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Vlkov Petra

H&P (2002) pp. 235-250


SUBJECT (S)
- Is a functional element in the structure of a clause. S prototypically expresses the semantic role of agent. Distinctive grammatical properties of S:
a) Category: Prototypically NP. b) Position: The default position of S is before the predicator, external to the VP constituent. (S-P-O)
c) Case: In finite clauses a personal pronoun with distinct nominative and accusative forms are in the nominative when S, and accusative when O.
rd
d) Agreement: Person-number inflection in the verb is determined by agreement with the subject only in 3 person singular.
e) Subject-auxiliary inversion: In closed interrogative main clauses and various others constructions, S follows the predicator instead of preceding
it, as in canonical clauses. Predicator has to be an auxiliary verb. (She likes it. Does she like it?)
f) Open interrogatives: The interrogative element is S if the order is the same as in the declarative: Someone bought it. Who bought it?
g) Tags: Interrogative tags attached to a declarative clause (S pronoun agrees with S of that clause): The candidates know the minister, dont they?
h) Coordination: S can enter straightforwardly into construction with a VP-coordination: Sue tipped the letter and posted it herself.
i) Obligatoriness: S is an obligatory element. S is required in all canonical clauses. j) Uniqueness: There can be no more than one S per clause.
Subject in non-canonical clauses
The passive and preposing constructions
Preposing changes the order of elements. Passivisation affects the rolefunction alightment.
Subject-auxiliary inversion and subject postposing
i The financial arguments(S) had been equally flawed. [bacis]
ii Had the financial arguments(S) been equally flawed? [post-auxiliary]
iii Equally flawed had been the financial arguments(S). [postposed]
Difference is only in the order of elements.
d

The extraposition and existential constructions


i a. That he loved her was obvious to everyone. [canonical]
b. It was obvious to everyone that he loved her. [extraposition c.]
ii a. Several options are open to us.
[canonical]
b. There are several options open to us.
[existential c.]
S of the extraposition and existential construction are it and there.
That he loved her in i a. and several options in ii b. are the extraposed
S and the displaced S (semantically like S, but they are not interpreted
as kinds of S).

DIRECT (O ) AND INDIRECT (O ) OBJECTS (O)


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- O is a core complement contrasting with S and predicative complement; O (internal) and S (external). O occurs in monotransitive and ditransitive
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clauses X O occurs in canonical clauses only in ditransitive. Characteristically O in ditransitives is obligatory while O is omissible.
The object in canonical monotransitive clauses : O is prototypically NP. Obligatoriness is selective: Transitive verbs require OO is non-omissible.
O of an active clause prototypically corresponds to S of a related passive passive test is sufficient but not necessary. O stands prototypically
immediately after predicator.
Object and extraposed object: Extraposed O is not a kind of O. It is semantically like an O, but does not fill that position syntactically.
Ditransitive clauses:
Alternation with prepositional construction: Most ditransitive clauses have alternants with a single O and a PP complement with to or for.
Oi and Od distinguished by order: When both objects follow P their relative order is fixed, with Oi preceding Od.
Ditransitives and their related passives: In the first passive S corresponds to the first O and in the second passive S corresponds to the second O.
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First passive is prefered over the second: Sue was sent a copy. [first p.] X A copy was sent to Sue. [second p.]
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Ditransitivie O and O compared with monotransitive O : Ditransitive O has greater syntactic afinity with monotransitive O than does O . O is in
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prenuclear position and is not found in canonical clauses without O . In canonical clauses containing just one O, that O is always O .
Dukov (1994) pp. 390-422
PODMT
- Je zkladn a pro stavbu anglick vty nezbytn vtn len. V anglick oznamovac vt stoj ped psudkem, v otzce obvykle za psudkem.
- Podmt se shoduje s psudkem pouze ve 3. os. j. . (s vjimkou modlnch sloves a be). Zvislost mezi podmtem a psudkem je vzjemn.
- Podmt je v anglitin zvazn v nepedmtovm tvaru a nejastji je vyjden podstatnm jmnem nebo zjmenem.
Podmtov it: deiktick: Is it your suitcase? a anaforick (it zastupuje dve uveden substantivum): I changed for dinner but it was unnecessary.
There: rozliujeme podmtov a adverbiln: There are some quite ordinary trees there.
Smantika: ivotn podmt nejastji vyjaduje konatele dje. U jinch sloves ne aknch je trpitelem, nositelem stavu, recipientem apod.
PSUDEK (PREDIKT)
- Zkladn vtn len, spolu s podmtem m v anglitin vtotvornou funkci. Pevn se vyjaduje slovesem uritm. Neslovesn realizace psudku
je pedevm v jednolenn a dvojlenn vt slovesn.
Shoda podmtu a psudku: Ve sponovch vtch je podmt a psudek zpravidla ve stejnm sle. Li-li se slo podmtu a psudku, shoda
psudku je podle podmtu. Je-li podmt vyjden vtou uvozenou pomoc what, vyskytuj se oba tvary. Po vcensobnm podmtu z len v
singulru spojench spojkou and je psudek ve tvaru plurlu. M-li koordinovan podmt pouze jednoho referenta, je sloveso v singulru. Jsou-li
koordinovan substantiva oznaujc jeden pojem nepoitateln abstrakta, dv se pednost singulru. Pi koordinaci podmtu pomoc or se tvar
psudku d tvarem lena ble ke slovesu. Po either je singulr. Po podmtu koordinovanm pomoc neither nor je singulr. Vrazy oznaujc
asov dob, vzdlenost, mnostv apod. se konstruuj jako singulr. Po podmtu vyjdenm infinitivem, gerundiem nebo vtou vedlej je
psudek v singulru.
Psudek verbln: realizovan pouze slovesnm tvarem. Psudek intranzitivn a Psudek s doplnnm pedmtov povahy.
Psudek verbonominln: Slovesn tvar je disociovn do dvou sloek, formln, sponov, kter je nositelem slovesnch kategori, a vznamov,
vyjden jmennou st psudku.
Predikace: 1) kvalifikujc: This view is erroneous. 2) identifikujc: The first president of the USA was George Washington. 3) klasifikujc: Her brother
is a radio announcer. 4) posesivn: pomoc slovesa have.
Be+ adjektivum: Predikace kvalifikujc se nejastji vyjaduje psudkem skldajcm se z be+ adjektiva: Books in hard binding are expensive.
Be+ substantivum: Vyjaduje predikaci identifikujc: The highest mountain of Great Britain is Snowdon. a zaazujc: He was a famous collector.
Sponov slovesa pat bu k typu be bt, tj. vyjaduj setrvn v njakm stavu, nebo k typu become stt se, tj. vyjaduj zmnu stavu.
- Have chpeme jako sponov sloveso tehdy, kdy je jeho posesivn vznam do t mry oslaben, e s pedmtem vyjdenm djovm jmnem tvo
jednu smantickou jednotku, nahraditelnou slovesem z nho je pedmtov jmno odvozeno. (to have a smoke/ to smoke)
Frzov modifikace prediktu vytk nkterou fzi dje: potek, pokraovn nebo konec, pot nsleduje infinitiv nebo gerundium.