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# AQA Mathematics

## 5361 and 6361

Core 1
Syllabus
&
Past Paper questions

in this module

Straight lines:

## The equation of a straight line in 'gradient intercept' form is: y mx c

Other forms are y y1 m( x x1 ) and ax by c 0

x1 x2 y1 y2
,
2
2

y2 y1
x2 x1

## One line is said to be 'normal' to another if it is at right angles to it.

1
If the gradient of one line is m then the normal will have gradient .
m
1
m
= 1 so if the product of two gradients is -1, the two lines
m
must be perpendicular.

## A line passing through (a, b) with gradient m has equation

which rearranges to y b m( x a )

yb
m
xa

1. The straight line L passes through the point (3, 2) and is perpendicular to the
line x + 2y + 1 = 0.
Find the equation of L, giving your answer in the form y = mx + c.
LON 98 (3 marks)

2. The points P, Q, R have coordinates (3, 1), (2, 5), (8, 3) respectively. Find the
equation of the straight line joining P to the mid-point of QR.
LON 96 (3 marks)

3. The coordinates of the points P and Q are (2, 11) and (4, 3) respectively.
Calculate the length of PQ and write down the coordinates of the midpoint of PQ.
LON 99 (4 marks)

4.
y
C

## The diagram, not drawn to scale, shows a

trapezium OABC with OA parallel to CB.

## Given that B is the point (4, 3), C is the

point (0, 2) and the diagonal CA is parallel to
the x-axis, calculate the coordinates of A.
0

LON 96 (4 marks)

5. (a)

(b)

## The point A (a, 2a) lies on l. Find the value of a.

(c)

Using this value for a, find the equation of the straight line that passes through
A and is perpendicular to l. Give your answer in the form y = mx + c.
LON 97 (6 marks)

6.

The curve y =

origin.

1
4

## Calculate the coordinates of A and B, and hence

show that OA and OB are perpendicular.

LON 97 (6 marks)

(a)

(b)

## Give the equation of l in the form y mx c , where constants m and c

are surds to be given in their simplest form.

(c)

(d)

## Calculate the length of AC.

EDEXC 96 (10 marks)

8. The points A and B have coordinates (2, 16) and (12, 4) respectively.
A straight line l1 passes through A and B.
(a)

## Find an equation for l1 in the form ax by c .

The line l2 passes through the point C with coordinates (1, 1) and has gradient
(b)

1
.
3

## Find an equation for l2.

The lines l1 and l2 intersect at the point D. The point O is the origin.
(c)

Find the length OD, giving your answer in the form m 5 , where m is
an integer.
EDEXC 2000 (11 marks)

Surds:

ab

p2q =

a b and

b
eg

p2 q = p q

a
b
8 =

4 2 = 2 2

## (a b )(a b ) a 2 b , a rational number.

p
a b

p (a b )
(a b )(a b )

p (a b )
a2 b

This is called
'rationalising the
denominator'.

1. Simplify:
(a)

2(5 2)

(b)

48

(c) (3 6 5) 2

(d) ( p 1)( p 1)

## 2. Rationalise the denominators and simplify:

1
7
5 3
(a)
(b)
(c)
5
3 2 5
2 3
3. Express

5
in the form k 7 where k is a rational number.
7

LON 97 (2 marks)

## 4. Express ( 2 3 + 3 2 )2 in the form a + b c , stating the values of the integers

a, b and c.
LON 97 (2 marks)
5. Evaluate 3 45 6. Given that p =

20 +

3 and q =

5.

1
= p + q.
pq

2 prove that

2
Polynomial form: y ax bx c
c gives the intercept with the y- axis.
If a is negative the graph is shaped
2
Completed square form: y a ( x p ) q
The vertex is at (p, q).
The graph has a line of symmetry at x = p

y
c

## Factorised form: y a ( x x)( )

and are the zeros of the graph
and the roots of the equation a ( x x)( ) 0
ax 2 bx c 0

x=

( p, q)

b b 2 4ac
2a

## b2 4ac < 0 no real roots

b2 4ac = 0 equal roots
b2 4ac > 0 two distinct roots

## b2 4ac is called the

discriminant.

p
If the graph of y = x2 is translated through , the equation of the
q
f(x)
2
new graph is y ( x p) q .

## 1. A sketch graph of the quadratic function

3

x
x

f(x) = x2 + 2x 3 is shown.
(a)

labelled A.

(b)

## Factorise f(x). Write down the

coordinates of the points labelled B and C.

(c)

## Write f(x) in completed squares form.

State the smallest possible value of f(x).

SMP 90 (8 marks)

2. (a)

Express x2 + 6x 7

## (i) in completed square form

(ii) in factorised form

(b)

(c)

## Write down the equation of the line of symmetry of the graph.

3. The graph of a(x b)2 + c passes through the point (8, 19) and has (5, 10) as its
minimum point. Find a, b and c.
4. A function

f(x) = (x + a)2 + b

## has zeros at x = 1.36 and x = 4.64 precisely.

(a)

Sketch the graph of y = f(x), marking the points where the graph crosses
the x-axis.

(b)

Hence write down the x-coordinate of the vertex of the graph and state the
value of a.

(c)

SMP 93 (8 marks)

(a)

x2 = 3x

6. The roots of

(b)

x2 + 1 = 4x

## 7. Factorise 49x2 21x + 2.

Hence or otherwise, solve the equation 49y 21 y + 2 = 0, giving your answers
as fractions
LON 98 (4 marks)

8. (a)

## Prove, by completing the square, that the roots of the equation

x2 + 2kx + c = 0, where k and c are constants, are k k 2 c ) .

(b)

## Find the possible values of k.

EDEXC 2001 (6 marks)

## 9. The diagram shows the graph of

y = x2 2px + p
where p is a positive constant.
The point A is the lowest point on the
graph and is given to lie above the x-axis.

(i)

## By completing the square, express the coordinates of A in terms of p.

Hence find the set of possible values of p.

(ii)

Given that A lies on the straight line with equation y = 2x 1, find the exact
value of p.
LON 98 (11 marks)

Inequalities:

## Treat inequalities as you would an equation, except that if you multiply

or divide by a negative number you must reverse the inequality sign.

2. (a)

## Express x2 8x 3 in completed square form. Hence, or otherwise, find the

exact solutions of the equation x2 8x 3 = 0.

(b)

## Sketch the graph of

crosses both axes.

(c)

## Solve the inequality

3. (a)
(b)

(ii) 9x2 5 0

y = (2x 17)(x2 8x 3)

## clearly marking where the graph

(2x 17)(x2 8x 3) 0.

## 2(x + 1)(x 4) (x 2)2 = 0.

Hence find the set of values of x for which 2(x + 1)(x 4) (x 2)2 > 0.
EDEXC 98 (11 marks)

4.

(a)

6x 7 < 2x + 3

(b)

(c)

## both 6x 7 < 2x + 3 and 2x2 11x + 5 < 0

EDEXC 2003 (7 marks)

Polynomials

## Remainder theorem: When a polynomial f(x) is divided by (x a),

the remainder is f(a).

## Factor theorem: If f(a) = 0, then (x a) is a factor of f(x).

f(x) = (x a)(....q(x).... ) where q(x) is another polynomial.
Conversely, if (x a) is a factor of f(x), then we know that f(a) = 0

## 1. Find the quotient and remainder when 2x3 3x2 4x 7 is divided by x 3.

f(x) = 2x3 3x2 11 x + k

2.
(a)

## When f(x) is divided by x 2 the remainder is 12. Find k.

(b)

Show that x 3 is a factor of f(x) and hence write f(x) as the product of
three linear factors.
AQA 2001 (7 marks)

## 3. The function f(x) = 3x3 11x2 95 x + 175 has 3 linear factors.

(a)

Find f(5) and use your result to explain why (x 5) is not a factor of f(x).

(b)

The function f(x) may be written in the form f(x) = (x + 5)( ax2 + bx + c).
Find the values of a, b and c and hence write f(x) as the product of its three
linear factors.

(c)

4.
(a)

## Use the factor theorem to find one factor of f(x).

(b)

Hence write f(x) in the form (x + k)(ax2 + bx + c), giving the value of each of the
constants k, a, b and c.

(c)

## Hence find the exact solutions to the equation f(x) = 0.

SMP 97 (10 marks)

## 5. A function f is defined by f(x) = 5x3 px2 + x q When f(x) is divided by x 2 , the

remainder is 3. Given that (x 1) is a factor of f(x)
(a)

find p and q

(b)

## 6. The cubic function f is given by f(x) = x3 + ax2 4x + b, where a and b are

constants,
Given that (x 2) is a factor of f(x) and that a remainder of 6 is obtained when
f(x) is divided by (x + 1), find the values of a and b.

Circles:

2
2
2
The equation of a circle centred on the origin is x y r

2
2
2
The equation of a circle centre (a, b) and radius r is ( x a ) ( y b) r
a
2
2
2
It can be thought of as a translation of x y r through .
b

## To find the centre and radius of a circle given in the form

x 2 px y 2 qy c 0 , you have to complete the square.

## The tangent at point P on the circle is perpendicular to the radius at P, so

the normal to the tangent at P passes through the centre of the circle.

## To find the equation of a tangent or normal, use the coordinates of the

point and the centre to obtain the gradient, then y mx c .

(a)

(b)

## Find the radius of C.

EDEXC 2001 (4 marks)

(a)

## (i) Find the coordinates of P.

(ii) Show that the radius of the circle is 3.

(b)

The point Q

12 16
, lies on the circle C. The line L is the tangent to
5 5
the circle at Q. Find the equation of L.
AQA 2001 (8 marks)

3.

## The circle C, with centre (a, b) and radius 5,

touches the x-axis at (4, 0) as shown.

(a, b)

value of b.

5
O

(c)

(a)

## Find the coordinates of the centre of C and the radius of C.

A second circle has centre at the point (15, 12) and radius 10.
(b)

Sketch both circles on a single diagram and find the coordinates of the point where
they touch.
EDEXC 2003 (7 marks)

5. A circle with centre (1, 7) which passes through the point (4, 5).
(a)

(b)

## Find the equation of the tangent at the point (4, 5).

6. (a)
(b)

Find the midpoint C of AB where A and B are (1, 8) and (3, 14) respectively.
Find also the distance AC.
Hence find the equation of the circle which has AB as diameter.

Simultaneous equations:

## You can find where a straight line (e.g. y 2 5 x ) intersects a curve

2
(e.g. x 2 xy 3 ) by solving the simultaneous equations:
y 2 5x
2
x 2 x(2 5 x) 3
2
x 2 xy 3

1. (a)

## If there are ...

- two distinct roots - the line intersects the curve at two points
- equal roots the line is a tangent to the curve
- no real roots the line does not intersect the curve.

## Solve the simultaneous equations

y=x+1
x2 8x y2 2 y 9 0

(b)

Hence describe the geometrical relationship between the straight line with
equation y = x + 1 and the circle with equation x 2 8 x y 2 2 y 9 0 ,
AQA 2001 (6 marks)

x2 + 2y2 = 9,

x + 4y = 9
LON 98 (5 marks)

x2 xy + y2 = 7

x + y = 1,

LON 96 (6 marks)

## 4. The straight line y = 20 3x meets the circle x2 + y2 2x 14y = 0 at the

points A and B.
Calculate the exact length of the chord AB.
LON 98 (6 marks)

5. The curve C has equation 4x2 xy + 5x = 4 and the line l has equation y = mx + 1,
where m is a constant.
(a)

Show that the x-coordinates of the points of the intersection of C and l are given
by the equation
(4 m) x2 + 4x 4 = 0

(b)

(i) Given that m = 4, find the coordinates of the point of intersection of C and l.
(ii) Given that m 4, find the set of values of m for which C and l have two
distinct points of intersection.
(iii) Given that m = 5, determine the number of points of intersection of C and l,
and find the coordinates of any such points.
LON 99 (8 marks)

6. A circle has centre (3, 4) and radius 3 2 . A straight line l has equation y = x + 3.
(a)

## Write down an equation of the circle C.

(b)

Calculate the exact coordinates of the two points where the line l intersects C,

(c)

## Find the distance between these two points.

EDEXC 2002 (9 marks)

7.

## The diagram shows the line with

equation y = 9 x and the curve with
equation y = x2 2x + 3.

A
B
O

## The line and the curve intersect at the points

A and B, and O is the origin.
x

## Calculate the coordinates of A and B.

Differentiation:
dy
= nx n1 for any value of n.
dx

If y = x n then

## There are three standard forms of notation used for derivatives:

y 5 x 3 3x 2 2 x 18

f(x) = 5x3 + 3x 2x + 18
d
(5x3 + 3x 2x + 18) = 15x2 + 6x 2
dx

dy
15 x 2 6 x 2
dx
f '(x) = 15x2 + 6x 2

If

## A graph has 'maximum' or 'minimum' when

dy
dy
is positive then the function is increasing; if
is negative
dx
dx
then the function is decreasing.
dy
= 0.
dx
Maximum and minimum points are also called 'turning points' or
'stationary points'.
dy
d2y
0 and
0 you have a minimum point.
dx
dx 2
dy
d2y

0
0 you have a maximum point.
If
and
dx
dx 2
d2y
0 , further investigation is necessary.
If
dx 2
If

## 1. Find the equation of the tangent to the curve

at the point where x = 1

y = x3 + 2x2 + 3x + 6
SMP 96 (5 marks)

## y = x3 x2 px + q, where p and q are positive constants.

(a)

Find, in terms of p and q, the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point
where the curve intersects the y-axis.

(b)

## Given that the curve intersects the x-axis at three points,

sketch y = x3 x2 px + q
You do not need to mark the coordinates of any point.
SMP 98 (7 marks)

10

3. (a)
(b)

## Given that y = 5x3 2x2 + 1, find

dy
.
dx

Hence find the exact values of x at which the graph of y = 5x3 2x2 + 1
has stationary points.
SMP 93 (5 marks)

4. A sheet of paper is folded to make a box of width w cm and volume V cm3, where
V = w(15 w)(20 w)
Use calculus to find the value of w for which the maximum volume occurs.
SMP 96 (8 marks)

## 5. A function is defined by f(x) = 2x3 6x2 18x + 20.

(a)

The coordinates of the stationary points of y = f(x) are given as (m, 30)
and (n, 34). Find, using calculus, the values of m and n.

(b)

SMP 98 (7 marks)

(a)

Find

dy
in terms of x.
dx

## The points P and Q lie on C. The gradient of C at both P and Q is 2.

The x-coordinate of P is 3.
(b)

## Find the x-coordinate of Q.

(c)

Find an equation for the tangent to C at P, giving your answer in the form
y = mx + c, where m and c are constants.

(d)

## Find the length of RS, giving your answer as a surd.

EDEXC 2002 (11 marks)

dy
,
dx

(a)

find

(b)

(c)

## The point A on the curve has x-coordinate 1.

(d)

Find an equation for the normal to C at A, giving your answer in the form
ax + by + c = 0, where a, b and c are integers.
EDEXC 2003 (15 marks)

11

Integation:

b

ax dx =

## f '(x) dx = [ f(x) ] ba = f(b) f(a)

n

e.g.

(4x

a n1
x
n 1

+ c

2 x 2 3x 1) dx = x 4 23 x3 23 x 2 x + c

1 dx x

f (x) dx + g (x) dx
e.g.

(x

constant of
integration

+ c

8 x 20) dx

(x

f(x) + g(x)
2

dx

(2 x 25) dx

10 x 5) dx

The area between a curve and the x-axis can be found by integration.

1.

(a) Find
x

x(3 x)dx .

## (b) Hence calculate the area enclosed between the

curve and the x-axis.
SMP 93 (5 marks)

2. (a)
(b)

Calculate

0 x(4 x

)dx .

y
k

## The graph of y = x(4 x2) is shown

for x 0 .
Find the exact value of k for which
the two shaded areas are equal.

SMP 94 (7 marks)

3. Evaluate

1 ( x 1)(2 x 5)dx

12

1 (x

2 x) dx = 65 3

5.

## The diagram shows the line of y = x 1

meeting the curve with equation
y = (x 1)( x 5) at A and C.
The curve meets the x-axis at A and B.

(b)

## (a) Write down the coordinates of A and B

and find the coordinates of C.

Find the area of the shaded region bounded by the line, the curve and the x-axis.
y

6.

10

## A road hump is 40 cm wide and

10 cm high at its peak.
0

40

## A cross-section, as shown, is modelled by a function of the form kx(w x), where

w and k are constants.
(a)

## Find the values of w and k.

(b)

Use algebraic integration to estimate the volume of the hump, given that the road
is 6m wide.
SMP 2000 (9 marks)

Solutions
Straight lines 1. y = 2x 8
2. 2y = 5x 17
3. length 10, midpoint (1, 7)
4. A (8, 2)
5. a = 2, y = 3x 2
6. A(4, 3) B (6, 8)
7. (a) 3
(b) y 3 x 2 3
(d) 6
8. (a) 2x + y = 20
Surds

(c) 4 5

1. (a) 4 3

(b) 5 2 2

(c) 79 30 6

5
5

(b) 13 7 3

(c) 3 2 5

2. (a)
3.

(b) x 3y = 4

5
7
7

4. a = 30, b = 12, c = 6

(d) p 1

5. 14 5

## 1. (a) (0, 3) (b) (x 1)(x + 3) B (3, 0) C (1, 0) (c) (x + 1)2 4

f(x) = 4
2. (a)(i) (x + 3)2 16 (ii) (x 1)(x + 7) (c) x = 3
3. a = 1, b = 5, c = 10
4. (a) crosses at 1.36 and 4.64
(b) x = 3, a = 3 (c) b = 2.6896
5. (a) x = 0 or 3 (b) 2 3
6. p = 2

1
4
7. y 49 or 49

13

8. k = 9 or 9

Inequalities

5 1
2

(ii) p =

(ii)

5
5
x
3
3

2. (a) x 4 19

## (b) x = 8.5, x 4 19 (c) x 8.5 or 4 19 x 4 19

3. (a) 1 13 , 1 13 (b) x < 1 13 or x > 1 13
4. (a) x < 2.5 (b) 0.5 < x < 5 (c) 0.5 < x < 2.5
Polynomials

## 1. 2x2 + 3x + 5 remainder 8 2. (a) k = 6 (b) f(x) = (x 3)(2x 1)(x + 2)

3. (a) f(5) = 200, f(5) 0 so (x 5) is not a factor (b) a = 3, b = 26,
5
c = 35, f(x) = (x + 5)(3x 5)(x 7) (c) 5 x or x 7
3
4. (a) (x + 2) (b) (x + 2)(5x2 + 14x + 1) (c) x = 2 or x =
5. (a) p = 11, q = 5

Circles:

1. (a)
3. (a)
4. (a)
5. (a)
6. (a)

6. a = 1, b = 4

(b) 3

(5, 3) (b) 7
a = 4, b = 5 (b)
(x 1)2 + (y 7)2
(2, 11) 10 (b)

7 44
5

## 2. (a) (i) (0, 5) (b) 3y = 4x

(x 4)2 + (y 5)2 = 25 (c) 4x + 3y = 6
(b) (9, 4)
= 169
(b) 5x + 12y +80 = 0
2
(x 2) + (y 11)2 = 10

## Simultaneous equations: 1. (a) x = 2, y = 3 (b) y = x + 1 is a tangent to the circle,

since there is just one solution point
2. x = 1, y = 2
3. x = 1 and y = 2 or x = 2 and y = 1
4. 4 10
5. (b)(i) (1, 5) (ii) m < 5 (iii) one, (2, 11)
6. (a) (x + 3)2 + (y 4)2 = 18 (b) x = 2 8 , y = 5 8 (c) 8
7. A (2, 11) B (2, 11)
Differentiation:

1. y = 2x + 6 2. y = px + q 3. (a) 15x2 4x
4
(b) x = 0 or x =
4. w = 5.657 cm, V = 758.08 cm3
15
5. (a) m = 1, n = 3 (b) (2, 30) and (2, 34) 6. (a) 3x2 10x + 5
1
7
(b)
(c) y = 2x 7 (d) R (0, 7) S (3.5, 0) RS =
5
2
3
7. (a) 4x3 16x (b) (0, 3) (2, 13) (2, 13)
(c) (0, 3) maximum ( 2 , 13) minima (d) x + 12y + 47 = 0

Integation:

1. (a)

3 2
x
2

x3
3

+ c (b) 4.5

2. (a) 4 (b) 2 2

## 5. (a) (1, 0) (5, 0) (6, 5) (b) 10

14

1
6

3. 4.5

6. (a) w = 40, k =

1
40

4. 5

(b) 0.16 m3