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FOOD SERVICE LAYOUT AND DESIGN

3RD YEAR F&B SERVICE & MANAGEMENT


The Food Service space type includes cafeterias, sandwich shops, coffee shops, fast food retail, and other food services that involve the
preparation and handling of food items for the consumer. Food Service space types are distinguished from other spaces where food
may be vended (such as employee lounges) by the health and sanitation requirements related to the handling of unpackaged food
products and/or processing of non-disposable dishware.
SPACE ATTRIBUTES
Unique to the Food Service space type is a floor plan that must accommodate several distinct areas, each with specialized equipment
and HVAC requirements. These areas include: food production, service, and dining; receiving and storage; and space for general
circulation and other support areas. The integration of these systems should also facilitate proper cleaning and sanitation of all spaces
where food is handled. Typical features of Food Service space types include the list of applicable design objectives elements as outlined
below.
Aesthetics
1. Dining Areas: These areas typically can include entry, waiting, seating, and condiment support. These areas will typically be
designed for consumer comfort and will include aesthetic features such as ambient lighting and durable finishes. A clear circulation
plan within and around the dining areas will allow for simultaneous circulation of patrons and staff.
2. Functional / Operational
Service Areas: Service areas typically include the tray service lines, counters; packaged goods display, beverage dispensing, check
out, and service ware dispensing.
Receiving and Storage Areas: These areas typically include dedicated food service docks, general dry goods storage, ventilated
storage, and refrigerator and freezer storage (pre-manufactured modular units with integrated shelving). Design for a live load of 150
2
lbs. /sf (732.4 kgf/m) in these areas.
General Support Areas: Support areas can include but are not limited to areas where little food production is taking place such as
administration and staff areas for the dietician and manager offices, procurement and budget offices, staff lockers and toilets, staff
lounge, and staff dining areas.
Sanitation and HVAC Requirements: The sanitation system for the Food Service space type generally will include the following
areas of specialized equipment: dish wash, pot wash, garbage disposal, and janitor service. To ensure heat and odors associated with
food preparation and handling do not permeate throughout the building, this space type requires a 20% increase in cooling capacity
above building shell and core provisions, and a separate air return. Kitchen areas will have their own air handler units and dry chemical
system hoods. In food production areas, provide ducted exhaust (welded black steel construction) to all cooking equipment hood vents
with filter systems at discharge to reduce cooking odors.
3. Productive
Food Production Areas: Food production areas generally refer to preparation, cooking, pantry, and bakery areas. Equipment typically
found in food production areas includes: modular refrigerator/freezer unit, a cooking section with eight burner range, broiler,
salamander, deep-fat-fryer, roasting oven, steam kettles, steam cookers, mixer, pot rack, slicer, can opener, scale, knife rack, cook's
table, spice bin, utensil shelves, hot food tables, mobile dish storage and a baker section with baker's bench, mobile bins, worktables,
scale, mixer, bowl doll, tilting steam kettle, lighted oven, batch warmer, can opener, dough divider, dough roller, humidified proof box,
power sifter, utility carts, dish carts, pastry stove, and bread slicer.

The four types of foodservice systems are Conventional, Commissary, Ready Prepared, and Assembly/serve

Conventional: restaurant: quality control, more adaptable to regional, ethnic and individual preference then others system,
economically greater flexibility less freezer storage distribution cost are minimal and save in energy cost. Conventional Disadvantage is
Stressful work day, meal period demand; menu is different and long hours.
Commissary is distinguished by Central production kitchen for large use, e.g. airlines, city schools, chain restaurant. The
advantages are cost saving, quarterly control. The Disadvantage is contamination can occur, costly to hire a microbiologist.
Ready Prepared is Prepare on premises, chilled or frozen and stored for use later, place of preparation not place of service
food and is not for immediate use. The Disadvantage is need large cold storage, energy cost expensive for chill method. Ready
prepared mass production freezing reduce labor cost, production to meet future demand, less skilled workers
Assembly/ serve kitchen fully prepared food purchased and require only storage. Build in labor savings.
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Customers require a high meal experience, one which meets their needs and tastes at that time. The capacity, efficiency and quality of
the operation will be markedly affected by the layout and design and this should be a consideration from the start. The sub-systems as
listed below of a Food Service system should be listed and coordinated to achieve high meal experience. The extents of sub-systems
depend on the types of foodservice systems (Conventional, Commissary, Ready Prepared, and Assembly/serve).
Typical Food Service Sub-systems:
Kitchen
1. Goods delivery/receipt
2. Raw material storage
3. Preparation
4. Cooking
5. Chilling/freezing

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Refrigeration
Hot-holding
Portioning
Wash-up
Waste disposal

Restaurant
1. Table preparation
2. Service
3. Consumption
4. Some preparation (e.g. guridon)
5. Cleaning

Compiled by Srinibas Jena (HOD F&B Service) BSHMT UUC (3rd year BTHS F&B Service and Management)

General
1. Toilets
2. Washrooms
3. Cloakrooms
4. Bar
5. Lounge
6. Waiting area
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The layout of a food service operation depends upon the nature of the processes (Cook Fresh, Cook/Hot hold, Cook Serve)
or Sub-systems. Flow of raw materials, partly prepared foods and finished products should be as linear and logical as possible. There
should be no need for delays in processing or service (e.g., caused by waiting for lifts) and storage capacity should be conveniently
located. Good layout and integration of production and service functions is also essential to the hygiene, health and safety of the
operation.
Design of a food service facility must allow for adequate capacity in the processing, transport and storage of raw materials, process
intermediates and finished products. Processes based upon pre-cooked materials, such as Fast Food Stores, may be able to operate a
just-in-time system of delivery, thus avoiding much material storage.
Facility design should seek to minimize non-productive work activity, such as unnecessary movements of personnel, equipment or
materials. Restaurant layout improves the teamwork, morale an efficiency of service staff. Kitchens designed to be visible to customers
increase customer confidence about the quality and safety of the food.
Another important design aspect is the availability of toilets, bars, cloakrooms and other services. The sanitation system for the Food
Service space type generally will include the following areas of specialized equipment: dish wash, pot wash, garbage disposal, and
janitor (cleaning) service. HVAC or Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning should ensure comfort to achieve high quality meal
experience. Food service premises should also have ecological pest control features such as oversite (A layer of concrete that is

laid below a slab or flooring to prevent the ground beneath from being disturbed, to block out air and moisture, and to
provide a hard, level surface for subsequent flooring layers) concreting, pest-proof drains and outlets, and external paths
adjacent to walls.

KITCHEN DESIGN FACTORS


Foodservice operations contain TWO types of process. Production operations output a tangible product without being aware of the
process by which it is made. Service operations generally have no tangible product, and the customer is not only aware of, but actually
participates in the process. The main requirements are efficiency, quality, health and safety.
Kitchen Space Allocation: Space is at a premium in most kitchens, because it represents an opportunity cost in restaurant space or
other revenue-earning customer facilities. Space is required in the kitchen for personnel to work and to move about, for locating
equipment, and for the transport and storage of materials. The general rule is that for every seat in the restaurant is necessary to
provide at least 5 square feet of kitchen space. This means that in restaurant with 60 seats restaurant kitchen should take area of 300
square feet.
It's important to remember that banquet seating may use as little as 10 square feet per person, while fine dining may require 20
square feet per person. It is common for most restaurants or coffee shops with that have a general menu to average about 15 square
feet per person. This is taking into account space needed for traffic aisles, wait stations, cashier, etc.
Example: A space of 5000 square feet 200 seats 60% Dining Area = 3000 square feet 40% Kitchen = 2000 square feet

There are no hard and fast rules for calculating kitchen area or space. However as a suggestion rules or thumb is 0.56 sq. m or 6 sq.
ft. of floor area per person should be accommodated in the dining room at the sketch plan stage. This figure is arrived at by assuming
that 50 % of the area allowed in assessing the size of the dining room is 1.10 sq. m. or 12 sq. ft. per person which includes tables,
passageways etc. for e.g. if the floor area of the restaurant is 2000 sq. ft. then kitchen space should be approximately 1000 sq. ft.
(1) Kitchen space allowed
per meal served

(2) Mean kitchen space allowance


per meal served (meters2)

Minimum
no. of
meals
Served in
busiest
period
100
200
300
400

Range of
space
requirement
Per meal
(meters2)

Approx.
nos.
of
meals

200

300

600

1000

0.66-1.20
0.54-1.00
0.46-0.88
0.41-0.75

0.58
1.00
1.00
0.58

0.42
0.76
0.49
0.33

0.35
0.72
0.42
0.26

0.30
0.65
0.33
0.23

500

0.37-0.66

Cafeteria
Hospital
Hotel
Industrial
restaurant
Full service
restaurant

0.65

0.40

0.40

0.37

600
700
800
900
1000

0.34-0.60
0.32-0.52
0.29-0.47
0.26-0.42
0.24-0.40

For reference: The general seating guidelines that should be observed are:

Fine Dining:
18 20 Square Feet

Full Service Restaurant Dining:


12 15 Square Feet

Counter Service:
18 20 Square Feet

Fast Food Minimum:


11 14 Square Feet

Table Service, Hotel/Club:


15 18 Square Feet

Banquet, Minimum:
10 11 Square Feet
For safety reasons and to allow for the free flow of traffic for diners and servers,
the traffic path between occupied chairs should be at least 18 wide and you should leave
at least 4 5 feet per table, including chair space. This allows for free movement of
servers between stations and the kitchen and provides enough comfortable room for the
guests to move around. It is very important for safety reasons that there is enough
space for the guest and staff to move around and that the aisles are clear,
especially in case there is a fire.

Determining the area for the wait stations should also be taken into account when designing your floor plans. One small station should
take up 6 10 square feet, sufficient for 20 diners. One large central station should be anywhere from 25 40 square feet. This would be
sufficient for 60 diners. If the restaurant will have a bar, in determining the length one should allow for 1 foot 8 inches to 1 foot 10 inches
per person for standing room only. If one is going to have seating at the bar, there should be a distance of 2 feet between bar stools.

In the above listed table 1 as a rule of thumb the production of 100 meals requires an area per meal about 3 times that for 1,000
meals i.e. 100 meals require 0.66-1.20 (meters2) to 1000 meals require 0.24-0.40 (meters2).
Kitchen space allowances usually also vary with the type of operation. This may be due to its diversity. Room Service and the
supply of vended meals may also increase space requirements. Typical variations are shown in Table 2. Other factors affecting kitchen
space requirements include the type of raw materials and equipment used and the diversity of the menu. Prepared food items require
less space compared to raw food items as fruits, vegetables as these require different storage temperatures and storage conditions.
Thus prepared food items require less inventory and administration costs, as well as better food hygiene control.
Compiled by Srinibas Jena (HOD F&B Service) BSHMT UUC (3rd year BTHS F&B Service and Management)

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Use of machines, in particular, cooking and reheating equipment, such as ovens and brat pans increase efficiency and reduce
requirement of manpower, thus saves space in form of elbow room for cooks. In general, an extensive menu requires a greater space
allocation than a limited one.
Placement of Work Centers:

Key to proximity ratings


Very important
4
Moderately important
3
Desirable
2
Occasionally needed
1
Not needed
0

WorkCentre relationship chart


Relationship diagram for kitchen work centers
A principal objective of kitchen planning is ergonomic efficiency, that is to say the optimum use of workers activity within the
environment. One way to achieve this is to make movement between the different SUB-SYSTEMS or work centers of the operation as
efficient as possible. Relationship Charts provide numerical estimates of ideal work-center proximities; and designers convert their
information to a more accessible form by drawing an activity relationship diagram, based upon the chart. The different sub-systems or
work-centers are drawn as circles, joined by the number of lines indicated in the appropriate box on the relationship chart. Workcenters which are linked by a large number of lines should be placed close together as shown in above diagram.
Movement of Materials and Personnel:
Movement is essential for work. Space is required by personnel
for sitting or standing, to perform the actions demanded by the
work, to move them from place to place and to move equipment
and materials about. A proper flow will prevent backtracking by
personnel, decreased productivity and inefficient use of labor. It is
important to distinguish between the different ways space is to be
used. In practice there are THREE categories: work space, work
aisles and traffic lanes, defined as follows:
Work space (600 mm) refers to the actual space where the work is performed. It includes the elbow room required for
manipulating materials, but not floor space.
Work aisles (750 mm) are areas where workers stand or sit to perform work. They permit access to form the work space and
provide the work related movement, for instance from tables to ovens. Aisles may also permit a number of workers to operate as a
team, passing items to one another, or sharing equipment.
Traffic lanes (900 mm) are major routes along which work flows. They are usually designed to be straight as possible and should be
wide enough to permit quick, safe passage of trolleys, trays and group of personnel. Traffic lanes are used for both raw and prepared
food items movement, movement of fresh and soiled equipment like crockery, cutlery and pots.
ARRANGEMENT OF WORK CENTERS often includes tables or surfaces as well as large equipment items. TWO layout options are:
side by side and back to back. The side by side in figure B & D indicates how space could be saved. Figures A, D and E show how
back to back layout can reduce human movement while preparing food items. A combination or any one type may be considered for
arrangement of work centers in a kitchen.
LINEAR WORKFLOW is recommended as a means of maximizing process hygiene and efficiency. The basic style recommended by
environmental health authorities is listed here. The linear workflow can be incorporated into workable plan involving variety of workcenters and traffic lanes.
ENVIRONMENTAL SEPARATION must be practiced to keep restaurant protected from kitchen clatter as this spoils guest meal
experience. HVAC factors are better achieved by following a layout as shown here. From food hygiene point of view, a food service
operation can be divided into clean and dirty areas. The dirty areas could be defined as anywhere where personnel, equipment or
food might become contaminated. Typical dirty areas are lavatories, washrooms, raw meat and vegetable stores and preparation areas,
storage or collection points for waste, the dish washing area of the restaurant. Clean Areas are locations where cooked and ready-toeat food s are handled and stored, such as HOT-HOLDING, plating-up, cooking and salad assembly areas. Clean and Dirty Areas can be
physically separated with shoulder-high partition walls, and staff should not be obliged to move back and forth between them. The
significance of hygienic layout, work flow and process design should be explained at Staff Training sessions. For example; staffs could
be motivated to use installed hand basins after changing their street clothes as way to ensure work-place hygiene.
RESTAURANT DESIGN FACTORS: The restaurant represents the service aspect of a Food Service Operation. Aesthetics and
customer perception are the foremost issues in restaurant design. Aesthetics center around the desired atmosphere or ambiance the
blend of dcor, lighting and music which enhances the meal experience. The objective of design is to resonate or harmonize with the
product concept, menu and style of service. For example, seafood restaurants may decorate with fish nets or buoys; units offering
Mexican-style food may feature sombreros and ponchos. A successful style often requires a careful balance between the tasteful and
the outrageous.
Compiled by Srinibas Jena (HOD F&B Service) BSHMT UUC (3rd year BTHS F&B Service and Management)

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Compiled by Srinibas Jena (HOD F&B Service) BSHMT UUC (3rd year BTHS F&B Service and Management)

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Notes:
1)
(HVAC stands for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, the three main functions of a home comfort system. A complete system can
control air temperature, humidity and fresh air intake and maintain the quality of the air in your home.)
2)
(HACCP- Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is an internationally recognized system for reducing the risk of safety hazards in
food. A HACCP System requires that potential hazards are identified and controlled at specific points in the process. This includes biological, chemical or
physical hazards. Any company involved in the manufacturing, processing or handling of food products can use HACCP to minimize or eliminate food
safety hazards in their product.)
3)

The Five Ms of Concept Development SUCCESS: MARKET, MANAGEMENT, METHOD OF EXECUTION, MONEY and MENU

Money

-step process
investors
Menu
preparation

ing commitments from


Management
have?

ty, and what skills and experience must he/she


-operated, or will a contract management firm be

involved?
position)
rs of operation be handled?
facility
Method of Execution

Feasibility: Related Approaches


ate a reasonable profit?

costing);
sales management systems (cash control); service systems (reservations)

4)

investors expectations for financial return?


ained earnings

The following are the Key steps for designing a kitchen:


Determine a basic menu design or a pattern.
Estimate menu items to be prepared according to demand.
Consider food purchasing policies.
Ascertain the size, no., and type of equipment needed to process the menu style and type of dishes chosen.
From the specification of equipment compute the amount of space required to house the equipment required.
Determine layout equipment departmentally according to food flow analysis and frequency of used.
The peak food purchasing requirement must be determined.
Determine and allocate floor space required for refrigeration and dry store purposes as a ratio to total space available.
Estimate the dining room space by analyzing the peak patron loads and average seat turnover during these periods for any
given restaurant.
10. Allocate service area space within the kitchen by considering a menu, peak load requirements, patrons needs and type of
service offered.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Compiled by Srinibas Jena (HOD F&B Service) BSHMT UUC (3rd year BTHS F&B Service and Management)

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