For what was recorded in the Analects, when Confucius was traveling and teaching from state to state

, some of the rulers would come to him for advice as to how to govern. The answers he gave had more or less revolved around the following themes. The ruler must first rectify himself and govern virtuously in accordance with propriety and righteousness. If he elevates the upright and punishes the crooked, the state will become stable. But it is only when he enriches, educates, and gains the confidence of the people would the state come to enjoy peace and prosperity. The idea of government for the people was already there for all to see. Confucius on The Essentials of Government !n e"cerpt from The Six Patriarchs of Chinese Humanism !uthor# $eter %.&. Chan
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============================================= The first thing to note, said Confucius, is that to govern is to rectify. [ 政 者 , 正 也 , Analects 12:17] When the ruler rectifies himself, he can move the people without commands. Otherwise, none will o ey even if he orders them to do so. [其身 正 , 不 令 而 行 ; 其 身 不 正 , 雖 令 不 從 。 ! id. 13:6] For what is also known, when those who govern relish propriety and righteousness, no one will dare to diso ey or show disrespect. [上好禮,則民莫敢不敬;上好義,則民莫敢不服; ! id. 13:4] 'hat that shows is that if those who govern relish propriety, it will e easy for them to direct the people. [上好禮,則民易使也 。 ! id. 14:41] (ikewise, if the ruler is solemn when he presides over the people, they will respect him. !f he is filial and 临 ; 临 孝 临 affectionate, the people will e loyal to him. [ 临 之 以 庄 , 临 敬
, 临临 !; 临 ! id. 2:20]

Comment# For those who are not already in the know, let me also point out that this Confucian logic of self)rectification was further crystalli*ed in the Great Learning as follows. When the mind is rectified, personal

people will ecome compliant. which is NO 临 surrounded y all the other stars. !t is only when personal character is cultivated in accordance with the Way.;-不. is that when those who are upright are elevated and those who are croo%ed punished. the state will e in order" and when the state is in order.. if those who hold official titles are not rectified. elevating the upright and punish the croo%ed will also influence the croo%ed to ecome upright. he who governs y virtuous deeds could e compared to the )orth Star. instructions will have no effect and the tas% of governing will not e carried to completion.,則 /不0;/不0, $ 12不3,則民45678。 'nalects 13:3] The cru" of the matter is therefore this# if the ruler does not rectify himself. there will e peace throughout the world. the people would not %now what to do. let alone pacify the world. could the right %ind of men e o tained. the virtue of a %ingly . Otherwise. [临政以I,J:KLM其5而 临临 之。 Ibid. family affairs will e regulated" when family affairs are will e cultivated" when personal life is cultivated. punishments will miss their mar%. they will ? 临 , 临 临 民 临 服 临 ; 临 临 ? 临 临 临 > 临 , 临 临 民 临 不 临 服 not su mit. 2:1] +r what amounts to the same. and the Way in accordance with humaneness. Section 20) In the view of Confucius therefore. [@>AB?, 9 使 ? 者 > 。 Ibid. [.不正,則-不. "正而#身$,身$而#%&,%&而#'(,' (而#)*+。 #reat $earning Te!t: "# That is also to say. 12:22] !s he was also reported to have said in the Doctrine of the Mean: The tas% of governing is contingent upon the right %ind of men. &.。F. !f punishments miss their mar%. (CD政E.以身。$身以G。$G以H。 Doctrine of the Mean.<= ! id. said Confucius. how can he correct others( [ 不9正其身,:正. [ 临 > 临 临 临 ! id . !nother thing to note. 13:13] It is therefore not to be assumed that those who do not rectify themselves with humaneness and righteousness would have what it takes to govern a state. 2:1%] Besides. !f the usiness of government is not carried to completion.

to govern with law and punishment may prevent people from crime. [def,g<hi=jkl之。 . love the people. !t is only y guiding them with virtuous deeds and rought in line y way of propriety will they ecome shameful enough to set themselves right. 20:2] $ead …4x。 Ibid. it is only when the ruler ehaves li%e a *virtuous+ ruler would ministers. without which. [ |}4~,•4 €,•4‚。 Ibid. [8y,8z,民q之f。 …民4q不 { 。 Ibid. [4D而(者, 其Y也Z[ Ibid. the people will have confidence in their government&. 12:11] It also means that only those who govern without action *i. y way of virtuous deeds rather than force+ are in the company of . 12:19] That is to say. [ P P ; W W ; X X ; Q Q 。 ! id. 1:5] /o whatever is eneficial to the people& as% them to toil only on what is feasi le and worthwhile.. Confucius. reply was# . [G之以政,&之以1,民_而4`; G之以I,&之以禮,a`bc。 Ibid. [ 民\使]之,不\使^之。 'nalects &:%] That is to say. said Confucius# 'nyone who runs a state of a thousand chariots ought to govern conscientiously and in good faith.nrich& and educate them. 2:3] Thus. They end with the wind. m之。Ibid. them to wor% hard& and do so tirelessly.e.. 临 , 临 使 临 民 临 以 临 临临 。 Ibid. note should also be taken that people could only e made to act *according to principles+. [w之,v之。 13:1] When there is enough to eat and soldiers to deploy. ut that would not instill in them a sense of shame.person *or one who is %ing+ is li%e wind. [ s 民 之 5 t 而 t 之 , … u \ v 而 v 之 , Ibid.之IT;T 上 之 R U V 。 Ibid. 16:1] . ut cannot e forced to understand them. [Gno之p, 敬/而q, 临 r而临.. 13:9] In light of the above. [PQ之IR;S. 12:7] !s a matter of fact. and employ them at the proper seasons.. and the people are li%e grass. 15:5] *one of the ancient sage-%ings+. no state is a le to stand. it is only when resources are e0uita ly distri uted with poverty and helplessness eliminated could peace and sta ility e attained. as to what should e done to ordinary fol%s. fathers and sons also ehave in the proper way. Curtail expenditures.

if they guide the people with virtue. people are ound do li%ewise.) There has never een a ruler who loves righteousness. Commentary 10) 'hat that means is that a state should consider righteousness. people will scatter away" ut when wealth is distri uted among the people. (民 之5好好之;民之5••之。Ž之•民之X•。 Ibid.) This is why a %ingly person *or one who is %ing+ must rule y way of conscientiousness and faithfulness" pride and arrogance could only lead him to lose what he has got. ( G I 临临 ,則ž';Ÿ 临 临 临 临 临 临临 ,則Ÿ'。 临 临 临 临 Ibid. is basically this# when the ruler cares a out old fol%s. and the affairs of state are not carried to completion. !f they deviate from the correct path.) +n the other hand. and the people do not love righteousness. the most basic of what is referred to nowadays as /government for the people0 was already there for all to see. (I者™也。‘者š也。 Ibid. people will e enthusiastic a out filial piety. (上ƒƒ,而民„孝;上……,而民„†;上‡ˆ,而民不‰。Š 以 P Q a ‹ Œ 之 G 也 。 Great Learning.The social dynamics of it all -as it was further spelled out in the Great Leaning. When all wealth is accumulated *for the ruler+. and wealth is its conse0uential effect. they will gather around him.) It should thus be seen that virtue is fundamental. Comment# !s readers can see. as its real profit. This is why a %ingly person *or one who is %ing+ must gauge and measure his own conduct. (ŠCPQ, a GU!q以ž之;¡¢以Ÿ之。 Ibid.) There has never een a ruler who loves humaneness. ( ” a 上 好 H , 而 * 不 好 義 者 也 。 Ibid. 'ith regard to these principles. (”a好義其/不•者也。 ‘ , ˜ 其 ‘ 者 也 。 Ibid. rather than material enefits. ( '不以tDt,以義Dt也 。 Ibid. )either has there een a case where the treasury of such ”a–— a state is not in the possession of its ruler. When the ruler is good at fostering adults. 'nd when the ruler is compassionate to the orphaned. the Great Learning is also more than eager to elaborate. To lose *the support of+ the people is to lose their states.) .). they will %eep their states. Commentary 10) 1y li%ing what the people li%e as well as disli%ing what they do not li%e is what is meant y eing 2father and mother3 to the people. the whole world would ecome misguided. (ŠC‘’則民“。‘“則民’。Ibid. ( a ' 者 不 \ 以 不 › 。 œ 則 D ) * • f 。 Ibid.) 'hat this means is that those who control their states should never e careless. people will e %ind to the young.

[¾q好¿,ÀÁµG。 ¶ 不 . present yourself. 1 :3] . /o not enter an endangered state. if the Way prevails in the state. and the people will not have to argue amongst themselves. !n short. act oldly ut spea% hum ly. However. it is only when the Way prevails in the world that officials will not need to worry a out governance. it would still ta%e a generation to esta lish a humane government" [:a³者,Uª而 ´ H 。 Ibid. !n the latter. the ruling house would usually lose control within ten generations. [¶aG,Â-,Â行;¶4G,Â行,-É。 Ibid. 13:11] 1is advice to his disciples was therefore this. When that happens. if such important decisions were left for high officials to ma%e. !f the Way prevails in the world.D¶·¸,¹\以º»¼½f。 Ibid. 4urther.不²。 Analects 16:2] It was also his view that even if there were a real %ing. 13:12] and that cruelty and %illing could only e done away with when the state is governed y the virtuous for a hundred years. , à ¶ 不 M , ) * a G 則 Ä , 4 G 則 Å 。 Ibid. roll up your ideas and %eep them Ibid. 15:7] !n the in your chest. hide. [µ. 'nd if these were left to the decision of lower officials.But it is not to say that Confucius was blind to the real politics of his day. and uphold your virtuous Way to the end. it is the usiness of the Son of Heaven *emperor+ to institute rules of propriety and music as well as initiating military campaigns. the ruling house would usually lose power in five generations. 8:13] That is to say. nor stay in a chaotic one. e an official. Otherwise. [¶aG,則Æ;¶4G,則\Ç而È之。 former case. spea% and act oldly. 1ut if the Way is re5ected y the state. [)*aG,則 禮£¤¥,¦)Q§;)*4G,則禮£¤¥,¦B¨§;¦B¨§,|© ª«不Ÿf;¦ ¬§,-ª«不Ÿf;®W¯'°,±ª«不Ÿf。)* aG,則政不E ¬;)*aG,則e. Have confidence in what you have loved and learned. For he also said that when the Way *of humane and righteous government+ prevails in the world. when the Way does not prevail in the world. such decisions will come from the feudal lords. the ruling house would usually lose power in three generations.

15:9] (ast but not least. 'ection 20# !nd as if to help make the point stick. it may indeed be wiser for all kingly persons to preserve their eggs of humaneness and righteousness perhaps for some later day. [G不Ð,不ÑDÒ。Ibid.# For what history has to tell. ÌjkdÍbÎ,以Ï其身。其Ž之•Z。 ! id. [ ¶aGÕ,¶4GÕ;`也。 Ibid. 15:38] 2emember( a really determined and humane person would not ditch his humaneness 5ust for the sa%e of staying alive" he would rather die for its reali7ation.Comment# In the Doctrine of the Mean. than to crush them immediately against any hard and stupid tyrannical stone. 15: 0] !t is shameful to e poor and destituted in a humane state as it is to e rich and no le in an inhumane one. it is good enough to maintain silence. [ ¶aG,~bÓi,` 也 , ¶ 4 G , l b Ô i , ` 也 。 Ibid. words are sufficient to stand out. [4Ö×;4ÄSt。 what amounts to the same. [/P敬其/而´其y。 Ibid. it was perhaps for the popularity of this saying among Chinese intellectuals that revolutions in traditional China were largely peasant)led. he also said that this is what is meant y the saying in the 1oo% of Odes that to protect one3s person is oth intelligent and wise. 13:17] +r great. 'aG,其 -8以„;'4G,其Ê8以Ë。 /octrine of the 6ean. said Confucius# /o not cooperate with those who su scri e to a different Way. 8:13] !t is also a shame to e provided for y a state regardless of whether or not the Way is eing upheld. +r. To e impatient is not conducive to success. and in the name of other ideologies rather than Confucianism.,4ÛÜ以 ÝH,a½身以0H。 Ibid. to look at the matter more sympathetically. do not e impatient or ta%e notice of small advantages. 1 :1] Therefore. Furthermore. is none other than . Confucius was also reported to have said that if the Way prevails in the state. Otherwise. accept emolument only if you have really served the ruler with reverence. it should also be registered that the ultimate goal of Confucius -as he was reported to have envisioned in the Book of Propriety. [ÙÚH. whereas paying attention to small advantages will never accomplish anything Ö×則不Ø;ÄSt則 /不0。 Ibid.

lulu. & 's no one would la or 5ust for himself.. disa led and sic%.. and Soul. 2ecently. employment for the a le odied. ( ÞQjß … G之行也ß)*DàßáâZ9ßãq$äßC. $eter %. but not yet in*site*)atriarchsofchinese)hiloso)h-*home htt):**. no one would care only for his own parents and children. every one will find his8her place in the world. C!a"ter 9) This.e. please visit htt):**sites.+oo+le.+oo+le. neither would anyone need to shut his doors for fear of theft or ro ery. 's a result. support for the orphaned. to each according to his need.. Chan is the author of The 6ystery of 6ind published 3445. if I may say so.不åæ其æß不åQ 其Qß使ƒa5•ßça5rßèa5…ß逈åêë者ßìa5íß … î•其不§ï身也ß不UDðߊCÒñ而不„ßòóÃô而不õßCö 戶 而不ñߊ• Ðß Book of Propriety. he has also competed any work titled The Six Patriarchs of Chinese Humanism -copyrighted and available in ebooks. and care for the widowed..&. The virtuous and capa le as well as those who are trustworthy and peace loving will e appointed *to serve as officials+. Such a state of affairs is called #reat*site*)*s)otli+ht*)eterm. For details regarding the above.chan*home htt):**sites. is also the goal of socialism as it has come to be known -i..this# When the great Way *of Humanity+ prevails&... ut would see% to provide refuge for the aged.chan . and 6orality -published 3446. from each according to his ability. #od.

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