‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴــﺔ اﻟﻤﻮاﻧــﺊ و اﻟﺠﻤﺎرك واﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘــﺔ اﻟﺤــﺮة ‐ ﺗــــﺮاﺧﻴﺺ‬

TRAKHEES  ‐  Ports, Customs & Free Zone Corporation

Seismic Design of RC Structures Using UBC / ACI Provisions
By Dr. S. K. Ghosh

Organised by TRAKHEES CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT – WHITBY & BIRD Dubai – November 2008

1. 2.

AN OVERVIEW OF CODES AND STANDARDS COMPUTATION OF GRAVITY LOAD EFFECTS AND DESIGN LOAD COMBINATIONS

3. 4.

COMPUTATION OF DESIGN WIND FORCES AN OVERVIEW OF THE DESIGN LOAD COMBINATIONS AND THE SEISMIC DESIGN PROVISIONS OF THE 1997 UBC EASY, STEP-BY-STEP DETERMINATION OF DESIGN BASE SHEAR 1997 UBC COMPUTATION OF DESIGN SEISMIC FORCES SEISMIC DETAILS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS IN MODERATE SEISMIC APPLICATIONS DESIGN OF TYPICAL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS CODE SUPPORT SERVICES, CODE CHANGE PROCESS, AND PLAN REVIEW OVERVIEW OF THE SEISMIC DESIGN PROVISIONS OF THE 2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS UNDER THE 1997 UBC EARTHQUAKE DESIGN - EXAMPLE

5.

6. 7.

8. 9.

10.

11.

12.

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AN OVERVIEW OF CODES AND STANDARDS
S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. Palatine, IL

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CONSTRUCTION PERMIT
Application for permit for proposed construction Plans and Specs approved for code compliance?
No Yes

Redesign and resubmit
Lose

Appeal
Win

Permit issued
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CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY
Construction inspections approved for code compliance? Reconstruct and correct
No Yes Lose

Appeal
Win

Certificate of occupancy issued

BUILDING CODE - AUTHORITY

• •

State legislature has sole authority to enact and enforce building codes. State may choose to delegate a portion of this power to constituent local government units, such as cities.

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BUILDING CODE

Enacted by a state or local government’s legislative body to regulate construction within its jurisdiction. Minimum acceptable requirements necessary to preserve public health, safety, and welfare in the built environment. Primary application to new or proposed construction.

APPLICABILITY OF STATEWIDE BUILDING CODE

• • • •

Buildings based on construction methods such as factory-manufactured buildings, All construction except single-family dwellings, A single or narrow aspect of building construction such as fire safety, All construction.

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ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT

Local government responsibility, subject to varying degrees of state agency supervision and oversight.

MODEL BUILDING CODES

State and local governments adopt model building codes, rather than relying on custom-drafted building codes.

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MODEL CODES

Originally promulgated by: the National Board of Fire Underwriters, later to become American Insurance Association

• •

New editions at approximately 10-year intervals. Withdrawn in 1984.

MODEL CODES AND THEIR AREAS OF INFLUENCE
Locally Written Code

UBC

BOCA Standard
UBC & Standard

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MODEL CODES

• •

A new edition every three years, with annual supplements. Annual code change cycle.

The International Code Council:
A REBIRTH OF THE MODEL BUILDING CODE SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES

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FORMATION OF ORGANIZATIONS
Model Code Organizations:

• • • • •

BOCA CABO ICBO ICC SBCCI

– 1915 – 1972 – 1923 – 1994 - 1940

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL

The International Code Council (ICC) was formed in December 1994 with the purpose of developing a single set of comprehensive and technical codes. The International Codes provide a complete set of construction codes without regional limitations.

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IBC 2006

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NFPA 5000 BUILDING CODE
from National Fire Protection Association Quincy, MA

First (2003) Edition Published in 2002

NFPA 5000

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FORMATION OF ORGANIZATIONS
National Standards:

• • • • • •

ACI AFPA ASCE ANSI ASHRAE ASTM

- 1905 - 1993 (NFoPA 1902) - 1892 - 1918 - 1895 - 1898

FORMATION OF ORGANIZATIONS
National Standards:

• • • • •

AWS Factory Mutual Gypsum Asscn. NFPA UL

- 1919 - 1835 - 1930 - 1896 - 1894

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ASCE 7

ACI 318

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STANDARDS

Standards reference other standards. For instance, ACI 318 references a whole host of ASTM standards.

RESOURCE DOCUMENTS

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ICC EVALUATION SERVICE
A nonprofit, public-benefit corporation, ICC-ES does technical evaluations of building products, components, methods, and materials. The evaluation process culminates with the issuance of reports on code compliance, which are made available free of charge to code officials, contractors, specifiers, architects, engineers, and anyone else with an interest in the building industry and construction. ICC-ES evaluation reports provide evidence that products and systems meet code requirements.

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Computation of Gravity Load Effects and Design Load Combinations
S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. Palatine, IL
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Dead Loads
• 1997 UBC Section 1606 – Movable partition loads of 0.96 kN/m2 included in dead loads for floors in office buildings

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Live Loads
• 1997 UBC Section 1607 Table 16-A: Uniform and Concentrated Loads Table 16-B: Special Loads Table 16-C: Minimum Roof Live Loads

UBC 1607.5 Reduction of Live Loads
• Applies to live loads set forth in Table 16-A for floors and Table 16-C, Method 2, for roofs
1. Reduction not permitted in Group A (assembly) occupancies 2. Reduction not permitted when live load exceeds 4.79 kN/m2, except design live load from storage for columns may be reduced by 20%
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UBC 1607.5 Reduction of Live Loads
• Applies to live loads set forth in Table 16-A for floors and Table 16-C, Method 2, for roofs
3. The live load reduction shall not exceed 40 percent in garages for the storage of private pleasure cars having a capacity of not more than nine passengers per vehicle

UBC 1607.5 Reduction of Live Loads
For live loads not exceeding 100 psf, design live loads for any member supporting 13.94 m2 or more may be reduced by R (%) = r (A − 13.64) where r = 0.861 percent for floors, given in Table 16-C for roofs
Such reduction shall not exceed 40% for horizontal members, 60% for vertical members, nor R (%) = 23.1 (1 + D/Lo)

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Floor Live Load Reduction
Percent of Live Load 100

60 40

18.6

37.2

55.8

74.4 m2

93.0

Tributary Area, A,

Floor Members

UBC 1607.6 Alternate Floor Live Load Reduction
• ASCE 7 For KLL AT > 37.16 m2
⎛ 4.57 ⎞ ⎟ L = L0 ⎜ 0.25+ ⎜ KLLAT ⎟ ⎝ ⎠

L shall not be less than 0.50Lo for members supporting one floor nor than 0.40Lo for members supporting two or more floors
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Influence Areas

Interior supporting member Edge supporting member Corner supporting member

Influence and Tributary Areas

Limits of Influence Area Limits of Tributary Area

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Live Load Element Factor, KLL
Element Interior Columns Exterior columns without cantilever slabs Edge columns with cantilever slabs Corner columns with cantilever slabs Edge beams without cantilever slabs Interior beams All other members not identified above including: - Edge beams with cantilever slabs - Cantilever beams - Two-way slabs - Members without provisions for continuous shear transfer normal to their span 1 KLL 4 4 3 2 2 2

Limitations on Live Load Reductions
• ASCE 7-05 4.8.2 – Live loads that exceed 4.79 kN/m2 shall not be reduced, except live loads for members supporting two or more floors may be reduced by 20% 4.8.3 – Live loads shall not be reduced in passenger car garages, except live loads for members supporting two or more floors may be reduced by 20%

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Limitations on Live Load Reductions
• ASCE 7-05 4.8.4 – Live loads of 4.79 kN/m2 or less shall not be reduced in public assembly occupancies 4.8.5 – Live loads shall not be reduced for one-way slabs except as permitted in 4.8.2. Live loads of 4.79 kN/m2 or less shall not be reduced for roof members except as specified in 4.9

Snow Loads

• UBC left it to local jurisdictions (sections 1908, 1914) • ASCE 7 has detailed provisions • Of little interest in Dubai

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Wind Loads
• 1997 UBC Section 1609. Refers to Sections 1615 – 1625. • Simplified version of wind design provisions from ASCE 7-88 • Wind design in Dubai by ASCE 7-05

Typical Plan of Example Building

1 7.92 m
6.71 m 6.71 m

2 7.92 m

3 7.92 m

4 7.92 m

5 7.92 m

6

7.92 m

7

7.92 m

8

A

B

N

D

6.71 m

C

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Typical Elevation of Example Building
12 11 10 11 @ 3.66 m = 40.26 m 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 4.88 m 1

Design Data
• Building Location
Dubai, UAE

• Material Properties
Concrete: fc’ = 30 N/mm2, wc = 23.55 kN/m3 Reinforcement: fy = 415 N/mm2

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Design Data
• Service Loads
Live loads: roof = 957.6 N/m2 floor = 2394 N/m2 Superimposed dead loads: roof = 478.8 N/m2 + 889.64 kN for penthouse floor = 1436.4 N/m2 (957.6 N/m2 permanent partitions + 478.8 N/m2 ceiling, etc.)

Design Data
• Member Dimensions
Slab: 205 mm Beams: 560 × 560 mm Interior columns: 660 × 660 mm Edge columns: 610 × 610 mm Wall thickness: 305 mm

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Beam C4 – C5
4
3.35m 1.22 m 3.35m

5

6.71 m 3.35m

C
6.71 m

7.92 m

Tributary area = 2 ×(0.5 × 3.35 × 3.35 × 2 + 1.22 × 3.35) = 30.62 m2

Beam C4 – C5
• Dead load:
Beam self weight: 23.55 × 0.560 × 0.355 = 4.68 kN/m Slab self weight within the tributary area: 23.55 × 0.205 = 4.78 kN/m2 4.78 × 30.62 m2 = 146.39 kN 146.39 KN / 7.92 m = 18.48 kN/m Superimposed dead load: 1436.4 N/m2 × 30.62 m2 × 1/1000 = 43.98 kN 43.98 KN / 7.92 m = 5.55 kN/m wD = 4.68 + 18.48 + 5.55 = 28.71 kN/m

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Beam C4 – C5
Bending moments and shear forces:
From ACI 318 Section 8.3.3: Negative moment at the supports: (wD × ln2) / 11 = (28.71 × 7.262) / 11 = 137.63 m-kN Positive moment at midspan: (wD × ln2) / 16 = (28.71 × 7.262) / 16 = 94.62 m-kN Shear force = (wD × ln) / 2 = (28.71 × 7.26) / 2 = 104.27 kN ln is clear span length (7.92 × 1000– 660 = 7260 mm = 7.26 m)

Beam C4 – C5
• Live load:
Lo = 2.394 kN/m2 kLL = 2, AT = 30.62 m2 kLLAT = 61.24 m2 > 37.16 m2 Therefore, live load reduction is permitted. L = Lo (0.25 + 4.57 / (61.24)0.5 ) = 2.394 × 0.834 = 1.997 kN/m2 > 0.5 Lo wL = (1.997 × 30.62) / 7.92 = 7.721 kN/m
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Beam C4 – C5
Bending moments and shear forces:
From ACI 318 Section 8.3.3: Negative moment at the supports: (wL × ln2) / 11 = (7.721 × 7.262) / 11 = 37.0 m-kN Positive moment at midspan: (wL × ln2) / 16 = (7.721 × 7.262) / 16 = 25.43 m-kN Shear force = (wL × ln) / 2 = (7.721 × 7.26) / 2 = 28.03 kN ln is clear span length (7.92 ×1000 – 660 = 7260 mm = 7.26 m)

Beam C4 – C5
Summary of Design Bending Moments and Shear Forces for Beam C4-C5 at the Second Floor Level

Load Case Location
Dead (D) Live (L) Support Midspan Support Midspan

Bending Moment (m-kN)
–137.6 94.6 –37.0 25.4

Shear Force (kN)
104.3 28.0

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1612.2.1 Strength Design or LRFD Load Combinations (1997 UBC)
1.4D 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(Lr or S) 1.2D +1.6(Lr or S) + (f1L or 0.8W) 1.2D + 1.3W + f1L + 0.5(Lr or S) 1.2D + 1.0E + (f1L + f2S) 0.9D ± (1.0E or 1.3W) (Equation 12-1) (Equation 12-2) (Equation 12-3) (Equation 12-4) (Equation 12-5) (Equation 12-6)

f1 = 0.5 except in special circumstances f2 = 0.2 except in special situations Note exceptions for concrete structures

1612.2.1 Strength Design or LRFD Load Combinations (1997 UBC)
1612.2.2 Other Loads. Where F, H, P or T are to be considered in design, each applicable load shall be added to the above load combinations factored as follows: 1.3F, 1.6H, 1.2P and 1.2T

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2.3.2 Strength Design or LRFD Load Combinations (ASCE 7-05)
1. 1.4(D + F) 2. 1.2(D + F + T) +1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R) 3. 1.2D +1.6(Lr or S or R) + (L or 0.8W) 4. 1.2D + 1.6W + [1.0]L + 0.5(Lr or S or R) 5. 1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S 6. 0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H 7. 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H

2.3.2 Strength Design or LRFD Load Combinations (ASCE 7-05)
Exceptions: • Now: Identify directionality effect explicitly in Kd. Round load factor from 1.53 to 1.6. 1. The load factor on L in combinations (3), (4), and (5) is permitted to equal 0.5 for all occupancies in which L0 is less than or equal to 100 psf, with the exception of garages or areas occupied as places of public assembly. 2. The load factor on H shall be set equal to zero in combinations (6) and (7) if the structural action due to H counteracts that due to W or E.
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ASCE 7-05 6.5 Analytical Procedure
• Directionality factor Kd introduced in 1998
– Added to velocity pressure equation

• qz = 0.613 Kz Kzt Kd V2 I
– Separate out effect of wind load factor – Requires adjustment to wind load factor ( 1.3 → 1.6 ) – Table 6-4 Reason: Explicitly identify directionality effect in future editions.

ASCE 7-05
2.3.2 Strength Design Load Combinations Wind load factor: • Old (1995): LF = 1.3 → included directionality effect 0.85 (directionality) x 1.53 (LF w/o directionality) = 1.3

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Seismic Strength Design Load Combinations (1997 UBC)

• 1.2D + 1.0E + (f1L + f2S) • 0.9D ± 1.0E • E = ρEh + 0.5CaID • E = ρEh - 0.5CaID

Equation (12-5) Equation (12-6) in Equation (12-5) in Equation (12-6)

• ρ = 1 in Seismic Zones 1 and 2

Seismic Strength Design Load Combinations (2006 IBC, ASCE 7-05)
• 1.2D + 1.0E + f1L + f2S • 0.9D + 1.0E • E = ρQE + 0.2SDSD • E = ρQE - 0.2SDSD Equation (16-5) Equation (16-7) in Equation (16-5) in Equation (16-7)

• ρ = 1 in Seismic Design Category (SDC) A, B and C

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Eh (UBC) QE (IBC)

Δs (UBC) δxe (IBC)

V

Effect of Vertical Earthquake Ground Motion (1997 UBC)
• Gravity and Earthquake Effects Additive U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 0.5L +0.2S = 1.2D + (ρEh + 0.5CaID) + 0.5L + 0.2S = (1.2 + 0.5CaI)D + ρEh + 0.5L + 0.2S

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Effect of Vertical Earthquake Ground Motion (ASCE 7-05)
• Gravity and Earthquake Effects Additive U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 0.5L +0.2S = 1.2D + (ρQE + 0.2SDSD) + 0.5L + 0.2S = (1.2 + 0.2SDS)D + ρQE + 0.5L + 0.2S

Effect of Vertical Earthquake Ground Motion (1997 UBC)
• Gravity and Earthquake Effects Counteractive U = 0.9D - 1.0E = 0.9D - (ρEh + 0.5CaID) = (0.9 - 0.5CaI)D - ρEh

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Effect of Vertical Earthquake Ground Motion (ASCE 7-05)
• Gravity and Earthquake Effects Counteractive U = 0.9D - 1.0E = 0.9D - (ρQE + 0.2SDSD) = (0.9 - 0.2SDS)D - ρQE

Beam C4 – C5
Summary of Design Bending Moments and Shear Forces for Beam C4-C5 at the Second Floor Level

Load combination
1.4D 1.2D + 1.6L

Location
Support Midspan Support Midspan

Bending Moment (m –KN)
-192.6 132.4 -224.3 154.2

Shear Force (KN)
146.0 167.0

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Column C4
3 4 5

7.92 m 6.71 m 6.71 m

C
6.71 m

7.92 m

7.92 m

Tributary area = 7.92 × 6.71 = 53.14 m2

Column C4
• Dead load:
Column self weight: 0.66 × 0.66 × 11 × (3.66 – 0.560) × 23.55 = 349.92 kN Slab self weight within the tributary area: 4.781 ×53.14 × 11 = 2794.69 kN Beam self weight within the tributary area: (0.560×0.355 ×7.92+0.560×0.355×(6.71-0.560))×23.55= 65.94 kN 11 × 65.94 = 725.34 kN Superimposed dead load: Roof: 0.479 + 889.64 / (20.73×56.08)* = 1.244 kN/m2 Floor: 1.436 kN/m2 1.244 × 53.14 + 1.436 × 53.14 × 10 = 829.20 kN *Done this way only because location of penthouse is not included D = 349.92 + 2794.69 + 725.34 + 829.20 = 4699.15 kN
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Column C4
• Live load:
Story supporting roof: R1 = 1.2 – 0.011 At = 1.2 – 0.011 × 53.14 = 0.615 R2 = 1.0 957.6 N/m2 × 0.615 × 1.0 = 588.92 N/m2 0.589 × 53.14 = 31.3 kN

Column C4
Story supporting floor 11:
AT = 53.14 + 53.14 = 106.28 m2 kLL = 4 kLLAT = 425.12 m2 > 37.16 m2, therefore live load reduction is permitted. Lo = 2.394 × 53.14 = 127.22 kN L = Lo (0.25 + 4.57 / (4 ×106.28)0.5) = 127.22 × 0.472 > 0.40 Lo L = 60.05 kN

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Column C4
Story supporting floor 10:
AT = 53.14 × 3 = 159.42 m2 kLL = 4 L = Lo (0.25 + 4.57 / (4 ×159.42)0.5) = 127.22 × 0.431 = 54.83 > 0.40 Lo

Story supporting floor 9:
AT = 53.14 × 4 = 212.56 m2 kLL = 4 L = Lo (0.25 + 4.57 / (4 ×212.56)0.5) = 127.22 × 0.407 = 51.78 > 0.40 Lo

Column C4
Story supporting floor 8:
AT = 53.14 × 5 = 265.7 m2 kLL = 4 L = Lo (0.25 + 4.57 / (4 ×265.7)0.5) = 127.22 × 0.39 < 0.40 Lo = 0.4 × 127.22 = 50.89 kN

Total live load:
L = 31.3 + 60.05 + 54.83 + 51.78 + 7 × 50.89 = 554.19 kN

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Column C4
Summary of Design Axial Forces, Bending Moments, and Shear Forces on Column C4 Supporting the Second Floor Level

Axial Force (KN) Load Case
Dead (D) Live (L) 4699 554

Bending Moment (m-KN)
0 0

Shear Force (KN)
0 0

Column C4
Summary of Design Axial Forces, Bending Moments, and Shear Forces on Column C4 Supporting the Second Floor Level

Load combination
1.4D 1.2D + 1.6L

Axial Force (KN)
6579 6525

Bending Moment (m-KN)
0 0

Shear Forces (KN)
0 0

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Shear wall B7 – C7
6 A
7.92 m 6.71 m

7

8

B
13.42 m 6.71 m

C
6.71 m

D
7.92 m 7.92 m

Tributary Area = 7.92 × 13.42 = 106.29 m2

Shear wall B7 – C7
• Dead load:
shear wall self weight (base): (2×0.66×0.66+0.305×6.05)×(45.14-0.560×12)×23.55 = 2458.59 kN Slab self weight within the tributary area: 4.781 × 106.29 × 12 = 6098.07 kN Beam self weight within the tributary area: (0.560×0.355×13.42+2×0.560×0.355×(7.92-0.560))×23.55 = 131.89 kN 12 × 131.89 = 1582.68 kN Superimposed dead load: Roof: 0.479 + 889.64 / (20.73×56.08)* = 1.244 kN/m2 Floor: 1.436 kN/m2 1.244 × 106.29 + 1.436 × 106.29 × 11 = 1811.18 kN * Done this way only because location of penthouse is not included D = 2458.59 + 6098.07 + 1582.68 + 1811.18 = 11,950.5 kN
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Shear wall B7 – C7
• Live load:
Story supporting roof: R1 = 0.6 (At > 55.74 m2) R2 = 1.0 957.6 N/m2 × 0.6 × 1.0 = 574.56 N/m2 0.575 × 106.29 = 61.12 kN

Shear wall B7 – C7
Story supporting floor 11:
AT = 106.29 + 106.29 = 212.58 m2 kLL = 3 kLLAT = 637.74 m2 > 37.16 m2, therefore live load reduction is permitted. Lo = 2.394 × 106.29 = 254.46 kN L = Lo (0.25 + 4.57 / (3 ×212.58)0.5) = 254.46 × 0.431 > 0.40 Lo L = 109.67 kN
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Shear wall B7 – C7
Story supporting floor 10:
AT = 106.29 × 3 = 318.87 m2 kLL = 3 L = Lo (0.25 + 4.57 / (3 ×318.87)0.5) = 254.46 × 0.398 < 0.40 Lo = 0.4 × 254.46 = 101.78 kN

Total live load
L = 61.12 + 109.67 + 101.78 ×10 = 1188.59 kN

Shear wall B7 – C7
Summary of Design Axial Forces, Bending Moments, and Shear Forces at Base of Shear Wall on Line 7 (SDC C)

Load Case

Axial Force (kN)
11,951 1189

Bending Moment (m-kN)
0 0

Shear Forces (kN)
0 0

Dead (D) Live (L)

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Shear wall B7 – C7
Summary of Design Axial Forces, Bending Moments, and Shear Forces at Base of Shear Wall on Line 7 (SDC C)

Load combination

Axial Force (kN)
16,731 16,244

Bending Moment (m-kN)
0 0

Shear Force (kN)
0 0

1.4D 1.2D + 1.6L

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Computation of Design Wind Forces

S. K. Ghosh S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. Palatine, IL
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Wind Flow Around Building

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External Pressure due to Wind

External Pressure due to Wind
V2 ps = pa + ρ 2 p's = p s − p a = ρ V2 2

ps = pressure at stagnation point, psf (N/m2) pa = ambient pressure, psf (N/m2) ρ = air density, lb-sec2/ft4 (kg-sec2/m4) V = ambient wind speed, ft/sec (m/sec)

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Velocity Pressure (ASCE 7-05)
qz = 0.613 V 2 K zK ztK dI qz in N/m2 , V in m/sec
• ASCE 7 includes two factors: – Topographic Factor - Kzt

(

)

• Hills and Escarpments • Complex Equations
– Directionality Factor - Kd

• 0.85 for all building structures

Fastest-mile Wind
Instantaneous velocity of wind at a point as a function of time:

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Fastest-mile Wind

• VT = max. wind speed based on averaging time of T sec • VH = max. wind speed based on averaging time of 1 hour

Fastest-mile Wind
• Max. wind speed averaged over one mile of wind passing through anemometer. • Averaging time of fastest-mile wind: T(sec) 3600/Vf Vf – fastest-mile wind speed in mph For Vf = 60 mph, T = 3600/60 = 60 sec For Vf = 120 mph, T = 3600/120 = 30 sec

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Return Period
• Also known as mean recurrence interval (MRI). • Used for the statistical determination of the predicted wind speed. • Most U.S. inland locations, MRI of 50 years is used for normal use structures. • MRI for critical use facilities such as hospitals is 100 years. • MRI for low risk buildings such as barns is 25 years.

Importance Factor
• For MRI of 25, 50 , and 100 years • 3 Maps???? - No! • MRI is adjusted by using importance factor, I. • Ratio of difference in velocity pressure from one MRI to another is a fairly consistent ratio for nonhurricane locations. • Inclusion of “I” in the wind pressure equation has the mathematical effect of adjusting the wind speed up or down.

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Variation of Wind Velocity with Height for a Steady Wind

Gust
• Rapid fluctuation of wind • Ordinary structures sensitive to peak gusts of about 1 sec duration. • Use of fastest-mile wind in design inadequate Gust speed, Vg = Gv V • Pressure generated by gust, pg = Gp p p ∝V 2 ∴ Gp = Gv2 • Flexible structures more sensitive to gust.

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Gust Effect Factor
• Accounts for the loading effects in the along-wind direction (parallel to the direction of the wind) due to wind turbulence-structure interaction. • Also accounts for along-wind loading effects due to dynamic amplification for flexible structures. • Does not account for other dynamic effects such as across-wind Loads.

Dimensionless Pressure or Pressure Coefficient
p − pa = Cp = ( 1 2 )ρV 2 ( p' 1 )ρV 2 2
p = actual pressure at any arbitrary point on building, psf

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Internal Pressure

Basic Wind Equation
• For buildings with External and Internal Pressure:

p = qGCp − qiGCpi
qi = Velocity pressure calculated for internal pressure.

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ASCE 7-05 6.2 Definitions
• Basic Wind Speed V : 3-second gust speed at 10 m above the ground in Exposure C.
– Removed reference to “50-yr mean recurrence interval” – Loads calculated from the wind speed map, when multiplied by the wind load factor, represent an “ultimate load” having approximately a 500 year return period. – Map contours include hurricane importance factor
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ASCE 7-05 Mean Roof Height

ASCE 7-05 6.5 Method 2: Analytical Procedure
• Design Pressure – MWFRS – Rigid Buildings of All Height (6.5.12.2.1): p = q GCp - qi (GCpi) Velocity Pressure (6.5.10): qz = 0.613KzKztKdV2I N/m2, V in m/sec

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ASCE 7-05 6.5 Analytical Procedure
• Design Pressure – MWFRS – Rigid Buildings of All Height (6.5.12.2.1): qi = qh for windward walls, side walls, leeward walls, and roofs of enclosed buildings and for negative pressure evaluation in partially enclosed buildings qi = qz for positive pressure evaluation in partially enclosed buildings at height z from the ground. Can be conservatively taken as qh

Wind-resistant Design
• Wind Pressures on a Building

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ASCE 7-05 6.5 Analytical Procedure
• Design Procedure (6.5.3):
1. Wind Speed V (Figure 6-1 map), Wind Directionality Factor Kd (6.5.4.4, Table 6-4) 2. Importance Factor I (6.5.5, Table 6-1) 3. For each wind direction: Exposure Category (6.5.6) Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient Kh, Kz (6.5.6.6, Table 6-3)

ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-1 Basic Wind Speed

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Basic Wind Speed
Dubai 45 m/sec (100 mph)

ASCE 7-05 Table 6-4 Wind Directionality Factor, Kd

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ASCE 7-05 Table 6-1 Importance Factor, I

100 mph = 45 m/sec

ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.2 Surface Roughness Categories
• A ground surface roughness within each 45-degree sector shall be determined for a distance upwind of the site as defined ….

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ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.2 Surface Roughness Categories
• Surface Roughness B: Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas or other terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions having the size of single-family dwellings or larger.

ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.2 Surface Roughness Categories
• Surface Roughness C: Open terrain with scattered obstructions having heights generally less than 9.1 m. This category includes flat open country, grasslands, and all water surfaces in hurricane-prone regions

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ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.2 Roughness Categories
• Surface roughness D: Flat, unobstructed areas and water surfaces outside hurricane-prone regions. This category includes smooth mud flats, salt flats, and unbroken ice

ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.3 Exposure Categories
• Exposure B: Shall apply where Surface Roughness B prevails in the upwind direction for at least 792 m or 20 times the building height, whichever is greater Exception. For buildings with h ≤ 9.1 m, the upwind distance may be reduced to 457 m.

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ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.3 Exposure Categories
• Exposure C: Shall apply for all cases where Exposure B or D does not apply

ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.3 Exposure Categories
• Exposure D: shall apply where Surface Roughness D prevails in the upwind direction for at least 1524 m or 20 times the building height, whichever is greater. Exposure D shall extend into downwind areas of Surface Roughness B or C for a distance of 200 m or 20 times the building height, whichever is greater.

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ASCE 7-05
Table 6-3 Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficients, Kh and Kz

ASCE 7-05 Table 6-3 Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficients, Kh and Kz Table 6-2 Terrain Exposure Constants
The velocity pressure exposure coefficient may be determined from the following formulas: For 4.6 m ≤ z ≤ zg, Kz = 2.01(z/zg)2/α For z < 4.6 m, Kz = 2.01(4.6/zg)2/α Note: z shall not be taken less than 9.1 m for Case 1 in Exp. B

Exposure B C D

α 7.0 9.0 11.5
60

Zg, m 366 274 213

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ASCE 7-05 6.5 Analytical Procedure
(Continued from Slide 23) • Design Procedure (6.5.3): 4. Topographic Factor, Kzt (6.5.7, Figure 6-4) 5. Gust Effect Factor G or Gf (6.5.8) 6. Enclosure Classification (6.5.9) 7. Internal Pressure Coefficient GCpi (6.5.11.1, Figure 6-5) 8. External Pressure Coefficients Cp, GCpf (6.5.11.2) or force coefficients Cf (6.5.11.3)

ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-4 Topographic Factors, Kzt

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ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-4 Topographic Factors, Kzt

ASCE 7-05 6.5.8 Gust Effect Factor, G or Gf
• For rigid structures as defined in Section 6.2, G shall be taken as 0.85 or calculated by Eqs. 6-4, 6-5, 6-6 and 6-7, using Table 6-2. • For flexible or dynamically sensitive structures as defined in Section 6.2, Gf shall be calculated by Eqs. 6-8, 6-9, 6-10, 6-11, 6-12, 6-13a, 6-13b and 6-14, using Table 6-2.
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ASCE 7-05 6.2 Definition-Enclosure Classification
• Buildings, Open: A building having each wall at least 80% open. Mathematically, Ao > 0.8Ag where: Ao = Total area of openings in a wall that receives positive external pressure, in m2 Ag= Gross area of that wall in which Ao is identified, in m2

ASCE 7-05 6.2 Definition-Enclosure Classification
Buildings, Partially Enclosed:
If the following two conditions are satisfied:
1. Ao > 1.1Aoi 2. Ao > 0.37 m2 or >0.01Ag, whichever is smaller, & Aoi < 0.2Agi where: Aoi = The sum of the areas of openings in the building envelope (walls & roof) not including Ao, in m2 Agi = The sum of the gross surface areas of the building envelope (walls & roof) not including Ao, in m2

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ASCE 7-05 6.2 Definition-Enclosure Classification
• Buildings, Enclosed:

A building that does not comply with the requirements for open or partially enclosed buildings.

ASCE 7-05 6.5.9.3 Wind Borne Debris Regions
– Glazing in lower 18.3 m or within 9.2 m above aggregate surface roofs located within 458 m of a Category II, III, IV building requires impact resistant glazing or covering

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ASCE 7-05
Figure 6-5 Internal Pressure Coefficients, GCpi

ASCE 7-05 External Pressure Coefficients
Cp for main wind force resisting systems – Fig. 6-6 GCpf for low-rise buildings – Fig. 6-10 GCp for components & cladding – Fig. 6-11 through 6-17 CN for main wind force resisting systems – Fig. 6-18 for components & cladding – Fig. 6-19 Cf - Figs. 6-20 through 6-23

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ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-6 External Pressure Coefficient, Cp for MWFRS

ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-6 Cp for MWFRS: Walls

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ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-6 Cp for MWFRS: Roofs

ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-6 Cp for MWFRS

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ASCE 7-05 6.5 Analytical Procedure
(Continued from Slide 37)

• Design Procedure (6.5.3)

9. Velocity Pressure qz, qh (6.5.10) qz = 0.613 Kz Kzt Kd V2 I Eq. 6-15

ASCE 7-05 6.5 Analytical Procedure
• Design Procedure (6.5.3)
10. Design wind pressure p (6.5.12, 6.5.13)
Enclosed or Partially Enclosed Buildings, MWFRS: Rigid, All heights: p = q GCp - qi(GCpi) Parapets: pp = qp GCpn Eq. 6-17 Eq. 6-20

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ASCE 7-05 6.5 Analytical Procedure
• Design Procedure (6.5.3) 10.Enclosed and Partially Enclosed Buildings - C & C (6.5.12.4): – Low rise and buildings with h ≤ 18.3 m p = qh[(GCp) - (GCpi)] – Buildings with h > 18.3 m p = q(GCp) - qi(GCpi) – Parapets p = qp(GCp - GCpi) Eq. 6-24 Eq. 6-23 Eq. 6-22

Typical Plan of Example Building

1 7.92 m
6.71 m 6.71 m

2 7.92 m

3 7.92 m

4 7.92 m

5 7.92 m

6

7.92 m

7

7.92 m

8

A

B

N

D

6.71 m

C

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Typical Elevation of Example Building
12 11 10 11 @ 3.66 m = 40.26 m 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 4.88 m 1

Design Data
• Building Location
Dubai, UAE

• Material Properties
Concrete: fc’ = 30 MPa, wc = 23.55 KN/m3 Reinforcement: fy = 415 MPa

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Design Data
• Service Loads
Live loads: roof = 957.6 N/m2 floor = 2394 N/m2 Superimposed dead loads: roof = 478.8 N/m2 + 889.64 KN for penthouse floor = 1436.4 N/m2 (957.6 N/m2 permanent partitions + 478.8 N/m2 ceiling, etc.)

Design Data • Wind Design Data
Basic wind speed V = 45 m/sec for Dubai Exposure B (IBC 1609.4, ASCE 6.5.6.3) For Occupancy Category II, I = 1.0 (IBC Table 1604.5, ASCE Table 6-1)
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Design Data
• Member Dimensions
Slab: 205 mm Beams: 560 × 560 mm Interior columns: 660 × 660 mm Edge columns: 610 × 610 mm Wall thickness: 305 mm

Wind Load Analysis
1. Basic wind speed, V, and wind directionality factor, Kd
V = 45 m/sec at location of structure per IBC Figure 1609 or ASCE Figure 6-1. The wind directionality factor, Kd = 0.85 for main wind-force-resisting systems of buildings per ASCE Table 6-4.

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Wind Load Analysis
2. Importance factor, I
I = 1.0 per ASCE Table 6-1 for Occupancy Category II

Wind Load Analysis
3. Exposure category and velocity pressure exposure coefficient, Kz
Values of Kz are to be determined from ASCE Table 6-3. In lieu of linear interpolation, Kz may be calculated at any height z ft above ground level by the following equations:
2 /α ⎧ ⎛4.6⎞ 15 ⎟ ⎪2.01⎜ for z < 4.6 m ⎜z ⎟ ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ g⎠ Kz = ⎨ 2 /α ⎛ z ⎞ ⎪ for 4.6 m ≤ z ≤ z g ⎪2.01⎜ ⎟ ⎜z ⎟ ⎪ ⎝ g⎠ ⎩

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Wind Load Analysis
α = 3-second gust speed power law exponent from ASCE Table 6-2 = 7.0 for Exposure B Zg = nominal height of the atmospheric boundary layer from ASCE Table 6-2 = 366 m for Exposure B

Wind Load Analysis
Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient Kz Level
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Height above ground level, z (m)
45.14 41.48 37.82 34.16 30.50 26.84 23.18 19.52 15.86 12.20 8.54 4.88

Kz
1.106 1.079 1.051 1.021 0.989 0.953 0.914 0.870 0.820 0.761 0.687 0.586

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Wind Load Analysis
4. Topographic factor, Kzt
Assuming the example building is situated on level ground and not on a hill, ridge, or escarpment, Kzt is equal to 1.

Wind Load Analysis
5. Gust effect factors, G and Gf
Gust effect factor depends on whether a building is rigid or flexible (ASCE 6.5.8). A rigid building has a fundamental natural frequency n1 greater than or equal to 1 Hz, while a flexible building has a fundamental natural frequency less than 1 Hz (ASCE 6.2).
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Wind Load Analysis
N-S direction:
Ta = 1/n1 = 0.0488 (hn)3/4 = 0.0488 (45.14)3/4 = 0.85 sec < 1 sec So building is rigid and G = 0.85
See ASCE 7-05 Commentary Section C6.5.8

Wind Load Analysis E-W direction:
Ta = 1/n1 = 0.0466 (hn)0.9 = 1.44 sec > 1 sec So building is flexible. Extensive calculation using n1 = 1/1.44 = 0.7Hz yields Gf = 0.93
See ASCE 7-05 Commentary Section C6.5.8
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Wind Load Analysis
6. Enclosure classification
It is assumed in this example that the building is enclosed per IBC 1609.2, ASCE 6.5.9.

Wind Load Analysis
7. Internal pressure coefficient, GCpi For an enclosed building, GCpi = ± 0.18.

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Wind Load Analysis
8. External pressure coefficients, Cp
For wind in the N-S direction (ASCE Figure 6-6) : Windward wall: Cp = 0.8 Leeward wall (L/B = 20.7/56.1 = 0.37): Cp = -0.5 Side wall: Cp = - 0.7 Roof (h/L = 45.1/20.7 = 2.18): Cp = -1.3 over entire roof (20.7 m < h/2 = 22.6 m). May be reduced to 0.80 × -1.3 = -1.04 for area greater than 93 m2 per Figure 6-6.

Wind Load Analysis
For wind in the E-W direction:
Windward wall: Cp = 0.8 Leeward wall (L/B = 56.1/20.7 = 2.70): Cp = -0.26 Side wall: Cp = -0.7 Roof (h/L = 45.1/56.1 = 0.80): Cp = -1.14 from windward edge to h/2 = 22.6 m Cp = -0.78 from 22.6 m to h = 45.1 m Cp = -0.62 from 45.1 m to 56.1 m

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Wind Load Analysis
9. Velocity pressure, qz
The velocity pressure at height z is determined by Eq. 6-15 in ASCE 6.5.10: qz = 0.613 Kz Kzt Kd V2 I N/m2, V in m/sec where all terms have been defined previously.

Wind Load Analysis
Level
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Velocity Pressure qz (V = 45 m/sec) Height above ground level, z (m) Kz
45.14 41.48 37.82 34.16 30.50 26.84 23.18 19.52 15.86 12.20 8.54 4.88 1.106 1.079 1.051 1.021 0.989 0.953 0.914 0.870 0.820 0.761 0.687 0.586

qz (N/m2)
1167 1138 1110 1077 1044 1006 964 918 865 803 725 618

where q = qz for windward walls at height z above ground q = qh for leeward walls, side walls, and roof, evaluated at height h qi = qh for all walls and roofs of enclosed buildings

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Wind Load Analysis
10. Design wind pressure, p
For rigid buildings of all heights, design wind pressures on the main wind-forceresisting system are calculated by Eq. 6-17: p = q GCp – qi (GCpi)

Wind Load Analysis
Design Wind Pressure in N-S Direction (V = 45 m/sec)
Location Level
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 -------

Height External Pressure above ground q G Cp qGCp level, (N/m2) (N/m2) z(m)
45.14 41.48 37.82 34.16 30.50 26.84 23.18 19.52 15.86 12.20 8.54 4.88 All All 45.14 1167 1138 1110 1077 1044 1006 964 918 865 803 725 618 1167 1167 1167 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80 -0.5 -0.7 -1.04 794 774 755 732 710 684 656 624 588 546 493 420 -496 -694 -1032

Internal Pressure qi (N/m2)
1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167

GCpi
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18

qiGCpi (N/m2)
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210

Windward

Leeward Side Roof

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Wind Load Analysis
Design Wind Pressure in N-S Direction (V = 45 m/sec)
Level Height above ground level, z (m) 45.14 41.48 37.82 34.16 30.50 26.84 23.18 19.52 15.86 12.20 8.54 4.88 Tributary Height (m) 1.83 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 4.27 Windward External Design Design Wind Wind Pressure, Force, qzGfCp P* (kN) (N/m2) 794 81.5 774 755 732 710 684 656 624 588 546 493 420 158.9 155.0 150.3 145.8 140.4 134.7 128.1 120.7 112.1 101.2 86.2 Leeward External Design Design Wind Wind Pressure, Force, P* qhGfCp (kN) (N/m2) -496 50.9 -496 -496 -496 -496 -496 -496 -496 -496 -496 -496 -496 101.8 101.8 101.8 101.8 101.8 101.8 101.8 101.8 101.8 101.8 118.8 Total Design Wind Force (kN) 132.4 260.7 256.8 252.1 247.6 242.2 236.5 229.9 222.5 213.9 203.0 205.0

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

*P = qGCp × Tributary height × 56.1 m

Σ

2702.6

Wind Load Analysis
For flexible buildings, Eq. 6-19 is to be used:

p = q GfCp – qi (GCpi)

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Wind Load Analysis
Design Wind Pressure in E-W Direction (V = 110 mph)
Location Level
12 11 10 9 8
Windward

7 6 5 4 3 2

Leeward Side Roof

1 -----------

Height External Pressure above q G Cp qGCp ground 2 (N/m2) level,z(m) (N/m ) 1167 0.93 0.80 868 45.14 1138 0.93 0.80 847 41.48 1110 0.93 0.80 826 37.82 1077 0.93 0.80 801 34.16 1044 0.93 0.80 777 30.50 1006 0.93 0.80 748 26.84 964 0.93 0.80 718 23.18 918 0.93 0.80 683 19.52 865 0.93 0.80 643 15.86 803 0.93 0.80 597 12.20 725 0.93 0.80 539 8.54 618 0.93 0.80 459 4.88
All All 45.14* 45.14† 45.14‡ 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.93 0.93 -0.26 -0.70 -1.14 -0.78 -0.62 -282 -760 -1237 -847 -673

Internal Pressure qi GCpi qiGCpi (N/m2) (N/m2)
1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 1167 ± 0.18 ± 0.18 ± 0.18 ± 0.18 ± 0.18 ± 0.18 ± 0.18 ± 0.18 ± 0.18 ± 0.18 ± 0.18 ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 ± 210 ± 210 ± 210 ± 210 ± 210 ± 210 ± 210 ± 210 ± 210 ± 210 ± 210 ± 210 ± 210 ± 210 ± 210 ± 210 ± 210

*

from windward edge to 22.6 m, † from 22.6 m to 45.1 m, ‡ from 45.1 m to 56.1 m

Wind Load Analysis
Design Wind Pressure in E-W Direction (V = 110 mph)
Level Height above ground level, z (m) 45.14 41.48 37.82 34.16 30.50 26.84 23.18 19.52 15.86 12.20 8.54 4.88 Tributary Height (m) 1.83 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 3.66 4.27 Windward External Design Design Wind Wind Pressure, Force, qzGfCp P* (kN) (N/m2) 868 32.9 847 64.2 826 62.6 801 60.7 777 58.9 748 56.7 718 54.4 683 51.7 643 48.7 597 45.2 539 40.8 459 40.6 Leeward External Design Design Wind Wind Pressure, Force, qhGfCp P* (kN) (N/m2) -282 10.7 -282 21.4 -282 21.4 -282 21.4 -282 21.4 -282 21.4 -282 21.4 -282 21.4 -282 21.4 -282 21.4 -282 21.4 -282 24.9 Total Design Wind Force (kN) 43.6 85.6 84.0 82.1 80.3 78.1 75.8 73.1 70.1 66.6 62.2 65.5

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

*P = qGCp × Tributary height × 20.7 m

Σ
82

867.0

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Wind Load Analysis
Design Wind Force in N-S and E-W Direction (V = 45 m/sec)
Level Height above ground Level, z (m)
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
45.14 41.48 37.82 34.16 30.50 26.84 23.18 19.52 15.86 12.20 8.54 4.88

Total Design Wind Force N-S (kN)
132.4 260.7 256.8 252.1 247.6 242.2 236.5 229.9 222.5 213.9 203.0 205.0

Total Design Wind Force E-W (kN)
43.6 85.6 84.0 82.1 80.3 78.1 75.8 73.1 70.1 66.6 62.2 65.5

Σ

2702.6

867.0

Wind Load Analysis
The stiffness properties of the members were input assuming cracked sections. The following cracked section properties were used: Beam: Ieff = 0.5 Ig Column: Ieff = 0.7 Ig Shear walls: Ieff = 0.5 Ig where Ig is the gross moment of inertia of section.
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Wind Load Analysis
According to ASCE 6.5.12.3, the main wind-forceresisting systems of buildings of all heights, whose wind loads have been determined according to ASCE 6.5.12.2.1 and 6.5.12.2.3, must be designed for the full and partial wind load cases of Figure 6-9 (Cases 1 through 4). These four cases were considered in the three-dimensional analyses.

Wind Load Analysis
Results of 3-D Analysis under Wind Force in E-W Direction for Frame C (V = 45 m/sec)
12 1 11 4 10 7 9 11 8 15 7 18 6 21 5 25 4 28 3 31 2 34 1 35
-1 -4 -7 -10 -14 -18 -21 -24 -28 -31 -33 -34 2 5 8 12 15 19 21 25 28 31 33 33 -2 -5 -8 -12 -15 -19 -22 -25 -28 -31 -33 -33 2 5 8 12 15 19 22 25 28 31 33 33 -2 -5 -8 -12 -15 -19 -22 -25 -28 -31 -33 -33 2 5 8 12 15 19 22 25 28 31 33 33

12 -0.1 11 -0.3 10 -0.6 9 -0.9 8 -1.2 7 -1.5 6 -1.8 5 -2.1 4 -2.4 3 -2.6 2 -2.8 1 -2.9

-0.2 -0.4 -0.7 -1.0 -1.3 -1.6 -1.9 -2.1 -2.4 -2.6 -2.8 -2.8

-0.2 -0.4 -0.7 -1.0 -1.3 -1.6 -1.9 -2.1 -2.4 -2.6 -2.8 -2.8

-0.2 -0.4 -0.7 -1.0 -1.3 -1.6 -1.9 -2.1 -2.4 -2.6 -2.8 -2.8

Bending Moments in Beams (m-kN)

Shear Forces in Beams (kN)

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Wind Load Analysis
Results of 3-D Analysis under Wind Force in E-W Direction for Frame C (V = 45 m/sec)
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 -2 -2 -6 -1 -8 1 -10 2 -11 4 -13 6 -14 8 -15 10 -17 11 -18 15 -17 14 -17 64 -3 0 -6 2 -9 5 -12 7 -15 10 -17 13 -20 15 -21 18 -24 20 -25 22 -26 26 -21 50 -4 0 -9 2 -12 5 -16 9 -19 12 -21 15 -25 19 -27 21 -30 25 -32 27 -33 33 -27 69 -4 0 -9 2 -12 5 -16 9 -19 12 -21 15 -25 19 -27 21 -30 25 -32 27 -33 33 -27 69 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 12 -0.1 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.5 1.9 2.1 2.5 2.7 3.2 3.0 5.4 0.3 0.8 1.4 1.9 2.4 2.9 3.4 3.9 4.4 4.8 5.3 4.8 0.5 1.1 1.8 2.4 3.1 3.7 4.3 4.9 5.5 5.9 6.6 6.4 0.5 11 1.1 10 1.8 9 2.4 8 3.1 7 3.7 6 4.3 5 4.9 4 5.5 3 5.9 2 6.6 1 6.4 0.1 0.4 1.0 1.9 3.1 4.6 6.4 8.5 10.9 13.5 16.4 19.3 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Bending Moments in Columns (m-kN)

Shear Forces in Columns (kN)

Axial Forces in Columns (kN)

Wind Load Analysis
Results of 3-D Analysis under Wind Force in N-S Direction for Frame 4 (V = 45 m/sec)
12 23 11 31 10 33 9 37 8 40 7 43 6 46 5 47 4 46 3 44 2 39 1 32 -22 25 -30 35 -32 36 -36 39 -39 43 -42 45 -44 47 -45 47 -45 47 -43 44 -38 39 -30 30 12 -2.3 11 -3.1 10 -3.3 9 -3.7 8 -4.0 7 -4.3 6 -4.6 5 -4.7 4 -4.7 3 -4.4 2 -3.9 1 -3.1 -2.6 -3.5 -3.7 -4.0 -4.3 -4.6 -4.8 -4.8 -4.8 -4.4 -3.9 -3.1

Bending Moments in Beams (m-kN)
85

Shear Forces in Beams (kN)

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Wind Load Analysis
Results of 3-D Analysis under Wind Force in N-S Direction for Frame 4 (V = 45 m/sec)
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 -23 12 -16 12 -19 14 -21 16 -22 18 -23 20 -23 21 -22 23 -20 24 -16 26 -11 23 -6 41 -45 30 -30 28 -36 31 -39 34 -41 38 -43 41 -44 43 -43 44 -41 45 -35 43 -28 41 -15 46 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 12 3.5 2.8 3.2 3.6 3.9 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.2 3.3 3.2 7.4 11 5.8 10 6.8 9 7.3 8 7.9 7 8.4 6 8.7 5 8.8 4 8.6 3 7.8 2 6.9 1 4.1 2.3 5.5 8.8 12.5 16.6 20.7 25.4 30.1 34.7 39.2 43.1 46.2 0.2 0.7 1.1 1.4 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.6

Bending Moments in Columns (m-kN)

Shear Forces in Columns (kN)

Axial Forces in Columns (kN)

Wind Load Analysis
Results of 3-D Analysis under Wind Forces in N-S Direction for Wall on Column Line 7 (V = 45 m/sec)
Level
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Axial Forces (kN)
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Bending Moment (m-kN) Top Bottom
343 1772 2539 2359 2308 1662 582 -963 -3022 -5660 -8966 -13055 -1383 -1929 -2093 -1829 -1153 -52 1499 3545 6143 9376 13,360 20,045

Shear Force (kN)
285 43 -68 -196 -318 -442 -572 -709 -587 -1021 -1206 -1438

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An Overview of the Design Load Combinations and the Seismic Design Provisions of the 1997 UBC

S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. Palatine, IL
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Referenced Standards
Design Loads and Load Combinations Concrete Masonry Steel Wood ASCE 7-95 ACI 318-95 None Multiple AF&PA NDS - 91

Referenced Steel Standards
1997 UBC AISC LRFD 1993 AISC ASD 1989

AISC Seismic 1992 AISI LRFD 1991 AISI ASD 1986 (with 1989 addendum) None

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Structural Design Requirements 1997 UBC
Chapter 16 – Design Loads Chapter 17 – Inspections / Testing Chapter 18 – Foundations Chapter 19 – Concrete Chapter 20 – Aluminum Chapter 21 – Masonry Chapter 22 – Steel Chapter 23 – Wood

1612.2.1 Strength Design or LRFD Load Combinations (1997 UBC)
U= U= U= U= U= U= 1.4D 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5 (Lr or S) 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S) + (f1L or 0.8W) 1.2D + 1.3W + f1L + 0.5(Lr or S) 1.2D + 1.0E + (f1L + f2S) 0.9D ± (1.0E or 1.3W) (12-1) (12-2) (12-3) (12-4) (12-5) (12-6)

E = Design earthquake force (strength-level)

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1612.2.1 Strength Design or LRFD Load Combinations (1997 UBC)
U = 1.2D + 1.0E + (f1L + f2S) (12-5) U = 0.9D ± (1.0E or 1.3W) (12-6) E = ρEh + Ev in (12-5), (12-6) Ev = 0.5CaID

• ρ = 1 in Seismic Zones 0,1,2

Eh

Δs

V

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Effect of Vertical Earthquake Ground Motion
• Gravity and Earthquake Effects Additive U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 0.5L +0.2S = 1.2D + (ρEh + 0.5CaID) + 0.5L + 0.2S = (1.2 + 0.5CaI)D + ρEh + 0.5L + 0.2S

Effect of Vertical Earthquake Ground Motion
• Gravity and Earthquake Effects Counteractive U = 0.9D - 1.0E = 0.9D - (ρ Eh + 0.5CaID) = (0.9 - 0.5CaI)D - ρEh

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Strength Design or LRFD Load Combinations - Exceptions
UBC Exceptions for concrete structures

1612.3.1 ASD Load Combinations Basic (1997 UBC, from ASCE 7-95)
D D + L + (Lr or S) D + (W or E/1.4) 0.9D + E/1.4 D + 0.75[L + (Lr or S) + (W or E/1.4)] E = ρEh + 0 (12-7) (12-8) (12-9) (12-10) (12-12)

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ASD Load Combinations - Basic (ASCE 7-95) – Allowable Stress Increase
• 1/3 stress increase not permitted • Load duration increase permitted

1612.3.2 ASD Load Combinations Alternate Basic (1997 UBC)
D + L + (Lr or S) D + L + (W or E/1.4) D + L + W + S/2 D + L + S + W/2 D + L + S + E/1.4 0.9D + E/1.4
E = ρEh + 0

(12-12) (12-13) (12-14) (12-15) (12-16) (?)

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ASD Load Combinations Alternate Basic (1997 UBC) – Allowable Stress Increase
• When using these alternate basic load
combinations that include wind or seismic loads, allowable stresses are permitted to be increased or load combinations reduced, where permitted by the material chapter of this code or referenced standard.

1612.4 Special Seismic Load Combinations (1997 UBC)
• 1.2D + f1L + 1.0Em • 0.9D + 1.0Em
Em = Ω0Eh, while E = ρEh + Ev (12-17) (12-18)

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1997 UBC Seismic Design Provisions Introduction and Basic Principles

1997 UBC Seismic Design Provisions
Based on 1996 SEAOC Blue Book, influenced by the1994 NEHRP Provisions

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1626.1 Purpose

The purpose of the earthquake provisions herein is primarily to safeguard against major structural failures and loss of life…not to limit damage or maintain function.

Purpose
SEAOC “Blue Book” Commentary…
• Resist minor ground motion without damage • Resist moderate ground motion without structural damage but with some nonstructural damage • Resist major ground motion without collapse but with possible structural / nonstructural damage • Provisions will not prevent damage from earth faulting, slides or similar movements, nor soil liquefaction

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1997 UBC Design Earthquake Ground Motion

• Approximately 90% probability of
non-exceedance in 50 years (approx. 475 yr. return period)

Idealized Force-Displacement

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Idealized Relationship between Base Shear and Drift

Earthquake-Induced Forces
• FM ≈ ΩoFS
» FM = Maximum inelastic response force » FS = Code-prescribed force » Ωo = Seismic force amplification factor
Ωo gives a reasonable approximation of actual forces acting in an inelastically responding structure

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EQ Design Considerations
• • • • • • • • • • •
Seismic Zone Proximity to known Faults Site Geology and soil characteristics Building Occupancy Structural framing system Structural configuration… regular or irregular System redundancy Building height Lateral force procedure Framing system limitations Special strength and detailing

1626.3 Earthquake vs. Wind
1. 2. 3. 4.
Code-Prescribed Forces Exposed Area vs. Mass Design for Larger Force Provide Seismic Detailing

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EQ Design Procedure
• Step 1 – Select basic structural system • Step 2 – Identify lateral force-resisting
system • Step 3 – Identify structural irregularities and any framing system limitations • Step 4 – Select lateral force procedure • Step 5 – Calculate total design base shear and distribute over height of structure

EQ Design Procedure
• Step 6 – Elastically analyze building, including torsional effects. Include P-Δ effects, if necessary • Step 7 – Check story drift limitations • Step 8 – Calculate redundancy (ρ) of lateral force-resisting system and increase earthquake forces as necessary • Step 9 – Design elements of lateral forceresisting system for required strength and do special detailing • Step 10 – Confirm complete load path to resist earthquake forces
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Sec 1702 Structural Observation
Required for:

1. Essential facilities, hazardous
facilities and special occupancy structures (Table 16-K) 2. “High-rise” office building, hotels and apartments (Section 403) 3. Seismic Zone 4… Near-Source Factor (Na) greater than 1.0

Sec 1702 Structural Observation
4. When designated by A/E of record or building official • Seismic Zones 3 and 4 only • Structural system only • Performed by A/E of record or designated A/E • Periodic site visits • Compliance with plans and specifications • Final report to building official Note: Structural Observations does not waive inspections by Section 108 and 1701

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1997 UBC Seismic Design Provisions Structural Systems

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1997 UBC Fig. 16-3 Design Response Spectra

1997 UBC Sec. 1630.2 Static Force Procedure

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Response Modification Factor, R

8.5 > R > 2.2

• 1997 UBC (Strength-level earthquake forces) Table 16-N
Bearing wall system R = 4.5

IBC vs. UBC Response Modification Factor, R

Special moment resisting frame system R = 8.5
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Table 16-N – Structural Systems1

Footnote for Table 16-N
N.L. – no limit 1 See Section 1630.4 for combination of structural systems. 2 Basic structural systems are defined in Section 1629.6. 3 Prohibited in Seismic Zones 3 and 4. 4 Includes precast concrete conforming to Section 1921.2.7. 5 Prohibited in Seismic Zones 3 and 4, except as permitted in Section 1634.2. 6 Ordinary moment-resisting frames in Seismic Zone 1 meeting the requirements of Section 2211.6 may use a R value of 8. 7 Total height of the building including cantilevered columns. 8 Prohibited in Seismic Zones 2A, 2B, 3 and 4. See Section 1633.2.7.
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Sec 1630.4.2 Vertical Combinations

Sec 1630.4.2 Vertical Combinations
1. Design structure for lowest (R) for structural systems used… or 2. Two-stage analysis permitted for structures with flexible upper portion supported by rigid lower portion (Sec 1629.8.3 Item 4) 3. In Seismic Zones 3 & 4, dynamic analysis required for structures > 5 stories or 19.8 m in height with vertical combinations (Sec 1629.8.4 Item 3)
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Sec 1630.4.3 Combinations Along Different Axes

• With bearing wall system in only one
direction, (R) not greater in orthogonal direction (Zones 3 and 4 only)

Sec 1630.4.3 Combinations Along Different Axes
• Structures < 48 m
» » » »
Bearing wall system Building frame system Moment-resisting frame system Dual system

• Structures > 48 m (Zones 3 and 4 only)
» Special moment-resisting frames » Dual systems

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Sec 1630.4.4 Combinations Along Same Axes
• With different structural systems in same direction, value of (R) in that direction to be taken as least (R) for structural systems utilized • Dual systems…and shear wall-frame interactive systems in Seismic Zones 0 & 1…excluded

Sec 1630.4.4 Combinations Along Same Axes

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1997 UBC Seismic Design Provisions Static Force Procedure

1997 UBC Fig. 16-3 Design Response Spectra

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1997 UBC Sec. 1630.2 Static Force Procedure

Terms to Calculate Earthquake Load

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UBC Seismic Zones

Table 16-I Seismic Zone Factor
Seismic Zone 4 3 2B 2A 1 Z 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.15 0.075

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Table 16-1 Seismic Zone Factor
• Accounts for geographical variations in expected levels of earthquake ground shaking • Seismic zone map (Fig 16-2) estimates effective peak horizontal acceleration on rock with a 10 percent probability of being exceeded in a 50-year period • See Appendix 1A – Seismic Zone Coefficient… in 1996 SEAOC “Blue Book”

Soil Profile Types / Site Classes
Soil Profile Type
SA SB SC SD SE SF

Soil Profile Description
Hard Rock (east coast rock) Rock (west coast rock) Very Dense Soil and Soft Rock Stiff Soil Profile Soft Soil Profile Soil Requiring Site-Specific Evaluation

Site Class
A B C D E F

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Table 16-J – Soil Profile Types
Soil Profile Type Soil Profile Name/ Generic Description Hard Rock Rock
Average Soil Properties for Top 30,480 mm of Soil Profile
Shear Wave velocity (m/sec) Standard Penetration Test, N [or NCH for cohesionless soil layers] (blows/foot) Undrained Shear Strength (kPa)

SA SB SC SD SE1 SF

> 1,500 760 to 1,500 > 50 15 to 50 < 15 > 100 50 to 100 < 50

Very Dense Soil 360 to 760 and Soft Rock Stiff Soil Profile Soft Soil Profile 180 to 360 < 180

Soil Requiring Site-specific Evaluation. See Section 1629.3.1.

Default Soil Profile Type
• Soil Profile Type SD must be used
when the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail, unless the building official determines that Soil Profile Type SE or SF is likely to be present at the site

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Soil-Modification of Short-Period Ground Motion (1997 UBC)

Soil-Modification of Long-Period Ground Motion (1997 UBC)

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SEISMIC GROUND MOTION AMPLIFICATION DUE TO SOIL, Ca / Z (1997 UBC)
SOIL PROFILE TYPE SEISMIC ZONE FACTOR - Z Z = 0.075 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.6 2.5 * Z = 0.15 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0 * Z = 0.20 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.7 * Z = 0.30 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.2 2.2 * Z = 0.40 0.8Na 1.0Na 1.0Na 1.1Na 0.9Na *

SA SB SC SD SE SF

* Site specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis required

SEISMIC GROUND MOTION AMPLIFICATION DUE TO SOIL, Cv / Z (1997 UBC)
SOIL PROFILE TYPE SEISMIC ZONE FACTOR - Z Z = 0.075 0.8 1.0 1.7 2.4 3.5 * Z = 0.15 0.8 1.0 1.7 2.1 3.3 * Z = 0.20 0.8 1.0 1.6 2.0 3.2 * Z = 0.30 0.8 1.0 1.5 1.8 2.8 * Z = 0.40 0.8Nv 1.0Nv 1.4Nv 1.6Nv 2.4Nv *

SA SB SC SD SE SF

* Site specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis required

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TABLE 16-S NEAR-SOURCE FACTOR Na (1997 UBC) Seismic Source Type A B C Closest Distance to Known Seismic Source ≤ 2 km 1.5 1.3 1.0 5 km 1.2 1.0 1.0 ≥ 10 km 1.0 1.0 1.0

TABLE 16-T NEAR-SOURCE FACTOR Nv (1997 UBC)
Seismic Source Type A B C Closest Distance to Known Seismic Source ≤ 2 km 2.0 1.6 1.0 5 km 1.6 1.2 1.0 10 km 1.2 1.0 1.0 ≥ 15 km 1.0 1.0 1.0

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Design Spectrum

1997 UBC Sec. 1630.2 Static Force Procedure

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Table 16-K Occupancy Category
Occupancy Category 1. Essential facilities 2. Hazardous facilities 3. Special occupancy structures 4. Standard occupancy structures 5. Miscellaneous structures Occupancy or Function of Structure Hospitals; Fire/Police Stations; Emergency Shelters Dangerous Toxic or Explosive Substances Public Assembly; Schools; Day-Care Centers; Nurseries; Nursing Homes; Jails Hotels; Apartments; Dwellings; Wholesale/Retail; Office Bldgs Factories; Private Garages; Carports/Sheds Seismic Importance Factor I 1.25 Seismic Importance Factor Ip 1.50

1.25 1.00

1.50 1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00
63

Seismic Importance Factor, I

• Used to amplify….design forces
as a means of controlling damage and producing “enhanced” performance in Occupancy Categories 1 and 2

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Minimum Design Base Shear
• All Seismic Zones
Vmin = 0.11 Ca I W 1997 UBC

Minimum Design Base Shear
• Seismic Zone 4
0.8ZNV I R

Vmin =

W

1997 UBC

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Structure Period
Calculated by…… 1) Approximate Formulae 2) Rational Analysis using structural properties and deformational characteristics of resisting elements in a properly substantiated analysis

Approximate Period Formulae Ta = CT (hn)3/4 1997 UBC (30-8)
CT 0.0853 0.0731 0.0488

Lateral Force Resisting System Steel Moment Frames Concrete Moment Frames Eccentrically Braced Steel Frames All other buildings
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Approximate Period Formula (Optional – 1997 UBC )
For structures with concrete or masonry shear walls, Ct = 0.0743/√Ac Ac = ΣAe[0.2 + (De/hn)2] Replaced by a different formula in ASCE 7-05

T = 2π

ΣwΔ2 g ( FtΔt + ΣFΔ )

Rayleigh Formula

T = 2π

ΣwΔ2 g ( FtΔt + ΣFΔ )

(30-10)

70

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Upper Limit on T by "Rational Analysis"
1997 UBC T ≤ 1.3 Ta, Zone 4 ≤ 1.4 Ta, Zones 1,2,3

1997 UBC 1630.1.1 Effective Seismic Weight
V = CSW W = total dead load + ……
• • • •
Warehouses………………..…………..25% live Buildings with partitions……………….0.48 kN/m2 Design snow load > 1.44 kN/m2………… ≥ 25% design snow load ** Permanent equipment…………………100% dead

** UBC leaves this up to local jurisdictions

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IBC vs. UBC Vertical Force Distribution
1997 UBC

Fx =

w xh x (V - Ft ) ∑ wh where T ≤ 0.7 sec....Ft = 0 T > 0.7 sec....Ft = 0.07TV ≤ 0.25V

Vertical Force Distribution
1997 UBC

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1997 UBC 1630.6 Horizontal Distribution of Forces
• Rigid diaphragms
» Seismic story shear is to be distributed to elements of seismic-force-resisting system based on stiffness of vertical-resisting elements

• Flexible diaphragms
» Seismic story shear is to be distributed to elements of seismic-force-resisting system based on tributary areas

Sec 1630.6 Diaphragm Flexibility
• Diaphragm considered flexible if… Max.
diaphragm deflection Δ > 2 (Average story drift)

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Sec 1630.6 Diaphragm Flexibility
• Compare midpoint in-plane deflection of diaphragm (Δ) with average story drift of adjoining vertical resisting elements

1997 UBC 1630.6 Horizontal Distribution of Forces
• Torsion
» Torsional moment due to difference in location of center of mass and center of resistance must be considered for rigid diaphragms

• Accidental torsion
» For rigid diaphragms, must be included in addition to the torsional moment
• Displacement of center of mass = 5% building dimension perpendicular to direction of applied forces

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Sec 1630.1.2 Modeling Requirements “Accuracy of Results”
Mathematical model of physical structure to include… • All elements of lateral-force-resisting system • All stiffness and strength significant to force
distribution…representation of spatial distribution of mass and stiffness of structure • Effects of “cracked sections” for concrete and masonry • Contribution of panel zone deformation to story drift for steel moment frames

Even with new guidelines for structure modeling…structure period (T) calculated by “rational analysis” still RESTRICTED

1997 UBC 1630.9 Story Drift Determination (Δ)
Lateral displacement of one level relative to the next level above or below

x

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Eh

ΔS

V

1997 UBC 1630.10 Story Drift Limitation
1997 UBC Δx = ΔM,x - ΔM,x-1 ≤ Δa
where….

ΔM,x = 0.7R Δs,x

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Allowable Story Drift (Δa ) 1997 UBC
Δa = 0.020 hsx for T ≥ 0.7 sec. = 0.025 hsx for T < 0.7 sec. hsx = Story height below level x

REDUNDANCY

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Redundancy
ρ = 1 in Seismic Zones 1 and 2

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

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Static vs. Dynamic Analysis (1997 UBC)
What Seismic Zone? 3 or 4 1, 2, 3 2 What Occupancy Table 16-K ? Is Bldg. Irregular Table 16-L 1, 2, 3? No Is Bldg. Height < 73 m No No Yes Yes

1

4, 5

Yes

Use Dynamic Analysis

Is No. of Stories ≤ 5 and Ht. ≤ 19.8 m ?

Use Static Analysis

Building Configuration
• Plan Structural Irregularities (1997 UBC
Table 16-M)
» Torsional irregularity » Re-entrant corners » Diaphragm discontinuity » Out-of-plane offsets » Nonparallel systems

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Building Configuration
• Vertical Structural Irregularities (1997 UBC Table 16-L)
» » » »
Stiffness irregularity – soft story Weight (mass) irregularity Vertical geometric irregularity In-plane discontinuity in vertical lateral-force-resisting elements

» Discontinuity in lateral strength – weak story

EXEMPTIONS FROM SEISMIC DESIGN

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1997 UBC Exemption from Seismic Design
1629.1 … One- and two-family dwellings in Seismic Zone 1 need not conform to the provisions of this section.

SIMPLIFIED STATIC LATERAL FORCE PROCEDURE

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1997 UBC Sec. 1629.8.2

Applicable to following structures in Occupancy Category 4 or 5:
» Buildings not more than 3 stories in height excluding basements, that use light-frame construction » Other buildings not more than 2 stories in height excluding basements

1997 UBC Sec. 1630.2.3.2
• Seismic Base Shear, V (Eq. 30-11): V = 3.0 Ca W / R

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1997 UBC Sec. 1630.2.3.3
• Vertical Distribution (Eq. 30-12)
Fx = 3.0 Ca wx / R

1997 UBC Sec. 1630.2.3.4
• Where used, ΔM shall be taken equal
to 0.01 times the story height of all stories

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Easy, Step-by-Step Determination of Design Base Shear 1997 UBC

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1997 UBC Division IV: Earthquake Design Section Title Page
1626 1627 1628 1629 1630 1631 1632 General Definitions Symbols and Notation Criteria Selection 2-9 2-9 2-10 2-11

Minimum Design Lateral Forces and Related 2-13 Effects Dynamic Analysis Procedures Lateral Forces on Elements of Structures, Nonstructural Components and Equipment Supported by Structures Detailed Systems Design Requirements Nonbuilding Structures 2-16 2-18

1633 1634

2-19 2-21

What is Design Base Shear?
FR F2 F1 "Base" V (Design Base Shear)
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STEP 1: DETERMINE SEISMIC ZONE FACTOR, Z

Dubai: Seismic Zone 2A

UBC Seismic Zones

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UBC Seismic Zones
Appendix Chapter 16 Division III: Seismic Zone Tabulation Section 1653 – FOR AREAS OUTSIDE THE U.S. United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi…..Zone 0 Dubai……..…Zone 0
7

STEP 1: DETERMINE SEISMIC ZONE FACTOR, Z
Seismic Zone
1 2A 2B 3 4

Z
0.075 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40

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STEP 2: DETERMINE IMPORTANCE FACTOR, I (Table 16-K)
Occupancy Category
Essential Facilities Hazardous Facilities Special Occupancy Structures Standard Occupancy Structures Miscellaneous Structures

Seismic Importance Factor, I
1.25 1.25 1.00 1.00 1.00

STEP 3: DETERMINE IF STATIC FORCE PROCEDURE is OK

CED – Structural Design Guidelines VS. 1997 UBC

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STEP 3: DETERMINE IF STATIC FORCE PROCEDURE is OK
• CED Section 3.2
All structures and buildings exceeding 12 stories in height shall be analyzed by employing Response Spectrum Analysis

STEP 3: DETERMINE IF STATIC FORCE PROCEDURE is OK (97 UBC Section 1629.8)
What Seismic Zone ? Does building have an irregularity as described in Item 1, 2 or 3 of Table 16-L ? What Occupancy ? Table 16-K

Is Building Height < 73.2 m ?

USE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

Is No. of Stories ≤ 5 and Ht ≤ 19.8 m ?

USE STATIC ANALYSIS

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STEP 3: DETERMINE IF STATIC FORCE PROCEDURE is OK
Irregularities in Items 1, 2 and 3
1. Stiffness Irregularity - Soft Story
Stiff Resisting Elements

2. Weight (Mass) Irregularity
Heavy Mass

3. Vertical Geometric Irregularity

Soft

“Soft Story” Stiffness < 70% Story Stiffness Above or < 80% (Avg. Stiffness of 3 Stories above)

Story Mass > 150% Adjacent Story Mass Exception: Lighter Roof is Acceptable

Story Dimension > 130% Adjacent Story Dimension Exception: One-Story Penthouse Acceptable

STEP 4: DETERMINE SOIL PROFILE TYPE Section 1636 and Table 16-J
Soil Profile Type
SA SB SC SD SE SF

Soil Profile Description
Hard rock Rock Very dense soil and soft rock Stiff soil profile Soft soil profile Soil requiring site-specific evaluation. See UBC Section 1629.3.1.

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STEP 4: DETERMINE SOIL PROFILE TYPE Section 1629.3
EXCEPTION: When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the soil profile type, Type SD shall be used….

STEP 5: DETERMINE Ca and Cv

Ca
• Function of Z and Soil Profile Type • Represents site-dependent effective peak acceleration at grade. • Used in base shear equation
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STEP 5: DETERMINE Ca and Cv
Response Spectrum

Spectral Acceleration

Ca
Period (T)

STEP 5: DETERMINE Ca and Cv
SEISMIC COEFFICIENT Ca
Soil Profile Seismic Zone Factor, Z Type Z = 0.075 Z = 0.15 Z = 0.2 Z = 0.3 Z = 0.4
SA SB SC SD SE SF
1

0.06 0.08 0.09 0.12 0.19

0.12 0.15 0.18 0.22 0.30

0.16 0.20 0.24 0.28 0.34

0.24 0.30 0.33 0.36 0.36

0.32Na 0.40Na 0.40Na 0.44Na 0.36Na

See Footnote 1

Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis shall be performed to determine seismic coefficients for Soil Profile Type SF.

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STEP 5: DETERMINE Ca and Cv

Cv
• Function of Z and Soil Profile Type • Represents the value of acceleration response at a 1.0 second period. • Cv is significantly > Z for soft soil sites.

STEP 5: DETERMINE Ca and Cv
RESPONSE SPECTRUM

Spectral Acceleration

Cv

T = 1.0 second Period (T)

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STEP 5: DETERMINE Ca and Cv
SEISMIC COEFFICIENT CV
Soil Profile Seismic Zone Factor, Z Type Z = 0.075 Z = 0.15 Z = 0.2 Z = 0.3 Z = 0.4
SA SB SC SD SE
1

0.06 0.08 0.13 0.18 0.26

0.12 0.15 0.25 0.32 0.50

0.16 0.20 0.32 0.40 0.64

0.24 0.30 0.45 0.54 0.84

0.32Na 0.40Na 0.56Na 0.64Na 0.96Na

SF See Footnote 1 Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis shall be performed to determine seismic coefficients for Soil Profile Type SF.

STEP 6: DETERMINE BUILDING PERIOD, T Section 1630.2.2:

T = Ct (hn) ¾

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STEP 6: DETERMINE BUILDING PERIOD, T
Structural System
Steel moment resisting frames Reinforced concrete moment resisting frame and eccentrically braced frames All other systems
*C t

Ct
0.0835 0.0731 0.0488*

for structures with concrete or masonry shear walls may alternatively be computed using UBC formula (30-9). Alternative methods for calculating the period of a structure are found in UBC Section 1630.2.2. Periods may be computed by any rational procedure that is in conformance with the principles of mechanics. Rationally computed period may not be taken any larger than 1.3 times the period given by the above formula in Zone 4, or 1.4 times the period obtained from the above formula in Zones 1, 2 and 3.

STEP 7: DETERMINE SYSTEM RESPONSE FACTOR, R
Table 16-N: STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
1. Bearing Wall System 2. Building Frame System 3. Moment-Resisting Frame System 4. Dual System 5. Cantilevered Column Building System 6. Shear Wall-Frame Interaction System 7. Undefined System

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STEP 7: DETERMINE SYSTEM RESPONSE FACTOR, R
Bearing Wall System
Lateral Forces Gravity Loads

Building Frame System
Gravity Loads Lateral Forces

Moment-Resisting Frame System
Lateral Forces Gravity Loads

Stiff Resisting Elements… Shearwalls or Braced Frames

Stiff Resisting Elements… Shearwalls or Braced Frames

STEP 7: DETERMINE SYSTEM RESPONSE FACTOR, R
Dual System Cantilevered Column Building System Shear Wall-Frame Interaction System
Lateral Forces Gravity Loads

Lateral Forces

Gravity Loads

Stiff Resisting Elements… Shearwalls or Braced Frames (See Section 1629.6.5 for requirements)

Zero Moment Restraint

Fixed Base

Concrete only

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STEP 8: Calculate W
Seismic Dead Load, W, per Section 1630.1.1: Description
Warehouses Buildings with Partitions Snow Load Permanent Equipment

Load
25% Live Load Min. 0.48 kN/m2 > 1.44 kN/m2, include 100% Dead Load

STEP 9: Calculate Design Base Shear
Section 1630.2…
Description and Equation
“Long Period” Structures:
C I V= v W RT

Equation No.
30-4

“Short Period” Structures:
V = 2.5 C a I W R

30-5

Design Base Shear Minimum:
V = 0.11 Ca I W

30-6

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STEP 9: Calculate Design Base Shear
“Short period” structures

Design Response Spectrum
“Long period” structures

V=
V=

Design Base shear

2.5 C a I W R
Cv I W RT

Vmin
Cv Ts = 2.5 C a
Ts

Period (T)

STEP 10: Distribute Design Base Shear Section 1630.5
Fx = (V − Ft ) w x hx ∑ wi hi

When T ≤ 0.7 sec, Ft = 0 When T > 0.7 sec, Ft = 0.07TV ≤ 0.25V
n

Ft = 0.07TV

Fx hn hx

x

wx

V

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EXAMPLE

SKGA California Office Relocated to Dubai, “Regular”

Plan Dimension of Example Building
9.14 m

7.62 m

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Elevation of Office
3
2.74 m

2
2.74 m

1
2.74 m

Design Data

• Building Location
Dubai (Seismic Zone: 2A)

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EXAMPLE: Step 1
Step 1: Determine Seismic Zone Factor

Z = 0.15 (Seismic Zone: 2A)

EXAMPLE: Step 2
Step 2: Determine Importance Factor

I = 1.0 (Standard Occupancy Structure in Table 16-K)

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EXAMPLE: Step 3
Step 3: Determine If Static Procedure is OK
What Seismic Zone ? Does building have an irregularity as described in Item 1, 2 or 3 of Table 16-L ? What Occupancy ? Table 16-K

Is Building Height < 73.2 m ?

USE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

Is No. of Stories ≤ 5 and Ht ≤ 19.8 m ?

USE STATIC ANALYSIS

EXAMPLE: Step 4
Step 4: Determine Soil Profile Type

Assume SD Soil (Stiff Soil Profile)

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EXAMPLE: Step 5
Step 5: Determine Ca and Cv
SEISMIC COEFFICIENT Ca
Soil Profile Type
SA SB SC SD SE SF

Seismic Zone Factor, Z Z = 0.075
0.06 0.08 0.09 0.12 0.19

Z = 0.15
0.12 0.15 0.18

Z = 0.2
0.16 0.20 0.24 0.28 0.34

Z = 0.3
0.24 0.30 0.33 0.36 0.36

Z = 0.4
0.32Na 0.40Na 0.40Na 0.44Na 0.36Na

0.22
0.30

See Footnote 1

EXAMPLE: Step 5
Step 5: Determine Ca and Cv
SEISMIC COEFFICIENT CV
Soil Profile Type SA
SB SC SD SE SF

Seismic Zone Factor, Z Z = 0.075
0.06 0.08 0.13 0.18 0.26

Z = 0.15
0.12 0.15 0.25

Z = 0.2
0.16 0.20 0.32 0.40 0.64

Z = 0.3
0.24 0.30 0.45 0.54 0.84

Z = 0.4
0.32Na 0.40Na 0.56Na 0.64Na 0.96Na

0.32
0.50

See Footnote 1

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EXAMPLE: Step 6

Step 6: Determine Building Period T
9.14 m

7.62 m

0.2 m

0.2 m

EXAMPLE: Step 6
Direction 1:
Direction of lateral seismic load is parallel to the longer dimension of the shear wall (9.14 m) ΣAe = 9.14 × 0.2 × 2 + (7.62-0.4) ×0.2 ×2 = 6.54 m2 De = 9.14 (the length of a shear wall in loading direction) De/hn = 9.14 / 8.22 = 1.11 > 0.9, therefore De/hn = 0.9 Ac = ΣAe [0.2 + (De/hn)2] = 6.54 × [0.2+0.92] = 6.61 m2 Ct = 0.0743 / Ac0.5 = 0.0743 / (6.61)0.5 = 0.0289 T = Ct (hn)0.75 = 0.0289 × (8.22)0.75 = 0.14 sec

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EXAMPLE: Step 6
Direction 2:
Direction of lateral seismic load is parallel to the shorter dimension of the shear wall (7.62 m) ΣAe = 9.14 × 0.2 × 2 + (7.62-0.4) ×0.2 ×2 = 6.54 m2 De = 7.62 (the length of a shear wall in loading direction) De/hn = 7.62 / 8.22 = 0.927 > 0.9, therefore De/hn = 0.9 Ac = ΣAe [0.2 + (De/hn)2] = 6.54 × [0.2+0.92] = 6.61 m2 Ct = 0.0743 / Ac0.5 = 0.0743 / (6.61)0.5 = 0.0289 T = Ct (hn)0.75 = 0.0289 × (8.22)0.75 = 0.14 sec

Therefore, T = 0.14 sec in both directions

EXAMPLE: Step 7
Step 7: Determine System Response Factor
Basic Structural Lateral-Force-Resisting System Description Systems
1. Bearing Wall System
Lateral Forces Gravity Load

R

1. Light-framed walls with shear panels a. Wood Structural panel walls for structures three stories or less b. All other light-framed walls 2. Shear walls a. Concrete b. Masonry 3. Light steel-framed bearing walls with tension-only bracing 4. Braced frames where bracing carries gravity load 4.5 4.5 2.8 5.5 4.5

Stiff Resisting Elements… Shearwalls or Braced Frames

a. Steel b. Concrete c. Heavy timber

4.4 2.8 2.8

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EXAMPLE: Step 8
Step 8: Calculate W
Level
3 (Roof) 2 1

Story weight, wx (kN)
510 681 681 1872

Σ

EXAMPLE: Step 9
Step 9: Calculate design base shear
Ts = Cv/(2.5 × Ca) = 0.32/(2.5 × 0.22) = 0.582 sec > T (= 0.14 sec) Vmin = 0.11 ×Ca × I × W = 0.11 × 0.22 ×1.0 × 1872 = 45.3 kN V = (2.5 × Ca × I)/R × W = (2.5 × 0.22 ×1.0)/4.5 × 1872 = 228.8 kN > Vmin

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Seismic Design Forces
Step 10: Distribute design base shear
Story
3 (Roof) 2 1 Σ

hx (m)
8.22 5.48 2.74

wx (kN)
510.0 681.0 681.0 1872.0

hxwx (m-kN)
4192.2 3731.9 1865.9 9790.0

Fx (kN)
97.97 87.22 43.61 228.8

Fx = (wxhx)/(Σwihi) × V when T ≤ 0.7 sec

EXAMPLE: Step 10
97.97 kN 3

87.22 kN

2

43.61 kN

1

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Computation of Design Seismic Forces

S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. Palatine, IL

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Typical Plan of Example Building

1 7.92 m
6.71 m 6.71 m

2 7.92 m

3 7.92 m

4 7.92 m

5 7.92 m

6

7.92 m

7

7.92 m

8

A

B

N

D

6.71 m

C

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Typical Elevation of Example Building
12 11 10 11 @ 3.66 m = 40.26 m 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 4.88 m 1

Design Data
• Building Location
Dubai (Seismic Zone 2A)

• Material Properties
Concrete: fc’ = 30 MPa, wc = 23.55 KN/m3 Reinforcement: fy = 420 MPa

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Design Data
• Service Loads
Live loads: roof = 957.6 N/m2 floor = 2394 N/m2 Superimposed dead loads: roof = 478.8 N/m2 + 889.64 KN for penthouse floor = 1436.4 N/m2 (957.6 N/m2 permanent partitions + 478.8 N/m2 ceiling, etc.)

Design Data
• Seismic Design Data
Zone 2A: Z = 0.15 Soil Profile Type: SD (stiff soil profile; UBC Table 16-J) For Occupancy Category 4, I = 1.0 (UBC Table 16-K)

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Design Data
• Member Dimensions
Slab: 205 mm Beams: 560 × 560 mm Interior columns: 660 × 660 mm Edge columns: 610 × 610 mm Wall thickness: 305 mm

Values of Ca as Function of Soil Profile Type and Z (Table 16-Q)
Soil Profile Type SA SB SC SD SE SF
1:

Seismic Zone Factor, Z
Z = 0.075 Z = 0.15 Z = 0.2 Z = 0.3 Z = 0.4

0.06 0.08 0.09 0.12 0.19

0.12 0.16 0.24 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.18 0.24 0.33 0.22 0.28 0.36 0.30 0.34 0.36 See Footnote 1

0.32Na 0.40Na 0.40Na 0.44Na 0.36Na

Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis shall be performed to determine seismic coefficients for Soil Profile Type SF.

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Values of Cv as Function of Soil Profile Type and Z (Table 16-R)
Soil Profile Type SA SB SC SD SE SF
1:

Seismic Zone Factor, Z
Z = 0.075 Z = 0.15 Z = 0.2 Z = 0.3 Z = 0.4

0.06 0.08 0.13 0.18 0.26

0.12 0.16 0.24 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.25 0.32 0.45 0.32 0.40 0.54 0.50 0.64 0.84 See Footnote 1

0.32Nv 0.40Nv 0.56Nv 0.64Nv 0.96Nv

Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis shall be performed to determine seismic coefficients for Soil Profile Type SF.

Seismic Forces
The equivalent lateral force procedure of 1997 UBC Section 1630.2 is used to compute the seismic base shear. In a given direction, V is determined by UBC Eqs. 30-4 – 30-7:

V = Cs W
where Cs is the seismic response coefficient determined in accordance with UBC 1630.2.1 and W is the total dead load of the structure and applicable portions of other loads as indicated in UBC 1630.1.1. For the member sizes and superimposed dead loads, W = 121,107 kN.

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Seismic Forces in N-S Direction
In the N-S direction, a dual system is utilized. As a minimum, the dual system must have intermediate reinforced concrete moment frames and ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls in a building in Zone 2A. For this system, the response modification coefficient R = 6.5 (see UBC Table 16-N).

Seismic Forces in N-S Direction
• Approximate period (Ta)
The fundamental period of the building T is determined in accordance with UBC 1630.2.2. In lieu of a more exact analysis, an approximate fundamental period Ta is computed by UBC Eq. 30-8 for the dual system: Building height hn = 45.14 m Approximate period parameter Ct = 0.0488 (1630.2.2 Method A) Period Ta = Cthn3/4 = 0.0488 × (45.14)3/4 = 0.85 sec No further refinement of the period is made in this example.

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Seismic Forces in N-S Direction
• Seismic base shear (V)
The seismic response coefficient Cs is determined by UBC Eq. 30-4:
Cs = CvI / RT = 0.32x1 / (6.5x0.85) = 0.058

Seismic Forces in N-S Direction
The value of Cs need not exceed that from UBC Eq. 30-5: Cs = 2.5CaI / R = 2.5x0.22 / 6.5 = 0.085 Also, Cs shall not be less than the value given by UBC Eq. 30-6: Cs = 0.11CaI = 0.024

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Seismic Forces in N-S Direction
Thus, the value of Cs from UBC Eq. 30-4 governs and the base shear in the N-S direction is: V = 0.058 W = 0.058 × 121,107 = 7024 kN

Seismic Forces in N-S Direction
• Vertical distribution of seismic forces
The total base shear is distributed over the height of the building in conformance with UBC Eqs. 30-14 and 30-15:

w h Fx = ( V − Ft ) n x x ∑ w ihi
i=1

where Fx is the lateral force induced at level x, wx and wi are the portions of W assigned to levels x or i.

Ft = 0.07TV ≤ 0.25 V

for T > 0.7 sec

Concentrated force Ft is applied at the top floor and accounts for the higher mode effects in tall buildings
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Seismic Forces in N-S Direction
• Vertical distribution of seismic forces
For T = 0.85 sec, Ft = 0.07x0.85x7024.2 = 418 kN V – Ft = 7024 - 418 = 6606 kN

Seismic Forces in N-S Direction
Seismic Forces and Story Shears in N-S Direction
Level 12.00 11.00 10.00 9.00 8.00 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 Σ Story Weights, wx (kN) 9261.20 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10382.15 121107 Height, hx (m) 45.14 41.45 37.80 34.14 30.48 26.82 23.16 19.51 15.85 12.19 8.53 4.88 wxhx 417,776 420,596 383,485 346,373 309,262 272,150 235,039 197,927 160,816 123,704 86,593 50,631 3,004,357 Lateral Force, Fx+Ft (kN) 1336 924 843 761 680 598 516 435 353 272 190 111 7024 Story Shear, Vx (kN) 1336 2261 3104 3866 4546 5144 5661 6096 6450 6722 6912 7024

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Seismic Forces in E-W Direction
In the E-W direction, a moment-resisting frame system is utilized. As a minimum, this must be an intermediate reinforced concrete moment frame in a building in Zone 2A. For this system, the response modification coefficient R = 5.5 (UBC Table 16-N).

Seismic Forces in E-W Direction
• Approximate period (Ta)
The fundamental period of the building T is determined in accordance with UBC 1630.2.2. In lieu of a more exact analysis, an approximate fundamental period Ta is computed by UBC Eq. 30-8 for the intermediate RC moment frame: Building height hn = 45.14 m Approximate period parameter Ct = 0.0731 Period Ta = Cthn3/4 = 0.0731 × (45.14)3/4 = 1.27 sec No further refinement of the period is made in this example.

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Seismic Forces in E-W Direction
• Seismic base shear (V)
The seismic response coefficient Cs is determined by UBC Eq. 30-4:
Cs = CvI / RT = 0.32x1 / (5.5x1.27) = 0.05

Seismic Forces in E-W Direction
The value of Cs need not exceed that from UBC Eq. 30-5: Cs = 2.5CaI / R = 2.5x0.22 / 5.5 = 0.10 Also, Cs shall not be less than the value given by UBC Eq. 30-6: Cs = 0.11CaI = 0.024

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Seismic Forces in E-W Direction
Thus, the value of Cs from UBC Eq. 30-4 governs and the base shear in the E-W direction is: V = 0.05 W = 0.05 × 121107 = 6055 kN

Seismic Forces in E-W Direction
• Vertical distribution of seismic forces
The total base shear is distributed over the height of the building in conformance with UBC Eqs. 30-14 and 30-15:

w h Fx = ( V − Ft ) n x x ∑ w ihi
i=1

where Fx is the lateral force induced at level x, wx and wi are the portions of W assigned to levels x or i.

Ft = 0.07TV ≤ 0.25 V

for T > 0.7 sec

Concentrated force Ft is applied at the top floor and accounts for the higher mode effects in tall buildings
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Seismic Forces in E-W Direction
• Vertical distribution of seismic forces
For T = 1.27 sec, Ft = 0.07x1.27x6055.35 = 538 kN V – Ft = 6055 – 538 = 5517 kN

Seismic Forces in E-W Direction
Seismic Forces and Story Shears in E-W Direction
Level 12.00 11.00 10.00 9.00 8.00 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 Σ Story Weights, wx (kN) 9261.20 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10146.39 10382.15 121107 Height, hx (m) 45.14 41.45 37.80 34.14 30.48 26.82 23.16 19.51 15.85 12.19 8.53 4.88 wxhx 417,776 420,596 383,485 346,373 309,262 272,150 235,039 197,927 160,816 123,704 86,593 50,631 3,004,357 Lateral Force, Fx+Ft (kN) 1305 772 704 636 567 499 431 363 295 227 159 92 6055 Story Shear, Vx (kN) 1305 2077 2782 3418 3986 4485 4917 5280 5576 5803 5962 6055

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Method of Analysis
A three-dimensional analysis of the building was performed in the NS and E-W directions for the seismic forces using SAP2000. In the model, rigid diaphragms were assigned at each floor level, and rigidend offsets were defined at the ends of the horizontal members so that results were automatically obtained at the faces of the supports. The stiffness properties of the members were input assuming cracked sections. The following cracked section properties were used: Beams: Ieff = 0.5 Ig Columns: Ieff = 0.7 Ig Shear walls: Ieff = 0.5 Ig where Ig is the gross moment of inertia of the section. P-delta effect were also considered in the analysis.

Method of Analysis
In accordance with UBC 1630.6, the center of mass was displaced each way from its actual location a distance equal to 5 percent of the building dimension perpendicular to the applied forces to account for accidental torsion in seismic design.

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Method of Analysis
In a dual system, an additional safeguard is provided by requiring that moment-resisting frames be capable of resisting at least 25% of the design forces without the benefit of shear walls (UBC 1629.6.5). Thus, the building was also analyzed in the N-S direction using 25% of the design forces without the shear walls present, including torsional effects.

Method of Analysis
Results of 3-D Analysis under Seismic Force in E-W Direction for Frame C
12 51 11 91 10 137 9 179 8 217 7 250 6 280 5 306 4 328 3 345 2 353 1 355
-48 -90 -135 -176 -213 -246 -276 -301 -323 -339 -348 -347 68 112 156 197 233 266 294 317 337 351 357 348 -67 -112 -156 -196 -233 -265 -294 -317 -337 -350 -357 -348 64 110 153 194 231 263 291 315 335 349 356 347 -64 -110 -153 -194 -229 -263 -291 -315 -335 -348 -356 -347 65 110 153 194 231 263 291 315 335 349 356 347

12 14 11 25 10 37 9 49 8 59 7 68 6 76 5 83 4 89 3 94 2 96 1 96

19 31 43 54 64 73 81 87 93 97 98 96

18 30 42 53 64 72 80 87 92 96 98 95

18 30 42 53 63 72 80 87 92 96 98 95

Bending Moment in Beams (m-kN)

Shear Forces in Beams (kN)

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Method of Analysis
Results of 3-D Analysis under Seismic Force in E-W Direction for Frame C
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
-51 -6 -90 22 -103 43 -120 65 -133 85 -144 103 -154 118 -162 134 -167 144 -171 165 -159 157 -158 517 -84 22 -118 56 -145 88 -170 118 -191 146 -210 170 -225 192 -238 210 -247 227 -252 243 -246 256 -207 537 -129 39 -167 81 -205 125 -237 165 -265 201 -289 233 -309 262 -325 287 -336 308 -340 326 -333 351 -286 747 -127 38 -166 78 -204 124 -236 164 -264 200 -288 232 -308 261 -324 285 -335 307 -340 326 -333 351 -286 747

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

15 36 47 60 70 80 88 95 100 109 102 147

34 56 75 93 109 123 135 145 153 160 162 162

54 80 107 130 150 169 184 197 208 215 221 225

53 79 106 129 150 168 184 197 207 215 221 225

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

13 38 75 124 182 250 327 410 499 593 689 786

11 22 23 18 9 -6 -25 -50 -79 -114 -154 -211

-1 -1 -2 -3 -3 -4 -5 -5 -6 -6 -6 -7

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Bending Moment in Columns (m-kN)

Shear Forces in Columns (kN)

Axial Forces in Columns (kN)

Method of Analysis
Results of 3-D Analysis under Seismic Force in N-S Direction for Frame 4
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 109 145 147 155 161 165 166 162 153 138 115 84 18 33 48 63 76 88 98 107 114 119 122 122 -104 -142 -144 -152 -158 -162 -162 -159 -150 -135 -113 -81 -17 -33 -47 -62 -75 -86 -96 -105 -112 -117 -121 -119 118 160 161 168 173 176 175 170 159 142 118 84 26 42 56 71 84 95 104 112 118 123 125 120

12 35 11 47 10 48 9 51 8 53 7 54 6 54 5 53 4 50 3 45 2 38 1 27

6 11 16 21 26 29 33 36 38 40 41 41

39 53 53 56 57 58 58 56 53 47 39 28

9 14 19 24 29 32 36 38 41 42 43 41

Bending Moment in Beams (m-kN)

Shear Forces in Beams (kN)

Italic denotes results with 25% of design base shear applied to the frame.

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Method of Analysis
Results of 3-D Analysis under Seismic Force in N-S Direction for Frame 4
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
-105 67 -65 61 -76 67 -77 71 -79 76 -79 79 -75 82 -69 82 -59 81 -47 77 -29 70 -9 81 -18 1 -28 9 -34 16 -39 23 -43 29 -47 35 -50 40 -53 45 -54 49 -55 54 -53 54 -50 149 -214 147 -132 131 -156 143 -158 150 1-61 157 -156 162 -155 164 -144 162 -128 156 -104 143 -74 130 -27 120 -42 15 -51 27 -65 42 -76 55 -86 67 -94 78 -100 87 -106 95 -110 103 -110 106 -112 121 -91 217

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

56 41 46 48 50 51 50 49 45 40 32 20

9 13 17 22 26 29 32 34 36 38 38 45

117 85 96 99 103 104 103 99 92 80 66 32

20 27 38 46 54 60 66 71 74 76 82 69

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

35 83 131 181 234 288 342 395 445 490 528 555

6 17 34 55 80 110 143 179 217 257 298 339

4 10 15 21 26 30 34 38 41 43 44 45

2 5 7 10 13 15 17 19 21 23 24 24

Bending Moment in Columns (m-kN)

Shear Forces in Columns (kN)

Axial Forces in Columns (kN)

Results of 3-D Analysis under Seismic Forces in N-S Direction for Wall on Column Line 7
Level
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Axial Forces (kips)
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Bending Moment (m – kN) Top Bottom
1296 5060 5530 4818 2694 -672 -5236 -10,970 -17,886 -26,029 -35,502 -46,345 -3611 -4047 -3273 -1103 2286 6841 12,523 19,335 27,309 36,538 47,057 63,925

Shear Force (kN)
632 277 617 1016 1362 1686 1992 2287 2576 2873 3159 3605

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Story Drift and P-Delta Effects
• Story drift determination ΔM = 0.7RΔs

Story Drift = ΔM(x) - ΔM(x-1)

Story Drift and P-Delta Effects
Lateral Displacements and Interstory Drifts due to Seismic Forces in N-S and E-W Directions N-S Direction Story Δs (mm)
12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 71.1 65.2 58.9 52.3 45.5 38.6 31.6 24.7 18.2 12.2 7 3

E-W Direction Story Drift (mm)
26.8 28.7 30.0 30.9 31.4 31.9 31.4 29.6 27.3 23.7 18.2 13.7

ΔM (mm)
323.5 296.7 268.0 238.0 207.0 175.6 143.8 112.4 82.8 55.5 31.9 13.7

Δs (mm)
147.3 143.3 137.2 129.1 119.2 107.7 94.8 80.7 65.6 49.7 33.2 16.8

ΔM (mm)
567.2 551.8 528.2 497.1 458.9 414.7 365.0 310.8 252.6 191.4 127.8 64.7

Story Drift (mm)
15.4 23.5 31.1 38.2 44.2 49.7 54.2 58.2 61.2 63.6 63.1 64.7

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Story Drift and P-Delta Effects
The design story drifts must not exceed the allowable story drift from 1997 UBC 1630.10.2 for Occupancy Category II, Δa = 0.020hsx where hsx is the story height below level x. Thus, for the 12-ft story heights, Δa = 0.020 × 3.66 × 1000 = 73.2 mm, and for the 4.88-m story height at the first level, Δa = 97.5 mm. It is evident the limits are satisfied in both directions.

Story Drift and P-Delta Effects
• P-delta effects
As noted above, P-delta effects were automatically considered in the analysis using SAP2000. The provisions of P-delta effects are given in 1997 UBC 1630.1.3.

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Seismic Details for Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Moderate Seismic Applications
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ACI 318-05 Chapter 21

Applicability of Requirements

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Flexural Members

Beams of Intermediate Moment Frames –

Longitudinal Reinforcement
ρmin = 0.25√f’c/fy, 1.4/fy εt ≥ 0.004 Sect. 7.13

M-n,l

M-n,r

M+n,l ≥ M-n,l/3

M+n,r ≥ M-n,r/3

M-n or M+n ≥ (max. Mn at either joint)/5 (10.3.5, 10.5.1, 21.12.4.1)
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Beams of Intermediate Moment Frames–

Transverse Reinforcement
d/4 s≤ ≤ 50 mm 8 × smallest long. bar dia. 24 × hoop bar dia. 300 mm Hoops Stirrups

h

≥ 2h

s ≤ d/2

Trans. reinf. based on Mn and factored tributary gravity load

(21.12.3, 21.12.4.2, 21.12.4.3)

Hoop Reinforcement
(≥ 75 mm)

(21.3.3.6)
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Intermediate Moment Frames – Two-way Slabs
h = slab thickness ½ Middle strip

Column strip

c2

c2 + 3h

All reinforcement necessary to resist Ms to be placed in column strip

½ Middle strip Reinforcement necessary to resist γfMs Reinforcement in column strip/2

As ≥

Note: Applies to both top and bottom reinforcement

(21.12.6)
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Banded Column Strip Reinforcement

Longitudinal Reinforcement in 21.10.6.5, 21.10.6.7 - of Slab Column Strip

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Longitudinal Reinforcement in Middle Strip of Slab

21.12.6.8 – Shear Strength of TwoWay Slabs without Beams in Intermediate Moment Frames
• Slab-column frames are susceptible to punching-shear failures during earthquakes if the shear stresses due to gravity loads are high

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21.12.6.8 – Shear Strength of TwoWay Slabs without Beams in Intermediate Moment Frames
• At the critical sections for columns
defined in 11.12.1.2, two-way shear caused by factored gravity loads shall not exceed 0.4φVc, where Vc shall be calculated as defined in 11.12.2.1 for nonprestressed slabs and 11.12.2.2 for prestressed slabs

21.12.6.8 – Shear Strength of TwoWay Slabs without Beams in Intermediate Moment Frames
• It shall be permitted to waive this requirements if the contribution of the earthquake-induced factored two-way shear stress transferred by eccentricity of shear in accordance with 11.12.6.1 and 11.12.6.2 at the point of maximum stress does not exceed one-half of the stress φVn permitted by 11.12.6.2

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Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Load

Columns of Intermediate Moment Frames– Transverse Reinforcement
Hoops
h1

lo

≤ so/2

Joint reinf. per 11.11.2

h2

Trans. reinf. based on Mn and factored tributary gravity load

so ≤
Larger of h1 or h2

8 × smallest long. bar dia. 24 × hoop bar dia. 0.5 × min. (h1 or h2) 300 mm

lo ≥

Clear span/6 450 mm

s to conform to 7.10 and 11.5.5.1

(21.12.3, 21.12.5)
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Design of Typical Structural Members

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Typical Plan of Example Building

1 A

7.92 m

2

7.92 m

3

7.92 m

4

7.92 m

5

7.92 m

6

7.92 m

7

7.92 m

8

B

6.71 m 6.71 m

N

D

6.71 m

C

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Typical Elevation of Example Building
12 11 10 11 @ 3.66 m = 40.26 m 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 4.88 m 1

Design Data
• Building Location
Dubai (Seismic Zone 2A)

• Material Properties
Concrete: fc’ = 30 MPa, wc = 23.55 KN/m3 Reinforcement: fy = 420 MPa

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Design Data
• Service Loads
Live loads: roof = 957.6 N/m2 floor = 2394 N/m2 Superimposed dead loads: roof = 478.8 N/m2 + 889.64 KN for penthouse floor = 1436.4 N/m2 (957.6 N/m2 permanent partitions + 478.8 N/m2 ceiling, etc.)

Design Data
• Seismic Design Data
Zone 2A: Z = 0.15 Soil Profile Type: SD (stiff soil profile; UBC Table 16-J) For Occupancy Category 4, I = 1.0 (UBC Table 16-K)

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Design Data
• Member Dimensions
Slab: 205 mm Beams: 560 × 560 mm Interior columns: 660 × 660 mm Edge columns: 610 × 610 mm Wall thickness: 305 mm

Load Combination
The seismic load effect E for use in the basic strength design load combinations is the combined effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake-induced forces. The E for use in Eq. (9-5) is computed by UBC Eq. 30-1:

E = ρEh + Ev
where Eh = effect of horizontal seismic forces Ev = effect of vertical seismic forces
ρ = redundancy factor = 1.0 for structures in Seismic Zones 1 and 2

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Load Combination
where the effects of gravity and seismic ground motion are additive: E = ρ Eh + 0.5 Ca I D

Load Combination
Similarly, where the effects of gravity and seismic ground motion counteract: E = Eh - Ev = ρ Eh - 0.5 Ca I D

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Load Combination
Substituting Ca = 0.22 and ρ = 1.0 into the equations for E, and then substituting E into Eqs. (12-5) and (12-6) above results in the following: U = 1.2D + 0.5L + 1.0Eh + (0.5 × 0.22)D = 1.31D + 0.5L + Eh U = 0.9D +1.0 Eh - (0.5 × 0.22)D = 0.79D + Eh

Beam C4 – C5
Summary of Design Bending Moments and Shear Forces for Beam C4-C5 at the Second Floor Level (SDC C)

Bending Shear Load Case Location Moment (m-kN) Force (kN)
Dead (D) Live (L) Wind (W) Seismic (QE) Support Midspan Support Midspan Support support -137.6 94.6 -37.0 25.4 ± 33 ± 356 ± 2.8 ± 98.0 28.0 104.3

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Beam C4 – C5
Summary of Design Bending Moments and Shear Forces for Beam C4-C5 at the Second Floor Level (SDC C)

Load combination
1.4D 1.2D + 1.6L 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.8W 1.2D + 0.5L + 1.6W 0.9D – 1.6W 1.31D + 0.5L + QE 0.79D - QE

Location
Support Midspan Support Midspan Support Support Support Support Support

Bending Moment Shear Force (m –KN) (KN)
-192.6 132.4 -224.3 154.2 -251 -236 -71 -555 247 172 144 89 249 -16 167.0 146.0

Beam C4 – C5
1. Flexural design
The factored axial load on the member, which is negligible, is less than Agfc’/10; thus, the provisions of ACI 21.12.4 for beams must be satisfied. All other applicable provisions in Chapters 1 through 18 of ACI 318-05 are to be satisfied as well.
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Beam C4 – C5
Minimum flexural reinforcement:
′ 0.25 fc b w d fy 1.4b w d fy = 0.25 30 × 560 × 495 415 1.4 × 560 × 495 415 = 935 mm (governs)
2 2

A s, min =

=

= 914 mm

=

Beam C4 – C5
Maximum flexural reinforcement:
′ 0.85β1fcb w d fy 0.003 0.003 + 0.004 × 0.003 0.007

A

s, max

=

=

0.85 × 0.85 × 30 × 560 × 495 415
2

= 6204 mm

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Beam C4 – C5
Required Flexural Reinforcement for Beam C4-C5 at the Second Floor Level (SDC C)

Location
Support

Mu (m-kN)
- 461.4

As (mm2) Reinforcement
3235 1161 5 – No 29 3 - No 22 3 - No 22

φ Mn (m-kN)
541 207 207

Midspan

154.2

1161

Beam C4 – C5
ACI 21.12.4.1: the positive moment strength at the face of the joint be greater than or equal to 33% of the negative moment strength at that location. This is satisfied, since 207 m-KN > 541/3 = 180.3 m-KN.

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Beam C4 – C5
The negative or positive moment strength at any section along the length of the member must be greater than or equal to 20% of the maximum moment strength provided at the face of either joint. 541/5 = 108.2 m-KN Providing 2- No. 29 bars ( = 230 m-KN) or 2- No. 22 bars ( = 140 m-KN) satisfies this provision. Minimum of 2 – No. 29 bars (= 1294 mm2) or 3 – No. 22 bars (= 1161 mm2) must be provided to satisfy minimum reinforcement requirement of ACI 10.5

Beam C4 – C5
2. Shear design
Shear demand from nominal flexural capacity Vu = (541 + 207) / 7.26 = 103.03 kN Shear demand from gravity load Wu =1.31wD + 0.5wL = 1.31 × 28.724 + 0.5 × 7.721 = 41.49 kN/m Vu = wuln / 2 = (41.49 × 7.26) / 2 = 150.61 kN Vu = 103.03 + 150.61 = 253.64 kN

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Beam C4 – C5
The nominal shear strength provided by concrete (Vc) Vc = 0.17 × (fc’)0.5 × bw × d Eq. (11-3)

= 0.17 × (30)0.5 × 560 × 495 / 1000 = 258.1 kN

Beam C4 – C5
Vu (= 253.6 KN) > φVc (0.75 ×258.1 = 193.6 kN) Provide shear reinforcement in accordance with ACI 11.5.6. Assuming No. 10 hoops, the required spacing s is determined by Eq. (11-15): s = (Av × fy × d) / Vs = (142 ×415 ×495) / (253,600/0.75 –258,100) = 364.5 mm

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Beam C4 – C5
ACI 21.12.4.2: the maximum spacing of hoops over the length 2h = 2 × 560 = 1120 mm from the face of the support at each end of the member is the smallest of the following:

(1) d / 4 = 495 / 4 = 123.8 mm (governs) (2) 8 (diameter of smallest longitudinal bar) = 8 × 22.2 = 177.6 mm (3) 24 (diameter of hoop bar) = 24 × 9.5 = 228 mm (4) 305 mm

Beam C4 – C5
Use 10-No. 10 hoops at each end of the beam spaced at 120 mm on center with the first stirrup located 50 mm from the face of the support. For the remainder of the beam, the maximum stirrup spacing is d / 2 = 247.5 (ACI 21.12.4.3). Use No. 10 stirrups @ 240 mm for the remainder of the beam.

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Beam C4 – C5
660 mm 660 mm

1830 mm

5-No.29

5-No.29

5-No.29

560 mm 3-No.22 No.10 hoops @ 240mm 10-No.10 hoops @ 120mm 7264 mm

50 mm

Design of Column C4 at 2nd Floor
Load Case Dead (D) Live (L) (reduced) Wind (W) Seismic (QE) 1.4D 1.2D + 1.6L 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.8W 1.2D + 0.5L + 1.6W 0.9D – 1.6W 1.31D + 0.5L + Eh 0.79D – Eh E-W N-S E-W N-S E-W N-S E-W N-S E-W Axial Force (kips) 4699 554 0 ± 3.0 ± 0.1 6579 6525 6525 6528 5916 5921 4229 4224 6433 3712 Bending Moment (ft-kips) 0 0 ± 33 ± 41 ± 351 0 0 26 33 53 66 -53 -66 351 -351 221 -221 Shear Force (kips) 0 0 ± 6.6 ± 6.9 ± 221 0 0 5 6 11 11 -11 -11

Load Combination

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Design of Column C4
Design for Axial Force and Bending Based on the governing load combinations in the table, a 660 × 660 mm column with 12-No. 32 bars (ρg = 2.25%) is adequate for column C4 supporting the second floor level. The interaction diagram for this column is given below. Slenderness effects need not be considered, since P-delta effects were included in the analysis. Also, the provided reinforcement ratio is within the allowable range of 1% and 8% (ACI 10.9.1).

Design of Column C4
16000 14000 12000

Axial Force (kN)

10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000

Bending Moment (m-kN)

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Design of Column C4
ACI 7.6.3 requires that the clear distance between longitudinal bars shall not be less than 1.5db = 1.5 × 32.3 = 48.5 mm nor 40mm. In this case, assuming No. 10 hoops and ties, the clear distance is equal to the following:
32.3 ⎞ ⎛ 660 − 2⎜ 40 + 9.5 + ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ − 32.3 = 143.9 mm > 48.5 mm O.K. 3

Design of Column C4
Design for Shear Columns in intermediate moment frames must satisfy the shear requirements in ACI 21.12.3. The first of the two options in that section is utilized here to determine the design shear strength: The sum of the shear associated with development of nominal moment strengths of the member at each restrained end of the clear span and the shear calculated for the factored gravity loads

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Design of Column C4
Design for Shear

Because the column is at the 2nd floor, and the moment at any column end cannot exceed the average of the nominal moment strengths of the beams framing into that end, shear demand from the seismic forces is calculated from the nominal flexural strengths of the beams.

Design of Column C4
Design for Shear

Vu = (541+207)/3.1 + 0 = 241.3 kN > 221 kN

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Design of Column C4
Design for Shear
The shear capacity of the column will be checked in accordance with ACI Eq. (11-4) for members subjected to axial compression:
⎛ Nu ⎞ ⎟ f′ b d Vc = 0.17⎜ 1 + c w ⎜ 14 A g ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 3712000 ⎞ ⎟ 30 × 660 × 538 / 1000 = 531.9 kN = 0.17⎜ 1 + ⎜ ⎟ 14 × 6602 ⎠ ⎝

where Nu = 3712 kN is the smallest axial force corresponding to the largest shear force on the section (see Table) and d = 538 mm was obtained from a strain compatibility analysis.

Design of Column C4
Design for Shear
Since Vu > ΦVc/2 = 0.75x531.9/2 = 199.5 kN, by ACI 318-05 Section 11.5.6.1, minimum transverse reinforcement would be required.

A v,min =

′ 0.062 fc b w s fyt

With No. 10 hoops with one cross-tie, Av = 213 mm2 => s = 394.4 mm > d/2 = 269 mm (ACI 318 11.5.5.1) Thus, srequired = 269 mm

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Design of Column C4
Design for Shear For intermediate moment frames, the requirements in ACI 21.12.5.1 aims primarily to confine the concrete within the core and provide lateral support for the longitudinal reinforcement.

Design of Column C4
ACI 21.12.5.1:
For No. 10 rectangular hoops, the vertical spacing s0 must not exceed the smallest of the following : • 8 (smallest longitudinal bar diameter) = 8 × 32.3 = 258.4 mm • 24 (hoop bar diameter) = 24 × 9.5 = 228 mm (governs) • Least column dimension/2 = 660/2 = 330 mm • 300 mm

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Design of Column C4
ACI 21.12.5.1:
The governing s0 = 228mm must be provided over a length l0 measured from the joint face, where l0 is the largest of the following: • Clear span/6 = [3657 - 560]/6 = 516.2 mm • Maximum cross-sectional dimension of member = 660 mm (governs) • 450 mm

Design of Column C4
ACI 21.12.5.1:
Use 4-No. 10 hoops and crossties @ 220 mm with the first hoop located at 100 mm (< s0/2 = 114 mm; ACI 21.12.5.3) from the joint face above the first floor level and below the second floor level. For the remainder of the column, tie spacing shall conform to ACI 7.10 and 11.5.5.1. In this case, ACI 11.5.5.1 governs. Use a tie spacing of 250 mm in this region of the column.

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Design of Column C4
Joint Reinforcement:
ACI 21.12.5.5 requires that joint reinforcement in intermediate moment frames conform to ACI 11.11.2. Since this beam-column joint is part of the primary seismic-force-resisting system, lateral reinforcement in the joint must not be less than that computed by Eq. (1113). For No. 10 hoops with one crosstie, the required spacing is:

s=

A v fyt ′ 0.062 fc b w

=

(3 × 71) × 415 = 394.4 mm 0.062 30 × 660

Design of Column C4
Joint Reinforcement: For simpler detailing, continue the 220 mm spacing at the column ends through the joint.

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Design of Column C4

Shear wall B7 – C7
Summary of Design Axial Forces, Bending Moments, and Shear Forces at Base of Shear Wall on Line 7 (SDC C)

Load Case Dead (D) Live (L) Wind (W) Seismic (QE)

Axial Force (kN) 11,951 1189 0 0

Bending Moment (m-kN) 0 0 ± 20,045 ± 63,925

Shear Forces (kN) 0 0 ± 1438 ± 3604

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Shear wall B7 – C7
Summary of Design Axial Forces, Bending Moments, and Shear Forces at Base of Shear Wall on Line 7 (SDC C)

Load combination
1.4D 1.2D + 1.6L 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.8W 1.2D +0.5L + 1.6W 0.9D – 1.6W 1.31D + 0.5L + QE 0.79D - QE

Axial Force (kN)
16,731 16,244 16,244 14,936 10,756 16,250 9441

Bending Moment (m-kN)
0 0 16,036 32,072 -32,072 63,925 -63,925

Shear Force (kN)
0 0 1150 2301 - 2301 3604 -3604

Shear wall B7 – C7
1. Shear design
The shear strength of the concrete for wall subjected to axial compression (ACI 11.10.5) Vc = 0.17 (fc’)0.5 h d = 0.17 × (30)0.5 × 305 × 5892.8 /1000 = 1673.5 kN where d = 0.8 lw (= 0.8 × 7366 = 5892.8 mm)

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Shear wall B7 – C7
Since φVc (0.75 × 1673.5 = 1255.1 kN) < Vu (= 3604 kN), horizontal shear reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with ACI 11.10.9. Required bar spacing with 2 layers of No. 13: s = (Av fy d) / Vs = (254 × 415 × 5892.8) / (3,604,000 / 0.75-1,673,500) = 198.3 mm Note: ACI 14.3.4 requires two layers of reinforcement for walls more than 250 mm thick

Shear wall B7 – C7
ACI 11.10.9.3: spacing of horizontal reinforcement shall not exceed (1) lw/5 = 7336/5 =1473.2 mm, (2) 3h = 3 × 305 = 915 mm, or (3) 450 mm. ACI 11.10.9.2: ratio of horizontal shear reinforcement shall not be less than 0.0025 For 2-No.13 horizontal bar spaced at 450 mm: O.K. ρt = (2 ×127) / (305 ×200) = 0.0042 > 0.0025 Therefore, use 2-No.13 horizontal bar @ 200 mm

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Shear wall B7 – C7
ACI 11.10.3: Shear strength Vn at any horizontal section must be less than or equal to 0.83 (fc’)0.5 h d (= 8170.7 kN). In this case, V n = Vc + Vs = 1673.5 + (254 × 415 × 5892.8) / 330 = 1883.9 kN < 8170.7 kN O.K.

Shear wall B7 – C7
ACI 11.10.9.4: The ratio of vertical shear reinforcement area to gross concrete area of horizontal section shall not be less than 0.0025 not the value obtained by Eq. (11-32). ρl = 0.0025 + 0.5 (2.5 – hw / lw) (ρt - 0.0025) = 0.0025 + 0.5 (2.5 – 45 / 7.366) (0.0042 – 0.0025) < 0.0025 Thus, ρl = 0.0025
214

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Shear wall B7 – C7
ACI 11.10.9.5: spacing of vertical shear reinforcement shall not exceed (1) lw/3 (= 7366/3 = 2455.3 mm), (2) 3h (= 3 × 305 = 915 mm), or (3) 450 mm (governs). For 2 – No. 13 vertical bar spaced at 330 mm,
ρl = (2 ×127) / (305 ×330) = 0.00252 > 0.0025 Use 2-No.13 vertical bars @ 330 mm O.K.

Shear wall B7 – C7
The provided vertical and horizontal reinforcement satisfy the requirements of ACI 14.3.2 and 14.3.3 for minimum ratio of vertical and horizontal reinforcement to gross concrete area, respectively, and ACI 14.3.5 for maximum bar spacing.

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Shear wall B7 – C7
2. Axial force and bending design
ACI 14.4 requires that walls subjected to axial load or combined flexure and axial load shall be designed as compression members in accordance with ACI 10.2, 10.3, 10.10 through 10.14, 10.17, 14.2, and 14.3 unless the empirical design method of ACI 14.5 or the alternative design method of ACI 14.8 can be used. Clearly, both of these methods cannot be applied in this case, and the wall is designed in accordance with ACI 14.4.

Shear wall B7 – C7
80000 70000 60000

Axial Force (kN)

50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000

Bending Moment (m-kN)

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Shear wall B7 – C7

For more information…

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Code Support Services, Code Change Process, and Plan Review

Code Support Services
Publications Seminars Interpretations Plan Review Services Evaluation Services

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Code Support Services: Publications

Code Support Services: Publications

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Code Support Services: Publications
1999 Recommended Lateral Force Requirements / Commentary (SEAOC Blue Book)
This book reviews recommended provisions for earthquake-resistant design of structures. Highlights include design requirements, structural tests and inspections, foundations, and recommended modifications to the 1997 UBC for reinforced concrete, reinforced masonry, structural steel, and wood.

http://www.iccsafe.org/dyn/prod/9006S99.html

Code Support Services: Publications
Handbook to the 1997 Uniform Building Code
The handbook is a completely detailed and illustrated commentary on the 1997 Uniform Building Code, tracing historical background and rationale of the codes through the 1997 edition. The book contains numerous drawings and figures to clarify the application and intent of the code provisions. It is an essential reference for every building official, fire marshal, architect and engineer.

http://www.iccsafe.org/dyn/prod/6074S97.html

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Code Support Services: Publications

Code Support Services: Publications

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Code Support Services: Publications

Code Support Services: Seminars
Company/Organization
S.K. Ghosh Associates Inc American Society of Civil Engineers/ Structural Engineering Institute International Code Council National Council of Structural Engineers Associations

Website
www.skghoshassociates.com www.seinstitute.com

www.iccsafe.org www.ncsea.com

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Code Support Services: Interpretations
ICC Technical Assistance

• Staff Opinions • Committee Interpretations (not for timesensitive issues) www.iccsafe.org/cs/questions/index.html

Code Support Services: Interpretations

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Code Support Services: Plan Review Services
www.iccsafe.org/cs/techservices/#pr

Code Support Services: Evaluation Services

The Code Official’s Technical Source for Approving New and Innovative Building Products

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Code Support Services: Evaluation Services
Find the Most Current Reports Online: http://www/icc-es.org

Code Support Services: Evaluation Services

• •

Click on the Evaluation Reports tab Search by

» Product » Manufacturer » Report » Number

No cost to access
225

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Code Change Process 1997 UBC 2000 IBC
2001 Supplement 2002 Accumulative Supplement

2003 IBC

Code Change Process 2003 IBC (18 month cycle began)
2004 Supplement

2006 IBC
2007 Supplement

2009 IBC (expected release date:
2/1/09)
226

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Code Changes Submitted Code Changes Printed & Distributed Code Development Hearing Supplement Or New Edition Published Final Action Hearing

I-CODE DEVELOPMENT CYCLE

Public Hearing Results Printed & Distributed

Public Comments Printed & Distributed

Public Comments Sought on Public Hearing Results

ICC Code Change Process

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Code Change Process

• • •

All aspects of the ICC Code Development Process regulated by published procedures Council Policy (CP) 28 – Code Development Website link:

» http://www.iccsafe.org/news/about/bylaws
.html

Code Change Process Steps in a Typical 18 month cycle
• • •
Code changes due. Announcement posted on the website and other media. Anyone can submit a code change Staff review » Form and format: Legislative format » Proposals must be based on current text Publish » Website: Approx. 90 days prior to Code Development
Hearing

» Published: Approx. 60 days prior to Code Development
Hearing
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Code Change Process WEBCASTING:

• • • •

Debut at 2002 Code Development Hearings Followed up in all subsequent hearings Streaming video and audio Internet access on your PC

Code Change Process
• • •
Adopted by reference in the IBC. Developed through ANSIaccredited consensus process Committee balanced and composed of producers, consumers and regulators.

• •

Committee ballots revisions. Public comment period.

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Code Change Process

Next edition is ASCE 7-10 which will be adopted in 2012 IBC. 2009 IBC will adopt ASCE 7-05. ASCE 7-05 has two supplements » Supplement No. 1 » Supplement No. 2 www.seinstitute.org

• •

Structural Plan Review
Chapter 16: Structural Design Requirements Chapter 17: Structural Tests and Inspections Chapter 18: Foundations and Retaining Walls Chapter 19: Concrete Chapter 20: Lightweight Metals

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Structural Plan Review
Chapter 21: Masonry Chapter 22: Steel Chapter 23: Wood Chapter 24: Glass and Glazing Chapter 25: Gypsum Board and Plaster

Structural Plan Review
Step 1: Become familiar with project. Step 2: Complete structural review. Step 3: Write review. Step 4: Critique review.

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Structural Plan Review
Step 1: Become familiar with project.

• • • •

Specifications Calculations Soils Report Plans

Structural Plan Review
Step 2: Complete structural review.

• • • •

Identify structural systems and load paths Determine loads. Check structural members for load effects. Check plans and details for clarity and conformity with detailed code requirements based on material of construction.

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Structural Plan Review
Step 3: Write review

• • •

Use checklist. Organize comments. Provide references: code sections, plan details, sections, grid lines, calculations pages, etc.

Structural Plan Review

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Structural Plan Review
Step 4: Critique review.

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Overview of the Seismic Design Provisions of the 2006 International Building Code
S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc. Palatine, IL

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Seismic Design Provisions IBC Section 1613, ASCE 7 Chapters 11-23 excluding Chapter 14 and Appendix 11A

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ASCE 7-05 Chapters 11-23: Seismic Design
• ASCE 7-02 seismic provisions have been completely reformatted and reorganized. • Much improved document that should be easier to use and result in more correct and uniform application of seismic requirements.

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ASCE 7-05 Figure 11.4-1: Design Response Spectrum

IBC Design Ground Motion
• SS = mapped (MCE) spectral response acceleration at short periods for Site Class B • S1 = mapped (MCE) spectral response acceleration at 1.0-second period for Site Class B • ASCE 7 Figs. 22-1 through 22-20/ IBC Figs. 1613.5(1) through 1613.5(14) give contour maps for SS and S1, based on the latest version of USGS seismic hazard maps • SS and S1 also available at http://eqhazmaps.usgs.gov
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Soil Classification
A. Hard Rock B. Rock C. Very dense soil or soft rock D. Stiff soil E. Soft soil F. Soils requiring site-specific evaluations

Soil Classification
• Site Class D must be used when the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail, unless the building official determines that Site Class E or F is likely to be present at the site

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Values of Fa as Function of Site Conditions and Shaking Intensity
SOIL PROFILE TYPE A B C D E F SS ≤ 0.25 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.6 2.5 a SHAKING INTENSITY SS = 0.50 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.7 a SS = 0.75 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2 a SS = 1.00 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.1 0.9 a SS ≥ 1.25 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 a

Values of Fv as Function of Site Conditions and Shaking Intensity
SOIL PROFILE TYPE A B C D E F S1 ≤ 0.1 0.8 1.0 1.7 2.4 3.5 a SHAKING INTENSITY S1 = 0.2 0.8 1.0 1.6 2.0 3.2 a
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S1 = 0.3 0.8 1.0 1.5 1.8 2.8 a

S1 = 0.4 0.8 1.0 1.4 1.6 2.4 a

S1 ≥ 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5 2.4 a

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IBC Design Ground Motion
• SMS = soil-modified MCE spectral response acceleration at short periods = FaSS • SM1 = soil-modified MCE spectral response acceleration at 1.0-second period = FvS1

IBC Ground Motion
• SDS = design spectral response acceleration at short periods = (2/3) SMS • SD1 = design spectral response acceleration at 1.0-second period = (2/3) SM1

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IBC Ground Motion
• Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE)
– Maximum level of earthquake ground shaking that is considered reasonable to design buildings to resist

IBC Ground Motion
• Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE):
» Deterministic earthquakes (in coastal California)- best estimate of ground motion from maximum magnitude earthquakes on seismic faults with high probabilities of occurrence.

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IBC Ground Motion
• Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE)
– 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years (approximately 2,500 year return period) where deterministic approach is not used

ASCE 7-05 Figure 11.4-1: Design Response Spectrum

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TL Map of Contiguous USA

Design Basis: IBC vs. UBC
• Design to avoid collapse in the Maximum Considered Earthquake, rather than to provide life safety in the 500-year return period earthquake

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1997 UBC Fig. 16-3 Design Response Spectra

Correspondence between Ground Motion Parameters of the UBC and the IBC

Ca/Z of 1997 UBC = Fa of NEHRP/IBC Cv/Z of 1997 UBC = Fv of NEHRP/IBC

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Correlation of Ground Motion Parameters
SDS = 2.5Ca (2/3)FaSS = 2.5ZNaFa SS = (1.5)ZNa(2.5) Z ≥ 0.4g SDS = 1.00NaFa (1.00Na for Site Class B) SS = 1.50Nag SD1 = Cv (2/3)FvS1 = ZNvFv S1 = (1.5)ZNv Z ≥ 0.4g SD1 = 0.4NvFv (0.4Nv for Site Class B) S1 = 0.6Nvg

Design Spectrum

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UBC Seismic Zones

SDC Based on Short Period Response Acceleration – IBC
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY I or II SDS < 0.167 g 0.167g < SDS < 0.33g 0.33g < SDS < 0.50g 0.50g < SDS A B C Da III A B C Da IV A C D Da

Values of SDS

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SDC Based on 1 sec. Period Response Acceleration – IBC
OCCUPANCY CATEGORY I or II SD1 < 0.067g 0.067g < SD1 < 0.133g 0.133g < SD1 < 0.20g 0.20g < SD1 A B C Da III A B C Da IV A C D Da

Values of SD1

SDC of IBC (Note a)
OCCUPANCY Value of S1 CATEGORY I or II S1 ≥ 0.75g E III E IV F

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ASCE 7-05 Section 11.6 Determination of Seismic Design Category
Can be based on SDS alone, provided • S1 < 0.75 • Ta < 0.8Ts • T used to calculate story drift < Ts • Upper-bound design base shear is used in design • Diaphragms are rigid, or for diaphragms that are flexible, vertical elements of seismic-force-resisting system spaced at < 40 ft

Areas with S1 > 0.75g

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Ts = SD1/SDS

SDC of 2006 IBC vs. Seismic Zone of 1997 UBC
97 UBC LOCATION Tucson, AZ Little Rock, AK Chico, CA Fresno, CA Sacramento, CA Honolulu, HI Indianapolis, IN Wichita, KS Kansas City, MO Zone 2B 1 3 3 3 2A 1 1 2A A A B B B B B A A A B B (B) C (C) C C C C (C) A A A 2006 IBC SITE CLASS C B C D (C) D (C) D (C) C B (A) A A D B D (C) D D (C) D D C (B) B (A) B (A) E C D D D D D C (B) B C (B)

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SS ≤ 0.15g and S1 ≤ 0.04g

ASCE 7-05 11.7 Design Requirements for SDC A
11.7.2 Minimum Lateral Force
Fx = 0.01wx
0.01wr 0.01w3 0.01w2 0.01w1 wr w3 w2 w1

V = 0.01(w1 + w2 + w3 + wr)

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ASCE 7-05 11.7 Design Requirements for SDC A
11.7.3 Load Path Connections 11.7.4 Connection to Supports 11.7.5 Anchorage of Concrete or Masonry Walls

ASCE 7-05 12.8.1 Design Base Shear
V = CS W CS = S D1 S ≤ DS (R/I)T (R/I) S T = 2D1 L T (R/I) ≥ 0.01 ≥ for T ≤ TL for T > TL

0.5S 1 where S1 ≥ 0.6g (R/I)

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ASCE 7-05 12.8 Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure
V= SDS W R /I

V=

SD1 W (R / I)T

V=

0.5S1 W , whereS1 ≥ 0.6g R /I

V=

SD1TL W (R / I)T 2

V = 0.01W

Ts = SD1/SDS

Period, T

TL

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Concrete Structural Systems in ASCE 7-05 - SDC D, E, F
CONCRETE STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS - SDC D, E, and F MOMENT RESISTING FRAME SYSTEM using
Special Moment Frames of RC (SMF)

R

Ω0

Cd

Height limit D NL E NL F NL

8

3

DUAL SYSTEM using
Special RC Shear Walls w/ SMF Special RC Shear Walls w/ IMF

7 6½ 6

2½ 2½ 2½

5½ 5 5

NL 160 160

NL 100 160

NL 100 100

BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM WITH OMF OF RC using
Special RC Shear walls

BEARING WALL SYSTEM using Special RC Shear Walls

5

5

160

160

160

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Structure Period
Calculated by…… 1) Approximate Formulae 2) Rational Analysis using structural properties and deformational characteristics of resisting elements in a properly substantiated analysis

ASCE 7-05 12.8.2.1 Approximate Fundamental Period

Ta = Cr hnx

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ASCE 7-05 Table 12.8-2 Values of Approximate Period Parameters Ct and x
Structure Type
Moment resisting frame systems of steel in which the frames resist 100 percent of the required seismic force and are not enclosed or adjoined by more rigid components that will prevent the frames from deflecting when subjected to seismic forces Moment resisting frame systems of reinforced concrete in which the frames resist 100 percent of the required seismic force and are not enclosed or adjoined by more rigid components that will prevent the frames from deflecting when subjected to seismic forces

Ct

x

0.028 (For SI: 0.068)

0.8

0.016 (For SI: 0.044)

0.9

ASCE 7-05 Table 12.8-2 Values of Approximate Period Parameters Ct and x (cont’d)
Structure Type Ct 0.03 (For SI: 0.07) x

Eccentrically braced steel frames

0.75

All other structural systems

0.02 (For SI: 0.055)

0.75

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Upper Limit on T by "Rational Analysis"
Table 12.8-1 (ASCE 7-05) Coefficient for Upper Limit on Calculated Period Design Spectral Response Acceleration (SD1) ≥ 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.15 0.1 ≤ 0.05 Coefficient Cu 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7

Note: For drift analysis, upper limit on calculated T does not apply (Section 12.8.6.2)

ASCE 7-05 12.8.3 Vertical Distribution of Seismic Forces
wxhxk

Fx =

Σ

wihik

V

k = 1 for T ≤ 0.5 sec k = 2 for T ≥ 2.5 sec

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Horizontal Shear Distribution
For rigid diaphragms, the seismic design story shear shall be distributed to the various vertical elements of the seismicforce-resisting system in the story under consideration based on the relative lateral stiffnesses of the vertical resisting elements and the diaphragm.

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Accidental Torsion
Where diaphragms are not flexible, in addition to the torsional moment, the design also shall include accidental torsional moments caused by assumed displacement of the center of mass each way from the actual location by a distance equal to 5 percent of the dimension in the direction of applied forces.

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Story Drift • Δ = δx − δx-1 < Δa
δx = Cd δxe / I Cd = deflection amplification factor

Allowable Story Drift (Δa ) ASCE 7-05 Table 12.12-1
Building I or II Buildings ≤ 4 stories in height;other than masonry; Non-structural elements designed to accommodate story drift Masonry cantilever shear wall buildings Other masonry shear walls buildings All other buildings 0.020hsx 0.015hsx 0.010hsx 0.007hsx 0.007hsx 0.007hsx 0.010hsx 0.010hsx 0.010hsx 0.025hsx 0.020hsx 0.015hsx

Occupancy Category
III IV

hsx = Story height below level x

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Load Combinations
• Basic Load

• Special Load Em = Ω0QE + 0.2SDSD

E = ρQE + 0.2SDSD

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Load Combinations
• Basic LRFD 1.2D + 1.0E + f1L + f2S 0.9D + 1.0E • Special 1.2D + f1L + Em 0.9D + Em • Basic ASD 0.6D + 0.7E D + 0.7E + L + (Lr or S or R) • Alternate Basic ASD D + L + S + E/1.4 0.9D + E/1.4

Section 12.3.4.2 Redundancy Factor, ρ, for Seismic Design Categories D through F
• New redundancy provisions adopted into ASCE 7-05. • Lack of redundancy is….. when failure of a component is failure of entire system. • Logical way to determine lack of redundancy is to check whether a component’s failure results in an unacceptable amount of story strength loss or in the development of extreme torsional irregularity.
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Section 12.3.4.2 Redundancy Factor, ρ, for Seismic Design Categories D through F
In ASCE 7-05, ρ = 1.0 or 1.3, depending on whether or not an individual element can be removed from the lateral-force-resistingsystem without: • Causing the remaining structure to suffer a reduction of story strength of more than 33%, or • Creating an extreme torsional irregularity.

Section 12.3.4.2 Redundancy Factor, ρ, for Seismic Design Categories D through F
2nd condition for which ρ = 1.0: If structure is regular in plan and there are at least 2 bays of seismic force-resisting perimeter framing on each side of the structure in each orthogonal direction at each story resisting > 35% of the base shear.

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Section 12.3.4.2 Redundancy Factor, ρ, for Seismic Design Categories D through F
ρ = 1.0 for the following:

1. Structures assigned to SDC B and C. 2. Drift calculation and P-delta effects. 3. Design of nonstructural components. 4. Design of nonbuilding structures, not similar to buildings.

Section 12.3.4.2 Redundancy Factor, ρ, for Seismic Design Categories D through F(cont.)
ρ = 1.0 for the following: 5. Design of collector elements, splices and their connections for which load combinations with overstrength are used. 6. Design of members or connections where load combinations with overstrength are required for design. 7. Diaphragm loads determined using Eq. 12.10-1. 8. Structures with damping systems designed in accordance with Chapter 18.

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