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Lesson 2-2 Subsets and Set Operations

Objectives:
Define the complement of a set.
Find all subsets of a set.
Use subset notation
Find the number of subsets for a set
Find intersections, unions, and differences of sets
Find the Cartesian product of two sets

A. Basic Concepts

A universal set, symbolized by U, is the set of all potential elements under


consideration for a specific situation.
The complement of set A, symbolized A , is the set of elements contained in the
universal set that are not in A. Using set-builder notation, the complement of A
is A x x U and x A.

Let U = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90} and A = {10, 30, 50}.
Find A and draw a Venn diagram that illustrates these sets.
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B. Subsets and Proper Subsets Video for B 1-2

If every element of a set A is also an element of set B, then A is called a subset


of B. The symbol is used to designate a subset. In this case, we write A B.
o Every set is a subset of itself. Every element of a set A is of course an
element of set A, so, A A.
o The empty set is a subset of EVERY set.

If a set A is a subset of set B and is not equal to B, then we call A a proper


subset of B, and write A B.

Lesson 2-2 Subsets and Set Operations


1. Find all subsets of A = { American Idol, Survivor}

2. Find all proper subsets of { x, y, z}.

State whether each statement is true or false. Video


3. { 1, 3, 5} {1, 3, 5, 7}
4. { a, b} {a, b}
5. { x | x N and x > 10} N
6. { 2, 10} { 2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
7. {r, s, t} {t, s, r }
8. {Lake Erie, Lake Huron} The set of Great Lakes
9. { 5, 10, 15}
10. {u, v, w, x} {x, w, u}
11. {0}
12.
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Lesson 2-2 Subsets and Set Operations

C. The Number of Subsets of a Set

If a finite set has n elements, then the set has 2n subsets and 2n- 1 proper subsets.

Find the number of subsets and proper subsets of the set


{1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11}
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D. The Intersection and Union of Sets


The intersection of two sets A and B, symbolized by A B , is the set of all elements
that are in both sets. In set builder notation,
A B {x | x A and x B}
Note: The word and means intersection

When the intersection of two sets is the empty set, the sets are said to be disjoint. For
example, the set of students who stop attending class midway through a term and the set
of students earning As are disjoint, because you cant be a member of both sets.

The union of two sets A and B, symbolized by A B , is the set of all elements that are
in either set A or set B (or both). In set builder notation,
A B {x | x A or x B}
Note: The word or means union

Lesson 2-2 Subsets and Set Operations

E. The Difference of Two Sets


The difference of set A and set B is the set of elements in set A that are not in set B. In
set-builder notation, A B {x | x A and x B} .

F. The Cartesian Product of Two Sets


The Cartesian Product (denoted A B ) of two sets A and B is formed by writing all
possible ordered pairs in which the first component is an element of A and the second
component is an element of B. Using set-builder notation,
A B {x, y | x A and y B}

Let U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k}, A = {a, b, d, e, f}, B = {a, g, i, j, k} and


C = { e, h, j}. Find each.
1. A B Video

2. B C

3. B

4.

A B

5. A B C Video

Lesson 2-2 Subsets and Set Operations


Let U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k}, A = {a, b, d, e, f}, B = {a, g, i, j, k} and
C = { e, h, j}. Find each.
6. A B Video for 6, 7

7. B C

8. A B C Video

9. A B C Video

10. A B Video for 10-12

11. C A

12. n(A C)