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Revision booklet for AQA Core 1 A-Level Mathematics.

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You are on page 1of 15

Core 1

Syllabus

&

Past Paper questions

in this module

Straight lines:

Other forms are y y1 m( x x1 ) and ax by c 0

and gradient m

x1 x2 y1 y2

,

2

2

y2 y1

x2 x1

1

If the gradient of one line is m then the normal will have gradient .

m

1

m

= 1 so if the product of two gradients is -1, the two lines

m

must be perpendicular.

which rearranges to y b m( x a )

yb

m

xa

1. The straight line L passes through the point (3, 2) and is perpendicular to the

line x + 2y + 1 = 0.

Find the equation of L, giving your answer in the form y = mx + c.

LON 98 (3 marks)

2. The points P, Q, R have coordinates (3, 1), (2, 5), (8, 3) respectively. Find the

equation of the straight line joining P to the mid-point of QR.

LON 96 (3 marks)

3. The coordinates of the points P and Q are (2, 11) and (4, 3) respectively.

Calculate the length of PQ and write down the coordinates of the midpoint of PQ.

LON 99 (4 marks)

4.

y

C

trapezium OABC with OA parallel to CB.

point (0, 2) and the diagonal CA is parallel to

the x-axis, calculate the coordinates of A.

0

LON 96 (4 marks)

5. (a)

(b)

(c)

Using this value for a, find the equation of the straight line that passes through

A and is perpendicular to l. Give your answer in the form y = mx + c.

LON 97 (6 marks)

6.

The curve y =

origin.

1

4

show that OA and OB are perpendicular.

LON 97 (6 marks)

(a)

Calculate the gradient of l giving your answer as a surd in its simplest form.

(b)

are surds to be given in their simplest form.

(c)

(d)

EDEXC 96 (10 marks)

8. The points A and B have coordinates (2, 16) and (12, 4) respectively.

A straight line l1 passes through A and B.

(a)

The line l2 passes through the point C with coordinates (1, 1) and has gradient

(b)

1

.

3

The lines l1 and l2 intersect at the point D. The point O is the origin.

(c)

Find the length OD, giving your answer in the form m 5 , where m is

an integer.

EDEXC 2000 (11 marks)

Surds:

ab

p2q =

a b and

b

eg

p2 q = p q

a

b

8 =

4 2 = 2 2

p

a b

p (a b )

(a b )(a b )

p (a b )

a2 b

This is called

'rationalising the

denominator'.

1. Simplify:

(a)

2(5 2)

(b)

48

(c) (3 6 5) 2

(d) ( p 1)( p 1)

1

7

5 3

(a)

(b)

(c)

5

3 2 5

2 3

3. Express

5

in the form k 7 where k is a rational number.

7

LON 97 (2 marks)

a, b and c.

LON 97 (2 marks)

5. Evaluate 3 45 6. Given that p =

20 +

3 and q =

5.

1

= p + q.

pq

2 prove that

Quadratics:

2

Polynomial form: y ax bx c

c gives the intercept with the y- axis.

If a is negative the graph is shaped

2

Completed square form: y a ( x p ) q

The vertex is at (p, q).

The graph has a line of symmetry at x = p

y

c

and are the zeros of the graph

and the roots of the equation a ( x x)( ) 0

ax 2 bx c 0

x=

( p, q)

b b 2 4ac

2a

b2 4ac = 0 equal roots

b2 4ac > 0 two distinct roots

discriminant.

p

If the graph of y = x2 is translated through , the equation of the

q

f(x)

2

new graph is y ( x p) q .

3

x

x

f(x) = x2 + 2x 3 is shown.

(a)

labelled A.

(b)

coordinates of the points labelled B and C.

(c)

State the smallest possible value of f(x).

SMP 90 (8 marks)

2. (a)

Express x2 + 6x 7

(ii) in factorised form

(b)

(c)

3. The graph of a(x b)2 + c passes through the point (8, 19) and has (5, 10) as its

minimum point. Find a, b and c.

4. A function

f(x) = (x + a)2 + b

(a)

Sketch the graph of y = f(x), marking the points where the graph crosses

the x-axis.

(b)

Hence write down the x-coordinate of the vertex of the graph and state the

value of a.

(c)

SMP 93 (8 marks)

(a)

x2 = 3x

6. The roots of

(b)

x2 + 1 = 4x

Hence or otherwise, solve the equation 49y 21 y + 2 = 0, giving your answers

as fractions

LON 98 (4 marks)

8. (a)

x2 + 2kx + c = 0, where k and c are constants, are k k 2 c ) .

(b)

EDEXC 2001 (6 marks)

y = x2 2px + p

where p is a positive constant.

The point A is the lowest point on the

graph and is given to lie above the x-axis.

(i)

Hence find the set of possible values of p.

(ii)

Given that A lies on the straight line with equation y = 2x 1, find the exact

value of p.

LON 98 (11 marks)

Inequalities:

or divide by a negative number you must reverse the inequality sign.

2. (a)

exact solutions of the equation x2 8x 3 = 0.

(b)

crosses both axes.

(c)

3. (a)

(b)

(ii) 9x2 5 0

y = (2x 17)(x2 8x 3)

(2x 17)(x2 8x 3) 0.

Hence find the set of values of x for which 2(x + 1)(x 4) (x 2)2 > 0.

EDEXC 98 (11 marks)

4.

(a)

6x 7 < 2x + 3

(b)

(c)

EDEXC 2003 (7 marks)

Polynomials

the remainder is f(a).

f(x) = (x a)(....q(x).... ) where q(x) is another polynomial.

Conversely, if (x a) is a factor of f(x), then we know that f(a) = 0

f(x) = 2x3 3x2 11 x + k

2.

(a)

(b)

Show that x 3 is a factor of f(x) and hence write f(x) as the product of

three linear factors.

AQA 2001 (7 marks)

(a)

Find f(5) and use your result to explain why (x 5) is not a factor of f(x).

(b)

The function f(x) may be written in the form f(x) = (x + 5)( ax2 + bx + c).

Find the values of a, b and c and hence write f(x) as the product of its three

linear factors.

(c)

4.

(a)

(b)

Hence write f(x) in the form (x + k)(ax2 + bx + c), giving the value of each of the

constants k, a, b and c.

(c)

SMP 97 (10 marks)

remainder is 3. Given that (x 1) is a factor of f(x)

(a)

find p and q

(b)

constants,

Given that (x 2) is a factor of f(x) and that a remainder of 6 is obtained when

f(x) is divided by (x + 1), find the values of a and b.

Circles:

2

2

2

The equation of a circle centred on the origin is x y r

2

2

2

The equation of a circle centre (a, b) and radius r is ( x a ) ( y b) r

a

2

2

2

It can be thought of as a translation of x y r through .

b

x 2 px y 2 qy c 0 , you have to complete the square.

the normal to the tangent at P passes through the centre of the circle.

point and the centre to obtain the gradient, then y mx c .

(a)

(b)

EDEXC 2001 (4 marks)

(a)

(ii) Show that the radius of the circle is 3.

(b)

The point Q

12 16

, lies on the circle C. The line L is the tangent to

5 5

the circle at Q. Find the equation of L.

AQA 2001 (8 marks)

3.

touches the x-axis at (4, 0) as shown.

(a, b)

value of b.

5

O

(c)

(a)

A second circle has centre at the point (15, 12) and radius 10.

(b)

Sketch both circles on a single diagram and find the coordinates of the point where

they touch.

EDEXC 2003 (7 marks)

5. A circle with centre (1, 7) which passes through the point (4, 5).

(a)

(b)

6. (a)

(b)

Find the midpoint C of AB where A and B are (1, 8) and (3, 14) respectively.

Find also the distance AC.

Hence find the equation of the circle which has AB as diameter.

Simultaneous equations:

2

(e.g. x 2 xy 3 ) by solving the simultaneous equations:

y 2 5x

2

x 2 x(2 5 x) 3

2

x 2 xy 3

1. (a)

- two distinct roots - the line intersects the curve at two points

- equal roots the line is a tangent to the curve

- no real roots the line does not intersect the curve.

y=x+1

x2 8x y2 2 y 9 0

(b)

Hence describe the geometrical relationship between the straight line with

equation y = x + 1 and the circle with equation x 2 8 x y 2 2 y 9 0 ,

giving a reason for your answer.

AQA 2001 (6 marks)

x2 + 2y2 = 9,

x + 4y = 9

LON 98 (5 marks)

x2 xy + y2 = 7

x + y = 1,

LON 96 (6 marks)

points A and B.

Calculate the exact length of the chord AB.

LON 98 (6 marks)

5. The curve C has equation 4x2 xy + 5x = 4 and the line l has equation y = mx + 1,

where m is a constant.

(a)

Show that the x-coordinates of the points of the intersection of C and l are given

by the equation

(4 m) x2 + 4x 4 = 0

(b)

(i) Given that m = 4, find the coordinates of the point of intersection of C and l.

(ii) Given that m 4, find the set of values of m for which C and l have two

distinct points of intersection.

(iii) Given that m = 5, determine the number of points of intersection of C and l,

and find the coordinates of any such points.

LON 99 (8 marks)

6. A circle has centre (3, 4) and radius 3 2 . A straight line l has equation y = x + 3.

(a)

(b)

Calculate the exact coordinates of the two points where the line l intersects C,

giving your answer in surds.

(c)

EDEXC 2002 (9 marks)

7.

equation y = 9 x and the curve with

equation y = x2 2x + 3.

A

B

O

A and B, and O is the origin.

x

Differentiation:

dy

= nx n1 for any value of n.

dx

If y = x n then

y 5 x 3 3x 2 2 x 18

f(x) = 5x3 + 3x 2x + 18

d

(5x3 + 3x 2x + 18) = 15x2 + 6x 2

dx

dy

15 x 2 6 x 2

dx

f '(x) = 15x2 + 6x 2

If

dy

dy

is positive then the function is increasing; if

is negative

dx

dx

then the function is decreasing.

dy

= 0.

dx

Maximum and minimum points are also called 'turning points' or

'stationary points'.

dy

d2y

0 and

0 you have a minimum point.

dx

dx 2

dy

d2y

0

0 you have a maximum point.

If

and

dx

dx 2

d2y

0 , further investigation is necessary.

If

dx 2

If

at the point where x = 1

y = x3 + 2x2 + 3x + 6

SMP 96 (5 marks)

(a)

Find, in terms of p and q, the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point

where the curve intersects the y-axis.

(b)

sketch y = x3 x2 px + q

You do not need to mark the coordinates of any point.

SMP 98 (7 marks)

10

3. (a)

(b)

dy

.

dx

Hence find the exact values of x at which the graph of y = 5x3 2x2 + 1

has stationary points.

SMP 93 (5 marks)

4. A sheet of paper is folded to make a box of width w cm and volume V cm3, where

V = w(15 w)(20 w)

Use calculus to find the value of w for which the maximum volume occurs.

Find this maximum volume, giving your answer to 2 decimal places.

SMP 96 (8 marks)

(a)

The coordinates of the stationary points of y = f(x) are given as (m, 30)

and (n, 34). Find, using calculus, the values of m and n.

(b)

SMP 98 (7 marks)

(a)

Find

dy

in terms of x.

dx

The x-coordinate of P is 3.

(b)

(c)

Find an equation for the tangent to C at P, giving your answer in the form

y = mx + c, where m and c are constants.

(d)

EDEXC 2002 (11 marks)

dy

,

dx

(a)

find

(b)

(c)

(d)

Find an equation for the normal to C at A, giving your answer in the form

ax + by + c = 0, where a, b and c are integers.

EDEXC 2003 (15 marks)

11

Integation:

b

ax dx =

n

e.g.

(4x

a n1

x

n 1

+ c

2 x 2 3x 1) dx = x 4 23 x3 23 x 2 x + c

1 dx x

f (x) dx + g (x) dx

e.g.

(x

constant of

integration

+ c

8 x 20) dx

(x

f(x) + g(x)

2

dx

(2 x 25) dx

10 x 5) dx

The area between a curve and the x-axis can be found by integration.

1.

(a) Find

x

x(3 x)dx .

curve and the x-axis.

SMP 93 (5 marks)

2. (a)

(b)

Calculate

0 x(4 x

)dx .

y

k

for x 0 .

Find the exact value of k for which

the two shaded areas are equal.

SMP 94 (7 marks)

3. Evaluate

1 ( x 1)(2 x 5)dx

12

1 (x

2 x) dx = 65 3

5.

meeting the curve with equation

y = (x 1)( x 5) at A and C.

The curve meets the x-axis at A and B.

(b)

and find the coordinates of C.

Find the area of the shaded region bounded by the line, the curve and the x-axis.

y

6.

10

10 cm high at its peak.

0

40

w and k are constants.

(a)

(b)

Use algebraic integration to estimate the volume of the hump, given that the road

is 6m wide.

SMP 2000 (9 marks)

Solutions

Straight lines 1. y = 2x 8

2. 2y = 5x 17

3. length 10, midpoint (1, 7)

4. A (8, 2)

5. a = 2, y = 3x 2

6. A(4, 3) B (6, 8)

7. (a) 3

(b) y 3 x 2 3

(d) 6

8. (a) 2x + y = 20

Surds

(c) 4 5

1. (a) 4 3

(b) 5 2 2

(c) 79 30 6

5

5

(b) 13 7 3

(c) 3 2 5

2. (a)

3.

Quadratics

(b) x 3y = 4

5

7

7

4. a = 30, b = 12, c = 6

(d) p 1

5. 14 5

f(x) = 4

2. (a)(i) (x + 3)2 16 (ii) (x 1)(x + 7) (c) x = 3

3. a = 1, b = 5, c = 10

4. (a) crosses at 1.36 and 4.64

(b) x = 3, a = 3 (c) b = 2.6896

5. (a) x = 0 or 3 (b) 2 3

6. p = 2

1

4

7. y 49 or 49

13

8. k = 9 or 9

Inequalities

5 1

2

(ii) p =

(ii)

5

5

x

3

3

2. (a) x 4 19

3. (a) 1 13 , 1 13 (b) x < 1 13 or x > 1 13

4. (a) x < 2.5 (b) 0.5 < x < 5 (c) 0.5 < x < 2.5

Polynomials

3. (a) f(5) = 200, f(5) 0 so (x 5) is not a factor (b) a = 3, b = 26,

5

c = 35, f(x) = (x + 5)(3x 5)(x 7) (c) 5 x or x 7

3

4. (a) (x + 2) (b) (x + 2)(5x2 + 14x + 1) (c) x = 2 or x =

5. (a) p = 11, q = 5

Circles:

1. (a)

3. (a)

4. (a)

5. (a)

6. (a)

6. a = 1, b = 4

(b) 3

(5, 3) (b) 7

a = 4, b = 5 (b)

(3, 4) radius 10

(x 1)2 + (y 7)2

(2, 11) 10 (b)

7 44

5

(x 4)2 + (y 5)2 = 25 (c) 4x + 3y = 6

(b) (9, 4)

= 169

(b) 5x + 12y +80 = 0

2

(x 2) + (y 11)2 = 10

since there is just one solution point

2. x = 1, y = 2

3. x = 1 and y = 2 or x = 2 and y = 1

4. 4 10

5. (b)(i) (1, 5) (ii) m < 5 (iii) one, (2, 11)

6. (a) (x + 3)2 + (y 4)2 = 18 (b) x = 2 8 , y = 5 8 (c) 8

7. A (2, 11) B (2, 11)

Differentiation:

1. y = 2x + 6 2. y = px + q 3. (a) 15x2 4x

4

(b) x = 0 or x =

4. w = 5.657 cm, V = 758.08 cm3

15

5. (a) m = 1, n = 3 (b) (2, 30) and (2, 34) 6. (a) 3x2 10x + 5

1

7

(b)

(c) y = 2x 7 (d) R (0, 7) S (3.5, 0) RS =

5

2

3

7. (a) 4x3 16x (b) (0, 3) (2, 13) (2, 13)

(c) (0, 3) maximum ( 2 , 13) minima (d) x + 12y + 47 = 0

Integation:

1. (a)

3 2

x

2

x3

3

+ c (b) 4.5

2. (a) 4 (b) 2 2

14

1

6

3. 4.5

6. (a) w = 40, k =

1

40

4. 5

(b) 0.16 m3

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