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# RF basic P3

## 1. What is power & bandwidth efficiency?

Power efficiency: If we increase the signal power than fidelity will increase but it has to
be traded off with Amplifier linearity. We dont want the amplifier high gain in non linear
region cause in that region thermal noise increases.
Bandwidth efficiency:QPSK<8PSK in terms of bandwidth efficiency why ?Efficiency
=data rate/Hertz.But in terms of fidelity 8PQSK<QPSK.
2. What is speech and channel coding?
Increasing encoding will increase bits(suppose using convolution 1:2 )
50
Parity =3
132
Parity=4
78
189
189*2=378
456/8=57

78

speech is converted to a digital signal with a resolution of 13 bits, sampled at a rate of 8 kHz
this 104,000 b/s forms the input signal to all the GSM speech codecs. The codec analyses
the voice, and builds up a bit-stream composed of a number of parameters that describe
aspects of the voice. The output rate of the codec is dependent on its type (see Table 1),
with a range of between 4.75 kbit/s and 13 kbit/s. The full-rate codec is a regular pulse
excitation, long-term prediction (RPE-LTP) linear predictive coder that operates on a 20-ms
frame composed of one hundred sixty 13-bit samples.
1. 13bit*8Khz=104kbps but 104kbps or 2080 bits/20msec can not be transmitted so we
need to down it to 13kbps How?
2. First it break the bit streams into blocks N=1..N=160 block each with
13 bit sample so it becomes 160*13=2080 bits /20 msec
3. Second each 2080 bits of input signal passes through codec which makes 2080 bits
(every 8 bit compresses into 1 bit shown in the table) into 260 bits (Ia50 +Ib132+78)
which comes out of the codec.
Mhz

Mhz
935
25Mhz

Ch

960

BW

124
0.20161
3

156.25/0.57
7=
270.79/200=

270.797
2
1.35395

.577
200kh
z
0
Caller
1

57

.577
200kh
z
1
Caller
2

.577
200kh
z
2
Caller
3

26
57
4.616msec
.577 .577
200kh 200kh
z
z
3
4
Caller Caller
4
5

.577
200kh
z
5
Caller
6

.577
200kh
z
6
Caller
7

270
156.2
5
.577
200kh
z
7
Caller
8

The result from the process of A/D conversion is 8,000 samples persecond of 13 bits each. This is a bit rate of 104 kbits/s. When it is considered that 8 subscribers use one
20 sample/20msec
radio channel, theoverall bit rate would be 8 x 104 kbits/s = 832 kbits/s or 8Khz if GMSK is used. Recalling thegeneral rule of 1 bit per Hertz, this bit rate would not fit into the
1000 coding samples/sec
(after
the
200kHz available
for all
8 subscribers. The bit rate must be reducedsomehow - this is achieved using segmentation and speech coding.

## 13 bit/Coding sample*1000 samples/sec=13kbps/sec speech coding using Vocoder.These are

not sampling bits but coding bits.
13*20 bits/20msec
260bits/20msec
378+78=456
456/20msec=22.8kbps/sec channel coding
in GSM) which increases bandwidth occupancy(or decreases bandwidth efficiency) but
reduces required power level which keeps the power amplifier below its saturation curve and
as a result spurious signals are generated at minimum.
After encoding we have 156.25/0.577msec=270kbps.
Where does 270kbps come from?
C=Blog2(1+S/N) shanons law
S/N=10 db ,S/N=10,C=Blog2(1+10),C=200*1000log2(1+10),C=691.866kbps
3. What is the difference between sine and Square wave in frequency domain?
Why TA can be maximum 120km.For extended TA
the 2nd TS is kept free.The maximum bits now
become 63+156=219 or 219 *550=120km

## 4. Why do we use GMSK modulation?What type of amplifier is used?what is contstant

envelop?Why it is important?Class C non-leanear.
It has spectrul efficiency.

it can be amplified by a non-linear amplifier and remain undistorted. This means that
the power consumption for a given output is much less, and this results in lower
levels of battery consumption; a very important factor for cell phones.

It is immune to amplitude variations and therefore more resilient to noise, than some
other forms of modulation, because most noise is mainly amplitude based.

b. No discontinious phsae changes.the max and min value attained by the signal is
constant.
c.Constant envelop suffers less distortation in high power amplifier.
d. Because of the effect of the linear phase change, the power spectral density has
low
side lobes that help to control adjacent-channel interference
5. What is Zero crossing RF bandwidth of a baseband pulse signal?T=41.06sec
So the Null to Null bandwidth 2/41.06sec=48.71khz. So when we pass through the
signal through Cosine filter it becomes 1/T(1+)=32.88 khz when =0.35 Can we see
the difference in bandwidth needed and usage for filter usage?
6. What is the shape of GMSK?

7. What is MSK signal? How it is different from GMSK?why do we use filter(for spectral
efficiency)?what is spectral effieciency(99% power is confined in allocated bandwidth)?

When MSK
signal is sent
through a
Gaussian
filter it
becomes
GMSK.
8. Why do we use Gaussian filter?Because of spectral efficiency.first of all it is hard to make
pulse shaped filter and Pulse shape signal consumes more bandwidth and has poor inter
symbol interference rejection ,How do we know? From Fourier transform. A pulse shape
signal in frequency domain looks like Sinx/x which consumes more bandwidth
9. Why do we use Fourier transform? To check the signal behavior .
1. What is the signal amplitude at fundamental frequency.3rd harmonics 5th harmonics .
2. What is the shape of the signal and how much bandwidth is consumed in frequency
domain.
10. In GMSK 2 questions
1. How much %power we need in bandwidth.
2. What is the raise cosine factor? Why it is important?
BT
0.2
0.2
5
0.5

90
%
0.5
2
0.5
7
0.6
9

99
%
0.7
9
0.8
6
1.0
4

99.9
0%

99.9
9%

0.99

1.22

1.09

1.37

1.33

2.08

MS
K

0.7
8

1.2

2.76

## Filter produces=.25,data rate=270kbps,90% power efficiency needed.

T=1/270=3.7sec.
BT=.25,B=.25/3.7=67.657 Khz 3db
At BT=.25,90% POWER EFFCICIENCY
RF BW occupancy =.57( FROM THE CHART)*270=153Khz
The square the wave the more bandwidth it needs in the frequency domain