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‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴــﺔ اﻟﻤﻮاﻧــﺊ و اﻟﺠﻤﺎرك واﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘــﺔ اﻟﺤــﺮة ‐ ﺗــــﺮاﺧﻴﺺ‬

TRAKHEES  ‐  Ports, Customs & Free Zone Corporation

Seismic Design of RC Structures


Using
UBC / ACI Provisions
By Dr. S. K. Ghosh

Organised by

TRAKHEES

CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT – WHITBY & BIRD

Dubai – November 2008


1. AN OVERVIEW OF CODES AND STANDARDS

2. COMPUTATION OF GRAVITY LOAD EFFECTS AND


DESIGN LOAD COMBINATIONS

3. COMPUTATION OF DESIGN WIND FORCES

4. AN OVERVIEW OF THE DESIGN LOAD COMBINATIONS


AND THE SEISMIC DESIGN PROVISIONS OF THE 1997
UBC

5. EASY, STEP-BY-STEP DETERMINATION OF DESIGN BASE


SHEAR

6. 1997 UBC COMPUTATION OF DESIGN SEISMIC FORCES

7. SEISMIC DETAILS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE


BUILDINGS IN MODERATE SEISMIC APPLICATIONS

8. DESIGN OF TYPICAL STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

9. CODE SUPPORT SERVICES, CODE CHANGE PROCESS,


AND PLAN REVIEW

10. OVERVIEW OF THE SEISMIC DESIGN PROVISIONS OF THE


2006 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE

11. DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS UNDER


THE 1997 UBC

12. EARTHQUAKE DESIGN - EXAMPLE

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AN OVERVIEW OF CODES
AND STANDARDS

S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc.


Palatine, IL

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CONSTRUCTION PERMIT
Application for permit for
proposed construction

Plans and Specs approved for


code compliance?
Redesign
No and resubmit
Lose
Yes
Appeal
Win
Permit issued

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CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY
Construction inspections
approved for code
compliance?
Reconstruct
and correct
No
Lose

Yes Appeal
Win
Certificate of
occupancy issued

BUILDING CODE - AUTHORITY

• State legislature has sole authority to


enact and enforce building codes.

• State may choose to delegate a


portion of this power to constituent
local government units, such as cities.

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BUILDING CODE

• Enacted by a state or local government’s


legislative body to regulate construction
within its jurisdiction.

• Minimum acceptable requirements


necessary to preserve public health, safety,
and welfare in the built environment.

• Primary application to new or proposed


construction.

APPLICABILITY OF STATEWIDE
BUILDING CODE
• Buildings based on construction methods
such as factory-manufactured buildings,

• All construction except single-family


dwellings,

• A single or narrow aspect of building


construction such as fire safety,

• All construction.

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ADMINISTRATION AND
ENFORCEMENT

• Local government responsibility, subject


to varying degrees of state agency
supervision and oversight.

MODEL BUILDING CODES

• State and local governments adopt model


building codes, rather than relying on
custom-drafted building codes.

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MODEL CODES

• Originally promulgated by:

the National Board of Fire Underwriters,


later to become American Insurance
Association

• New editions at approximately 10-year


intervals.

• Withdrawn in 1984.

MODEL CODES AND


THEIR AREAS OF INFLUENCE
Locally
Written Code

UBC BOCA

Standard
UBC &
Standard

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MODEL CODES

• A new edition every three years, with


annual supplements.

• Annual code change cycle.

The International Code Council:


A REBIRTH OF THE MODEL BUILDING
CODE SYSTEM IN THE UNITED STATES

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FORMATION OF ORGANIZATIONS

Model Code Organizations:

• BOCA – 1915

• CABO – 1972

• ICBO – 1923

• ICC – 1994

• SBCCI - 1940

INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL

• The International Code Council (ICC) was


formed in December 1994 with the purpose
of developing a single set of
comprehensive and technical codes.

• The International Codes provide a complete


set of construction codes without regional
limitations.

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IBC
2006

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NFPA 5000 BUILDING CODE

from

National Fire Protection Association

Quincy, MA

First (2003) Edition Published in 2002

NFPA
5000

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FORMATION OF ORGANIZATIONS
National Standards:
• ACI - 1905

• AFPA - 1993 (NFoPA 1902)

• ASCE - 1892

• ANSI - 1918

• ASHRAE - 1895

• ASTM - 1898

FORMATION OF ORGANIZATIONS

National Standards:

• AWS - 1919

• Factory Mutual - 1835

• Gypsum Asscn. - 1930

• NFPA - 1896

• UL - 1894

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ASCE 7

ACI 318

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STANDARDS

• Standards reference other standards.


For instance, ACI 318 references a
whole host of ASTM standards.

RESOURCE DOCUMENTS

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ICC EVALUATION SERVICE

A nonprofit, public-benefit corporation, ICC-ES


does technical evaluations of building products,
components, methods, and materials.

The evaluation process culminates with the


issuance of reports on code compliance, which
are made available free of charge to code
officials, contractors, specifiers, architects,
engineers, and anyone else with an interest in
the building industry and construction.

ICC-ES evaluation reports provide evidence that


products and systems meet code requirements.

For more information…

www.skghoshassociates.com

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Computation of Gravity Load


Effects and Design Load
Combinations

S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc.


Palatine, IL

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Dead Loads

• 1997 UBC Section 1606 – Movable


partition loads of 0.96 kN/m2 included
in dead loads for floors in office
buildings

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Live Loads

• 1997 UBC Section 1607


Table 16-A: Uniform and Concentrated
Loads
Table 16-B: Special Loads
Table 16-C: Minimum Roof Live Loads

UBC 1607.5 Reduction of Live


Loads
• Applies to live loads set forth in Table 16-A
for floors and Table 16-C, Method 2, for
roofs
1. Reduction not permitted in Group A
(assembly) occupancies
2. Reduction not permitted when live load
exceeds 4.79 kN/m2, except design live load
from storage for columns may be reduced by
20%

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UBC 1607.5 Reduction of Live


Loads
• Applies to live loads set forth in
Table 16-A for floors and Table 16-C,
Method 2, for roofs
3. The live load reduction shall not
exceed 40 percent in garages for the
storage of private pleasure cars
having a capacity of not more than
nine passengers per vehicle

UBC 1607.5 Reduction of Live


Loads
For live loads not exceeding 100 psf, design live loads
for any member supporting 13.94 m2 or more may be
reduced by

R (%) = r (A − 13.64)
where r = 0.861 percent for floors, given in Table
16-C for roofs

Such reduction shall not exceed 40% for horizontal members, 60% for
vertical members, nor R (%) = 23.1 (1 + D/Lo)

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Floor Live Load Reduction

Percent of Live Load


100

60

40

18.6 37.2 55.8 74.4 93.0


Tributary Area, A, m2

Floor Members

UBC 1607.6 Alternate Floor Live


Load Reduction
• ASCE 7
For KLL AT > 37.16 m2

⎛ 4.57 ⎞⎟
L = L0 ⎜ 0.25+
⎜ KLLAT ⎟⎠

L shall not be less than 0.50Lo for


members supporting one floor nor than
0.40Lo for members supporting two or
more floors

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Influence Areas

Interior supporting member

Edge supporting member

Corner supporting member

Influence and Tributary Areas

Limits of
Influence Area

Limits of
Tributary Area

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Live Load Element Factor, KLL


Element KLL

Interior Columns 4
Exterior columns without cantilever slabs 4

Edge columns with cantilever slabs 3

Corner columns with cantilever slabs 2


Edge beams without cantilever slabs 2
Interior beams 2

All other members not identified above including:


- Edge beams with cantilever slabs
- Cantilever beams
- Two-way slabs 1
- Members without provisions for continuous shear transfer
normal to their span

Limitations on Live Load


Reductions
• ASCE 7-05
4.8.2 – Live loads that exceed 4.79 kN/m2 shall not
be reduced, except live loads for members
supporting two or more floors may be reduced by
20%
4.8.3 – Live loads shall not be reduced in passenger
car garages, except live loads for members
supporting two or more floors may be reduced by
20%

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Limitations on Live Load


Reductions
• ASCE 7-05
4.8.4 – Live loads of 4.79 kN/m2 or less shall not be
reduced in public assembly occupancies
4.8.5 – Live loads shall not be reduced for one-way
slabs except as permitted in 4.8.2. Live loads of
4.79 kN/m2 or less shall not be reduced for roof
members except as specified in 4.9

Snow Loads

• UBC left it to local jurisdictions


(sections 1908, 1914)
• ASCE 7 has detailed provisions
• Of little interest in Dubai

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Wind Loads

• 1997 UBC Section 1609. Refers to


Sections 1615 – 1625.
• Simplified version of wind design
provisions from ASCE 7-88
• Wind design in Dubai by ASCE 7-05

Typical Plan of Example Building

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m

A
6.71 m 6.71 m

B N

C
6.71 m

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Typical Elevation of Example Building


12

11

10

11 @ 3.66 m = 40.26 m 9

2
4.88 m

Design Data

• Building Location
Dubai, UAE

• Material Properties
Concrete: fc’ = 30 N/mm2, wc = 23.55 kN/m3
Reinforcement: fy = 415 N/mm2

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Design Data
• Service Loads
Live loads: roof = 957.6 N/m2
floor = 2394 N/m2

Superimposed dead loads:


roof = 478.8 N/m2 + 889.64 kN for
penthouse
floor = 1436.4 N/m2 (957.6 N/m2 permanent
partitions + 478.8 N/m2 ceiling, etc.)

Design Data

• Member Dimensions

Slab: 205 mm
Beams: 560 × 560 mm
Interior columns: 660 × 660 mm
Edge columns: 610 × 610 mm
Wall thickness: 305 mm

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Beam C4 – C5
4 5
3.35m 1.22 m 3.35m

6.71 m
3.35m

6.71 m

7.92 m

Tributary area = 2 ×(0.5 × 3.35 × 3.35 × 2 + 1.22 × 3.35) = 30.62 m2

Beam C4 – C5
• Dead load:
Beam self weight:
23.55 × 0.560 × 0.355 = 4.68 kN/m
Slab self weight within the tributary area:
23.55 × 0.205 = 4.78 kN/m2
4.78 × 30.62 m2 = 146.39 kN
146.39 KN / 7.92 m = 18.48 kN/m
Superimposed dead load:
1436.4 N/m2 × 30.62 m2 × 1/1000 = 43.98 kN
43.98 KN / 7.92 m = 5.55 kN/m
wD = 4.68 + 18.48 + 5.55 = 28.71 kN/m

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Beam C4 – C5
Bending moments and shear forces:

From ACI 318 Section 8.3.3:


Negative moment at the supports:
(wD × ln2) / 11 = (28.71 × 7.262) / 11 = 137.63 m-kN
Positive moment at midspan:
(wD × ln2) / 16 = (28.71 × 7.262) / 16 = 94.62 m-kN

Shear force = (wD × ln) / 2 = (28.71 × 7.26) / 2


= 104.27 kN

ln is clear span length (7.92 × 1000– 660 = 7260 mm = 7.26 m)

Beam C4 – C5

• Live load:

Lo = 2.394 kN/m2
kLL = 2, AT = 30.62 m2 kLLAT = 61.24 m2 > 37.16 m2
Therefore, live load reduction is permitted.
L = Lo (0.25 + 4.57 / (61.24)0.5 ) = 2.394 × 0.834
= 1.997 kN/m2 > 0.5 Lo

wL = (1.997 × 30.62) / 7.92 = 7.721 kN/m

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Beam C4 – C5
Bending moments and shear forces:

From ACI 318 Section 8.3.3:


Negative moment at the supports:
(wL × ln2) / 11 = (7.721 × 7.262) / 11 = 37.0 m-kN
Positive moment at midspan:
(wL × ln2) / 16 = (7.721 × 7.262) / 16 = 25.43 m-kN

Shear force = (wL × ln) / 2 = (7.721 × 7.26) / 2


= 28.03 kN

ln is clear span length (7.92 ×1000 – 660 = 7260 mm = 7.26 m)

Beam C4 – C5
Summary of Design Bending Moments and Shear Forces for
Beam C4-C5 at the Second Floor Level

Load Case Location Bending Shear Force


Moment (m-kN) (kN)
Dead (D) Support –137.6 104.3
Midspan 94.6
Live (L) Support –37.0 28.0
Midspan 25.4

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1612.2.1 Strength Design or


LRFD Load Combinations (1997 UBC)
1.4D (Equation 12-1)
1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(Lr or S) (Equation 12-2)
1.2D +1.6(Lr or S) + (f1L or 0.8W) (Equation 12-3)
1.2D + 1.3W + f1L + 0.5(Lr or S) (Equation 12-4)
1.2D + 1.0E + (f1L + f2S) (Equation 12-5)
0.9D ± (1.0E or 1.3W) (Equation 12-6)

f1 = 0.5 except in special circumstances


f2 = 0.2 except in special situations
Note exceptions for concrete structures

1612.2.1 Strength Design or


LRFD Load Combinations (1997 UBC)

1612.2.2 Other Loads. Where F, H, P or


T are to be considered in design, each
applicable load shall be added to the
above load combinations factored as
follows: 1.3F, 1.6H, 1.2P and 1.2T

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2.3.2 Strength Design or


LRFD Load Combinations
(ASCE 7-05)
1. 1.4(D + F)
2. 1.2(D + F + T) +1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
3. 1.2D +1.6(Lr or S or R) + (L or 0.8W)
4. 1.2D + 1.6W + [1.0]L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
5. 1.2D + 1.0E + L + 0.2S
6. 0.9D + 1.6W + 1.6H
7. 0.9D + 1.0E + 1.6H

2.3.2 Strength Design or LRFD Load


Combinations (ASCE 7-05)
Exceptions:

• Now: Identify directionality effect explicitly in Kd. Round


load factor from 1.53 to 1.6.
1. The load factor on L in combinations (3), (4), and (5) is
permitted to equal 0.5 for all occupancies in which L0 is
less than or equal to 100 psf, with the exception of
garages or areas occupied as places of public assembly.
2. The load factor on H shall be set equal to zero in
combinations (6) and (7) if the structural action due to H
counteracts that due to W or E.

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ASCE 7-05
6.5 Analytical Procedure
• Directionality factor Kd introduced in 1998
– Added to velocity pressure equation

• qz = 0.613 Kz Kzt Kd V2 I
– Separate out effect of wind load factor
– Requires adjustment to wind load factor ( 1.3 → 1.6 )
– Table 6-4
Reason: Explicitly identify directionality effect in future
editions.

ASCE 7-05
2.3.2 Strength Design Load Combinations

Wind load factor:


• Old (1995): LF = 1.3 → included
directionality effect

0.85 (directionality) x 1.53 (LF w/o


directionality) = 1.3

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Seismic Strength Design Load


Combinations (1997 UBC)

• 1.2D + 1.0E + (f1L + f2S) Equation (12-5)


• 0.9D ± 1.0E Equation (12-6)
• E = ρEh + 0.5CaID in Equation (12-5)
• E = ρEh - 0.5CaID in Equation (12-6)
• ρ = 1 in Seismic Zones 1 and 2

Seismic Strength Design Load


Combinations (2006 IBC, ASCE 7-05)

• 1.2D + 1.0E + f1L + f2S Equation (16-5)


• 0.9D + 1.0E Equation (16-7)
• E = ρQE + 0.2SDSD in Equation (16-5)
• E = ρQE - 0.2SDSD in Equation (16-7)
• ρ = 1 in Seismic Design Category (SDC) A, B and C

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Eh (UBC) Δs (UBC)
QE (IBC) δxe (IBC)

Effect of Vertical Earthquake


Ground Motion (1997 UBC)

• Gravity and Earthquake Effects Additive


U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 0.5L +0.2S
= 1.2D + (ρEh + 0.5CaID) + 0.5L + 0.2S
= (1.2 + 0.5CaI)D + ρEh + 0.5L + 0.2S

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Effect of Vertical Earthquake


Ground Motion (ASCE 7-05)

• Gravity and Earthquake Effects Additive


U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 0.5L +0.2S
= 1.2D + (ρQE + 0.2SDSD) + 0.5L + 0.2S
= (1.2 + 0.2SDS)D + ρQE + 0.5L + 0.2S

Effect of Vertical Earthquake


Ground Motion (1997 UBC)

• Gravity and Earthquake Effects Counteractive


U = 0.9D - 1.0E
= 0.9D - (ρEh + 0.5CaID)
= (0.9 - 0.5CaI)D - ρEh

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Effect of Vertical Earthquake


Ground Motion (ASCE 7-05)

• Gravity and Earthquake Effects Counteractive


U = 0.9D - 1.0E
= 0.9D - (ρQE + 0.2SDSD)
= (0.9 - 0.2SDS)D - ρQE

Beam C4 – C5
Summary of Design Bending Moments and Shear Forces for Beam C4-C5
at the Second Floor Level
Load Location Bending Moment Shear Force
combination (m –KN) (KN)
1.4D Support -192.6 146.0
Midspan 132.4
1.2D + 1.6L Support -224.3 167.0
Midspan 154.2

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Column C4
3 4 5

7.92 m
6.71 m

6.71 m
C

6.71 m

7.92 m 7.92 m

Tributary area = 7.92 × 6.71 = 53.14 m2

Column C4
• Dead load:
Column self weight:
0.66 × 0.66 × 11 × (3.66 – 0.560) × 23.55 = 349.92 kN
Slab self weight within the tributary area:
4.781 ×53.14 × 11 = 2794.69 kN
Beam self weight within the tributary area:
(0.560×0.355 ×7.92+0.560×0.355×(6.71-0.560))×23.55= 65.94 kN
11 × 65.94 = 725.34 kN
Superimposed dead load:
Roof: 0.479 + 889.64 / (20.73×56.08)* = 1.244 kN/m2
Floor: 1.436 kN/m2
1.244 × 53.14 + 1.436 × 53.14 × 10 = 829.20 kN
*Done this way only because location of penthouse is not

included
D = 349.92 + 2794.69 + 725.34 + 829.20 = 4699.15 kN

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Column C4

• Live load:

Story supporting roof:


R1 = 1.2 – 0.011 At = 1.2 – 0.011 × 53.14 = 0.615
R2 = 1.0
957.6 N/m2 × 0.615 × 1.0 = 588.92 N/m2
0.589 × 53.14 = 31.3 kN

Column C4
Story supporting floor 11:

AT = 53.14 + 53.14 = 106.28 m2


kLL = 4
kLLAT = 425.12 m2 > 37.16 m2, therefore live load
reduction is permitted.
Lo = 2.394 × 53.14 = 127.22 kN
L = Lo (0.25 + 4.57 / (4 ×106.28)0.5)
= 127.22 × 0.472 > 0.40 Lo
L = 60.05 kN

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Column C4
Story supporting floor 10:
AT = 53.14 × 3 = 159.42 m2
kLL = 4
L = Lo (0.25 + 4.57 / (4 ×159.42)0.5)
= 127.22 × 0.431 = 54.83 > 0.40 Lo

Story supporting floor 9:


AT = 53.14 × 4 = 212.56 m2
kLL = 4
L = Lo (0.25 + 4.57 / (4 ×212.56)0.5)
= 127.22 × 0.407 = 51.78 > 0.40 Lo

Column C4

Story supporting floor 8:


AT = 53.14 × 5 = 265.7 m2
kLL = 4
L = Lo (0.25 + 4.57 / (4 ×265.7)0.5)
= 127.22 × 0.39 < 0.40 Lo
= 0.4 × 127.22 = 50.89 kN

Total live load:


L = 31.3 + 60.05 + 54.83 + 51.78 + 7 × 50.89
= 554.19 kN

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Column C4
Summary of Design Axial Forces, Bending Moments, and Shear Forces on
Column C4 Supporting the Second Floor Level

Axial Bending Shear


Force (KN) Moment Force
Load Case (m-KN) (KN)
Dead (D) 4699 0 0
Live (L) 554 0 0

Column C4
Summary of Design Axial Forces, Bending Moments, and Shear
Forces on Column C4 Supporting the Second Floor Level

Axial Bending Shear


Force Moment Forces
Load combination (KN) (m-KN) (KN)
1.4D 6579 0 0
1.2D + 1.6L 6525 0 0

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Shear wall B7 – C7
6 7 8

A
7.92 m
6.71 m

13.42 m 6.71 m

6.71 m

7.92 m 7.92 m

Tributary Area = 7.92 × 13.42 = 106.29 m2

Shear wall B7 – C7
• Dead load:
shear wall self weight (base):
(2×0.66×0.66+0.305×6.05)×(45.14-0.560×12)×23.55 = 2458.59 kN
Slab self weight within the tributary area:
4.781 × 106.29 × 12 = 6098.07 kN
Beam self weight within the tributary area:
(0.560×0.355×13.42+2×0.560×0.355×(7.92-0.560))×23.55 = 131.89 kN
12 × 131.89 = 1582.68 kN
Superimposed dead load:
Roof: 0.479 + 889.64 / (20.73×56.08)* = 1.244 kN/m2
Floor: 1.436 kN/m2
1.244 × 106.29 + 1.436 × 106.29 × 11 = 1811.18 kN
* Done this way only because location of penthouse is not
included
D = 2458.59 + 6098.07 + 1582.68 + 1811.18 = 11,950.5 kN

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Shear wall B7 – C7

• Live load:

Story supporting roof:


R1 = 0.6 (At > 55.74 m2)
R2 = 1.0
957.6 N/m2 × 0.6 × 1.0 = 574.56 N/m2
0.575 × 106.29 = 61.12 kN

Shear wall B7 – C7

Story supporting floor 11:

AT = 106.29 + 106.29 = 212.58 m2


kLL = 3
kLLAT = 637.74 m2 > 37.16 m2, therefore live load
reduction is permitted.
Lo = 2.394 × 106.29 = 254.46 kN
L = Lo (0.25 + 4.57 / (3 ×212.58)0.5)
= 254.46 × 0.431 > 0.40 Lo
L = 109.67 kN

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Shear wall B7 – C7

Story supporting floor 10:


AT = 106.29 × 3 = 318.87 m2
kLL = 3
L = Lo (0.25 + 4.57 / (3 ×318.87)0.5)
= 254.46 × 0.398 < 0.40 Lo
= 0.4 × 254.46 = 101.78 kN

Total live load


L = 61.12 + 109.67 + 101.78 ×10 = 1188.59 kN

Shear wall B7 – C7
Summary of Design Axial Forces, Bending Moments, and
Shear Forces at Base of Shear Wall on Line 7 (SDC C)

Load Case Axial Bending Shear


Force (kN) Moment Forces (kN)
(m-kN)
Dead (D) 11,951 0 0
Live (L) 1189 0 0

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Shear wall B7 – C7
Summary of Design Axial Forces, Bending Moments, and
Shear Forces at Base of Shear Wall on Line 7 (SDC C)
Load combination Axial Bending Shear
Force Moment Force
(kN) (m-kN) (kN)
1.4D 16,731 0 0

1.2D + 1.6L 16,244 0 0

For more information…

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Computation of Design Wind


Forces

S. K. Ghosh
S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc.
Palatine, IL

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Wind Flow Around Building

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External Pressure due to Wind

External Pressure due to Wind


V2
ps = pa + ρ
2

V2
p's = p s − pa = ρ
2

ps = pressure at stagnation point, psf (N/m2)


pa = ambient pressure, psf (N/m2)
ρ = air density, lb-sec2/ft4 (kg-sec2/m4)
V = ambient wind speed, ft/sec (m/sec)

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Velocity Pressure (ASCE 7-05)


( )
qz = 0.613 V 2 K zK ztK dI
qz in N/m2 , V in m/sec
• ASCE 7 includes two factors:
– Topographic Factor - Kzt
• Hills and Escarpments
• Complex Equations
– Directionality Factor - Kd
• 0.85 for all building structures

Fastest-mile Wind
Instantaneous velocity of wind at a point as a
function of time:

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Fastest-mile Wind

• VT = max. wind speed based on averaging


time of T sec
• VH = max. wind speed based on averaging
time of 1 hour

Fastest-mile Wind

• Max. wind speed averaged over one mile of


wind passing through anemometer.
• Averaging time of fastest-mile wind: T(sec)
3600/Vf
Vf – fastest-mile wind speed in mph
For Vf = 60 mph, T = 3600/60 = 60 sec
For Vf = 120 mph, T = 3600/120 = 30 sec

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Return Period
• Also known as mean recurrence interval (MRI).
• Used for the statistical determination of the
predicted wind speed.
• Most U.S. inland locations, MRI of 50 years is used
for normal use structures.
• MRI for critical use facilities such as hospitals is
100 years.
• MRI for low risk buildings such as barns is 25
years.

Importance Factor
• For MRI of 25, 50 , and 100 years -
• 3 Maps???? - No!
• MRI is adjusted by using importance factor, I.
• Ratio of difference in velocity pressure from one
MRI to another is a fairly consistent ratio for non-
hurricane locations.
• Inclusion of “I” in the wind pressure equation has
the mathematical effect of adjusting the wind
speed up or down.

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Variation of Wind Velocity with


Height for a Steady Wind

Gust
• Rapid fluctuation of wind
• Ordinary structures sensitive to peak gusts of
about 1 sec duration.
• Use of fastest-mile wind in design inadequate
Gust speed, Vg = Gv V
• Pressure generated by gust, pg = Gp p
p ∝V 2 ∴ Gp = Gv2
• Flexible structures more sensitive to gust.

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Gust Effect Factor


• Accounts for the loading effects in the along-wind
direction (parallel to the direction of the wind) due to
wind turbulence-structure interaction.
• Also accounts for along-wind loading effects due to
dynamic amplification for flexible structures.
• Does not account for other dynamic effects such as
across-wind Loads.

Dimensionless Pressure or
Pressure Coefficient
p − pa p'
Cp = = p = actual pressure at any
( 1 2 )ρV 2 ( 1 )ρV 2
2
arbitrary point on building, psf

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Internal Pressure

Basic Wind Equation

• For buildings with External and Internal


Pressure:

p = qGCp − qiGCpi

qi = Velocity pressure calculated for


internal pressure.

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ASCE 7-05
6.2 Definitions
• Basic Wind Speed V : 3-second gust speed at
10 m above the ground in Exposure C.
– Removed reference to “50-yr mean recurrence
interval”
– Loads calculated from the wind speed map, when
multiplied by the wind load factor, represent an
“ultimate load” having approximately a 500 year
return period.
– Map contours include hurricane importance factor

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ASCE 7-05
Mean Roof Height

ASCE 7-05
6.5 Method 2: Analytical Procedure

• Design Pressure – MWFRS –


Rigid Buildings of All Height (6.5.12.2.1):
p = q GCp - qi (GCpi)
Velocity Pressure (6.5.10):
qz = 0.613KzKztKdV2I N/m2, V in m/sec

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ASCE 7-05
6.5 Analytical Procedure

• Design Pressure – MWFRS – Rigid Buildings of All


Height (6.5.12.2.1):
qi = qh for windward walls, side walls, leeward walls,
and roofs of enclosed buildings and for negative
pressure evaluation in partially enclosed buildings
qi = qz for positive pressure evaluation in partially
enclosed buildings at height z from the ground. Can be
conservatively taken as qh

Wind-resistant Design

• Wind Pressures on a Building

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ASCE 7-05
6.5 Analytical Procedure
• Design Procedure (6.5.3):
1. Wind Speed V (Figure 6-1 map), Wind
Directionality Factor Kd (6.5.4.4, Table 6-4)
2. Importance Factor I (6.5.5, Table 6-1)
3. For each wind direction:
Exposure Category (6.5.6)
Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient
Kh, Kz (6.5.6.6, Table 6-3)

ASCE 7-05
Fig. 6-1 Basic Wind Speed

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Basic Wind Speed

Dubai
45 m/sec
(100 mph)

ASCE 7-05 Table 6-4 Wind Directionality


Factor, Kd

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ASCE 7-05
Table 6-1 Importance Factor, I

100 mph = 45 m/sec

ASCE 7-05
6.5.6.2 Surface Roughness Categories

• A ground surface roughness within


each 45-degree sector shall be
determined for a distance upwind of
the site as defined ….

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ASCE 7-05
6.5.6.2 Surface Roughness Categories

• Surface Roughness B:
Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas
or other terrain with numerous closely
spaced obstructions having the size of
single-family dwellings or larger.

ASCE 7-05
6.5.6.2 Surface Roughness Categories

• Surface Roughness C:
Open terrain with scattered obstructions
having heights generally less than 9.1 m.
This category includes flat open country,
grasslands, and all water surfaces in
hurricane-prone regions

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ASCE 7-05
6.5.6.2 Roughness Categories

• Surface roughness D:
Flat, unobstructed areas and water
surfaces outside hurricane-prone regions.
This category includes smooth mud flats,
salt flats, and unbroken ice

ASCE 7-05
6.5.6.3 Exposure Categories

• Exposure B:
Shall apply where Surface Roughness B
prevails in the upwind direction for at least
792 m or 20 times the building height,
whichever is greater
Exception. For buildings with h ≤ 9.1 m, the
upwind distance may be reduced to 457 m.

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ASCE 7-05
6.5.6.3 Exposure Categories

• Exposure C:
Shall apply for all cases where
Exposure B or D does not apply

ASCE 7-05
6.5.6.3 Exposure Categories
• Exposure D:
shall apply where Surface Roughness D
prevails in the upwind direction for at least
1524 m or 20 times the building height,
whichever is greater. Exposure D shall extend
into downwind areas of Surface Roughness B
or C for a distance of 200 m or 20 times the
building height, whichever is greater.

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ASCE 7-05
Table 6-3
Velocity
Pressure
Exposure
Coefficients,
Kh and Kz

ASCE 7-05 Table 6-3 Velocity Pressure


Exposure Coefficients, Kh and Kz
Table 6-2 Terrain Exposure Constants
The velocity pressure exposure coefficient
may be determined from the following formulas:
For 4.6 m ≤ z ≤ zg, Kz = 2.01(z/zg)2/α
For z < 4.6 m, Kz = 2.01(4.6/zg)2/α
Note: z shall not be taken less than 9.1 m for Case 1 in Exp. B

Exposure α Zg, m

B 7.0 366

C 9.0 274

D 11.5 213

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ASCE 7-05
6.5 Analytical Procedure
(Continued from Slide 23)

• Design Procedure (6.5.3):


4. Topographic Factor, Kzt (6.5.7, Figure 6-4)
5. Gust Effect Factor G or Gf (6.5.8)
6. Enclosure Classification (6.5.9)
7. Internal Pressure Coefficient GCpi (6.5.11.1, Figure 6-5)
8. External Pressure Coefficients Cp, GCpf (6.5.11.2) or
force coefficients Cf (6.5.11.3)

ASCE 7-05
Fig. 6-4 Topographic Factors, Kzt

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ASCE 7-05
Fig. 6-4 Topographic Factors, Kzt

ASCE 7-05
6.5.8 Gust Effect Factor, G or Gf

• For rigid structures as defined in Section 6.2,


G shall be taken as 0.85 or calculated by Eqs.
6-4, 6-5, 6-6 and 6-7, using Table 6-2.
• For flexible or dynamically sensitive
structures as defined in Section 6.2, Gf shall
be calculated by Eqs. 6-8, 6-9, 6-10, 6-11, 6-12,
6-13a, 6-13b and 6-14, using Table 6-2.

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ASCE 7-05
6.2 Definition-Enclosure Classification

• Buildings, Open:
A building having each wall at least 80% open.
Mathematically, Ao > 0.8Ag where:
Ao = Total area of openings in a wall that receives
positive external pressure, in m2
Ag= Gross area of that wall in which Ao is identified, in
m2

ASCE 7-05
6.2 Definition-Enclosure Classification
Buildings, Partially Enclosed:
If the following two conditions are satisfied:
1. Ao > 1.1Aoi
2. Ao > 0.37 m2 or >0.01Ag, whichever is smaller, &
Aoi < 0.2Agi
where:
Aoi = The sum of the areas of openings in the
building envelope (walls & roof) not including Ao, in
m2
Agi = The sum of the gross surface areas of the
building envelope (walls & roof) not including Ao, in
m2

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ASCE 7-05
6.2 Definition-Enclosure Classification

• Buildings, Enclosed:

A building that does not comply with


the requirements for open or partially
enclosed buildings.

ASCE 7-05
6.5.9.3 Wind Borne Debris Regions

– Glazing in lower 18.3 m or within


9.2 m above aggregate surface
roofs located within 458 m of a
Category II, III, IV building requires
impact resistant glazing or
covering

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ASCE 7-05
Figure 6-5 Internal Pressure Coefficients,
GCpi

ASCE 7-05
External Pressure Coefficients
Cp for main wind force resisting systems –
Fig. 6-6
GCpf for low-rise buildings – Fig. 6-10
GCp for components & cladding – Fig. 6-11
through 6-17
CN for main wind force resisting systems – Fig. 6-18
for components & cladding – Fig. 6-19
Cf - Figs. 6-20 through 6-23

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ASCE 7-05
Fig. 6-6
External
Pressure
Coefficient,
Cp for
MWFRS

ASCE 7-05
Fig. 6-6 Cp for MWFRS: Walls

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ASCE 7-05
Fig. 6-6 Cp for MWFRS: Roofs

ASCE 7-05
Fig. 6-6 Cp for MWFRS

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ASCE 7-05
6.5 Analytical Procedure
(Continued from Slide 37)

• Design Procedure (6.5.3)

9. Velocity Pressure qz, qh (6.5.10)


qz = 0.613 Kz Kzt Kd V2 I Eq. 6-15

ASCE 7-05
6.5 Analytical Procedure

• Design Procedure (6.5.3)


10. Design wind pressure p (6.5.12, 6.5.13)

Enclosed or Partially Enclosed Buildings, MWFRS:


Rigid, All heights: p = q GCp - qi(GCpi) Eq. 6-17
Parapets: pp = qp GCpn Eq. 6-20

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ASCE 7-05 6.5 Analytical Procedure


• Design Procedure (6.5.3)
10.Enclosed and Partially Enclosed Buildings - C & C
(6.5.12.4):
– Low rise and buildings with h ≤ 18.3 m
p = qh[(GCp) - (GCpi)] Eq. 6-22
– Buildings with h > 18.3 m
p = q(GCp) - qi(GCpi) Eq. 6-23
– Parapets
p = qp(GCp - GCpi) Eq. 6-24

Typical Plan of Example Building

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m

A
6.71 m 6.71 m

B N

C
6.71 m

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Typical Elevation of Example Building


12

11

10

11 @ 3.66 m = 40.26 m 9

2
4.88 m

Design Data

• Building Location
Dubai, UAE

• Material Properties
Concrete: fc’ = 30 MPa, wc = 23.55 KN/m3
Reinforcement: fy = 415 MPa

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Design Data

• Service Loads
Live loads: roof = 957.6 N/m2
floor = 2394 N/m2

Superimposed dead loads:


roof = 478.8 N/m2 + 889.64 KN for
penthouse
floor = 1436.4 N/m2 (957.6 N/m2 permanent
partitions + 478.8 N/m2 ceiling, etc.)

Design Data

• Wind Design Data


Basic wind speed V = 45 m/sec for
Dubai
Exposure B (IBC 1609.4, ASCE
6.5.6.3)
For Occupancy Category II, I = 1.0
(IBC Table 1604.5, ASCE Table 6-1)

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Design Data

• Member Dimensions

Slab: 205 mm
Beams: 560 × 560 mm
Interior columns: 660 × 660 mm
Edge columns: 610 × 610 mm
Wall thickness: 305 mm

Wind Load Analysis

1. Basic wind speed, V, and wind


directionality factor, Kd

V = 45 m/sec at location of structure per IBC


Figure 1609 or ASCE Figure 6-1.

The wind directionality factor, Kd = 0.85 for


main wind-force-resisting systems of
buildings per ASCE Table 6-4.

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Wind Load Analysis

2. Importance factor, I

I = 1.0 per ASCE Table 6-1 for Occupancy

Category II

Wind Load Analysis


3. Exposure category and velocity
pressure exposure coefficient, Kz
Values of Kz are to be determined from
ASCE Table 6-3. In lieu of linear
interpolation, Kz may be calculated at any
height z ft above ground level by the
following equations:
2 /α
⎧ ⎛4.6
15 ⎞
⎪2.01 ⎜ ⎟ for z < 4.6 m
⎪⎪ ⎜z ⎟
⎝ g⎠
Kz = ⎨ 2 /α
⎪ ⎛ z ⎞
⎪2.01⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ for 4.6 m ≤ z ≤ z g
⎪⎩ ⎝ zg ⎠

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Wind Load Analysis

α = 3-second gust speed power law exponent


from ASCE Table 6-2
= 7.0 for Exposure B

Zg = nominal height of the atmospheric


boundary layer from ASCE Table 6-2
= 366 m for Exposure B

Wind Load Analysis


Velocity Pressure Exposure Coefficient Kz

Level Height above Kz


ground level, z (m)
12 45.14 1.106
11 41.48 1.079
10 37.82 1.051
9 34.16 1.021
8 30.50 0.989
7 26.84 0.953
6 23.18 0.914
5 19.52 0.870
4 15.86 0.820
3 12.20 0.761
2 8.54 0.687
1 4.88 0.586

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Wind Load Analysis

4. Topographic factor, Kzt

Assuming the example building is situated


on level ground and not on a hill, ridge, or
escarpment, Kzt is equal to 1.

Wind Load Analysis

5. Gust effect factors, G and Gf


Gust effect factor depends on whether a
building is rigid or flexible (ASCE 6.5.8). A
rigid building has a fundamental natural
frequency n1 greater than or equal to 1 Hz,
while a flexible building has a fundamental
natural frequency less than 1 Hz (ASCE
6.2).

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Wind Load Analysis


N-S direction:

Ta = 1/n1 = 0.0488 (hn)3/4 = 0.0488 (45.14)3/4


= 0.85 sec < 1 sec

So building is rigid and G = 0.85

See ASCE 7-05 Commentary Section C6.5.8

Wind Load Analysis

E-W direction:

Ta = 1/n1 = 0.0466 (hn)0.9 = 1.44 sec > 1


sec

So building is flexible.

Extensive calculation using n1 = 1/1.44 =


0.7Hz yields Gf = 0.93

See ASCE 7-05 Commentary Section C6.5.8

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Wind Load Analysis

6. Enclosure classification

It is assumed in this example that the


building is enclosed per IBC 1609.2, ASCE
6.5.9.

Wind Load Analysis

7. Internal pressure coefficient, GCpi

For an enclosed building, GCpi = ± 0.18.

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Wind Load Analysis


8. External pressure coefficients, Cp
For wind in the N-S direction (ASCE Figure 6-6) :
Windward wall: Cp = 0.8
Leeward wall (L/B = 20.7/56.1 = 0.37): Cp = -0.5
Side wall: Cp = - 0.7
Roof (h/L = 45.1/20.7 = 2.18):
Cp = -1.3 over entire roof (20.7 m < h/2 = 22.6 m).
May be reduced to 0.80 × -1.3 = -1.04 for area
greater than 93 m2 per Figure 6-6.

Wind Load Analysis

For wind in the E-W direction:


Windward wall: Cp = 0.8
Leeward wall (L/B = 56.1/20.7 = 2.70):
Cp = -0.26
Side wall: Cp = -0.7
Roof (h/L = 45.1/56.1 = 0.80):
Cp = -1.14 from windward edge to h/2 = 22.6 m
Cp = -0.78 from 22.6 m to h = 45.1 m
Cp = -0.62 from 45.1 m to 56.1 m

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Wind Load Analysis

9. Velocity pressure, qz

The velocity pressure at height z is determined by


Eq. 6-15 in ASCE 6.5.10:

qz = 0.613 Kz Kzt Kd V2 I N/m2, V in m/sec

where all terms have been defined previously.

Wind Load Analysis


Velocity Pressure qz (V = 45 m/sec)
Level Height above ground level, z (m) Kz qz
(N/m2)
12 45.14 1.106 1167
11 41.48 1.079 1138
10 37.82 1.051 1110
9 34.16 1.021 1077
8 30.50 0.989 1044
7 26.84 0.953 1006
6 23.18 0.914 964
5 19.52 0.870 918
4 15.86 0.820 865
3 12.20 0.761 803
2 8.54 0.687 725
1 4.88 0.586 618
where q = qz for windward walls at height z above ground
q = qh for leeward walls, side walls, and roof, evaluated at height h
qi = qh for all walls and roofs of enclosed buildings

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Wind Load Analysis

10. Design wind pressure, p

For rigid buildings of all heights, design


wind pressures on the main wind-force-
resisting system are calculated by Eq. 6-17:

p = q GCp – qi (GCpi)

Wind Load Analysis


Design Wind Pressure in N-S Direction (V = 45 m/sec)
Height External Pressure Internal Pressure
above
Location Level ground q G Cp qGCp qi GCpi qiGCpi
level, (N/m2) (N/m2) (N/m2) (N/m2)
z(m)
12 45.14 1167 0.85 0.80 794 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
11 41.48 1138 0.85 0.80 774 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
10 37.82 1110 0.85 0.80 755 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
9 34.16 1077 0.85 0.80 732 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
8 30.50 1044 0.85 0.80 710 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
7 26.84 1006 0.85 0.80 684 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
Windward
6 23.18 964 0.85 0.80 656 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
5 19.52 918 0.85 0.80 624 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
4 15.86 865 0.85 0.80 588 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
3 12.20 803 0.85 0.80 546 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
2 8.54 725 0.85 0.80 493 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
1 4.88 618 0.85 0.80 420 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
Leeward --- All 1167 0.85 -0.5 -496 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
Side --- All 1167 0.85 -0.7 -694 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
Roof --- 45.14 1167 0.85 -1.04 -1032 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210

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Wind Load Analysis


Design Wind Pressure in N-S Direction (V = 45 m/sec)
Height Tributary Windward Leeward Total
above External Design External Design Design
Level ground Height Wind
level, z Design Wind Wind Design Wind Wind Force
(m) Pressure, Force, Pressure, Force, P* (kN)
(m) qzGfCp P* (kN) qhGfCp (kN)
(N/m2) (N/m2)
12 45.14 1.83 794 81.5 -496 50.9 132.4
11 41.48 3.66 774 158.9 -496 101.8 260.7
10 37.82 3.66 755 155.0 -496 101.8 256.8
9 34.16 3.66 732 150.3 -496 101.8 252.1
8 30.50 3.66 710 145.8 -496 101.8 247.6
7 26.84 3.66 684 140.4 -496 101.8 242.2
6 23.18 3.66 656 134.7 -496 101.8 236.5
5 19.52 3.66 624 128.1 -496 101.8 229.9
4 15.86 3.66 588 120.7 -496 101.8 222.5
3 12.20 3.66 546 112.1 -496 101.8 213.9
2 8.54 3.66 493 101.2 -496 101.8 203.0
1 4.88 4.27 420 86.2 -496 118.8 205.0

*P = qGCp × Tributary height × 56.1 m Σ 2702.6

Wind Load Analysis

For flexible buildings, Eq. 6-19 is to be used:

p = q GfCp – qi (GCpi)

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Wind Load Analysis


Design Wind Pressure in E-W Direction (V = 110 mph)
Height External Pressure Internal Pressure
Location Level above q G Cp qGCp qi GCpi qiGCpi
ground 2 (N/m2) (N/m2) (N/m2)
level,z(m) (N/m )
12 45.14 1167 0.93 0.80 868 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
11 41.48 1138 0.93 0.80 847 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
10 37.82 1110 0.93 0.80 826 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
9 34.16 1077 0.93 0.80 801 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
8 30.50 1044 0.93 0.80 777 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
Windward
7 26.84 1006 0.93 0.80 748 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
6 23.18 964 0.93 0.80 718 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
5 19.52 918 0.93 0.80 683 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
4 15.86 865 0.93 0.80 643 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
3 12.20 803 0.93 0.80 597 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
2 8.54 725 0.93 0.80 539 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
1 4.88 618 0.93 0.80 459 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
Leeward --- All 1167 0.93 -0.26 -282 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
Side --- All 1167 0.93 -0.70 -760 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
Roof --- 45.14* 1167 0.93 -1.14 -1237 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
--- 45.14† 1167 0.93 -0.78 -847 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
--- 45.14‡ 1167 0.93 -0.62 -673 1167 ± 0.18 ± 210
* from windward edge to 22.6 m, † from 22.6 m to 45.1 m, ‡ from 45.1 m to 56.1 m

Wind Load Analysis


Design Wind Pressure in E-W Direction (V = 110 mph)
Height Tributary Windward Leeward Total
above External Design External Design Design
Level ground Height Wind
level, z Design Wind Wind Design Wind Wind Force
(m) Pressure, Force, Pressure, Force, (kN)
(m) qzGfCp P* (kN) qhGfCp P* (kN)
(N/m2) (N/m2)
12 45.14 1.83 868 32.9 -282 10.7 43.6
11 41.48 3.66 847 64.2 -282 21.4 85.6
10 37.82 3.66 826 62.6 -282 21.4 84.0
9 34.16 3.66 801 60.7 -282 21.4 82.1
8 30.50 3.66 777 58.9 -282 21.4 80.3
7 26.84 3.66 748 56.7 -282 21.4 78.1
6 23.18 3.66 718 54.4 -282 21.4 75.8
5 19.52 3.66 683 51.7 -282 21.4 73.1
4 15.86 3.66 643 48.7 -282 21.4 70.1
3 12.20 3.66 597 45.2 -282 21.4 66.6
2 8.54 3.66 539 40.8 -282 21.4 62.2
1 4.88 4.27 459 40.6 -282 24.9 65.5

*P = qGCp × Tributary height × 20.7 m Σ 867.0

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Wind Load Analysis


Design Wind Force in N-S and E-W Direction (V = 45 m/sec)

Level Height above ground Total Design Wind Total Design Wind
Level, z (m) Force N-S (kN) Force E-W (kN)
12 45.14 132.4 43.6
11 41.48 260.7 85.6
10 37.82 256.8 84.0
9 34.16 252.1 82.1
8 30.50 247.6 80.3
7 26.84 242.2 78.1
6 23.18 236.5 75.8
5 19.52 229.9 73.1
4 15.86 222.5 70.1
3 12.20 213.9 66.6
2 8.54 203.0 62.2
1 4.88 205.0 65.5

Σ 2702.6 867.0

Wind Load Analysis

The stiffness properties of the members were


input assuming cracked sections. The
following cracked section properties were
used:
Beam: Ieff = 0.5 Ig
Column: Ieff = 0.7 Ig
Shear walls: Ieff = 0.5 Ig
where Ig is the gross moment of inertia of
section.

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Wind Load Analysis


According to ASCE 6.5.12.3, the main wind-force-
resisting systems of buildings of all heights, whose
wind loads have been determined according to
ASCE 6.5.12.2.1 and 6.5.12.2.3, must be designed
for the full and partial wind load cases of Figure 6-9
(Cases 1 through 4). These four cases were
considered in the three-dimensional analyses.

Wind Load Analysis


Results of 3-D Analysis under Wind Force in E-W Direction for
Frame C (V = 45 m/sec)

12 1 -1 2 -2 2 -2 2 12 -0.1 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2


11 4 -4 5 -5 5 -5 5 11 -0.3 -0.4 -0.4 -0.4
10 7 -7 8 -8 8 -8 8 10 -0.6 -0.7 -0.7 -0.7
9 11 -10 12 -12 12 -12 12 9 -0.9 -1.0 -1.0 -1.0
8 15 -14 15 -15 15 -15 15 8 -1.2 -1.3 -1.3 -1.3
7 18 -18 19 -19 19 -19 19 7 -1.5 -1.6 -1.6 -1.6
6 21 -21 21 -22 22 -22 22 6 -1.8 -1.9 -1.9 -1.9
5 25 -24 25 -25 25 -25 25 5 -2.1 -2.1 -2.1 -2.1
4 28 -28 28 -28 28 -28 28 4 -2.4 -2.4 -2.4 -2.4
3 31 -31 31 -31 31 -31 31 3 -2.6 -2.6 -2.6 -2.6
2 34 -33 33 -33 33 -33 33 2 -2.8 -2.8 -2.8 -2.8
1 35 -34 33 -33 33 -33 33 1 -2.9 -2.8 -2.8 -2.8

Bending Moments in Beams (m-kN) Shear Forces in Beams


(kN)

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Wind Load Analysis


Results of 3-D Analysis under Wind Force in E-W Direction for Frame C
(V = 45 m/sec)
12 -2 -3 -4 -4 12 12
-2 0 0 0 -0.1 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
11 -6 -6 -9 -9 11 11
-1 2 2 2 0.5 0.8 1.1 1.1 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.0
10 -8 -9 -12 -12 10 10
1 5 5 5 0.8 1.4 1.8 1.8 1.0 0.1 0.0 0.0
9 -10 -12 -16 -16 9 9
2 7 9 9 1.2 1.9 2.4 2.4 1.9 0.2 0.0 0.0
8 -11 -15 -19 -19 8 8
4 10 12 12 1.5 2.4 3.1 3.1 3.1 0.2 0.0 0.0
7 -13 -17 -21 -21 7 7
6 13 15 15 1.9 2.9 3.7 3.7 4.6 0.2 0.0 0.0
6 -14 -20 -25 -25 6 6
8 15 19 19 2.1 3.4 4.3 4.3 6.4 0.3 0.0 0.0
5 -15 -21 -27 -27 5 5
10 18 21 21 2.5 3.9 4.9 4.9 8.5 0.3 0.0 0.0
4 -17 -24 -30 -30 4 4
11 20 25 25 2.7 4.4 5.5 5.5 10.9 0.3 0.0 0.0
3 -18 -25 -32 -32 3 3
15 22 27 27 3.2 4.8 5.9 5.9 13.5 0.3 0.1 0.0
2 -17 -26 -33 -33 2 2
14 26 33 33 3.0 5.3 6.6 6.6 16.4 0.2 0.1 0.0
1 -17 -21 -27 -27 1 1
5.4 4.8 6.4 6.4 19.3 0.2 0.1 0.0
64 50 69 69
Bending Moments in Shear Forces in Axial Forces in
Columns (m-kN) Columns (kN) Columns (kN)

Wind Load Analysis


Results of 3-D Analysis under Wind Force in N-S Direction for
Frame 4 (V = 45 m/sec)

12 23 -22 25 12 -2.3 -2.6


11 31 -30 35 11 -3.1 -3.5
10 33 -32 36 10 -3.3 -3.7
9 37 -36 39 9 -3.7 -4.0
8 40 -39 43 8 -4.0 -4.3
7 43 -42 45 7 -4.3 -4.6
6 46 -44 47 6 -4.6 -4.8
5 47 -45 47 5 -4.7 -4.8
4 46 -45 47 4 -4.7 -4.8
3 44 -43 44 3 -4.4 -4.4
2 39 -38 39 2 -3.9 -3.9
1 32 -30 30 1 -3.1 -3.1

Bending Moments in Shear Forces in


Beams (m-kN) Beams (kN)

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Wind Load Analysis


Results of 3-D Analysis under Wind Force in N-S Direction for Frame 4
(V = 45 m/sec)
12 -23 -45 12 12
3.5 7.4 2.3 0.2
12 30
11 -16 -30 11 11
2.8 5.8 5.5 0.7
12 28
10 -19 -36 10 10
3.2 6.8 8.8 1.1
14 31
9 -21 -39 9 9
3.6 7.3 12.5 1.4
16 34
8 -22 -41 8 8
3.9 7.9 16.6 1.8
18 38
7 -23 -43 7 7
4.2 8.4 20.7 2.0
20 41
6 -23 -44 6 6
4.4 8.7 25.4 2.3
21 43
5 -22 -43 5 5
4.5 8.8 30.1 2.4
23 44
4 -20 -41 4 4
4.4 8.6 34.7 2.6
24 45
3 -16 -35 3 3
4.2 7.8 39.2 2.6
26 43
2 -11 -28 2 2
3.3 6.9 43.1 2.7
23 41
1 -6 -15 1 1
3.2 4.1 46.2 2.6
41 46
Bending Moments in Shear Forces in Axial Forces in
Columns (m-kN) Columns (kN) Columns (kN)

Wind Load Analysis


Results of 3-D Analysis under Wind Forces in N-S Direction for
Wall on Column Line 7 (V = 45 m/sec)
Axial Forces Bending Moment (m-kN) Shear Force
Level (kN) (kN)
Top Bottom
12 0 343 -1383 285
11 0 1772 -1929 43
10 0 2539 -2093 -68
9 0 2359 -1829 -196
8 0 2308 -1153 -318
7 0 1662 -52 -442
6 0 582 1499 -572
5 0 -963 3545 -709
4 0 -3022 6143 -587
3 0 -5660 9376 -1021
2 0 -8966 13,360 -1206
1 0 -13055 20,045 -1438

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For more information…

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An Overview of the Design Load


Combinations and the Seismic Design
Provisions of the 1997 UBC

S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc.


Palatine, IL

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Referenced Standards

Design Loads and


Load Combinations ASCE 7-95
Concrete ACI 318-95
Masonry None
Steel Multiple
Wood AF&PA NDS - 91

Referenced Steel Standards


1997 UBC

AISC LRFD 1993

AISC ASD 1989

AISC Seismic 1992

AISI LRFD 1991


AISI ASD 1986 (with 1989
addendum)

None

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Structural Design Requirements


1997 UBC

Chapter 16 – Design Loads


Chapter 17 – Inspections / Testing
Chapter 18 – Foundations
Chapter 19 – Concrete
Chapter 20 – Aluminum
Chapter 21 – Masonry
Chapter 22 – Steel
Chapter 23 – Wood

1612.2.1 Strength Design or


LRFD Load Combinations (1997 UBC)
U= 1.4D (12-1)
U= 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5 (Lr or S) (12-2)
U= 1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S) + (f1L or 0.8W) (12-3)
U= 1.2D + 1.3W + f1L + 0.5(Lr or S) (12-4)
U= 1.2D + 1.0E + (f1L + f2S) (12-5)
U= 0.9D ± (1.0E or 1.3W) (12-6)
E = Design earthquake force (strength-level)

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1612.2.1 Strength Design or


LRFD Load Combinations (1997 UBC)

U = 1.2D + 1.0E + (f1L + f2S) (12-5)


U = 0.9D ± (1.0E or 1.3W) (12-6)
E = ρEh + Ev in (12-5), (12-6)
Ev = 0.5CaID
• ρ = 1 in Seismic Zones 0,1,2

Eh Δs

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Effect of Vertical Earthquake Ground


Motion

• Gravity and Earthquake Effects Additive


U = 1.2D + 1.0E + 0.5L +0.2S
= 1.2D + (ρEh + 0.5CaID) + 0.5L + 0.2S
= (1.2 + 0.5CaI)D + ρEh + 0.5L + 0.2S

Effect of Vertical Earthquake Ground


Motion

• Gravity and Earthquake Effects Counteractive


U = 0.9D - 1.0E
= 0.9D - (ρ Eh + 0.5CaID)
= (0.9 - 0.5CaI)D - ρEh

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Strength Design or LRFD Load


Combinations - Exceptions

UBC Exceptions for concrete


structures

1612.3.1 ASD Load Combinations -


Basic (1997 UBC, from ASCE 7-95)

D (12-7)
D + L + (Lr or S) (12-8)
D + (W or E/1.4) (12-9)
0.9D + E/1.4 (12-10)
D + 0.75[L + (Lr or S) + (W or E/1.4)] (12-12)

E = ρEh + 0

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ASD Load Combinations - Basic


(ASCE 7-95) – Allowable Stress Increase

• 1/3 stress increase not permitted


• Load duration increase permitted

1612.3.2 ASD Load Combinations -


Alternate Basic (1997 UBC)

D + L + (Lr or S) (12-12)
D + L + (W or E/1.4) (12-13)
D + L + W + S/2 (12-14)
D + L + S + W/2 (12-15)
D + L + S + E/1.4 (12-16)
0.9D + E/1.4 (?)
E = ρEh + 0

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ASD Load Combinations -


Alternate Basic (1997 UBC) – Allowable
Stress Increase

• When using these alternate basic load


combinations that include wind or seismic
loads, allowable stresses are permitted to
be increased or load combinations reduced,
where permitted by the material chapter of
this code or referenced standard.

1612.4 Special Seismic Load


Combinations (1997 UBC)

• 1.2D + f1L + 1.0Em (12-17)


• 0.9D + 1.0Em (12-18)

Em = Ω0Eh, while
E = ρEh + Ev

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1997 UBC Seismic Design Provisions

Introduction and
Basic Principles

1997 UBC Seismic Design Provisions

Based on 1996 SEAOC Blue Book,

influenced by the1994 NEHRP Provisions

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1626.1 Purpose

The purpose of the earthquake provisions


herein is primarily to safeguard against
major structural failures and loss of
life…not to limit damage or maintain
function.

Purpose

SEAOC “Blue Book” Commentary…


• Resist minor ground motion without damage
• Resist moderate ground motion without structural
damage but with some nonstructural damage
• Resist major ground motion without collapse but
with possible structural / nonstructural damage
• Provisions will not prevent damage from earth
faulting, slides or similar movements, nor soil
liquefaction

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1997 UBC Design Earthquake Ground


Motion

• Approximately 90% probability of


non-exceedance in 50 years (approx.
475 yr. return period)

Idealized Force-Displacement

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Idealized Relationship between Base


Shear and Drift

Earthquake-Induced Forces

• FM ≈ ΩoFS
» FM = Maximum inelastic response force
» FS = Code-prescribed force
» Ωo = Seismic force amplification factor

Ωo gives a reasonable approximation of


actual forces acting in an inelastically
responding structure

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EQ Design Considerations
• Seismic Zone
• Proximity to known Faults
• Site Geology and soil characteristics
• Building Occupancy
• Structural framing system
• Structural configuration… regular or
irregular
• System redundancy
• Building height
• Lateral force procedure
• Framing system limitations
• Special strength and detailing

1626.3 Earthquake vs. Wind

1. Code-Prescribed Forces
2. Exposed Area vs. Mass
3. Design for Larger Force
4. Provide Seismic Detailing

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EQ Design Procedure
• Step 1 – Select basic structural system
• Step 2 – Identify lateral force-resisting
system
• Step 3 – Identify structural
irregularities and any framing system
limitations
• Step 4 – Select lateral force procedure
• Step 5 – Calculate total design base
shear and distribute over height of
structure

EQ Design Procedure

• Step 6 – Elastically analyze building,


including torsional effects. Include P-Δ
effects, if necessary
• Step 7 – Check story drift limitations
• Step 8 – Calculate redundancy (ρ) of lateral
force-resisting system and increase
earthquake forces as necessary
• Step 9 – Design elements of lateral force-
resisting system for required strength and do
special detailing
• Step 10 – Confirm complete load path to
resist earthquake forces

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Sec 1702
Structural Observation
Required for:

1. Essential facilities, hazardous


facilities and special occupancy
structures (Table 16-K)
2. “High-rise” office building, hotels and
apartments (Section 403)
3. Seismic Zone 4… Near-Source Factor
(Na) greater than 1.0

Sec 1702
Structural Observation
4. When designated by A/E of record or building
official
• Seismic Zones 3 and 4 only
• Structural system only
• Performed by A/E of record or designated A/E
• Periodic site visits
• Compliance with plans and specifications
• Final report to building official

Note: Structural Observations does not waive


inspections by Section 108 and 1701

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1997 UBC Seismic Design Provisions

Structural Systems

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1997 UBC Fig. 16-3


Design Response Spectra

1997 UBC Sec. 1630.2 Static Force


Procedure

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Response Modification Factor, R

8.5 > R > 2.2

IBC vs. UBC


Response Modification Factor, R
• 1997 UBC (Strength-level
earthquake forces)
Table 16-N

Bearing wall system


R = 4.5

Special moment resisting frame


system
R = 8.5

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Table 16-N – Structural Systems1

Footnote for Table 16-N


N.L. – no limit
1 See Section 1630.4 for combination of structural systems.

2 Basic structural systems are defined in Section 1629.6.

3 Prohibited in Seismic Zones 3 and 4.

4 Includes precast concrete conforming to Section

1921.2.7.
5 Prohibited in Seismic Zones 3 and 4, except as permitted

in Section 1634.2.
6 Ordinary moment-resisting frames in Seismic Zone 1

meeting the requirements of Section 2211.6 may use a R


value of 8.
7 Total height of the building including cantilevered

columns.
8 Prohibited in Seismic Zones 2A, 2B, 3 and 4. See Section

1633.2.7.

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Sec 1630.4.2
Vertical Combinations

Sec 1630.4.2
Vertical Combinations

1. Design structure for lowest (R) for


structural systems used… or
2. Two-stage analysis permitted for
structures with flexible upper portion
supported by rigid lower portion (Sec
1629.8.3 Item 4)
3. In Seismic Zones 3 & 4, dynamic
analysis required for structures > 5
stories or 19.8 m in height with
vertical combinations (Sec 1629.8.4
Item 3)

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Sec 1630.4.3
Combinations Along Different Axes

• With bearing wall system in only one


direction, (R) not greater in orthogonal
direction (Zones 3 and 4 only)

Sec 1630.4.3
Combinations Along Different Axes

• Structures < 48 m
» Bearing wall system
» Building frame system
» Moment-resisting frame system
» Dual system

• Structures > 48 m (Zones 3 and 4 only)


» Special moment-resisting frames
» Dual systems

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Sec 1630.4.4
Combinations Along Same Axes

• With different structural systems in


same direction, value of (R) in that
direction to be taken as least (R) for
structural systems utilized

• Dual systems…and shear wall-frame


interactive systems in Seismic Zones 0
& 1…excluded

Sec 1630.4.4
Combinations Along Same Axes

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1997 UBC Seismic Design Provisions

Static Force Procedure

1997 UBC Fig. 16-3


Design Response Spectra

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1997 UBC Sec. 1630.2 Static Force


Procedure

Terms to Calculate Earthquake Load

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UBC Seismic Zones

Table 16-I
Seismic Zone Factor

Seismic Zone Z
4 0.4
3 0.3
2B 0.2
2A 0.15
1 0.075

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Table 16-1
Seismic Zone Factor

• Accounts for geographical variations in


expected levels of earthquake ground
shaking
• Seismic zone map (Fig 16-2) estimates
effective peak horizontal acceleration on rock
with a 10 percent probability of being
exceeded in a 50-year period
• See Appendix 1A – Seismic Zone
Coefficient… in 1996 SEAOC “Blue Book”

Soil Profile Types / Site Classes

Soil Profile Soil Profile Description Site Class


Type
SA Hard Rock (east coast rock) A

SB Rock (west coast rock) B

SC Very Dense Soil and Soft Rock C

SD Stiff Soil Profile D

SE Soft Soil Profile E

Soil Requiring Site-Specific


SF F
Evaluation

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Table 16-J – Soil Profile Types


Soil Soil Profile Average Soil Properties for Top 30,480 mm of
Profile Name/ Soil Profile
Type Generic Shear Wave Standard Penetration Undrained
Description velocity Test, N [or NCH for Shear
(m/sec) cohesionless soil Strength
layers] (blows/foot) (kPa)
SA Hard Rock > 1,500

SB Rock 760 to
1,500
SC Very Dense Soil 360 to 760 > 50 > 100
and Soft Rock
SD Stiff Soil Profile 180 to 360 15 to 50 50 to 100

SE1 Soft Soil Profile < 180 < 15 < 50

SF Soil Requiring Site-specific Evaluation. See Section 1629.3.1.

Default Soil Profile Type

• Soil Profile Type SD must be used


when the soil properties are not known
in sufficient detail, unless the building
official determines that Soil Profile
Type SE or SF is likely to be present at
the site

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Soil-Modification of Short-Period
Ground Motion (1997 UBC)

Soil-Modification of Long-Period
Ground Motion (1997 UBC)

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SEISMIC GROUND MOTION AMPLIFICATION


DUE TO SOIL, Ca / Z (1997 UBC)

SOIL SEISMIC ZONE FACTOR - Z


PROFILE
Z = 0.075 Z = 0.15 Z = 0.20 Z = 0.30 Z = 0.40
TYPE

SA 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8Na

SB 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0Na

SC 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0Na

SD 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.1Na

SE 2.5 2.0 1.7 2.2 0.9Na

SF * * * * *

* Site specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis


required

SEISMIC GROUND MOTION AMPLIFICATION


DUE TO SOIL, Cv / Z (1997 UBC)

SOIL SEISMIC ZONE FACTOR - Z


PROFILE
Z = 0.075 Z = 0.15 Z = 0.20 Z = 0.30 Z = 0.40
TYPE

SA 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8Nv

SB 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0Nv

SC 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4Nv

SD 2.4 2.1 2.0 1.8 1.6Nv

SE 3.5 3.3 3.2 2.8 2.4Nv

SF * * * * *

* Site specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analysis


required

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TABLE 16-S NEAR-SOURCE FACTOR Na


(1997 UBC)

Seismic Closest Distance to Known


Source Seismic Source
Type ≤ 2 km 5 km ≥ 10 km

A 1.5 1.2 1.0

B 1.3 1.0 1.0

C 1.0 1.0 1.0

TABLE 16-T NEAR-SOURCE FACTOR Nv


(1997 UBC)

Seismic Closest Distance to Known Seismic Source


Source
Type ≤ 2 km 5 km 10 km ≥ 15 km

A 2.0 1.6 1.2 1.0

B 1.6 1.2 1.0 1.0

C 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

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Design Spectrum

1997 UBC Sec. 1630.2 Static Force


Procedure

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Table 16-K
Occupancy Category
Occupancy Occupancy or Function of Seismic Seismic
Category Structure Importance Importance
Factor I Factor Ip
1. Essential Hospitals; Fire/Police 1.25 1.50
facilities Stations; Emergency
Shelters
2. Hazardous Dangerous Toxic or 1.25 1.50
facilities Explosive Substances
3. Special Public Assembly; 1.00 1.00
occupancy Schools; Day-Care
structures Centers; Nurseries;
Nursing Homes; Jails
4. Standard Hotels; Apartments; 1.00 1.00
occupancy Dwellings;
structures Wholesale/Retail; Office
Bldgs
5. Miscellaneous Factories; Private 1.00 1.00
structures Garages; Carports/Sheds 63

Seismic Importance Factor, I

• Used to amplify….design forces


as a means of controlling damage
and producing “enhanced”
performance in Occupancy
Categories 1 and 2

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Minimum Design Base Shear


• All Seismic Zones

Vmin = 0.11 Ca I W 1997 UBC

Minimum Design Base Shear

• Seismic Zone 4

0.8ZNV I
Vmin = W 1997 UBC
R

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Structure Period

Calculated by……
1) Approximate Formulae

2) Rational Analysis using


structural properties and
deformational characteristics
of resisting elements in a
properly substantiated
analysis

Approximate Period Formulae

Ta = CT (hn)3/4 1997 UBC (30-8)


Lateral Force Resisting System CT
Steel Moment Frames 0.0853
Concrete Moment Frames
Eccentrically Braced Steel 0.0731
Frames
All other buildings 0.0488

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Approximate Period Formula


(Optional – 1997 UBC )

For structures with concrete or masonry shear


walls,

Ct = 0.0743/√Ac

Ac = ΣAe[0.2 + (De/hn)2]

Replaced by a different formula in ASCE 7-05

ΣwΔ2
T = 2π
g ( FtΔt + ΣFΔ )

Rayleigh Formula

ΣwΔ2
T = 2π
g ( FtΔt + ΣFΔ )
(30-10)

70

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Upper Limit on T by "Rational


Analysis"

1997 UBC
T ≤ 1.3 Ta, Zone 4
≤ 1.4 Ta, Zones 1,2,3

1997 UBC 1630.1.1 Effective Seismic


Weight

V = CSW
W = total dead load + ……
• Warehouses………………..…………..25% live
• Buildings with partitions……………….0.48 kN/m2
• Design snow load > 1.44 kN/m2………… ≥ 25% design snow load **
• Permanent equipment…………………100% dead

** UBC leaves this up to local jurisdictions

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IBC vs. UBC


Vertical Force Distribution
1997 UBC

w xh x
Fx = (V - Ft )
∑ wh
where
T ≤ 0.7 sec....Ft = 0
T > 0.7 sec....Ft = 0.07TV ≤ 0.25V

Vertical Force Distribution


1997 UBC

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1997 UBC 1630.6 Horizontal


Distribution of Forces
• Rigid diaphragms
» Seismic story shear is to be distributed to
elements of seismic-force-resisting system
based on stiffness of vertical-resisting
elements
• Flexible diaphragms
» Seismic story shear is to be distributed to
elements of seismic-force-resisting system
based on tributary areas

Sec 1630.6
Diaphragm Flexibility

• Diaphragm considered flexible if… Max.


diaphragm deflection Δ > 2 (Average
story drift)

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Sec 1630.6
Diaphragm Flexibility
• Compare midpoint in-plane deflection of
diaphragm (Δ) with average story drift of
adjoining vertical resisting elements

1997 UBC 1630.6 Horizontal


Distribution of Forces
• Torsion
» Torsional moment due to difference in location
of center of mass and center of resistance
must be considered for rigid diaphragms
• Accidental torsion
» For rigid diaphragms, must be included in
addition to the torsional moment
• Displacement of center of mass = 5% building dimension
perpendicular to direction of applied forces

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Sec 1630.1.2
Modeling Requirements
“Accuracy of Results”
Mathematical model of physical structure to
include…
• All elements of lateral-force-resisting system
• All stiffness and strength significant to force
distribution…representation of spatial distribution of
mass and stiffness of structure
• Effects of “cracked sections” for concrete and
masonry
• Contribution of panel zone deformation to story drift
for steel moment frames

Even with new guidelines for structure


modeling…structure period (T) calculated by
“rational analysis” still RESTRICTED

1997 UBC 1630.9 Story Drift


Determination (Δ)
Lateral displacement of one level relative to
the next level above or below

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Eh ΔS

1997 UBC 1630.10 Story Drift


Limitation

1997 UBC
Δx = ΔM,x - ΔM,x-1 ≤ Δa
where….
ΔM,x = 0.7R Δs,x

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Allowable Story Drift (Δa )


1997 UBC

Δa = 0.020 hsx for T ≥ 0.7 sec.


= 0.025 hsx for T < 0.7 sec.

hsx = Story height below level x

REDUNDANCY

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Redundancy

ρ = 1 in Seismic Zones 1 and 2

ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

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Static vs. Dynamic Analysis (1997 UBC)

What 3 or 4
1
Seismic Is Bldg.
Zone? 1, 2, 3 Irregular
2
What Table 16-L
Occupancy 1, 2, 3?
4, 5 Table 16-K No
?
Is Yes
Yes Bldg. Height
< 73 m

Is No. of
No
Use Dynamic Analysis No Stories ≤ 5 and
Ht. ≤ 19.8 m
?
Yes
Use Static Analysis

Building Configuration
• Plan Structural Irregularities (1997 UBC
Table 16-M)
» Torsional irregularity
» Re-entrant corners
» Diaphragm discontinuity
» Out-of-plane offsets
» Nonparallel systems

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Building Configuration
• Vertical Structural Irregularities (1997 UBC
Table 16-L)
» Stiffness irregularity – soft story
» Weight (mass) irregularity
» Vertical geometric irregularity
» In-plane discontinuity in vertical lateral-force-resisting
elements
» Discontinuity in lateral strength – weak story

EXEMPTIONS FROM SEISMIC


DESIGN

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1997 UBC Exemption from Seismic


Design

1629.1 … One- and two-family


dwellings in Seismic Zone 1 need
not conform to the provisions of
this section.

SIMPLIFIED STATIC LATERAL


FORCE PROCEDURE

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1997 UBC Sec. 1629.8.2

• Applicable to following structures in


Occupancy Category 4 or 5:
» Buildings not more than 3 stories in
height excluding basements, that use
light-frame construction
» Other buildings not more than 2 stories in
height excluding basements

1997 UBC Sec. 1630.2.3.2

• Seismic Base Shear, V (Eq. 30-11):

V = 3.0 Ca W / R

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1997 UBC Sec. 1630.2.3.3

• Vertical Distribution (Eq. 30-12)

Fx = 3.0 Ca wx / R

1997 UBC Sec. 1630.2.3.4

• Where used, ΔM shall be taken equal


to 0.01 times the story height of all
stories

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For more information…

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Easy, Step-by-Step
Determination of
Design Base Shear
1997 UBC

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1997 UBC Division IV: Earthquake


Section Title Design Page
1626 General 2-9
1627 Definitions 2-9
1628 Symbols and Notation 2-10
1629 Criteria Selection 2-11
1630 Minimum Design Lateral Forces and Related 2-13
Effects
1631 Dynamic Analysis Procedures 2-16
1632 Lateral Forces on Elements of Structures, 2-18
Nonstructural Components and Equipment
Supported by Structures
1633 Detailed Systems Design Requirements 2-19
1634 Nonbuilding Structures 2-21

What is Design Base Shear?

FR

F2

F1

"Base"

V
(Design Base Shear)

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STEP 1:
DETERMINE SEISMIC ZONE FACTOR,
Z

Dubai: Seismic Zone 2A

UBC Seismic Zones

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UBC Seismic Zones


Appendix Chapter 16
Division III: Seismic Zone Tabulation
Section 1653 – FOR AREAS OUTSIDE THE
U.S.
United Arab Emirates
Abu Dhabi…..Zone 0
Dubai……..…Zone 0
7

STEP 1:
DETERMINE SEISMIC ZONE FACTOR,
Z

Seismic Zone Z
1 0.075
2A 0.15
2B 0.20
3 0.30
4 0.40

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STEP 2:
DETERMINE IMPORTANCE
FACTOR, I (Table 16-K)
Occupancy Category Seismic Importance
Factor, I
Essential Facilities 1.25

Hazardous Facilities 1.25

Special Occupancy Structures 1.00

Standard Occupancy 1.00


Structures
Miscellaneous Structures 1.00

STEP 3:
DETERMINE IF STATIC FORCE
PROCEDURE is OK

CED – Structural Design Guidelines

VS.

1997 UBC

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STEP 3:
DETERMINE IF STATIC FORCE
PROCEDURE is OK

• CED Section 3.2

All structures and buildings exceeding 12


stories in height shall be analyzed by
employing Response Spectrum Analysis

STEP 3:
DETERMINE IF STATIC FORCE
PROCEDURE is OK (97 UBC Section
1629.8)
What Seismic
Zone ? Does building have
an irregularity as
described in Item 1, 2
or 3 of Table 16-L ?
What
Occupancy ?
Table 16-K

Is
Building Height
< 73.2 m ?

Is No. of
Stories ≤ 5
USE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
and Ht ≤ 19.8 m ?

USE STATIC ANALYSIS

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STEP 3:
DETERMINE IF STATIC FORCE
PROCEDURE is OK
Irregularities in Items 1, 2 and 3
1. Stiffness Irregularity 2. Weight (Mass) 3. Vertical Geometric
- Soft Story Irregularity Irregularity
Heavy Mass
Stiff Resisting Elements

Soft

“Soft Story” Stiffness Story Mass > 150% Adjacent Story Dimension > 130% Adjacent
< 70% Story Stiffness Story Mass Story Dimension
Above or Exception: Lighter Roof is Exception: One-Story Penthouse
< 80% (Avg. Stiffness Acceptable Acceptable
of 3 Stories above)

STEP 4:
DETERMINE SOIL PROFILE TYPE
Section 1636 and Table 16-J
Soil Profile Type Soil Profile Description
SA Hard rock
SB Rock
SC Very dense soil and soft rock
SD Stiff soil profile
SE Soft soil profile
SF Soil requiring site-specific evaluation.
See UBC Section 1629.3.1.

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STEP 4:
DETERMINE SOIL PROFILE TYPE
Section 1629.3

EXCEPTION: When the soil properties


are not known in sufficient detail to
determine the soil profile type, Type
SD shall be used….

STEP 5:
DETERMINE Ca and Cv

Ca
• Function of Z and Soil Profile Type
• Represents site-dependent effective
peak acceleration at grade.
• Used in base shear equation

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STEP 5:
DETERMINE Ca and Cv
Response Spectrum

Spectral Acceleration

Ca
Period (T)

STEP 5:
DETERMINE Ca and Cv
SEISMIC COEFFICIENT Ca
Soil Profile Seismic Zone Factor, Z
Type Z = 0.075 Z = 0.15 Z = 0.2 Z = 0.3 Z = 0.4
SA 0.06 0.12 0.16 0.24 0.32Na
SB 0.08 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40Na
SC 0.09 0.18 0.24 0.33 0.40Na
SD 0.12 0.22 0.28 0.36 0.44Na
SE 0.19 0.30 0.34 0.36 0.36Na
SF See Footnote 1
1 Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response
analysis shall be performed to determine seismic coefficients
for Soil Profile Type SF.

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STEP 5:
DETERMINE Ca and Cv

Cv
• Function of Z and Soil Profile Type
• Represents the value of acceleration
response at a 1.0 second period.
• Cv is significantly > Z for soft soil
sites.

STEP 5:
DETERMINE Ca and Cv
RESPONSE SPECTRUM
Spectral Acceleration

Cv

T = 1.0 second

Period (T)

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STEP 5:
DETERMINE Ca and Cv
SEISMIC COEFFICIENT CV
Soil Profile Seismic Zone Factor, Z
Type Z = 0.075 Z = 0.15 Z = 0.2 Z = 0.3 Z = 0.4
SA 0.06 0.12 0.16 0.24 0.32Na
SB 0.08 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40Na
SC 0.13 0.25 0.32 0.45 0.56Na
SD 0.18 0.32 0.40 0.54 0.64Na
SE 0.26 0.50 0.64 0.84 0.96Na
SF See Footnote 1
1Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response
analysis shall be performed to determine seismic
coefficients for Soil Profile Type SF.

STEP 6:
DETERMINE BUILDING PERIOD, T

Section 1630.2.2:

T = Ct (hn) ¾

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STEP 6:
DETERMINE BUILDING PERIOD, T
Structural System Ct
Steel moment resisting frames 0.0835
Reinforced concrete moment resisting frame 0.0731
and eccentrically braced frames
All other systems 0.0488*

*C for structures with concrete or masonry shear walls may


t
alternatively be computed using UBC formula (30-9).
Alternative methods for calculating the period of a structure are found
in UBC Section 1630.2.2. Periods may be computed by any rational
procedure that is in conformance with the principles of mechanics.
Rationally computed period may not be taken any larger than 1.3 times
the period given by the above formula in Zone 4, or 1.4 times the
period obtained from the above formula in Zones 1, 2 and 3.

STEP 7:
DETERMINE SYSTEM RESPONSE
FACTOR, R
Table 16-N: STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
1. Bearing Wall System
2. Building Frame System
3. Moment-Resisting Frame System
4. Dual System
5. Cantilevered Column Building System
6. Shear Wall-Frame Interaction System
7. Undefined System

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STEP 7:
DETERMINE SYSTEM RESPONSE
FACTOR, R
Bearing Wall Building Frame Moment-Resisting
System System Frame System
Gravity Loads
Gravity Loads Gravity Loads Lateral
Lateral Lateral
Forces Forces Forces

Stiff Resisting Elements… Stiff Resisting Elements…


Shearwalls or Braced Frames Shearwalls or Braced Frames

STEP 7:
DETERMINE SYSTEM RESPONSE
FACTOR, R
Dual System Cantilevered Column Shear Wall-Frame
Building System Interaction System

Gravity Loads
Lateral
Gravity Loads
Lateral Forces
Forces

Stiff Resisting Elements… Zero Moment Fixed Concrete only


Shearwalls or Braced Restraint Base
Frames (See Section
1629.6.5 for requirements)

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STEP 8:
Calculate W
Seismic Dead Load, W, per Section
1630.1.1:
Description Load
Warehouses 25% Live Load
Buildings with Min. 0.48 kN/m2
Partitions
Snow Load > 1.44 kN/m2, include
Permanent Equipment 100% Dead Load

STEP 9:
Calculate Design Base Shear
Section 1630.2…
Description and Equation Equation No.
“Long Period” Structures: 30-4
C I
V= v W
RT
“Short Period” Structures: 30-5
2.5 C a I
V = W
R
Design Base Shear Minimum: 30-6
V = 0.11 Ca I W

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STEP 9:
Calculate Design Base Shear
“Short period” Design Response Spectrum
structures
“Long period”
structures 2.5 C a I
V= W
R
Design Base shear

Cv I
V= W
RT

Vmin
Cv
Ts =
2.5 C a

Ts Period (T)

STEP 10:
Distribute Design Base Shear
Section 1630.5
w x hx When T ≤ 0.7 sec, Ft = 0
Fx = (V − Ft )
∑ wi hi When T > 0.7 sec, Ft = 0.07TV ≤ 0.25V

Ft = 0.07TV n

Fx x wx

hn

hx

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EXAMPLE

SKGA California Office Relocated


to Dubai, “Regular”

Plan Dimension of Example Building

9.14 m

7.62 m

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Elevation of Office

3
2.74 m

2
2.74 m

1
2.74 m

Design Data

• Building Location
Dubai (Seismic Zone: 2A)

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EXAMPLE: Step 1

Step 1: Determine Seismic Zone Factor

Z = 0.15 (Seismic Zone: 2A)

EXAMPLE: Step 2

Step 2: Determine Importance Factor

I = 1.0 (Standard Occupancy Structure


in Table 16-K)

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EXAMPLE: Step 3
Step 3: Determine If Static Procedure is OK

What Seismic
Zone ? Does building have
an irregularity as
described in Item 1, 2
or 3 of Table 16-L ?
What
Occupancy ?
Table 16-K

Is
Building Height
< 73.2 m ?

Is No. of
Stories ≤ 5
USE DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
and Ht ≤ 19.8 m ?

USE STATIC ANALYSIS

EXAMPLE: Step 4

Step 4: Determine Soil Profile Type

Assume SD Soil (Stiff Soil Profile)

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EXAMPLE: Step 5
Step 5: Determine Ca and Cv

SEISMIC COEFFICIENT Ca
Soil Profile Seismic Zone Factor, Z

Type Z = 0.075 Z = 0.15 Z = 0.2 Z = 0.3 Z = 0.4


SA 0.06 0.12 0.16 0.24 0.32Na
SB 0.08 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40Na
SC 0.09 0.18 0.24 0.33 0.40Na
SD 0.12 0.22 0.28 0.36 0.44Na
SE 0.19 0.30 0.34 0.36 0.36Na
SF See Footnote 1

EXAMPLE: Step 5
Step 5: Determine Ca and Cv

SEISMIC COEFFICIENT CV
Soil Profile Seismic Zone Factor, Z

Type Z = 0.075 Z = 0.15 Z = 0.2 Z = 0.3 Z = 0.4


SA 0.06 0.12 0.16 0.24 0.32Na
SB 0.08 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40Na
SC 0.13 0.25 0.32 0.45 0.56Na
SD 0.18 0.32 0.40 0.54 0.64Na
SE 0.26 0.50 0.64 0.84 0.96Na
SF See Footnote 1

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EXAMPLE: Step 6

Step 6: Determine Building Period T

9.14 m

7.62 m 0.2 m

0.2 m

EXAMPLE: Step 6

Direction 1:
Direction of lateral seismic load is parallel to the longer
dimension of the shear wall (9.14 m)

ΣAe = 9.14 × 0.2 × 2 + (7.62-0.4) ×0.2 ×2 = 6.54 m2


De = 9.14 (the length of a shear wall in loading direction)
De/hn = 9.14 / 8.22 = 1.11 > 0.9, therefore De/hn = 0.9
Ac = ΣAe [0.2 + (De/hn)2] = 6.54 × [0.2+0.92] = 6.61 m2
Ct = 0.0743 / Ac0.5 = 0.0743 / (6.61)0.5 = 0.0289

T = Ct (hn)0.75 = 0.0289 × (8.22)0.75 = 0.14 sec

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EXAMPLE: Step 6

Direction 2:
Direction of lateral seismic load is parallel to the shorter
dimension of the shear wall (7.62 m)
ΣAe = 9.14 × 0.2 × 2 + (7.62-0.4) ×0.2 ×2 = 6.54 m2
De = 7.62 (the length of a shear wall in loading direction)
De/hn = 7.62 / 8.22 = 0.927 > 0.9, therefore De/hn = 0.9
Ac = ΣAe [0.2 + (De/hn)2] = 6.54 × [0.2+0.92] = 6.61 m2
Ct = 0.0743 / Ac0.5 = 0.0743 / (6.61)0.5 = 0.0289

T = Ct (hn)0.75 = 0.0289 × (8.22)0.75 = 0.14 sec

Therefore, T = 0.14 sec in both directions

EXAMPLE: Step 7
Step 7: Determine System Response Factor
Basic Structural Lateral-Force-Resisting System Description R
Systems
1. Bearing Wall System 1. Light-framed walls with shear panels

Gravity Load a. Wood Structural panel walls for structures three stories or less 5.5
Lateral
Forces b. All other light-framed walls 4.5
2. Shear walls
a. Concrete 4.5
b. Masonry 4.5
3. Light steel-framed bearing walls with tension-only bracing 2.8
4. Braced frames where bracing carries gravity load
Stiff Resisting Elements… a. Steel 4.4
Shearwalls or
Braced Frames b. Concrete 2.8
c. Heavy timber 2.8

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EXAMPLE: Step 8

Step 8: Calculate W
Level Story weight, wx (kN)
3 (Roof) 510
2 681
1 681
Σ 1872

EXAMPLE: Step 9
Step 9: Calculate design base shear
Ts = Cv/(2.5 × Ca) = 0.32/(2.5 × 0.22)
= 0.582 sec > T (= 0.14 sec)

Vmin = 0.11 ×Ca × I × W


= 0.11 × 0.22 ×1.0 × 1872 = 45.3 kN

V = (2.5 × Ca × I)/R × W
= (2.5 × 0.22 ×1.0)/4.5 × 1872 = 228.8 kN > Vmin

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Seismic Design Forces


Step 10: Distribute design base shear

Story hx (m) wx (kN) hxwx Fx (kN)


(m-kN)
3 (Roof) 8.22 510.0 4192.2 97.97
2 5.48 681.0 3731.9 87.22
1 2.74 681.0 1865.9 43.61
Σ 1872.0 9790.0 228.8

Fx = (wxhx)/(Σwihi) × V when T ≤ 0.7 sec

EXAMPLE: Step 10

97.97 kN 3

87.22 kN 2

43.61 kN 1

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Computation of Design Seismic


Forces

S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc.


Palatine, IL

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Typical Plan of Example Building

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m

A
6.71 m 6.71 m

B N

C
6.71 m

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Typical Elevation of Example Building


12

11

10

11 @ 3.66 m = 40.26 m 9

2
4.88 m

Design Data

• Building Location
Dubai (Seismic Zone 2A)

• Material Properties
Concrete: fc’ = 30 MPa, wc = 23.55 KN/m3
Reinforcement: fy = 420 MPa

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Design Data

• Service Loads
Live loads: roof = 957.6 N/m2
floor = 2394 N/m2

Superimposed dead loads:


roof = 478.8 N/m2 + 889.64 KN for
penthouse
floor = 1436.4 N/m2 (957.6 N/m2 permanent
partitions + 478.8 N/m2 ceiling, etc.)

Design Data

• Seismic Design Data


Zone 2A: Z = 0.15
Soil Profile Type: SD (stiff soil profile; UBC
Table 16-J)
For Occupancy Category 4, I = 1.0 (UBC
Table 16-K)

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Design Data

• Member Dimensions

Slab: 205 mm
Beams: 560 × 560 mm
Interior columns: 660 × 660 mm
Edge columns: 610 × 610 mm
Wall thickness: 305 mm

Values of Ca as Function of Soil Profile


Type and Z (Table 16-Q)
Soil Seismic Zone Factor, Z
Profile
Type Z = 0.075 Z = 0.15 Z = 0.2 Z = 0.3 Z = 0.4
SA 0.06 0.12 0.16 0.24 0.32Na
SB 0.08 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40Na
SC 0.09 0.18 0.24 0.33 0.40Na
SD 0.12 0.22 0.28 0.36 0.44Na
SE 0.19 0.30 0.34 0.36 0.36Na
SF See Footnote 1
1:Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site
response analysis shall be performed to determine seismic
coefficients for Soil Profile Type SF.

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Values of Cv as Function of Soil Profile


Type and Z (Table 16-R)
Soil Seismic Zone Factor, Z
Profile
Type Z = 0.075 Z = 0.15 Z = 0.2 Z = 0.3 Z = 0.4
SA 0.06 0.12 0.16 0.24 0.32Nv
SB 0.08 0.15 0.20 0.30 0.40Nv
SC 0.13 0.25 0.32 0.45 0.56Nv
SD 0.18 0.32 0.40 0.54 0.64Nv
SE 0.26 0.50 0.64 0.84 0.96Nv
SF See Footnote 1
1:Site-specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site
response analysis shall be performed to determine seismic
coefficients for Soil Profile Type SF.

Seismic Forces
The equivalent lateral force procedure of 1997 UBC Section
1630.2 is used to compute the seismic base shear. In a given
direction, V is determined by UBC Eqs. 30-4 – 30-7:

V = Cs W

where Cs is the seismic response coefficient determined in


accordance with UBC 1630.2.1 and W is the total dead load of
the structure and applicable portions of other loads as
indicated in UBC 1630.1.1. For the member sizes and
superimposed dead loads, W = 121,107 kN.

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Seismic Forces in N-S Direction

In the N-S direction, a dual system is utilized.


As a minimum, the dual system must have
intermediate reinforced concrete moment
frames and ordinary reinforced concrete shear
walls in a building in Zone 2A. For this system,
the response modification coefficient R = 6.5
(see UBC Table 16-N).

Seismic Forces in N-S Direction


• Approximate period (Ta)
The fundamental period of the building T is determined in
accordance with UBC 1630.2.2. In lieu of a more exact
analysis, an approximate fundamental period Ta is
computed by UBC Eq. 30-8 for the dual system:

Building height hn = 45.14 m


Approximate period parameter Ct = 0.0488 (1630.2.2 Method
A)
Period Ta = Cthn3/4 = 0.0488 × (45.14)3/4 = 0.85 sec
No further refinement of the period is made in this example.

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Seismic Forces in N-S Direction

• Seismic base shear (V)


The seismic response coefficient Cs is
determined by UBC Eq. 30-4:

Cs = CvI / RT
= 0.32x1 / (6.5x0.85)
= 0.058

Seismic Forces in N-S Direction

The value of Cs need not exceed that from UBC


Eq. 30-5:

Cs = 2.5CaI / R = 2.5x0.22 / 6.5 = 0.085

Also, Cs shall not be less than the value given by


UBC Eq. 30-6:

Cs = 0.11CaI = 0.024

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Seismic Forces in N-S Direction

Thus, the value of Cs from UBC Eq. 30-4


governs and the base shear in the N-S
direction is:

V = 0.058 W = 0.058 × 121,107


= 7024 kN

Seismic Forces in N-S Direction


• Vertical distribution of seismic forces
The total base shear is distributed over the height of the building
in conformance with UBC Eqs. 30-14 and 30-15:

w h
Fx = ( V − Ft ) n x x
∑ w ihi
i=1
where Fx is the lateral force induced at level x, wx and wi are the
portions of W assigned to levels x or i.

Ft = 0.07TV ≤ 0.25 V for T > 0.7 sec

Concentrated force Ft is applied at the top floor and accounts for


the higher mode effects in tall buildings

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Seismic Forces in N-S Direction

• Vertical distribution of seismic forces

For T = 0.85 sec, Ft = 0.07x0.85x7024.2 = 418 kN

V – Ft = 7024 - 418 = 6606 kN

Seismic Forces in N-S Direction


Seismic Forces and Story Shears in N-S Direction
Story
Height, Lateral Force, Story Shear,
Level Weights, wx wxhx
hx (m) Fx+Ft (kN) Vx (kN)
(kN)
12.00 9261.20 45.14 417,776 1336 1336
11.00 10146.39 41.45 420,596 924 2261
10.00 10146.39 37.80 383,485 843 3104
9.00 10146.39 34.14 346,373 761 3866
8.00 10146.39 30.48 309,262 680 4546
7.00 10146.39 26.82 272,150 598 5144
6.00 10146.39 23.16 235,039 516 5661
5.00 10146.39 19.51 197,927 435 6096
4.00 10146.39 15.85 160,816 353 6450
3.00 10146.39 12.19 123,704 272 6722
2.00 10146.39 8.53 86,593 190 6912
1.00 10382.15 4.88 50,631 111 7024
Σ 121107 3,004,357 7024

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Seismic Forces in E-W Direction

In the E-W direction, a moment-resisting


frame system is utilized. As a minimum,
this must be an intermediate reinforced
concrete moment frame in a building in
Zone 2A. For this system, the response
modification coefficient R = 5.5 (UBC Table
16-N).

Seismic Forces in E-W Direction


• Approximate period (Ta)
The fundamental period of the building T is determined in
accordance with UBC 1630.2.2. In lieu of a more exact
analysis, an approximate fundamental period Ta is
computed by UBC Eq. 30-8 for the intermediate RC moment
frame:

Building height hn = 45.14 m


Approximate period parameter Ct = 0.0731
Period Ta = Cthn3/4 = 0.0731 × (45.14)3/4 = 1.27 sec
No further refinement of the period is made in this example.

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Seismic Forces in E-W Direction

• Seismic base shear (V)


The seismic response coefficient Cs is
determined by UBC Eq. 30-4:

Cs = CvI / RT
= 0.32x1 / (5.5x1.27)
= 0.05

Seismic Forces in E-W Direction

The value of Cs need not exceed that from UBC


Eq. 30-5:

Cs = 2.5CaI / R = 2.5x0.22 / 5.5 = 0.10

Also, Cs shall not be less than the value given by


UBC Eq. 30-6:

Cs = 0.11CaI = 0.024

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Seismic Forces in E-W Direction

Thus, the value of Cs from UBC Eq. 30-4


governs and the base shear in the E-W
direction is:

V = 0.05 W = 0.05 × 121107


= 6055 kN

Seismic Forces in E-W Direction


• Vertical distribution of seismic forces
The total base shear is distributed over the height of the building
in conformance with UBC Eqs. 30-14 and 30-15:

w h
Fx = ( V − Ft ) n x x
∑ w ihi
i=1
where Fx is the lateral force induced at level x, wx and wi are the
portions of W assigned to levels x or i.

Ft = 0.07TV ≤ 0.25 V for T > 0.7 sec

Concentrated force Ft is applied at the top floor and accounts for


the higher mode effects in tall buildings

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Seismic Forces in E-W Direction

• Vertical distribution of seismic forces

For T = 1.27 sec, Ft = 0.07x1.27x6055.35 = 538 kN

V – Ft = 6055 – 538 = 5517 kN

Seismic Forces in E-W Direction


Seismic Forces and Story Shears in E-W Direction
Story Height,
Lateral Force, Story Shear,
Level Weights, hx wxhx Fx+Ft (kN) Vx (kN)
wx (kN) (m)
12.00 9261.20 45.14 417,776 1305 1305
11.00 10146.39 41.45 420,596 772 2077
10.00 10146.39 37.80 383,485 704 2782
9.00 10146.39 34.14 346,373 636 3418
8.00 10146.39 30.48 309,262 567 3986
7.00 10146.39 26.82 272,150 499 4485
6.00 10146.39 23.16 235,039 431 4917
5.00 10146.39 19.51 197,927 363 5280
4.00 10146.39 15.85 160,816 295 5576
3.00 10146.39 12.19 123,704 227 5803
2.00 10146.39 8.53 86,593 159 5962
1.00 10382.15 4.88 50,631 92 6055
Σ 121107 3,004,357 6055

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Method of Analysis
A three-dimensional analysis of the building was performed in the N-
S and E-W directions for the seismic forces using SAP2000. In the
model, rigid diaphragms were assigned at each floor level, and rigid-
end offsets were defined at the ends of the horizontal members so
that results were automatically obtained at the faces of the supports.
The stiffness properties of the members were input assuming
cracked sections. The following cracked section properties were
used:

Beams: Ieff = 0.5 Ig


Columns: Ieff = 0.7 Ig
Shear walls: Ieff = 0.5 Ig

where Ig is the gross moment of inertia of the section. P-delta effect


were also considered in the analysis.

Method of Analysis
In accordance with UBC 1630.6, the center of
mass was displaced each way from its actual
location a distance equal to 5 percent of the
building dimension perpendicular to the
applied forces to account for accidental
torsion in seismic design.

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Method of Analysis
In a dual system, an additional safeguard is
provided by requiring that moment-resisting
frames be capable of resisting at least 25% of
the design forces without the benefit of shear
walls (UBC 1629.6.5). Thus, the building was
also analyzed in the N-S direction using 25% of
the design forces without the shear walls
present, including torsional effects.

Method of Analysis
Results of 3-D Analysis under Seismic Force in E-W Direction for
Frame C
12 51 -48 68 -67 64 -64 65 12 14 19 18 18
11 91 -90 112 -112 110 -110 110 11 25 31 30 30
10 137 -135 156 -156 153 -153 153 10 37 43 42 42
9 179 -176 197 -196 194 -194 194 9 49 54 53 53
8 217 -213 233 -233 231 -229 231 8 59 64 64 63
7 250 -246 266 -265 263 -263 263 7 68 73 72 72
6 280 -276 294 -294 291 -291 291 6 76 81 80 80
5 306 -301 317 -317 315 -315 315 5 83 87 87 87
4 328 -323 337 -337 335 -335 335 4 89 93 92 92
3 345 -339 351 -350 349 -348 349 3 94 97 96 96
2 353 -348 357 -357 356 -356 356 2 96 98 98 98
1 355 -347 348 -348 347 -347 347 1 96 96 95 95

Bending Moment in Beams (m-kN) Shear Forces in Beams (kN)

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Method of Analysis
Results of 3-D Analysis under Seismic Force in E-W Direction for Frame C

12 -51 -84 -129 -127 12 12


-6 22 39 38 15 34 54 53 13 11 -1 0.0
11 -90 -118 -167 -166 11 11
22 56 81 78 36 56 80 79 38 22 -1 0.0
10 -103 -145 -205 -204 10 10
43 88 125 124 47 75 107 106 75 23 -2 0.0
9 -120 -170 -237 -236 9 9
65 118 165 164 60 93 130 129 124 18 -3 0.0
8 -133 -191 -265 -264 8 8
85 146 201 200 70 109 150 150 182 9 -3 0.0
7 -144 -210 -289 -288 7 7
103 170 233 232 80 123 169 168 250 -6 -4 0.0
6 -154 -225 -309 -308 6 6
118 192 262 261 88 135 184 184 327 -25 -5 0.0
5 -162 -238 -325 -324 5 5
134 210 287 285 95 145 197 197 410 -50 -5 0.0
4 -167 -247 -336 -335 4 4
144 227 308 307 100 153 208 207 499 -79 -6 0.0
3 -171 -252 -340 -340 3 3
165 243 326 326 109 160 215 215 593 -114 -6 0.0
2 -159 -246 -333 -333 2 2
157 256 351 351 102 162 221 221 689 -154 -6 0.0
1 -158 -207 -286 -286 1 1
517 537 747 747 147 162 225 225 786 -211 -7 0.0

Bending Moment in Shear Forces in Axial Forces in


Columns (m-kN) Columns (kN) Columns (kN)

Method of Analysis
Results of 3-D Analysis under Seismic Force in N-S Direction for
Frame 4
12 109 18 -104 -17 118 26 12 35 6 39 9
11 145 33 -142 -33 160 42 11 47 11 53 14
10 147 48 -144 -47 161 56 10 48 16 53 19
9 155 63 -152 -62 168 71 9 51 21 56 24
8 161 76 -158 -75 173 84 8 53 26 57 29
7 165 88 -162 -86 176 95 7 54 29 58 32
6 166 98 -162 -96 175 104 6 54 33 58 36
5 162 107 -159 -105 170 112 5 53 36 56 38
4 153 114 -150 -112 159 118 4 50 38 53 41
3 138 119 -135 -117 142 123 3 45 40 47 42
2 115 122 -113 -121 118 125 2 38 41 39 43
1 84 122 -81 -119 84 120 1 27 41 28 41

Bending Moment in Beams (m-kN) Shear Forces in Beams (kN)


Italic denotes results with 25% of design base shear applied to the frame.

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Method of Analysis
Results of 3-D Analysis under Seismic Force in N-S Direction for
Frame 4
12 -105 -18 -214 -42 12 12
67 1 147 15 56 9 117 20 35 6 4 2
11 -65 -28 -132 -51 11 11
61 9 131 27 41 13 85 27 83 17 10 5
10 -76 -34 -156 -65 10 10
67 16 143 42 46 17 96 38 131 34 15 7
9 -77 -39 -158 -76 9 9
71 23 150 55 48 22 99 46 181 55 21 10
8 -79 -43 1-61 -86 8 8
76 29 157 67 50 26 103 54 234 80 26 13
7 -79 -47 -156 -94 7 7
79 35 162 78 51 29 104 60 288 110 30 15
6 -75 -50 -155 -100 6 6
82 40 164 87 50 32 103 66 342 143 34 17
5 -69 -53 -144 -106 5 5
82 45 162 95 49 34 99 71 395 179 38 19
4 -59 -54 -128 -110 4 4
81 49 156 103 45 36 92 74 445 217 41 21
3 -47 -55 -104 -110 3 3
77 54 143 106 40 38 80 76 490 257 43 23
2 -29 -53 -74 -112 2 2
70 54 130 121 32 38 66 82 528 298 44 24
1 -9 -50 -27 -91 1 1
81 149 120 217 20 45 32 69 555 339 45 24

Bending Moment in Shear Forces in Axial Forces in


Columns (m-kN) Columns (kN) Columns (kN)

Results of 3-D Analysis under Seismic Forces in N-S


Direction for Wall on Column Line 7
Axial Forces Bending Moment (m – kN) Shear Force
Level (kips) (kN)
Top Bottom
12 0 1296 -3611 632
11 0 5060 -4047 277
10 0 5530 -3273 617
9 0 4818 -1103 1016
8 0 2694 2286 1362
7 0 -672 6841 1686
6 0 -5236 12,523 1992
5 0 -10,970 19,335 2287
4 0 -17,886 27,309 2576
3 0 -26,029 36,538 2873
2 0 -35,502 47,057 3159
1 0 -46,345 63,925 3605

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Story Drift and P-Delta Effects

• Story drift determination

ΔM = 0.7RΔs

Story Drift = ΔM(x) - ΔM(x-1)

Story Drift and P-Delta Effects


Lateral Displacements and Interstory Drifts due to Seismic Forces
in N-S and E-W Directions

N-S Direction E-W Direction


Story
Story Story
Δs ΔM Δs ΔM
Drift Drift
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
12 71.1 323.5 26.8 147.3 567.2 15.4
11 65.2 296.7 28.7 143.3 551.8 23.5
10 58.9 268.0 30.0 137.2 528.2 31.1
9 52.3 238.0 30.9 129.1 497.1 38.2
8 45.5 207.0 31.4 119.2 458.9 44.2
7 38.6 175.6 31.9 107.7 414.7 49.7
6 31.6 143.8 31.4 94.8 365.0 54.2
5 24.7 112.4 29.6 80.7 310.8 58.2
4 18.2 82.8 27.3 65.6 252.6 61.2
3 12.2 55.5 23.7 49.7 191.4 63.6
2 7 31.9 18.2 33.2 127.8 63.1
1 3 13.7 13.7 16.8 64.7 64.7

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Story Drift and P-Delta Effects

The design story drifts must not exceed the


allowable story drift from 1997 UBC 1630.10.2 -
for Occupancy Category II, Δa = 0.020hsx where
hsx is the story height below level x. Thus, for
the 12-ft story heights, Δa = 0.020 × 3.66 × 1000 =
73.2 mm, and for the 4.88-m story height at the
first level, Δa = 97.5 mm. It is evident the limits
are satisfied in both directions.

Story Drift and P-Delta Effects

• P-delta effects

As noted above, P-delta effects were


automatically considered in the analysis
using SAP2000. The provisions of P-delta
effects are given in 1997 UBC 1630.1.3.

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Seismic Details for


Reinforced Concrete Buildings
in Moderate Seismic Applications

S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc.


Palatine, IL
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ACI 318-05 Chapter 21

Applicability of Requirements

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Flexural Members

Beams of Intermediate Moment Frames –


Longitudinal Reinforcement
ρmin = 0.25√f’c/fy, 1.4/fy

εt ≥ 0.004
M-n,r
M-n,l
Sect. 7.13

M+n,l ≥ M-n,l/3 M+n,r ≥ M-n,r/3

M-n or M+n ≥ (max. Mn at either joint)/5

(10.3.5, 10.5.1, 21.12.4.1)

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Beams of Intermediate Moment Frames–


Transverse Reinforcement
d/4
8 × smallest long. bar dia.
s≤
24 × hoop bar dia.
≤ 50 300 mm
mm Hoops Stirrups
h

≥ 2h
s ≤ d/2

Trans. reinf. based on Mn


and factored tributary gravity load

(21.12.3, 21.12.4.2, 21.12.4.3)

Hoop Reinforcement

(≥ 75 mm)

(21.3.3.6)

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Intermediate Moment Frames –


Two-way Slabs
h = slab thickness

½ Middle strip

All reinforcement necessary


Column strip c2 c2 + 3h to resist Ms to be placed in
column strip

½ Middle strip

Reinforcement necessary to resist γfMs


As ≥
Reinforcement in column strip/2
Note: Applies to both top and bottom reinforcement
(21.12.6)

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Banded Column Strip Reinforcement

Longitudinal Reinforcement in
21.10.6.5, 21.10.6.7
Column - of Slab
Strip

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Longitudinal Reinforcement in Middle


Strip of Slab

21.12.6.8 – Shear Strength of Two-


Way Slabs without Beams in
Intermediate Moment Frames
• Slab-column frames are susceptible to
punching-shear failures during
earthquakes if the shear stresses due to
gravity loads are high

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21.12.6.8 – Shear Strength of Two-


Way Slabs without Beams in
Intermediate Moment Frames
• At the critical sections for columns
defined in 11.12.1.2, two-way shear
caused by factored gravity loads shall
not exceed 0.4φVc, where Vc shall be
calculated as defined in 11.12.2.1 for
nonprestressed slabs and 11.12.2.2
for prestressed slabs

21.12.6.8 – Shear Strength of Two-


Way Slabs without Beams in
Intermediate Moment Frames
• It shall be permitted to waive this
requirements if the contribution of the
earthquake-induced factored two-way
shear stress transferred by eccentricity of
shear in accordance with 11.12.6.1 and
11.12.6.2 at the point of maximum stress
does not exceed one-half of the stress φVn
permitted by 11.12.6.2

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Members Subjected to Bending


and Axial Load

Columns of Intermediate Moment


Frames– Transverse Reinforcement
h1
Hoops
Joint reinf.
≤ so/2 per 11.11.2
lo h2

Trans. reinf. based on Mn and


factored tributary gravity load

8 × smallest long. bar dia.


24 × hoop bar dia.
so ≤
0.5 × min. (h1 or h2)
300 mm
Larger of h1 or h2
lo ≥ Clear span/6
s to conform to 7.10 and 11.5.5.1
450 mm

(21.12.3, 21.12.5)

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Design of Typical Structural


Members

S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc.


Palatine, IL

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Typical Plan of Example Building

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m 7.92 m

A
6.71 m 6.71 m

B N

C
6.71 m

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Typical Elevation of Example Building


12

11

10

11 @ 3.66 m = 40.26 m 9

2
4.88 m

Design Data

• Building Location
Dubai (Seismic Zone 2A)

• Material Properties
Concrete: fc’ = 30 MPa, wc = 23.55 KN/m3
Reinforcement: fy = 420 MPa

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Design Data

• Service Loads
Live loads: roof = 957.6 N/m2
floor = 2394 N/m2

Superimposed dead loads:


roof = 478.8 N/m2 + 889.64 KN for
penthouse
floor = 1436.4 N/m2 (957.6 N/m2 permanent
partitions + 478.8 N/m2 ceiling, etc.)

Design Data

• Seismic Design Data


Zone 2A: Z = 0.15
Soil Profile Type: SD (stiff soil profile; UBC
Table 16-J)
For Occupancy Category 4, I = 1.0 (UBC
Table 16-K)

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Design Data

• Member Dimensions

Slab: 205 mm
Beams: 560 × 560 mm
Interior columns: 660 × 660 mm
Edge columns: 610 × 610 mm
Wall thickness: 305 mm

Load Combination
The seismic load effect E for use in the basic strength
design load combinations is the combined effect of
horizontal and vertical earthquake-induced forces. The E for
use in Eq. (9-5) is computed by UBC Eq. 30-1:

E = ρEh + Ev
where
Eh = effect of horizontal seismic forces
Ev = effect of vertical seismic forces
ρ = redundancy factor
= 1.0 for structures in Seismic Zones 1 and 2

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Load Combination

where the effects of gravity and seismic


ground motion are additive:

E = ρ Eh + 0.5 Ca I D

Load Combination

Similarly, where the effects of gravity and


seismic ground motion counteract:

E = Eh - Ev = ρ Eh - 0.5 Ca I D

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Load Combination

Substituting Ca = 0.22 and ρ = 1.0 into the


equations for E, and then substituting E into
Eqs. (12-5) and (12-6) above results in the
following:

U = 1.2D + 0.5L + 1.0Eh + (0.5 × 0.22)D


= 1.31D + 0.5L + Eh

U = 0.9D +1.0 Eh - (0.5 × 0.22)D = 0.79D + Eh

Beam C4 – C5
Summary of Design Bending Moments and Shear Forces for
Beam C4-C5 at the Second Floor Level (SDC C)

Bending Shear
Load Case Location Moment (m-kN) Force (kN)
Dead (D) Support -137.6 104.3
Midspan 94.6
Live (L) Support -37.0 28.0
Midspan 25.4
Wind (W) Support ± 33 ± 2.8
Seismic (QE) support ± 356 ± 98.0

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Beam C4 – C5
Summary of Design Bending Moments and Shear Forces for Beam C4-C5
at the Second Floor Level (SDC C)

Load Location Bending Moment Shear Force


combination (m –KN) (KN)
1.4D Support -192.6 146.0
Midspan 132.4
1.2D + 1.6L Support -224.3 167.0
Midspan 154.2
1.2D + 1.6L + 0.8W Support -251 172
1.2D + 0.5L + 1.6W Support -236 144
0.9D – 1.6W Support -71 89
1.31D + 0.5L + QE Support -555 249
0.79D - QE Support 247 -16

Beam C4 – C5

1. Flexural design
The factored axial load on the member, which
is negligible, is less than Agfc’/10; thus, the
provisions of ACI 21.12.4 for beams must be
satisfied.
All other applicable provisions in Chapters 1
through 18 of ACI 318-05 are to be satisfied as
well.

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Beam C4 – C5
Minimum flexural reinforcement:

0.25 fc′ b w d 0.25 30 × 560 × 495 2


A s, min = = = 914 mm
fy 415

1.4b w d 1.4 × 560 × 495 2


= = = 935 mm (governs)
fy 415

Beam C4 – C5
Maximum flexural reinforcement:

0.85β1fc′ b w d 0.003
A =
s, max fy 0.003 + 0.004

0.85 × 0.85 × 30 × 560 × 495 0.003


= ×
415 0.007
2
= 6204 mm

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Beam C4 – C5
Required Flexural Reinforcement for Beam C4-C5 at the
Second Floor Level (SDC C)

Location Mu As (mm2) Reinforcement φ Mn


(m-kN) (m-kN)
Support - 461.4 3235 5 – No 29 541

1161 3 - No 22 207

Midspan 154.2 1161 3 - No 22 207

Beam C4 – C5

ACI 21.12.4.1: the positive moment


strength at the face of the joint be greater
than or equal to 33% of the negative
moment strength at that location. This is
satisfied, since 207 m-KN > 541/3 = 180.3

m-KN.

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Beam C4 – C5
The negative or positive moment strength at any
section along the length of the member must be
greater than or equal to 20% of the maximum
moment strength provided at the face of either joint.

541/5 = 108.2 m-KN


Providing 2- No. 29 bars ( = 230 m-KN) or 2- No. 22
bars ( = 140 m-KN) satisfies this provision.

Minimum of 2 – No. 29 bars (= 1294 mm2) or 3 – No.


22 bars (= 1161 mm2) must be provided to satisfy
minimum reinforcement requirement of ACI 10.5

Beam C4 – C5

2. Shear design
Shear demand from nominal flexural capacity
Vu = (541 + 207) / 7.26 = 103.03 kN
Shear demand from gravity load
Wu =1.31wD + 0.5wL
= 1.31 × 28.724 + 0.5 × 7.721 = 41.49 kN/m
Vu = wuln / 2 = (41.49 × 7.26) / 2 = 150.61 kN

Vu = 103.03 + 150.61 = 253.64 kN

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Beam C4 – C5
The nominal shear strength provided by
concrete (Vc)

Vc = 0.17 × (fc’)0.5 × bw × d Eq. (11-3)


= 0.17 × (30)0.5 × 560 × 495 / 1000 = 258.1 kN

Beam C4 – C5
Vu (= 253.6 KN) > φVc (0.75 ×258.1 = 193.6 kN)

Provide shear reinforcement in accordance with


ACI 11.5.6. Assuming No. 10 hoops, the required
spacing s is determined by Eq. (11-15):

s = (Av × fy × d) / Vs
= (142 ×415 ×495) / (253,600/0.75 –258,100)
= 364.5 mm

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Beam C4 – C5
ACI 21.12.4.2: the maximum spacing of hoops over
the length 2h = 2 × 560 = 1120 mm from the face of
the support at each end of the member is the
smallest of the following:

(1) d / 4 = 495 / 4 = 123.8 mm (governs)


(2) 8 (diameter of smallest longitudinal bar)
= 8 × 22.2 = 177.6 mm
(3) 24 (diameter of hoop bar) = 24 × 9.5 = 228 mm
(4) 305 mm

Beam C4 – C5
Use 10-No. 10 hoops at each end of the beam
spaced at 120 mm on center with the first
stirrup located 50 mm from the face of the
support.

For the remainder of the beam, the maximum


stirrup spacing is d / 2 = 247.5 (ACI 21.12.4.3).
Use No. 10 stirrups @ 240 mm for the
remainder of the beam.

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Beam C4 – C5

660 mm 660 mm

1830 mm 5-No.29 5-No.29 5-No.29

560 mm

3-No.22
50 mm No.10 hoops @ 240mm

10-No.10 hoops @ 120mm


7264 mm

Design of Column C4 at 2nd Floor


Axial Force Bending Moment Shear Force
Load Case
(kips) (ft-kips) (kips)
Dead (D) 4699 0 0
Live (L) (reduced) 554 0 0
E-W 0 ± 33 ± 6.6
Wind (W)
N-S ± 3.0 ± 41 ± 6.9
Seismic (QE) E-W ± 0.1 ± 351 ± 221
Load Combination
1.4D 6579 0 0
1.2D + 1.6L 6525 0 0
E-W 6525 26 5
1.2D + 1.6L + 0.8W
N-S 6528 33 6
E-W 5916 53 11
1.2D + 0.5L + 1.6W
N-S 5921 66 11
E-W 4229 -53 -11
0.9D – 1.6W
N-S 4224 -66 -11
1.31D + 0.5L + Eh 6433 351 221
0.79D – Eh 3712 -351 -221

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Design of Column C4
Design for Axial Force and Bending
Based on the governing load combinations in the
table, a 660 × 660 mm column with 12-No. 32 bars
(ρg = 2.25%) is adequate for column C4 supporting
the second floor level. The interaction diagram for
this column is given below. Slenderness effects need
not be considered, since P-delta effects were
included in the analysis. Also, the provided
reinforcement ratio is within the allowable range of
1% and 8% (ACI 10.9.1).

Design of Column C4
16000

14000

12000
Axial Force (kN)

10000

8000

6000

4000

2000

0
0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000

Bending Moment (m-kN)

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Design of Column C4
ACI 7.6.3 requires that the clear distance between
longitudinal bars shall not be less than

1.5db = 1.5 × 32.3 = 48.5 mm

nor 40mm. In this case, assuming No. 10 hoops and


ties, the clear distance is equal to the following:

⎛ 32.3 ⎞
660 − 2⎜ 40 + 9.5 + ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠
− 32.3 = 143.9 mm > 48.5 mm O.K.
3

Design of Column C4
Design for Shear

Columns in intermediate moment frames must satisfy


the shear requirements in ACI 21.12.3. The first of the
two options in that section is utilized here to
determine the design shear strength:

The sum of the shear associated with development of


nominal moment strengths of the member at each
restrained end of the clear span and the shear
calculated for the factored gravity loads

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Design of Column C4
Design for Shear

Because the column is at the 2nd floor, and the


moment at any column end cannot exceed the
average of the nominal moment strengths of the
beams framing into that end, shear demand from the
seismic forces is calculated from the nominal flexural
strengths of the beams.

Design of Column C4
Design for Shear

Vu = (541+207)/3.1 + 0 = 241.3 kN > 221 kN

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Design of Column C4
Design for Shear
The shear capacity of the column will be checked in
accordance with ACI Eq. (11-4) for members subjected to
axial compression:

⎛ Nu ⎞⎟
Vc = 0.17⎜ 1 + fc′ b w d
⎜ 14 A g ⎟⎠

⎛ 3712000 ⎞
= 0.17⎜⎜ 1 + ⎟⎟ 30 × 660 × 538 / 1000 = 531.9 kN
⎝ 14 × 6602 ⎠

where Nu = 3712 kN is the smallest axial force corresponding


to the largest shear force on the section (see Table) and d =
538 mm was obtained from a strain compatibility analysis.

Design of Column C4
Design for Shear

Since Vu > ΦVc/2 = 0.75x531.9/2 = 199.5 kN, by ACI 318-05


Section 11.5.6.1, minimum transverse reinforcement
would be required.

0.062 fc′ b w s
A v,min =
fyt

With No. 10 hoops with one cross-tie, Av = 213 mm2


=> s = 394.4 mm > d/2 = 269 mm (ACI 318 11.5.5.1)
Thus, srequired = 269 mm

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Design of Column C4
Design for Shear

For intermediate moment frames, the


requirements in ACI 21.12.5.1 aims primarily to
confine the concrete within the core and provide
lateral support for the longitudinal
reinforcement.

Design of Column C4
ACI 21.12.5.1:
For No. 10 rectangular hoops, the vertical spacing s0
must not exceed the smallest of the following :

• 8 (smallest longitudinal bar diameter) = 8 × 32.3 = 258.4 mm


• 24 (hoop bar diameter) = 24 × 9.5 = 228 mm (governs)
• Least column dimension/2 = 660/2 = 330 mm
• 300 mm

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Design of Column C4
ACI 21.12.5.1:
The governing s0 = 228mm must be provided over a
length l0 measured from the joint face, where l0 is the
largest of the following:

• Clear span/6 = [3657 - 560]/6 = 516.2 mm


• Maximum cross-sectional dimension of member = 660
mm (governs)
• 450 mm

Design of Column C4
ACI 21.12.5.1:
Use 4-No. 10 hoops and crossties @ 220 mm with the
first hoop located at 100 mm (< s0/2 = 114 mm; ACI
21.12.5.3) from the joint face above the first floor level
and below the second floor level.

For the remainder of the column, tie spacing shall


conform to ACI 7.10 and 11.5.5.1. In this case, ACI
11.5.5.1 governs. Use a tie spacing of 250 mm in this
region of the column.

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Design of Column C4
Joint Reinforcement:
ACI 21.12.5.5 requires that joint reinforcement in
intermediate moment frames conform to ACI 11.11.2.
Since this beam-column joint is part of the primary
seismic-force-resisting system, lateral reinforcement in
the joint must not be less than that computed by Eq. (11-
13). For No. 10 hoops with one crosstie, the required
spacing is:

A v fyt (3 × 71) × 415


s= = = 394.4 mm
0.062 fc′ b w 0.062 30 × 660

Design of Column C4
Joint Reinforcement:

For simpler detailing, continue the 220 mm


spacing at the column ends through the joint.

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Design of Column C4

Shear wall B7 – C7
Summary of Design Axial Forces, Bending Moments, and
Shear Forces at Base of Shear Wall on Line 7 (SDC C)

Axial Bending Shear


Load Case Moment
Force (kN) Forces (kN)
(m-kN)
Dead (D) 11,951 0 0
Live (L) 1189 0 0
Wind (W) 0 ± 20,045 ± 1438
Seismic (QE) 0 ± 63,925 ± 3604

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Shear wall B7 – C7
Summary of Design Axial Forces, Bending Moments, and
Shear Forces at Base of Shear Wall on Line 7 (SDC C)
Axial Bending Shear
Load combination Force Moment Force
(kN) (m-kN) (kN)
1.4D 16,731 0 0

1.2D + 1.6L 16,244 0 0

1.2D + 1.6L + 0.8W 16,244 16,036 1150

1.2D +0.5L + 1.6W 14,936 32,072 2301

0.9D – 1.6W 10,756 -32,072 - 2301

1.31D + 0.5L + QE 16,250 63,925 3604

0.79D - QE 9441 -63,925 -3604

Shear wall B7 – C7
1. Shear design

The shear strength of the concrete for wall


subjected to axial compression (ACI 11.10.5)

Vc = 0.17 (fc’)0.5 h d
= 0.17 × (30)0.5 × 305 × 5892.8 /1000 = 1673.5 kN

where d = 0.8 lw (= 0.8 × 7366 = 5892.8 mm)

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Shear wall B7 – C7
Since φVc (0.75 × 1673.5 = 1255.1 kN) < Vu (= 3604
kN), horizontal shear reinforcement shall be
provided in accordance with ACI 11.10.9.

Required bar spacing with 2 layers of No. 13:


s = (Av fy d) / Vs = (254 × 415 × 5892.8) / (3,604,000 /
0.75-1,673,500) = 198.3 mm

Note: ACI 14.3.4 requires two layers of


reinforcement for walls more than 250 mm thick

Shear wall B7 – C7
ACI 11.10.9.3: spacing of horizontal reinforcement
shall not exceed (1) lw/5 = 7336/5 =1473.2 mm, (2) 3h
= 3 × 305 = 915 mm, or (3) 450 mm.

ACI 11.10.9.2: ratio of horizontal shear


reinforcement shall not be less than 0.0025

For 2-No.13 horizontal bar spaced at 450 mm:


ρt = (2 ×127) / (305 ×200) = 0.0042 > 0.0025 O.K.

Therefore, use 2-No.13 horizontal bar @ 200 mm

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Shear wall B7 – C7
ACI 11.10.3: Shear strength Vn at any
horizontal section must be less than or equal
to 0.83 (fc’)0.5 h d (= 8170.7 kN). In this case,

V n = Vc + Vs
= 1673.5 + (254 × 415 × 5892.8) / 330
= 1883.9 kN < 8170.7 kN O.K.

Shear wall B7 – C7
ACI 11.10.9.4: The ratio of vertical shear
reinforcement area to gross concrete area of
horizontal section shall not be less than 0.0025 not
the value obtained by Eq. (11-32).

ρl = 0.0025 + 0.5 (2.5 – hw / lw) (ρt - 0.0025)


= 0.0025 + 0.5 (2.5 – 45 / 7.366) (0.0042 – 0.0025)
< 0.0025

Thus, ρl = 0.0025

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Shear wall B7 – C7
ACI 11.10.9.5: spacing of vertical shear
reinforcement shall not exceed (1) lw/3 (= 7366/3
= 2455.3 mm), (2) 3h (= 3 × 305 = 915 mm), or (3)
450 mm (governs).

For 2 – No. 13 vertical bar spaced at 330 mm,


ρl = (2 ×127) / (305 ×330) = 0.00252 > 0.0025 O.K.

Use 2-No.13 vertical bars @ 330 mm

Shear wall B7 – C7
The provided vertical and horizontal
reinforcement satisfy the requirements of
ACI 14.3.2 and 14.3.3 for minimum ratio of
vertical and horizontal reinforcement to gross
concrete area, respectively, and ACI 14.3.5 for
maximum bar spacing.

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Shear wall B7 – C7
2. Axial force and bending design
ACI 14.4 requires that walls subjected to axial load
or combined flexure and axial load shall be
designed as compression members in accordance
with ACI 10.2, 10.3, 10.10 through 10.14, 10.17,
14.2, and 14.3 unless the empirical design method
of ACI 14.5 or the alternative design method of
ACI 14.8 can be used. Clearly, both of these
methods cannot be applied in this case, and the
wall is designed in accordance with ACI 14.4.

Shear wall B7 – C7
80000

70000

60000
Axial Force (kN)

50000

40000

30000

20000

10000

0
0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000

Bending Moment (m-kN)

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Shear wall B7 – C7

For more information…

www.skghoshassociates.com

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Code Support Services, Code


Change Process, and Plan
Review

Code Support Services

™ Publications
™ Seminars
™ Interpretations
™ Plan Review Services
™ Evaluation Services

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Code Support Services: Publications

Code Support Services: Publications

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Code Support Services: Publications


1999 Recommended Lateral Force Requirements / Commentary
(SEAOC Blue Book)

This book reviews recommended provisions


for earthquake-resistant design of structures.
Highlights include design requirements,
structural tests and inspections,
foundations, and recommended
modifications to the 1997 UBC for reinforced
concrete, reinforced masonry, structural
steel, and wood.

http://www.iccsafe.org/dyn/prod/9006S99.html

Code Support Services: Publications


Handbook to the 1997 Uniform Building Code

The handbook is a completely detailed and


illustrated commentary on the 1997 Uniform
Building Code, tracing historical background
and rationale of the codes through the 1997
edition. The book contains numerous
drawings and figures to clarify the application
and intent of the code provisions. It is an
essential reference for every building official,
fire marshal, architect and engineer.

http://www.iccsafe.org/dyn/prod/6074S97.html

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Code Support Services: Publications

Code Support Services: Publications

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Code Support Services: Publications

Code Support Services: Seminars

Company/Organization Website
S.K. Ghosh Associates Inc www.skghoshassociates.com
American Society of Civil www.seinstitute.com
Engineers/ Structural
Engineering Institute
International Code Council www.iccsafe.org
National Council of Structural www.ncsea.com
Engineers Associations

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Code Support Services:


Interpretations
ICC Technical Assistance

• Staff Opinions
• Committee Interpretations (not for time-
sensitive issues)

www.iccsafe.org/cs/questions/index.html

Code Support Services:


Interpretations

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Code Support Services:


Plan Review Services

www.iccsafe.org/cs/techservices/#pr

Code Support Services:


Evaluation Services

The Code Official’s Technical


Source for Approving New
and Innovative Building
Products

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Code Support Services:


Evaluation Services
Find the Most Current Reports
Online: http://www/icc-es.org

Code Support Services:


Evaluation Services
• Click on the
Evaluation Reports
tab

• Search by
» Product
» Manufacturer
» Report
» Number

• No cost to access

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Code Change Process

1997 UBC

2000 IBC
2001 Supplement
2002 Accumulative Supplement

2003 IBC

Code Change Process

2003 IBC (18 month cycle began)


2004 Supplement

2006 IBC
2007 Supplement

2009 IBC (expected release date:


2/1/09)

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Code Changes
Submitted

Code Changes Supplement Or New


Printed & Distributed Edition Published

Code Development Final Action


I-CODE DEVELOPMENT
Hearing CYCLE Hearing

Public Hearing Results Public Comments


Printed & Distributed Printed & Distributed

Public Comments
Sought on Public
Hearing Results

ICC Code Change Process

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Code Change Process

• All aspects of the ICC Code


Development Process regulated by
published procedures

• Council Policy (CP) 28 – Code


Development

• Website link:
» http://www.iccsafe.org/news/about/bylaws
.html

Code Change Process


Steps in a Typical 18 month cycle
• Code changes due. Announcement posted on the
website and other media. Anyone can submit a
code change

• Staff review
» Form and format: Legislative format
» Proposals must be based on current text
• Publish
» Website: Approx. 90 days prior to Code Development
Hearing
» Published: Approx. 60 days prior to Code Development
Hearing

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Code Change Process

WEBCASTING:
• Debut at 2002 Code Development
Hearings

• Followed up in all subsequent hearings

• Streaming video and audio

• Internet access on your PC

Code Change Process


• Adopted by reference in the IBC.

• Developed through ANSI-


accredited consensus process

• Committee balanced and


composed of producers,
consumers and regulators.

• Committee ballots revisions.

• Public comment period.

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Code Change Process


• Next edition is ASCE 7-10
which will be adopted in 2012
IBC.

• 2009 IBC will adopt ASCE 7-05.

• ASCE 7-05 has two


supplements
» Supplement No. 1
» Supplement No. 2

• www.seinstitute.org

Structural Plan Review

Chapter 16: Structural Design Requirements

Chapter 17: Structural Tests and


Inspections

Chapter 18: Foundations and Retaining


Walls

Chapter 19: Concrete

Chapter 20: Lightweight Metals

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Structural Plan Review

Chapter 21: Masonry

Chapter 22: Steel

Chapter 23: Wood

Chapter 24: Glass and Glazing

Chapter 25: Gypsum Board and Plaster

Structural Plan Review

Step 1: Become familiar with project.

Step 2: Complete structural review.

Step 3: Write review.

Step 4: Critique review.

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Structural Plan Review

Step 1: Become familiar with project.

• Specifications

• Calculations

• Soils Report

• Plans

Structural Plan Review


Step 2: Complete structural review.

• Identify structural systems and load paths

• Determine loads.

• Check structural members for load effects.

• Check plans and details for clarity and


conformity with detailed code requirements
based on material of construction.

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Structural Plan Review

Step 3: Write review

• Use checklist.

• Organize comments.

• Provide references: code sections,


plan details, sections, grid lines,
calculations pages, etc.

Structural Plan Review

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Structural Plan Review

Step 4: Critique review.

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Overview of the Seismic Design


Provisions of the 2006 International
Building Code

S. K. Ghosh Associates Inc.


Palatine, IL

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Seismic Design Provisions


IBC Section 1613,
ASCE 7 Chapters 11-23
excluding Chapter 14 and Appendix
11A

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ASCE 7-05 Chapters 11-23:


Seismic Design
• ASCE 7-02 seismic provisions have been
completely reformatted and reorganized.
• Much improved document that should be
easier to use and result in more correct and
uniform application of seismic requirements.

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ASCE 7-05 Figure 11.4-1: Design


Response Spectrum

IBC Design Ground Motion


• SS = mapped (MCE) spectral response
acceleration at short periods for Site Class B
• S1 = mapped (MCE) spectral response acceleration
at 1.0-second period for Site Class B
• ASCE 7 Figs. 22-1 through 22-20/ IBC Figs.
1613.5(1) through 1613.5(14) give contour maps
for SS and S1, based on the latest version of USGS
seismic hazard maps
• SS and S1 also available at
http://eqhazmaps.usgs.gov

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Soil Classification

A. Hard Rock
B. Rock
C. Very dense soil or soft rock
D. Stiff soil
E. Soft soil
F. Soils requiring site-specific
evaluations

Soil Classification

• Site Class D must be used when the


soil properties are not known in
sufficient detail, unless the building
official determines that Site Class E or
F is likely to be present at the site

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Values of Fa as Function of Site


Conditions and Shaking Intensity
SOIL SHAKING INTENSITY
PROFILE SS ≤ SS = SS = SS = SS ≥
TYPE 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25

A 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

B 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

C 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.0

D 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0

E 2.5 1.7 1.2 0.9 0.9

F a a a a a

Values of Fv as Function of Site


Conditions and Shaking Intensity
SOIL SHAKING INTENSITY
PROFILE S1 = S1 = S1 = S1 ≥
S1 ≤ 0.1
TYPE 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

A 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

B 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

C 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3

D 2.4 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.5

E 3.5 3.2 2.8 2.4 2.4

F a a a a a

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IBC Design Ground Motion

• SMS = soil-modified MCE spectral response


acceleration at short periods
= FaSS
• SM1 = soil-modified MCE spectral response
acceleration at 1.0-second period
= FvS1

IBC Ground Motion

• SDS = design spectral response


acceleration at short periods
= (2/3) SMS
• SD1 = design spectral response
acceleration at 1.0-second period
= (2/3) SM1

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IBC Ground Motion

• Maximum Considered Earthquake


(MCE)
– Maximum level of earthquake ground
shaking that is considered reasonable to
design buildings to resist

IBC Ground Motion

• Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE):


» Deterministic earthquakes (in coastal
California)- best estimate of ground motion
from maximum magnitude earthquakes on
seismic faults with high probabilities of
occurrence.

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IBC Ground Motion

• Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE)


– 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years
(approximately 2,500 year return period) where
deterministic approach is not used

ASCE 7-05 Figure 11.4-1: Design


Response Spectrum

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TL Map of Contiguous USA

Design Basis: IBC vs. UBC

• Design to avoid collapse in the


Maximum Considered Earthquake,
rather than to provide life safety in
the 500-year return period
earthquake

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1997 UBC Fig. 16-3


Design Response Spectra

Correspondence between Ground Motion


Parameters of the UBC and the IBC

Ca/Z of 1997 UBC = Fa of NEHRP/IBC


Cv/Z of 1997 UBC = Fv of NEHRP/IBC

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Correlation of Ground Motion


Parameters

SDS = 2.5Ca SD1 = Cv


(2/3)FaSS = 2.5ZNaFa (2/3)FvS1 = ZNvFv
SS = (1.5)ZNa(2.5) S1 = (1.5)ZNv

Z ≥ 0.4g Z ≥ 0.4g
SDS = 1.00NaFa SD1 = 0.4NvFv
(1.00Na for Site Class B) (0.4Nv for Site Class B)
SS = 1.50Nag S1 = 0.6Nvg

Design Spectrum

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UBC Seismic Zones

SDC Based on Short Period Response Acceleration


– IBC

OCCUPANCY
Values of SDS CATEGORY
I or II III IV
SDS < 0.167 g A A A
0.167g < SDS < 0.33g B B C

0.33g < SDS < 0.50g C C D


0.50g < SDS Da Da Da

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SDC Based on 1 sec. Period Response


Acceleration – IBC

OCCUPANCY
Values of SD1 CATEGORY
I or II III IV
SD1 < 0.067g A A A
0.067g < SD1 < 0.133g B B C

0.133g < SD1 < 0.20g C C D

0.20g < SD1 Da Da Da

SDC of IBC
(Note a)
OCCUPANCY
Value of S1 CATEGORY

I or II III IV

S1 ≥ 0.75g E E F

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ASCE 7-05 Section 11.6 Determination of


Seismic Design Category
Can be based on SDS alone, provided
• S1 < 0.75
• Ta < 0.8Ts
• T used to calculate story drift < Ts
• Upper-bound design base shear is used in
design
• Diaphragms are rigid, or for diaphragms
that are flexible, vertical elements of
seismic-force-resisting system spaced at
< 40 ft

Areas with S1 > 0.75g

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Ts = SD1/SDS

SDC of 2006 IBC vs.


Seismic Zone of 1997 UBC
97 UBC 2006 IBC
LOCATION SITE CLASS
Zone
A B C D E
Tucson, AZ 2B A B (B) B B C
Little Rock, AK 1 B C (C) C D (C) D
Chico, CA 3 B C D (C) D D
Fresno, CA 3 B C D (C) D (C) D
Sacramento, CA 3 B C D (C) D D
Honolulu, HI 2A B C (C) C D D
Indianapolis, IN 1 A A B (A) C (B) C (B)
Wichita, KS 1 A A A B (A) B
Kansas City,
2A A A A B (A) C (B)
MO

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SS ≤ 0.15g and S1 ≤ 0.04g

ASCE 7-05 11.7 Design Requirements for


SDC A
11.7.2 Minimum Lateral Force

Fx = 0.01wx 0.01wr
wr

w3
0.01w3

w2
0.01w2

w1
0.01w1

V = 0.01(w1 + w2 + w3 + wr)

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ASCE 7-05 11.7 Design


Requirements for SDC A

11.7.3 Load Path Connections


11.7.4 Connection to Supports
11.7.5 Anchorage of Concrete or
Masonry Walls

ASCE 7-05 12.8.1


Design Base Shear
V = CS W
S D1 S
CS = ≤ DS for T ≤ TL
(R/I)T (R/I)
S T
= 2D1 L for T > TL
T (R/I)
≥ 0.01
0.5S 1
≥ where S1 ≥ 0.6g
(R/I)

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ASCE 7-05 12.8 Equivalent Lateral


Force Procedure
SDS W
V=
R /I

SD1 W
V=
(R / I)T

0.5S1 W
V= , whereS1 ≥ 0.6g
R /I

SD1TL W
V=
(R / I)T 2

V = 0.01W

Ts = SD1/SDS Period, T TL

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Concrete Structural Systems in


ASCE 7-05 - SDC D, E, F
CONCRETE STRUCTURAL Height limit
R Ω0 Cd
SYSTEMS - SDC D, E, and F D E F
MOMENT RESISTING FRAME
SYSTEM using 8 3 5½ NL NL NL
Special Moment Frames of RC
(SMF)

DUAL SYSTEM using


Special RC Shear Walls w/ SMF 7 2½ 5½ NL NL NL
Special RC Shear Walls w/ IMF 6½ 2½ 5 160 100 100
BUILDING FRAME SYSTEM
WITH OMF OF RC using 6 2½ 5 160 160 100
Special RC Shear walls
BEARING WALL SYSTEM
using 5 2½ 5 160 160 160
Special RC Shear Walls

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Structure Period

Calculated by……
1) Approximate Formulae

2) Rational Analysis using


structural properties and
deformational characteristics
of resisting elements in a
properly substantiated
analysis

ASCE 7-05 12.8.2.1 Approximate


Fundamental Period

Ta = Cr hnx

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ASCE 7-05 Table 12.8-2


Values of Approximate Period
Parameters Ct and x
Structure Type Ct x
Moment resisting frame systems of steel in
which the frames resist 100 percent of the
required seismic force and are not 0.028
enclosed or adjoined by more rigid (For SI: 0.8
components that will prevent the frames 0.068)
from deflecting when subjected to seismic
forces
Moment resisting frame systems of
reinforced concrete in which the frames
resist 100 percent of the required seismic 0.016
force and are not enclosed or adjoined by (For SI: 0.9
more rigid components that will prevent 0.044)
the frames from deflecting when subjected
to seismic forces

ASCE 7-05 Table 12.8-2


Values of Approximate Period
Parameters Ct and x (cont’d)
Structure Type Ct x

0.03
Eccentrically braced steel frames (For SI: 0.75
0.07)

0.02
All other structural systems (For SI: 0.75
0.055)

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Upper Limit on T by "Rational


Analysis"
Table 12.8-1 (ASCE 7-05)
Coefficient for Upper Limit on Calculated Period

Design Spectral Response


Coefficient Cu
Acceleration (SD1)

≥ 0.4 1.4
0.3 1.4
0.2 1.5
0.15 1.6
0.1 1.7
≤ 0.05 1.7

Note: For drift analysis, upper limit on calculated T does


not apply (Section 12.8.6.2)

ASCE 7-05 12.8.3 Vertical


Distribution of Seismic Forces

wxhxk
Fx = V
Σ wihik

k = 1 for T ≤ 0.5 sec


k = 2 for T ≥ 2.5 sec

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Horizontal Shear Distribution

For rigid diaphragms, the seismic design


story shear shall be distributed to the
various vertical elements of the seismic-
force-resisting system in the story under
consideration based on the relative lateral
stiffnesses of the vertical resisting
elements and the diaphragm.

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Accidental Torsion

Where diaphragms are not flexible, in


addition to the torsional moment, the
design also shall include accidental
torsional moments caused by assumed
displacement of the center of mass each
way from the actual location by a distance
equal to 5 percent of the dimension in the
direction of applied forces.

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Story Drift

• Δ = δx − δx-1 < Δa
δx = Cd δxe / I

Cd = deflection amplification factor

Allowable Story Drift (Δa )


ASCE 7-05 Table 12.12-1
Building Occupancy Category

I or II III IV

Buildings ≤ 4 stories in
height;other than masonry;
Non-structural elements 0.025hsx 0.020hsx 0.015hsx
designed to accommodate
story drift

Masonry cantilever shear wall 0.010hsx 0.010hsx 0.010hsx


buildings

Other masonry shear walls 0.007hsx 0.007hsx 0.007hsx


buildings

All other buildings 0.020hsx 0.015hsx 0.010hsx


hsx = Story height below level x

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Load Combinations

• Basic Load • Special Load


E = ρQE + 0.2SDSD Em = Ω0QE +
0.2SDSD

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Load Combinations

• Basic LRFD • Basic ASD

1.2D + 1.0E + f1L + f2S 0.6D + 0.7E

0.9D + 1.0E D + 0.7E + L + (Lr or S or


R)

• Special • Alternate Basic ASD

1.2D + f1L + Em D + L + S + E/1.4

0.9D + Em 0.9D + E/1.4

Section 12.3.4.2
Redundancy Factor, ρ, for Seismic
Design Categories D through F

• New redundancy provisions adopted into ASCE


7-05.
• Lack of redundancy is….. when failure of a
component is failure of entire system.
• Logical way to determine lack of redundancy is
to check whether a component’s failure results
in an unacceptable amount of story strength
loss or in the development of extreme torsional
irregularity.

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Section 12.3.4.2
Redundancy Factor, ρ, for Seismic
Design Categories D through F

In ASCE 7-05, ρ = 1.0 or 1.3, depending on


whether or not an individual element can be
removed from the lateral-force-resisting-
system without:
• Causing the remaining structure to suffer a
reduction of story strength of more than
33%, or
• Creating an extreme torsional irregularity.

Section 12.3.4.2
Redundancy Factor, ρ, for Seismic
Design Categories D through F

2nd condition for which ρ = 1.0:

If structure is regular in plan and there are at least 2


bays of seismic force-resisting perimeter framing
on each side of the structure in each orthogonal
direction at each story resisting > 35% of the
base shear.

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Section 12.3.4.2
Redundancy Factor, ρ, for Seismic
Design Categories D through F

ρ = 1.0 for the following:


1. Structures assigned to SDC B and C.
2. Drift calculation and P-delta effects.
3. Design of nonstructural components.
4. Design of nonbuilding structures, not
similar to buildings.

Section 12.3.4.2
Redundancy Factor, ρ, for Seismic
Design Categories D through F(cont.)
ρ = 1.0 for the following:
5. Design of collector elements, splices and their
connections for which load combinations with
overstrength are used.
6. Design of members or connections where load
combinations with overstrength are required for design.
7. Diaphragm loads determined using Eq. 12.10-1.
8. Structures with damping systems designed in
accordance with Chapter 18.

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