One line is said to be 'normal' to another if it is at right angles to it.


1
If the gradient of one line is m then the normal will have gradient .
m
1
m
= 1 so if the product of two gradients is -1, the two lines
m
must be perpendicular.

A line passing through (a, b) with gradient m has equation


which rearranges to y b m( x a )

yb
m
xa

1. The straight line L passes through the point (3, 2) and is perpendicular to the
line x + 2y + 1 = 0.
Find the equation of L, giving your answer in the form y = mx + c.
LON 98 (3 marks)

2. The points P, Q, R have coordinates (3, 1), (2, 5), (8, 3) respectively. Find the
equation of the straight line joining P to the mid-point of QR.
LON 96 (3 marks)

3. The coordinates of the points P and Q are (2, 11) and (4, 3) respectively.
Calculate the length of PQ and write down the coordinates of the midpoint of PQ.
LON 99 (4 marks)

4.
y
C

The diagram, not drawn to scale, shows a


trapezium OABC with OA parallel to CB.

Given that B is the point (4, 3), C is the


point (0, 2) and the diagonal CA is parallel to
the x-axis, calculate the coordinates of A.
0

LON 96 (4 marks)

5. (a)

A straight line l has equation x + 3y = 14. Find the gradient of l.

(b)

The point A (a, 2a) lies on l. Find the value of a.

(c)

Using this value for a, find the equation of the straight line that passes through
A and is perpendicular to l. Give your answer in the form y = mx + c.
LON 97 (6 marks)

6.

The curve y =

x 2 1 and the line 2y = x + 10

intersect at the points A and B, and O is the


origin.

1
4

Calculate the coordinates of A and B, and hence


show that OA and OB are perpendicular.

LON 97 (6 marks)

7. The straight line l passes through A (1, 3 3 ) and B ( 2 3 , 3 4 3 ).


(a)

Calculate the gradient of l giving your answer as a surd in its simplest form.

(b)

Give the equation of l in the form y mx c , where constants m and c


are surds to be given in their simplest form.

(c)

Show that l meets the x-axis at the point C (2, 0).

(d)

Calculate the length of AC.


EDEXC 96 (10 marks)

8. The points A and B have coordinates (2, 16) and (12, 4) respectively.
A straight line l1 passes through A and B.
(a)

Find an equation for l1 in the form ax by c .

The line l2 passes through the point C with coordinates (1, 1) and has gradient
(b)

1
.
3

Find an equation for l2.

The lines l1 and l2 intersect at the point D. The point O is the origin.
(c)

Find the length OD, giving your answer in the form m 5 , where m is
an integer.
EDEXC 2000 (11 marks)

Surds:

ab

p2q =

a b and

b
eg

p2 q = p q

a
b
8 =

4 2 = 2 2

(a b )(a b ) a 2 b , a rational number.


p
a b

p (a b )
(a b )(a b )

p (a b )
a2 b

This is called
'rationalising the
denominator'.

1. Simplify:
(a)

2(5 2)

(b)

48

(c) (3 6 5) 2

(d) ( p 1)( p 1)

2. Rationalise the denominators and simplify:


1
7
5 3
(a)
(b)
(c)
5
3 2 5
2 3
3. Express

5
in the form k 7 where k is a rational number.
7

LON 97 (2 marks)

4. Express ( 2 3 + 3 2 )2 in the form a + b c , stating the values of the integers


a, b and c.
LON 97 (2 marks)
5. Evaluate 3 45 6. Given that p =

20 +

3 and q =

245 , giving your answer in terms of

5.

1
= p + q.
pq

2 prove that

Quadratics:

2
Polynomial form: y ax bx c
c gives the intercept with the y- axis.
If a is negative the graph is shaped
2
Completed square form: y a ( x p ) q
The vertex is at (p, q).
The graph has a line of symmetry at x = p

y
c

Factorised form: y a ( x x)( )


and are the zeros of the graph
and the roots of the equation a ( x x)( ) 0
ax 2 bx c 0

x=

( p, q)

b b 2 4ac
2a

b2 4ac < 0 no real roots


b2 4ac = 0 equal roots
b2 4ac > 0 two distinct roots

b2 4ac is called the


discriminant.

p
If the graph of y = x2 is translated through , the equation of the
q
f(x)
2
new graph is y ( x p) q .

1. A sketch graph of the quadratic function


3

x
x

f(x) = x2 + 2x 3 is shown.
(a)

Write down the coordinates of the point


labelled A.

(b)

Factorise f(x). Write down the


coordinates of the points labelled B and C.

(c)

Write f(x) in completed squares form.


State the smallest possible value of f(x).

SMP 90 (8 marks)

2. (a)

Express x2 + 6x 7

(i) in completed square form


(ii) in factorised form

(b)

Sketch the graph of y = x2 + 6x 7.

(c)

Write down the equation of the line of symmetry of the graph.

3. The graph of a(x b)2 + c passes through the point (8, 19) and has (5, 10) as its
minimum point. Find a, b and c.
4. A function

f(x) = (x + a)2 + b

has zeros at x = 1.36 and x = 4.64 precisely.

(a)

Sketch the graph of y = f(x), marking the points where the graph crosses
the x-axis.

(b)

Hence write down the x-coordinate of the vertex of the graph and state the
value of a.

(c)

Calculate the exact value of b.


SMP 93 (8 marks)

5. Solve the following equations:


(a)

x2 = 3x

6. The roots of

(b)

x2 + 1 = 4x

x2 + px + (p 1) = 0 are equal. Find p.

7. Factorise 49x2 21x + 2.


Hence or otherwise, solve the equation 49y 21 y + 2 = 0, giving your answers
as fractions
LON 98 (4 marks)

8. (a)

Prove, by completing the square, that the roots of the equation


x2 + 2kx + c = 0, where k and c are constants, are k k 2 c ) .

The equation x2 + 2kx + 81 = 0 has equal roots.


(b)

Find the possible values of k.


EDEXC 2001 (6 marks)

9. The diagram shows the graph of


y = x2 2px + p
where p is a positive constant.
The point A is the lowest point on the
graph and is given to lie above the x-axis.

(i)

By completing the square, express the coordinates of A in terms of p.


Hence find the set of possible values of p.

(ii)

Given that A lies on the straight line with equation y = 2x 1, find the exact
value of p.
LON 98 (11 marks)

Inequalities:

Treat inequalities as you would an equation, except that if you multiply


or divide by a negative number you must reverse the inequality sign.

Quadratic inequalities can be solved easily by sketching the graph.

1. Solve (i) x2 > 4x 3

2. (a)

Express x2 8x 3 in completed square form. Hence, or otherwise, find the


exact solutions of the equation x2 8x 3 = 0.

(b)

Sketch the graph of


crosses both axes.

(c)

Solve the inequality

3. (a)
(b)

(ii) 9x2 5 0

y = (2x 17)(x2 8x 3)

clearly marking where the graph

(2x 17)(x2 8x 3) 0.

Find, as surds, the roots of the equation

SMP 96 (12 marks)

2(x + 1)(x 4) (x 2)2 = 0.

Hence find the set of values of x for which 2(x + 1)(x 4) (x 2)2 > 0.
EDEXC 98 (11 marks)

4.

Find the set of values of x for which


(a)

6x 7 < 2x + 3

(b)

2x2 11x + 5 < 0

(c)

both 6x 7 < 2x + 3 and 2x2 11x + 5 < 0


EDEXC 2003 (7 marks)

Polynomials

Remainder theorem: When a polynomial f(x) is divided by (x a),


the remainder is f(a).

Factor theorem: If f(a) = 0, then (x a) is a factor of f(x).


f(x) = (x a)(....q(x).... ) where q(x) is another polynomial.
Conversely, if (x a) is a factor of f(x), then we know that f(a) = 0

1. Find the quotient and remainder when 2x3 3x2 4x 7 is divided by x 3.


f(x) = 2x3 3x2 11 x + k

2.
(a)

When f(x) is divided by x 2 the remainder is 12. Find k.

(b)

Show that x 3 is a factor of f(x) and hence write f(x) as the product of
three linear factors.
AQA 2001 (7 marks)

3. The function f(x) = 3x3 11x2 95 x + 175 has 3 linear factors.


(a)

Find f(5) and use your result to explain why (x 5) is not a factor of f(x).

(b)

The function f(x) may be written in the form f(x) = (x + 5)( ax2 + bx + c).
Find the values of a, b and c and hence write f(x) as the product of its three
linear factors.

(c)

Find the values of x for which f(x) 0.

SMP 95 (12 marks)

f(x) = 5x3 + 24x2 + 29x + 2

4.
(a)

Use the factor theorem to find one factor of f(x).

(b)

Hence write f(x) in the form (x + k)(ax2 + bx + c), giving the value of each of the
constants k, a, b and c.

(c)

Hence find the exact solutions to the equation f(x) = 0.


SMP 97 (10 marks)

5. A function f is defined by f(x) = 5x3 px2 + x q When f(x) is divided by x 2 , the


remainder is 3. Given that (x 1) is a factor of f(x)
(a)

find p and q

(b)

find the number of real roots of the equation 5x3 px2 + x q = 0

6. The cubic function f is given by f(x) = x3 + ax2 4x + b, where a and b are


constants,
Given that (x 2) is a factor of f(x) and that a remainder of 6 is obtained when
f(x) is divided by (x + 1), find the values of a and b.

Circles:

2
2
2
The equation of a circle centred on the origin is x y r

2
2
2
The equation of a circle centre (a, b) and radius r is ( x a ) ( y b) r
a
2
2
2
It can be thought of as a translation of x y r through .
b

To find the centre and radius of a circle given in the form


x 2 px y 2 qy c 0 , you have to complete the square.

The angle in a semicircle is a right angle.

The perpendicular from the centre to a chord bisects the chord.

The tangent at point P on the circle is perpendicular to the radius at P, so


the normal to the tangent at P passes through the centre of the circle.

To find the equation of a tangent or normal, use the coordinates of the


point and the centre to obtain the gradient, then y mx c .

1. A circle C has equation x2 + y2 10x + 6y 15 = 0


(a)

Find the coordinates of the centre of C.

(b)

Find the radius of C.


EDEXC 2001 (4 marks)

2. A circle C, with centre P, has equation x2 + y2 10y + 16 = 0.


(a)

(i) Find the coordinates of P.


(ii) Show that the radius of the circle is 3.

(b)

The point Q

12 16
, lies on the circle C. The line L is the tangent to
5 5
the circle at Q. Find the equation of L.
AQA 2001 (8 marks)

3.

The circle C, with centre (a, b) and radius 5,


touches the x-axis at (4, 0) as shown.

(a, b)

(a) Write down the value of a and the


value of b.

5
O

(b) Find an equation of C.

A tangent to the circle is drawn at the point (0, 2).


(c)

Find the equation of the tangent in the form ax by c

4. The circle C has equation x2 + y2 6x + 8y 75 = 0


(a)

Find the coordinates of the centre of C and the radius of C.

A second circle has centre at the point (15, 12) and radius 10.
(b)

Sketch both circles on a single diagram and find the coordinates of the point where
they touch.
EDEXC 2003 (7 marks)

5. A circle with centre (1, 7) which passes through the point (4, 5).
(a)

Find an equation for the circle.

(b)

Find the equation of the tangent at the point (4, 5).

6. (a)
(b)

Find the midpoint C of AB where A and B are (1, 8) and (3, 14) respectively.
Find also the distance AC.
Hence find the equation of the circle which has AB as diameter.

Simultaneous equations:

You can find where a straight line (e.g. y 2 5 x ) intersects a curve


2
(e.g. x 2 xy 3 ) by solving the simultaneous equations:
y 2 5x
2
x 2 x(2 5 x) 3
2
x 2 xy 3

substituting ' 2 5x ' for ' y '.

Solving the resulting quadratic equation gives x and hence y

1. (a)

If there are ...


- two distinct roots - the line intersects the curve at two points
- equal roots the line is a tangent to the curve
- no real roots the line does not intersect the curve.

Solve the simultaneous equations


y=x+1
x2 8x y2 2 y 9 0

(b)

Hence describe the geometrical relationship between the straight line with
equation y = x + 1 and the circle with equation x 2 8 x y 2 2 y 9 0 ,
giving a reason for your answer.
AQA 2001 (6 marks)

2. Solve the simultaneous equations


x2 + 2y2 = 9,

x + 4y = 9
LON 98 (5 marks)

3. Solve the simultaneous equations


x2 xy + y2 = 7

x + y = 1,

LON 96 (6 marks)

4. The straight line y = 20 3x meets the circle x2 + y2 2x 14y = 0 at the


points A and B.
Calculate the exact length of the chord AB.
LON 98 (6 marks)

5. The curve C has equation 4x2 xy + 5x = 4 and the line l has equation y = mx + 1,
where m is a constant.
(a)

Show that the x-coordinates of the points of the intersection of C and l are given
by the equation
(4 m) x2 + 4x 4 = 0

(b)

(i) Given that m = 4, find the coordinates of the point of intersection of C and l.
(ii) Given that m 4, find the set of values of m for which C and l have two
distinct points of intersection.
(iii) Given that m = 5, determine the number of points of intersection of C and l,
and find the coordinates of any such points.
LON 99 (8 marks)

6. A circle has centre (3, 4) and radius 3 2 . A straight line l has equation y = x + 3.
(a)

Write down an equation of the circle C.

(b)

Calculate the exact coordinates of the two points where the line l intersects C,
giving your answer in surds.

(c)

Find the distance between these two points.


EDEXC 2002 (9 marks)

7.

The diagram shows the line with


equation y = 9 x and the curve with
equation y = x2 2x + 3.

A
B
O

The line and the curve intersect at the points


A and B, and O is the origin.
x

Calculate the coordinates of A and B.

Differentiation:
dy
= nx n1 for any value of n.
dx

If y = x n then

There are three standard forms of notation used for derivatives:


y 5 x 3 3x 2 2 x 18

f(x) = 5x3 + 3x 2x + 18
d
(5x3 + 3x 2x + 18) = 15x2 + 6x 2
dx

dy
15 x 2 6 x 2
dx
f '(x) = 15x2 + 6x 2

The gradient of a curve at a point is the gradient of the tangent.

Find the 'equation' of a tangent (or normal) means ' y mx c '.

If

A graph has 'maximum' or 'minimum' when

dy
dy
is positive then the function is increasing; if
is negative
dx
dx
then the function is decreasing.
dy
= 0.
dx
Maximum and minimum points are also called 'turning points' or
'stationary points'.
dy
d2y
0 and
0 you have a minimum point.
dx
dx 2
dy
d2y

0
0 you have a maximum point.
If
and
dx
dx 2
d2y
0 , further investigation is necessary.
If
dx 2
If

1. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve


at the point where x = 1

y = x3 + 2x2 + 3x + 6
SMP 96 (5 marks)

2. A curve has equation

y = x3 x2 px + q, where p and q are positive constants.

(a)

Find, in terms of p and q, the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point
where the curve intersects the y-axis.

(b)

Given that the curve intersects the x-axis at three points,


sketch y = x3 x2 px + q
You do not need to mark the coordinates of any point.
SMP 98 (7 marks)

10

3. (a)
(b)

Given that y = 5x3 2x2 + 1, find

dy
.
dx

Hence find the exact values of x at which the graph of y = 5x3 2x2 + 1
has stationary points.
SMP 93 (5 marks)

4. A sheet of paper is folded to make a box of width w cm and volume V cm3, where
V = w(15 w)(20 w)
Use calculus to find the value of w for which the maximum volume occurs.
Find this maximum volume, giving your answer to 2 decimal places.
SMP 96 (8 marks)

5. A function is defined by f(x) = 2x3 6x2 18x + 20.


(a)

The coordinates of the stationary points of y = f(x) are given as (m, 30)
and (n, 34). Find, using calculus, the values of m and n.

(b)

Write down the coordinates of the stationary points of y = f(x + 1)


SMP 98 (7 marks)

6. A curve C has equation y = x3 5x2 + 5x + 2


(a)

Find

dy
in terms of x.
dx

The points P and Q lie on C. The gradient of C at both P and Q is 2.


The x-coordinate of P is 3.
(b)

Find the x-coordinate of Q.

(c)

Find an equation for the tangent to C at P, giving your answer in the form
y = mx + c, where m and c are constants.

This tangent intersects the coordinate axes at the points R and S.


(d)

Find the length of RS, giving your answer as a surd.


EDEXC 2002 (11 marks)

7. For the curve C with equation y = x4 8x2 + 3,


dy
,
dx

(a)

find

(b)

find the coordinates of each of the stationary points,

(c)

determine the nature of each stationary point.

The point A on the curve has x-coordinate 1.


(d)

Find an equation for the normal to C at A, giving your answer in the form
ax + by + c = 0, where a, b and c are integers.
EDEXC 2003 (15 marks)

11

Integation:

Integration is the reverse of differentiation


b

ax dx =

f '(x) dx = [ f(x) ] ba = f(b) f(a)


n

e.g.

(4x

a n1
x
n 1

+ c

2 x 2 3x 1) dx = x 4 23 x3 23 x 2 x + c

1 dx x

f (x) dx + g (x) dx
e.g.

(x

constant of
integration

+ c

8 x 20) dx

(x

f(x) + g(x)
2

dx

(2 x 25) dx

10 x 5) dx

The area between a curve and the x-axis can be found by integration.

An area below the x-axis has a negative value.

1.

The sketch shows the graph of y = x(3 x).


(a) Find
x

x(3 x)dx .

(b) Hence calculate the area enclosed between the


curve and the x-axis.
SMP 93 (5 marks)

2. (a)
(b)

Calculate

0 x(4 x

)dx .

y
k

The graph of y = x(4 x2) is shown


for x 0 .
Find the exact value of k for which
the two shaded areas are equal.

SMP 94 (7 marks)

3. Evaluate

1 ( x 1)(2 x 5)dx

4. Find the value of the positive integer k for which

12

1 (x

2 x) dx = 65 3

5.

The diagram shows the line of y = x 1


meeting the curve with equation
y = (x 1)( x 5) at A and C.
The curve meets the x-axis at A and B.

(b)

(a) Write down the coordinates of A and B


and find the coordinates of C.

Find the area of the shaded region bounded by the line, the curve and the x-axis.
y

6.

10

A road hump is 40 cm wide and


10 cm high at its peak.
0

40

A cross-section, as shown, is modelled by a function of the form kx(w x), where


w and k are constants.
(a)

Find the values of w and k.

(b)

Use algebraic integration to estimate the volume of the hump, given that the road
is 6m wide.
SMP 2000 (9 marks)

Solutions
Straight lines 1. y = 2x 8
2. 2y = 5x 17
3. length 10, midpoint (1, 7)
4. A (8, 2)
5. a = 2, y = 3x 2
6. A(4, 3) B (6, 8)
7. (a) 3
(b) y 3 x 2 3
(d) 6
8. (a) 2x + y = 20
Surds

(c) 4 5

1. (a) 4 3

(b) 5 2 2

(c) 79 30 6

5
5

(b) 13 7 3

(c) 3 2 5

2. (a)
3.
Quadratics

(b) x 3y = 4

5
7
7

4. a = 30, b = 12, c = 6

(d) p 1

5. 14 5

1. (a) (0, 3) (b) (x 1)(x + 3) B (3, 0) C (1, 0) (c) (x + 1)2 4


f(x) = 4
2. (a)(i) (x + 3)2 16 (ii) (x 1)(x + 7) (c) x = 3
3. a = 1, b = 5, c = 10
4. (a) crosses at 1.36 and 4.64
(b) x = 3, a = 3 (c) b = 2.6896
5. (a) x = 0 or 3 (b) 2 3
6. p = 2

1
4
7. y 49 or 49

13

8. k = 9 or 9

9. (i) 0 < p < 1


Inequalities

5 1
2

(ii) p =

1. (i) x < 1 or x > 3

(ii)

5
5
x
3
3

2. (a) x 4 19

(b) x = 8.5, x 4 19 (c) x 8.5 or 4 19 x 4 19


3. (a) 1 13 , 1 13 (b) x < 1 13 or x > 1 13
4. (a) x < 2.5 (b) 0.5 < x < 5 (c) 0.5 < x < 2.5
Polynomials

1. 2x2 + 3x + 5 remainder 8 2. (a) k = 6 (b) f(x) = (x 3)(2x 1)(x + 2)


3. (a) f(5) = 200, f(5) 0 so (x 5) is not a factor (b) a = 3, b = 26,
5
c = 35, f(x) = (x + 5)(3x 5)(x 7) (c) 5 x or x 7
3
4. (a) (x + 2) (b) (x + 2)(5x2 + 14x + 1) (c) x = 2 or x =
5. (a) p = 11, q = 5

Circles:

1. (a)
3. (a)
4. (a)
5. (a)
6. (a)

6. a = 1, b = 4

(b) 3

(5, 3) (b) 7
a = 4, b = 5 (b)
(3, 4) radius 10
(x 1)2 + (y 7)2
(2, 11) 10 (b)

7 44
5

2. (a) (i) (0, 5) (b) 3y = 4x


(x 4)2 + (y 5)2 = 25 (c) 4x + 3y = 6
(b) (9, 4)
= 169
(b) 5x + 12y +80 = 0
2
(x 2) + (y 11)2 = 10

Simultaneous equations: 1. (a) x = 2, y = 3 (b) y = x + 1 is a tangent to the circle,


since there is just one solution point
2. x = 1, y = 2
3. x = 1 and y = 2 or x = 2 and y = 1
4. 4 10
5. (b)(i) (1, 5) (ii) m < 5 (iii) one, (2, 11)
6. (a) (x + 3)2 + (y 4)2 = 18 (b) x = 2 8 , y = 5 8 (c) 8
7. A (2, 11) B (2, 11)
Differentiation:

1. y = 2x + 6 2. y = px + q 3. (a) 15x2 4x
4
(b) x = 0 or x =
4. w = 5.657 cm, V = 758.08 cm3
15
5. (a) m = 1, n = 3 (b) (2, 30) and (2, 34) 6. (a) 3x2 10x + 5
1
7
(b)
(c) y = 2x 7 (d) R (0, 7) S (3.5, 0) RS =
5
2
3
7. (a) 4x3 16x (b) (0, 3) (2, 13) (2, 13)
(c) (0, 3) maximum ( 2 , 13) minima (d) x + 12y + 47 = 0

Integation:

1. (a)

3 2
x
2

x3
3

+ c (b) 4.5

2. (a) 4 (b) 2 2

5. (a) (1, 0) (5, 0) (6, 5) (b) 10

14

1
6

3. 4.5

6. (a) w = 40, k =

1
40

4. 5

(b) 0.16 m3