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Module 8

Routing Table: A Closer Look

Objectives
• Describe the various route types found in the routing
table structure
• Describe the route lookup process
• Describe the routing behavior in routed networks

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The Routing Table Structure

Lab Topology

RIPv2

Static route

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Routing Table Entries R2 routing table • Notice that the 172.0/24 subnets have a combination of all three types of routing sources: – Directly connected networks – C – Static routes – S – Dynamic routing protocols – R 5 .0.16.

we will discuss all routes as one of two levels: level 1 or level 2.Route’s Levels • • • The Cisco IP routing table is not a flat database Cisco IP routing table is a hierarchical structure that is used to speed up lookup process when locating routes and forwarding packets. 6 . For simplicity.

0/0 – Supernet Route: 192. Level 1 Route Examples: – Default route: 0.0/22 – Network Route: 192.0. Major network) The source of the level 1 route can be a directly connected network. or a dynamic routing protocol 7 .168.0.0/24 (ie.Level 1 Routes • • • A level 1 route is a route with a subnet mask equal to or less than the classful mask of the network address. static route.0.168.1.

Level 1 Routes • An ultimate route is a route that includes: – Either a next-hop IP address (another path) – And/or an exit interface 8 .

Parent and Child Routes: Classful Network 9 .

Parent and Child Routes: Classful Network Routing Table: Parent/Child Relationship • • A level 1 parent route is a network route that does not contain a next-hop IP address or exit interface for any network (not an ultimate route) A level 2 route is a route that is a subnet of a classful network address. 10 .

Parent and Child Routes: Classful Network Level 2 child routes are also considered ultimate routes because they will contain the next-hop IP address and/or exit interface. 11 .

Parent and Child Routes: Classful Network R2 Routing Table: Parent/Child Relationship 2 Ultimate Route 12 .

Parent and Child Routes: Classless Network Level 1 Parent Route Level 2 Child Route 13 .

Parent and Child Routes: Classless Network .

Routing Table Lookup Process .

Steps in the Route Lookup Process 16 .

1.0/24. 172.0.16.3. neither R1 nor R2 has a route to 172.16.16.0/24. 17 .0/24.16.4. or 172.Steps in the Route Lookup Process Because of discontigous network.2. R3 does not have routes to subnets 172.

Steps in the Route Lookup Process .

Steps in the Route Lookup Process .

Steps in the Route Lookup Process .

Steps in the Route Lookup Process .

Steps in the Route Lookup Process .

Steps in the Route Lookup Process .

Steps in the Route Lookup Process .

Steps in the Route Lookup Process .

Steps in the Route Lookup Process .

Steps in the Route Lookup Process .

Steps in the Route Lookup Process .

29 .Longest Match: Level 1 Network Routes • The best match or longest match is the route in the routing table that has the most number of left-most matching bits with the destination IP address of the packet.

for the best match with the destination address (192.2) of the IP packet 30 .168.1.Longest Match: Level 1 Network Routes Step 1: Examines level 1 routes. including network routes and supernet routes.

0.16.Longest Match: Level 1 Network Routes 172.0/16 Level 1 Parent Route 31 .

Longest Match: Level 1 Network Routes 32 .

33 .Longest Match: Level 1 Parent & Level 2 Child Routes Before any level 2 child routes are examined for a match. there must first be a match between the classful address of the level 1 parent route and the destination IP address of the packet.

proceed to Step 2 Step 2: The router examines child routes (the subnet routes) of the parent route for a best match Step 2a: There is a match with a level 2 child route. 34 .Longest Match: Level 1 Parent & Level 2 Child Routes Step 1b: The best match is a level 1 parent route. that subnet will be used to forward the packet.

Longest Match: Level 1 Parent & Level 2 Child Routes First 16 bits match parent route First 24 bits do not match -> skip 35 .

Routing Behavior .

In today's networks. 37 . it is recommended to use classless routing behavior so that supernet and default routes can be used whenever needed.Classful & Classless Routing Behavior Routing Protocols vs Routing Behaviors • • Classful and classless routing behaviors are independent from classful and classless routing protocols.

Classful & Classless Routing Behavior 38 .

terminate the lookup process and drop the packet. 39 .Classful Routing Behavior: no ip classless Classful: Drop packet Step 3: Is the router implementing classful or classless routing behavior? Step 3a: If classful routing behavior is in effect.

3.Classful Routing Behavior: no ip classless Prior to IOS 11. 40 . no ip classless was the default behavior for Cisco routers.

Classful Routing Behavior: Search Process R2 now check the child route First 24 bits do not match -> skip 41 .

Classful Routing Behavior – Search Process 42 .

Classless Routing Behavior: ip classless • All routers are configured with the ip classless command. R1(config)#ip classless R2(config)#ip classless R3(config)#ip classless • Classless routing behavior works well for discontiguous networks and CIDR supernets 43 .

including the default route. Step 3b: If classless routing behavior is in effect.Steps in the Route Lookup Process Step 3: Classful or classless routing behavior? Step 3a: If classful routing behavior is in effect. continue searching level 1 supernet routes in the routing table for a match. if there is one. 44 . terminate the lookup process and drop the packet.

the router uses that route to forward the packet.Steps in the Route Lookup Process Step 4: If there is now a lesser match with a level 1 supernet or default routes. 45 . Step 5: If there is not a match with any route in the routing table. the router drops the packet.

Classless Routing Behavior: Search Process R2 now check the child route First 24 bits do not match -> skip 46 .

Classless Routing Behavior – Search Process 47 .

Good luck with this module! .