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# Edexcel AS Physics

1)

12.5 m s1

2)
a) 0.018 s
b) 0.036 m
Speed

3)
a)

Mamun sir
5 m s1

Speed

b)

Time t

t = 5s

Time t

1)
a)

380 km

b)

34 km North

2) 2.5 m s2

Mamun Sir

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## 1.1.1 Describing Motion

Edexcel AS Physics

## 1.1.1 Describing Motion

1)
a)

Speed /m s1

20

10

0
50

10

100

150

200
Time/s

Mamun sir

20

b)
i. 1800 m forwards
ii. 1400 m forwards
iii. 1 m s2; 0.5 m s2; 1 m s2; 1 m s2

## Equations of Motion Answers

1) Unless the pedestrian gets out of the way, there will be a collision.
2)
a) 10 m s2
b)
i)

45 m

ii) 3 s
c) 15 s
d) 24 m
e) 120 m (to 2 s.f.)
Moving in More Than One Direction Using Vectors Answers

1) The relative velocity against wind increases their wind speed for a comparatively
low ground speed. Thus they dont have to hit the ground so fast but still get
enough lift from the wind passing over the wings.
Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics

## 2) 58 cm (to 2 s.f.) at an angle of 37 (2 s.f.) north of west.

3) 5.4 m s1 with a bearing 30 east of north.
Causes of Motion Answers
1) Examples such as a ball that is kicked will stop rolling, a puck on ice will
eventually slow and stop, and a clock pendulum needs a weight or a spring to
keep it ticking. The scientific explanation is that a friction acts to oppose the
motion, so a force is needed to overcome friction.

## Newtons First Law of Motion Answers

Mamun sir
1)
reaction force

forward force
from engine

drag forces

weight of
racing car

2)
reaction force

centre of gravity
of block

weight of
ruler

## Drag Forces Answers

1)

weight

2) At first the only vertical force acting on the skydiver is their weight. As the
skydiver gains speed the air resistance increases until this drag force is equal to
Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics

## 1.1.1 Describing Motion

the weight and the skydiver reaches a constant terminal velocity. When the
parachute is opened the air resistance increases hugely so there is a net force
upwards. This slows the skydiver down until once again the air resistance
balances the skydivers weight and the skydiver reaches a new, slower terminal
velocity.
Newtons Second Law of Motion Answers

1)
a)
Acceleration a /m s2

1.20
1.00
0.80 Mamun

sir

0.60
0.40
0.20
0

b)

Acceleration a /m s2

Force F/N

1.00

0.50

0
0

c)

0.5

1.0
1.5
1/mass /kg 1

2.0

## For part a the gradient is 2.0 m s2 N1.

For part b the gradient is 0.5 m s2 kg.

d) Acceleration is proportional to the applied force for constant mass, and also to the
reciprocal of mass for a constant force (it is inversely proportional to the mass).
2) Mass of locomotive (m) = 70 tonnes = 70 000 kg
2
Rate of acceleration of locomotive (a) = 1 m s .
Force exerted by locomotive (F) = 70 000 kg 1 m s2 = 70 000 N
3)
a)

Mass of woman = 60 kg
Acceleration = 14 m s2
Time = 0.15 seconds
v = u + at (equation 1)
14 = 0 + a 0.15
a = 14/0.15 = 93.3
Force = 60 kg 93.3 m s1 = 5600 N

Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics
b)

## Weight = 9.81 60 kg = 588.6 N. The force acting on the woman is

approximately 9.5 times as large as her weight.
Inertia, Mass and Weight Answers

1) When the bus accelerates, if the person is to accelerate with it a force must be applied. For
someone seated this comes from the reaction of the seat, but for someone standing it must
come from friction with the floor. This can result in the person being thrown forward or
backward, as they experience the force as if their feet were being pulled out from under
them, while their body remains in its original position.
2) 19.6 m
3) 1.6 N kg1
4)
a) 6.9 s

Mamun sir

## b) Yes. Sound would only take 0.69 s to reach the ground.

Newtons Third Law of Motion Answers
1)
a)

b)

1) 30 N
1)
a) 1.5 s (2 s.f.)
b) 19.9 m
c) 2.87 m
2) 2.4 m s1 (2 s.f.)
Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics

3) 93.4 m s1
4)
a) 6.4 s
b) 570 m
c) 110 m s1

## The Concept of Energy Answers

1) Energy is not lost, but is transferred to other forms such as heat and sound.
2) This method does not actually save energy, but simply allows energy generated
while there is less demand to be used to provide a source of energy when demand is
Mamun sir
high. The energy is stored as gravitational potential energy of the water in the higher
reservoir.
1)
a) Boiling water in a kettle.
b) Putting a can of paint on a shelf; stretching a spring.
2) 96 J (2 s.f.)
Energy and Efficiency Answers
1)
a)

4.1 m s1

b)

0.85 m

a)

22.6 J

b)

14.4 m

c)

15.8 m s1

2)

1) 2.2 kW
2) 2710 kW
3) 27.5 kW
HSW The Mechanics of Hockey Answers
21 N
1.13 s
1) 915 kg m3
2)

a) 0.82 g cm3
b) 820 kg m3

Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics

## 1.1.1 Describing Motion

3) Suitable estimates. For a room 3 m 8 m 8 m the mass of air would be 192 kg.
4) 0.54 N
5) The line for fresh water is higher on the hull because fresh water is less dense than salt
water. For a certain load, a ship will sink its lowest in fresh water, so this line needs to
show the lowest the ship can float safely.
6) Volume = 0.18/8000 = 2.25 105 m2
Upthrust = (800 vol) 9.81 = 0.17658 N
Weight = 0.18 9.81 = 1.7658 N
Tension = Weight upthrust = 1.7658 0.17658 = 1.6 N
Mamun sir
1) Hull of a racing yacht; racing bicycle; car body.
2)

streamline flow

turbulent flow

3) In summer the volume and rate of water flow is such that the creek flows smoothly
with streamline flow. In autumn, leaves floating on the water move following each
other exactly, indicating streamline flow. In winter there is no flow as the creek is
frozen, but with the spring and the thaw of snow the creek is full. The fast flowing
water flows turbulently, producing the eddies and currents described in the poem.
1) There is more resistance to movement in water than in air.
2) For gases there is an increase in viscosity with rise in temperature, but for liquids viscosity
decreases with rise in temperature.
3) Warmer water would be less viscous so swimmers could travel faster through the water.
4) The chocolate would flow more quickly at a higher temperature, allowing faster
production. It would also be thinner, so a thinner coating could be applied.
1) 1.98 103 N
2) The cat does not have a fixed shape. It may be moving and so the air resistance
will be constantly changing. Stokes law only applies to small spheres moving at
slow speeds.
Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics

## 1.1.1 Describing Motion

3)
a)

3.8 109 m s1

b)

6.0 108 m s1

4) The answers are clearly wildly wrong the meteorite is travelling faster than light! We
have assumed that the weight stays constant, that the gravitational force is constant,
that the meteorite has enough time to reach its terminal velocity, and that the
temperature of all the objects involved is constant at 20C. All these assumptions are
flawed. Stokes law does not apply for such a large object, or at such high speeds.
The Physical Properties of Solids Answers
1) 80 N m1
2)
a) F x

Mamun sir

b) 330 N m1
c) 34.5 mm
d) 5.04 103 J
3) 800 J
Characteristics of Solids Answers
1) The Young modulus is stress/strain. The unit of stress is N m2 (= Pascals) and strain is a
ratio and has no unit.
2)
a)

9.5 107 N m2

b)

5.6 104

c)

1.7 1011 N m2

a)

A metre of the wire under test (1000 mm original length) should not stretch
by more than 1 mm, for example.

b)

## Refer to description on pages 6667. The limitation in the amount of strain is to

ensure that the wire under test obeys Hookes law throughout the experiment.

c)

69.9 N

3)

## Characteristics of Solids II Answers

1)
a) elastic limit the point on a stressstrain (or forceextension) graph beyond
which the material will not return to its original size when the stress is removed.
b) plastic behaviour the region of the graph where stress produces permanent
deformation of the material.
c) Hookes law the straight-line portion of the graph where stress is proportional to
strain. Extension is proportional to the applied force. Hookes law is obeyed.
d) breaking stress the stress at which the material breaks.
e) compressive strain the strain (deformation) when a material is squashed.
Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics

Stress

## the material shows

plastic behaviour here

elastic
limit
in this region the materi al
obeys Hookes law

Strain

Mamun sir
2) 40 cm
3)
a) malleable a material whose shape can be changed permanently and shows
plastic deformation at low stress.. Example: gold, to make jewellery.
b) tough a material that can withstand high impact forces and absorbs a lot of
energy before breaking. Example: Kevlar, used for bullet-proof vests.
c) hard a material that cannot be scratched or dented easily. Example: diamond,
used for heavy duty cutting wheels.
d) ductile a material that can be pulled into wires with small stress required.
Example: copper, used for electrical wiring.
e) brittle a material that breaks without plastic deformation. Example: biscuits and
crisps, which are designed to break with a snap!
Materials in the Real World Answers
1)
a) Terminal velocity is inversely proportional to the viscosity, so the higher the
terminal velocity, the lower the viscosity.
b) The time for a small ball of a known diameter to fall a given distance is measured,
and from this the terminal velocity (from distance time) and hence the viscosity
can be calculated.
c) Manufacturers need to control flow rates of the liquid chocolate to achieve
consistent products with as little waste and as possible.
2) See practical described on page 59 of the Students Book.
3)
a) The maximum stress that can be applied to a material before it breaks.
b) You would want a material with a high breaking stress to protect against impact.
c) malleable no; ductile no; tough yes (will withstand impacts); brittle no;
strong yes (hard to break); hard yes (durable and hard to dent); stiff yes
(keeps its shape and hard to bend).
d)
Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics

## Types of Wave Answers

1) Transverse waves: light, ripples in water, vibration of a stretched string
Longitudinal waves: sound, mechanical waves in a slinky pushed back and forth,
seismic p waves.
2)
a) The movement of the energy that causes a wave.
b) A wave train has a definite beginning and an end, but a continuous wave goes on
forever (it is infinite).
3) For a large enough circle the curve approximates to a straight line.
Mamun sir

4)

## 5) In reality a wave cannot be infinite it must have a beginning and an end.

The Vital Statistics of a Wave Answers
1)

83 Hz

2)
a)

v=

s
t

v=

1.5 10 11
= 3 108 m s1
500

## v = 5.45 1014 550 109 = 3 108 m s1

b)

v = f

a)

360

b)

180

c)

()180

3)

Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics

## Behaviour of Waves Answers

1)

Mamun sir

2)
a) Second harmonic 82 Hz; third harmonic 123 Hz.
b) 86.9 m s1
3) If a bridge starts to vibrate at its resonant frequency the vibrations could become very
large and tear the structure apart. The engineers would need to ensure that the design did
not offer resonant frequencies that are likely to occur naturally.
Reflection at the End of a String Answers
1) The loudspeaker vibrates back and forth in the same direction as the propagation of the
sound. It physically pushes air molecules back and forth.
2)
a) 2.8 cm
b) 1.1 1010 Hz
3) The string is fixed at both ends. On reflection at the end any vibration undergoes a
180 phase change, so a positive displacement would change to a negative
displacement at the point of contact. The string is a physical object that cannot be
in two places at once, and so there must be zero displacement at the ends of the
string. Moreover, the incoming and reflected waves will always be in antiphase and
therefore completely cancel each other.
4) Capture the sound of both instruments playing the same pitch on an oscilloscope.
Although the shape of the waveform will be different, the main peaks should appear at the
same frequency, and hence indicate the same pitch.
Models of Waves and Their Properties Answers
Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics

## 1) Critical angles are: diamond 24.4, ice 49.8, benzene 41.8

2) 2.0 108 m s1
3) Place a semicircular glass block in a tank of water and shine a single ray of
light through the water into the glass block, at various angles of incidence. For
each, measure the angle of refraction within the glass. A graph of sin i against
sin r should produce a straight line with the gradient equal to the refractive
index. As per Student Practical 15 with the glass block resting underwater
instead of in air.
Diffraction and Interference Answers
1)

Mamun sir

2) There is interference between the signals from the two transmitters and she is
sometimes in places where the signals cancel out and in other places where there is
reinforcement.
3) Scientists determining the same conclusions independently, oblivious of each others
work, produce the strongest evidence for the veracity of scientific theories.
1) The signal is polarised, so the aerial needs to be in the correct orientation to pick up
the signal.
2) Sound waves are longitudinal and so cannot be polarised.
Light as a Wave Answers
1)
a) 7.5 1012 Hz
b) 4.3 1014 Hz
Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics

## 1.1.1 Describing Motion

c) 4.6 1020 Hz
2) He knew that light waves travelled through a vacuum, and oscillating electric charges
could create magnetic fields, and oscillating magnetic fields could move electric charges.
Applications of Electromagnetic Waves Answers
1)
a) 100 m to 1 m
b) To avoid reflection by the ionosphere and reach satellites which are outside the
atmosphere.
2) The atmosphere absorbs this UV wavelength, and so humans have never been naturally
exposed to it, so could not evolve cells that respond to it.
Mamun sir
3) Similarity: X-rays and gamma rays can have the same frequency.
Difference: X-rays produced by decelerating electrons while gamma rays are produced as
a result of energy change in the nucleus of an atom.
4) (Students' own answers)
1) The fact that light from other galaxies is Doppler shifted towards the red end of the
spectrum shows they are moving away from us. That virtually all galaxies show this red
shift indicates that the whole Universe is expanding.
2)
a) The sound is Doppler shifted. As the car approaches the frequency is raised and as it
moves away the frequency drops.
b) The driver is not moving with respect to the sound, so there is no shift in frequency.
Hubbles observations led to new idea of the origin and structure of the Universe.
1) Send a radio signal to the Moon and record the time taken for the reflected pulse to
return. Knowing the speed of the pulse and the time taken, the distance can be
calculated.
2) Both bats echolocation system and air traffic control radar use reflection from
the object to locate it. They are different in that the bat uses ultrasound and
frequency to calculate the speed of the moving object.
3) Distance away is 51 km; speed of movement of storm is away from the detector.
4) Pulse length method: l = v t = 1520 (1 106) = 0.00152
Resolution = half pulse length = 0.76 mm
Wavelength method: = v/f = 1520/(3 106) = 0.51 mm
So worst resolution = 0.76 mm

Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics

1) 240 C
2) 1.6 1019 C
3)

conventional
current

electron
movement

Mamun sir

## Energy and Electricity Answers

1)
a) The amount of energy supplied to each unit of charge in a circuit is the electromotive
force. 1 V = 1 J C1.
b) The pd is the amount of energy supplied by each unit of charge a measure of the
work being done.
2)
a) 1.5 V
b) 8 V
Resisting Current Flow Answers
1) Provided the temperature and other physical factors remain constant, the current through a
wire is proportional to the potential difference across its ends.
2) 120
3) An ohmic conductor obeys Ohms law, but a non-ohmic one does not the current is not
proportional to the potential difference across the conductor.
4) If the pd were plotted on the y-axis then the slope of the line would be equal to the
resistance.
5)

a) 4.4 107 m
Answers include difficulty in positioning the contacts, the fact that a ring doesnt usually have
a rectangular cross-section, so finding cross-sectional area is difficult, and the physical size of
the connecting crocodile clips, which would make determination of the area so inaccurate as
to render the answer useless.

Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics

## The Transport Equation Answers

1) 0.94 A
2) 1.92 1035 m3
Power and Work in Electric Circuits Answers
1) You know that from Ohms law V = IR, so by substituting for V in the equation
you can obtain P = I2R.

P = VI

2)
a) 0.065 W

Mamun sir

b) 2.5 kW
c) 0.065 W
Circuits Containing Resistors Answers
1)

The ammeters should show the same reading in all wires, as the charge is conserved.
2) Around a circuit the drop in potential energy where energy is supplied from the
flowing charges is matched by the rise in potential energy where energy is supplied to
the charges. There is no leaking of energy from the circuit.
3)

Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics

Mamun sir

## The Potential Divider Answers

1)
a) 7.2 V
b) 4 V across the 3000 resistor.
2) Arrange this as a potential divider circuit, with the contact across 0.62 of the length of the
80 resistance wire.
Sources of emf Answers
1) Because of the internal resistance of the power supply.
2) Plot voltage across the power supply against the current flowing will give a graph with
a gradient of r (where r is the internal resistance of the supply) and an intercept on
the voltage axis of the emf of the power supply.

1)
a)

Resistance

## Understanding Conduction Answers

Temperature/C

b) When the bulb filament becomes hot the lattice vibrates more and there are more
collisions between the conduction electrons, so the resistance increases.

Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics

## 1.1.1 Describing Motion

c) The average velocity is reduced because of the increase in collisions. This reduces the
current as it is proportional to drift velocity.
d) By extrapolating backwards there could be a temperature at which there is no
resistance.
2) A positive charge that is the result of an electron leaving an atom.
3) In n-type semiconductors the doping element donates electrons to provide negative
charge carriers, whereas in a p-type semiconductor the doping element traps electrons and
so introduces positive holes as charge carriers.
4) It provides more charge carriers over and above those present in the semiconductor
lattice.
5) In some semiconductors a rise in temperature frees more charge carriers, increasing
current, so the resistance
goes down.
Mamuneffectively
sir
A Brief History of Light Answers
1) Particle theory: Democritus, Newton
Wave theory: da Vinci, Grimaldi, Huygens, Hooke, Boyle, Young, Foucault
2) Foucaults work showed that light must travel more slowly in water than air, in direct
contradiction to the prediction of the particle theory.
3) Newton was a very influential scientist and his view was generally accepted.
4) A theory of waveparticle duality, in which light behaves as a wave and a particle in
different circumstances.
Wave or Particle? Answers
1)

a) 2.65 1018 J
b) 2.37 1015 J
c) 3.6 1019 J

2) 1.66 1020
3) From the worked example on this page, the solar flux = 1000 W m1. Area needed =
4.4 103 m2. Side length = 6.6 cm
4) The ultraviolet catastrophe was that at higher frequencies more and more energy
would be radiated by a black body, reaching infinity clearly impossible. Plancks
idea was that energy could only be absorbed or radiated in discrete quantities, not in
continuous amounts.
The Photoelectric Effect Answers

1) The photons of red light do not have enough energy to release an electron from the
surface of the zinc, but the photons of ultraviolet light do.
2)
Mamun Sir

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Edexcel AS Physics

## 1.1.1 Describing Motion

a) hf = + mv2 max Here h is Plancks constant, f is the frequency of the incident light,
is the work function of the metal surface, and mv2max is the maximum kinetic
energy of the photoelectron.
b) 3.0 1020 J
c) 2.6 105 m s1
d) 5.6 1014 Hz
3) As per the text and diagram on page 154.
4) Such a camera could be used to monitor dark areas (at night for example) and the results
used to provide evidence of need for policing.
Atomic Electron Energies Answers
Mamun sir
1)
a) Line spectra are made up of distinct lines of light with distinct frequencies. A
continuous spectrum is made of light of all frequencies.
b) Emission spectra show the radiation given out by electrons of an element as they move
from an excited state to one of lower energy. Absorption spectra are produced when
electrons absorb energy from light incident on the atom to move from a lower energy
level to a higher level.
c) Excitation is when an electron in raised to a higher energy level around the nucleus of
the atom. Ionisation is when an electron absorbs enough energy to escape completely
from the atom.
2) 120 nm
3) Each element has a unique structure of energy levels. As transitions can only occur
between these levels, each transition gives rise to a unique frequency of light
corresponding to the energy difference between two levels. In chemistry the distinct
colours given out by common elements when they are heated are used to identify them,
for example sodium gives out yellow light when it is heated, while potassium gives out
lilac light.
4) If a 10 eV photon was incident, then nothing would happen, as exactly 10.2 eV is needed
to lift the electron into the next energy level. 10 eV does not correspond to any allowed
transition. A 20 eV photon would ionise the hydrogen atom. Two 10 eV photons would
have no effect, as the energy must be supplied by a single photon.

## Solar Cells to Light the World? Answers

1) The energy from the Sun will not run out.
2) A variety of factors, for example cost, efficiency of cells, availability, reliability,
legislation.
3) 96 W.

Mamun Sir

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