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You are on page 1of 39

M ATHEMATICS IN I NDIA :

F ROM V EDIC PERIOD TO M ODERN TIMES

Lecture 20

L¯ıl¯

avat¯ı of Bh¯

askar¯

ac¯

arya I

M. S. Sriram

University of Madras, Chennai.

Outline

◮

**Introduction, Importance of L¯ıl¯
**

avat¯ı

◮

**Arithmetical operations: Inversion method, rule of
**

supposition

◮

Solution of quadratic equations

◮

Mixtures

◮

Combinations, progressions.

◮

Plane figures: Application of Right Triangles.

Introduction

Bh¯asakar¯

ac¯arya: Perhaps the most well known name among the

ancient Indian astronomer-mathematicians. Designated as

Bh¯askara-II to differentiate him from his earlier namesake, who

lived in the seventh century CE (Bh¯

askara-I).

According to his own statement in his Gol¯

adhy¯

aya, was born in

saka 1036 or 1114 CE. He also adds that he came from

Vijjalav¯ıda near the Sahy¯

adri mountain. → Bijapur? S.B. Dixit →

Bh¯askara’s original home was P¯

at.an in (Kh¯

ande´s) → Inscription

lists his grandfather, father, son and grandson: Manoratha,

Mahe´svara, Laks.m¯ıdhara, Cangadeva respectively.

Bh¯askara’s L¯ıl¯

avat¯ı :A standard work of Indian Mathematics: Pat¯ı

or Pat¯ıgan.ita: elementary mathematics covering arithmetic,

algebra, geometry and mensuration. Still used as a textbook in

Sanskrit institutions in India. Composed around 1150 CE.

**Commentaries and other works
**

Many commentaries: Parame´svara (about 1430), Gan.es.a

(Buddhivil¯

asin¯ı) (1545), S¯

uryad¯

asa, Mun¯ı´svara (about 1635), and

R¯

amakr.s.n.a (1687). According to R. C. Gupta, a well known

historian of Indian mathematics, the best traditional commentary

´ nkara

is Kriy¯

akramakar¯ı (C. 1534) of Sa

˙

V¯ariyar and

Mahis.amangala

˙

N¯ar¯

ayan.a (who compiled this after the demise of

´ nkara).

Sa

˙

Number of commentaries and versions in regional

languages, Kannada, Telugu, etc., Three Persian translations

are known: Abul-Fayd Faydi (1587 CE). My lectures based on

Colebrook’s translation (1817) reprinted along with the original

Sanskrit text and commentaries with notes by H. C. Banerji.

Others works of Bh¯askara: B¯ıjagan.ita (Algebra), one of the most

important treatises on Indian algebra. Siddh¯

anta´siroman. i:

comprising Grahagan. ita and Gol¯

adhy¯

aya also very popular.

Other work Karan.akut¯

uhala (epoch 1183 CE).

Operations of arithmatic

L¯ıl¯

avat¯ı : Rules and Examples in about 270 Verses.

Chapter 1 on weights and measures, money denominations.

Numeration upto 1014 .

Eight operations of arithmetic.

i) Addition and subtraction

ii) Multiplication

a) a1 . . . an × B. Multiply an by A, an−1 by A etc. and add (taking

into account place values).

b) A(b + c) = Ab + Ac.

B

c) A × B = Ax × , where x is a factor of B.

x

d) ab = a(b ± c ∓ c) = a(b ± c) ∓ ac.

iii Division: Remove common factors.

**Squaring , Square roots etc.
**

Verses 18-19. Squaring

i)

(a1 + · · · an )2

=

a2n + 2an (a1 + · · · + an−1 )

+a2n−1 + 2an−1 (a1 + · · · + an−2 )

+···

+a22 + 2a2 a1

+a21 .

ii) (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b 2 .

iii) a2 = (a + b)(a − b) + b 2 .

Verses 21-22: Square root and example.

Verses 23-26: Cube and example.

Verse 27-28: Cube root: Standard Indian method.

**Multipulation with fractions
**

a c

ad cb

, =

,

for addition, subtraction etc.,

b d

bd db

Verse 32-33:

Fractions:

c

a

× × ··· =

b d

a

c

a e a

c

a

+

+ × +

+ ×

b d

b

f b d

b

=

Division of fractions.

a

b

c

d

=

ad

bc

ac...

bd ....

g ha

h b

+

c

a e

× + (

d

b

f

i

) ...

a(d + c)(e + f )(g + h) . . .

bdfh . . .

**Operations with zero
**

Verses 44-45 :

ya;ea;gea KMa [ea;pa;sa;mMa va;ga;Ra;d;Ea KMa Ka;Ba;a;Æa:$a;ta;ea .=+a;
a;ZaH Á

Ka;h:=.H .~ya;a;t,a Ka;gua;NaH KMa Ka;gua;Na;
a;(

ãÉa Zea;Sa;

a;va;Da;Ea Á Á 44

ãÉa;ntya;(

ÁÁ

ZUa;nyea gua;Na;k

e

.$a;a;tea KMa h;a:=+(

ãÉea;t,a :pua;na;~ta;d;a .=+a;
a;ZaH Á

x +:ta O;;va :℄ea;ya;~ta;TEa;va Kea;na;ea;a;na;ta;(

A;

a;va;k

ãÉa yua;taH Á Á 45

ÁÁ

**“In addition, zero makes the sum equal to the additive.
**

In involution and (evolution) the result is zero. A definite

quantity , divided by zero, is the submultiple of nought.

The product of zero is nought: but it must be retained

as a multiple of zero, if any operations impend. Zero

having become a multiplier, should nought afterwards

become a divisor, the definite quantity must be

understood to be unchanged. So likewise any quantity,

to which zero is added, or from which it is subtracted,

(is unaltered).

Operations with zero

a±0 = a,

a

= Kha-hara:

0

a fraction with zero for its denominator.

**( In B¯ıjagan.ita. Gan.e´sa: Infinity).
**

a×0=0

But it must retained as a multiple of zero, if further operations,

impend. “Zero having become a multiplier, should nought

afterwards become a divisor, the definite quantity must be

understood to be unchanged”.

a×

.

0

= a?

0

(But

0

is indeterminate )

0

Inversion method

Inversion method to find the solution of a problem in Verse 47-48 :

x +:a;ta;m,a Á

Ce+.dM gua;NMa gua;NMa Ce+.dM va;ga mUa;lM :pa;dM k

+.NMa .~vMa .~va;mxa;NMa k

u +:ya;Ra;d, dx;Zyea .=+a;
a;Za;pra;Æa;sa:;d

Äâ ;yea Á Á 47

ÁÁ

**A;Ta .~va;Ma;Za;a;a;Da;k+:ea;nea tua l+.va;a;Q.a;ea;nea h:=+ea h:=.H Á
**

x +:ta;~ta:a ;

a;va;l+.ea;mea Zea;Sa;mua;+:va;t,a Á Á 48 Á Á

AM;Za;~tva;

a;va;k

**“To investigate a quantity, one being given, make the divisor a
**

multiplicator; and the multiplier, a divisor; the square, a root; and

the root, a square; turn the negative into positive and the positive

into negative. If a quantity is to be increased or diminished by its

own proportional part, let the (lower) denominator, being the

increased or diminished by its numerator, becomes the (corrected)

denominator, and the numerator remain uncharged*; and then

proceed with the other operations of inversion, as before directed.”

(* If we have 1 +

a

a+b

=

, in the inversion, it will be

b

b

b

.)

a+b

**Inversion method: Example
**

Example in Verse 49 :

é åé

È

/ / a;Ba:=+a;nva;taH

/ /

.~va;.
a:=+NEa;BRa;+:~ta;taH .sa;a;Æa;BaH

ya;a;~:a.

/ / îÅé:a;a;~:a;Æ

ú

.~va:yMa;Zea;na ;

a;va;va;Æa:$Ra;taH .~va;gua;
a;Na;ta;ea h;a;na;ea ;

a;d

õ ;pa:*.

ãÁa;a;Za;ta;a Á

å

ta;n}.Ua;le;Y;;yua;tea &+.tea .
a d;Za;Æa;Ba:$a;Ra;tMa d

õ ;yMa b.rUa;

a;h tMa

ú

.=+a;
a;ZMa :vea;a;tsa

/ / / ;

a;h .
a:*.

ãÁa;l+.a;Æa;[a ;

a;va;ma;l+.Ma

va;a;mea ;

a;va;l+.ea;ma;

a;k

Ò +:ya;a;m,a Á Á 49

ÁÁ

**“Pretty girl, with tremulous eyes, if thou know the
**

correct method of inversion, tell me the number, which

multiplied by three and added to three quarters of the

product, and divided by seven, and reduced by

subtraction of half a third part of the quotient and then

multiplied into itself, and having fiftytwo subtracted from

the product and the square root of the remainder

extracted, and eight added and the sum divided by ten

yields two (2).”

Inversion method: Example

1

10

Answer:

v

2

u

u

u

u

3

1 1

×3

×

x

8+u

)

(1

−

)

(1

−

−52

+

u

| {z 3 } 7 | {z 4 }

t

2

3

x=

q

(2 × 10 − 8)2 + 52 ×

7

4

=2

3 4 1

× × = 28.

2 7 3

**Rule of false position
**

Verse 50:

o+.e+Za;k+:a;l+.a;pa;va;

a;d;:=+a;
a;ZaH

**[ua;NNa;ea &+.ta;eMa.Y;ZEa .=+
**

a;h;ta;ea yua;ta;ea va;a

I+.;a;h;tMa dx;;ma;nea;na Ba;M .=+a; a;Za;BRa;vea;t,a :pra;ea;+:Æa;ma;ta;a;;k+:mRa

Á

Á Á 50 Á Á

**“Any number assumed at pleasure is treated as specified in
**

the particular question, being multiplied and divided, raised

or diminished by fractions; then the given quantity, being

multiplied by the assumed and divided by that (which has

been found) yields th number sought. This is called the

process of supposition.”

Let some operations be done on the number x , represent it as A. Let it

yield A(x ) = y . Take any x ′ and do the same operations. Let it yield y ′ ,

A(x ′ ) = y ′ . Then

x′

x=y× ′

(y )

**Rule of false position
**

Example in Verse 51.

ú È

îå Á

*.a.*+H

.~va;

a:a;Ba;a;ga;ea;na;ea d;Za;Ba;;H .sa;ma;a;nva;taH

/ /

Á

:pa:ãÁ

.=+a;
a;Za:yMa;Za;a;DRa;pa;a;dEH .~ya;a;t,a k+:ea .=+a;
a;Za;d

õùÅ;aRU;na;sa;a;a;taH Á Á 51

ÁÁ

**” What is that number, which multiplied by 5 and having the third
**

part of the product subtracted and the remainder divided by ten,

and one-third, a half and a quarter of the original quantity added,

gives two less than seventy?”

Solution: Multiplier 5. Subtractive

1

3

of itself. Divisor 10. Additive

the quantity.

1 1 1

, , , of

3 2 4

1

1

)15 = 10;

× 10 = 1;

3

10

1

1

1

17

17

1 + 3( + + ) =

; This is y ′ . So, y ′ =

.

3

2

4

4

4

Given 68 = y. Take x ′ = 3; 5 × 3 = 15, (1 −

∴, x = y ×

x′

3

= 68 × 17 = 48.

y′

4

**One gets x = 48, whatever value one chooses for x ′ . y ′ will be
**

correspondingly different.

Sankraman

˙

.a

Rule of concurrence or ‘Sankraman

˙

. a’.

Verse 55:

ya;ea;ga;ea.Y;nta:=e+Na;ea;na;yua;ta;ea.Y;a;DRa;ta;~ta;Ea

ñÍ

.=+a;Za;a .smxa;ta;Ea .sa;*:

öÅ " +.ma;Na;a;K.ya;mea;ta;t,a

Á Á 55 Á Á

**“The sum with the difference added or subtracted,
**

being halved, gives the two quantities. This is termed

Concurrence.”.

If x + y = k and x − y = l where k and l are given quantities.

x=

1

1

(k + l) and y = (k − l)

2

2

**Verse 57. If x − y and x 2 − y 2 are given, find x + y =
**

Then x and y are found by Sankraman

˙

. a.

x2 − y2

.

x −y

Rational Squares

**Verse 59 and 60: Examples of generation of rational squares:
**

Consider the pairs

a)

x1 =

1

1 1

(8n2 − 1), x2 = { (8n2 − 1)}2 + 1,

2n

2 2n

b)

x1 =

1

+ n, x2 = 1,

2n

c)

x1 = 8n4 + 1, x2 = 8n3 .

For all these pairs, x12 + x22 − 1 are squares.

**Solution of Quadratic equations
**

Next, Bh¯askara gives the solution of a quadratic equation .

Verse 62-63: Suppose we have

√

x ±a x =b

q

√

a

Then x = ∓ + b + (a/2)2 and x =

2

a

∓ +

2

2

q

2

b + (a/2)

.

**(At least here, only one root is being talked about)
**

√

c

Similarly, given: x + x ± a x = b, we obtain

d

√

a x

b

x±

c =

c.

1±

1±

d

d

√

Then proceed as before to find x and then x.

**Quadratic equations: Example
**

An example in Verse 67.

:pa;a;TRaH k+:NRa;va;Da;a;ya ma;a;gRa;Na;ga;NMa k

Òu +.;d

Äâ ;ea .=+Nea .sa;nd;Dea

ta;~ya;a;DeRa;na ;a;na;va;a;yRa

**ta;.
C+=+ga;NMa mUa;lE+.(
**

ãÉa;tua;Æa;BRa;hR;ya;a;n,a Á Á

ñ

Za;yMa :Sa;

a:Â

*.+.=+Te

a;Sua;Æa;Ba;a;~:a;Æ

/// a;Ba:=+

a;pa

å ÅÅ

**C+Ma ;Dva:$Ma k+:a;mRua;k
**

M

;a;. a;. Ce+.d;a;~ya ; a;Za:=.H Za:=e+Na k+:a;ta .tea ya;a;na:$Rua;naH .sa;nd;Dea Á Á 76

ÁÁ

**“The Son of Pr.tha, irritated in fight, shot a quiver of
**

arrows to slay Karn.a. With half his arrows he parried

those of his antagonist; with four times the square root

of the quiver-full, he killed his horses; with six arrows,

´

he slew Salya;

with three he demolished the umbrella,

standard and bow; and with one, he cut off the head of

the foe. How many were the arrows which Arjuna let

fly?”

**Solution of Quadratic equations
**

Let x denote the number of arrows.

√

1

+4 x +6+3+1=x

2

√

1

x − 4 x − 10 = 0

2

√

∴ x − 8 x − 20 = 0

√

x = 10; x = 100.

√

√

(Here x = −2 is also a solution. But in the problem x has to

be +ve.)

Rule of 3, 5, 7, 9, ...

Investigation of mixtures

Rule in Verse 90.

é åé

ÈÅ

A;Ta :pra;a;NEa;gRua;
a;Na;ta;aH .~va;k+:a;l+.aH :pra;ta;a;ta;k+:a;l; îé:a;P+.l+.e

a:;d

Äâx ;ta;a;~tea Á

È

îå Á

.~va;ya;ea;ga;Ba;+:a;(

ãÉa ;

a;va;Æa;ma;(ra;a;na.*+;aH

**:pra;yua;+:Ka;Nq+.a;a;na :pxa;Ta;g,a Ba;va;a;nta
**

//// Á Á

**“The arguments taken into their respective times one
**

divided by the fruit taken into the elapsed times; the

several quotients, divided by their sum, and multiplied

by the mixed quantity, and the parts as severally lent.”

Mixtures

Let x, y, z be the portions lent at r1 , r2 , r3 percent per month and

let I = common interest in t1 , t2 , t3 months respectively.

Let x + y + z = a, a given quantity. Then,

y × r2 × t2

z × r3 × t3

x × r1 × t1

=

=

= I.

100

100

100

∴ x : y : z ::

x=

**100 × 1 100 × 1 100 × 1
**

:

:

.

r1 × t1

r2 × t2

r3 × t3

a

100 × 1

×

100

×

1

100

× 1 100 × 1

r1 × t1

+

+

r1 × t1

r2 × t2

r3 × t3

**Here: Argument 100, Time: 1, fruit: r, elapsed time : t1 .
**

Similar expressions for y and z.

Mixtures: Example

Example in Verse 91:

ú

ya;t,a :pa:*.

ãÁa;k+:

a:a;k+:.
a;tua;Sk+:P+.le+.na d:Ma

Ka;NqE+.a;~:a;Æ

/ / a;Ba;gRa;Na;k ;a;na;Sk+:Za;tMa :Sa;qU+.na;m,a Á

ú

ma;a;sea;Sua .sa;a;d;Za;pa:*.

ãÁa;sua tua;ya;ma;a;Ma

Ka;Nq+a;yea.Y;

a;pa ;

a;h :P+.lM va;d Ka;Nq+.sMa;K.ya;a;m,a Á Á 91

ÁÁ

**“The sum of six less than a hundred nis.kas being lent in
**

three proportion at interest of 5, 3, and 4 percent, an

equal interest was obtained on three portions in 7, 10

and 5 months respectively. Tell mathematician, the

amount of each portion.”

Solutions

Here a = 94, r1 = 5, r2 = 3, r3 = 4; t1 = 7, t2 = 10, t3 = 5..

Now r1 t1 = 35, r2 t2 = 30, r3 t3 = 20..

∴

**100 100 100
**

(6 + 7 + 10.5)

235

+

+

=

× 100 =

.

35

30

20

210

21

∴ x (portion 1) =

y (portion 2) =

z(portion 3) =

100

35

× 94

235

21

100

30

100

21

×

× 94 = 24,

35

235

× 94

=

21

100

×

× 94 = 28,

30

235

× 94

=

100

21

×

× 94 = 42.

20

235

235

21

100

20

=

235

21

24 × 5 × 7

840

2

=

=8 .

100

100

5

He considers the filling of a cistern from n fountains : Same as in

Gan.itas¯

arasangraha

˙

Common interest = I =

**Another kind of problem involving mixtures
**

Let there be a mixture of n items. Let the relative proportion of

type i in the Mixture = βi .

∴ Relative proportion = β1 : β2 : · · · βn .

β P

(Fraction of type i in the mixture = βi′ = P i ; βi′ = 1).

βi

**Let the price of type i be xi per measure (volume or weight).
**

Let the total amount of the mixture = A (volume or weight).

∴ Total price =

X

(Aβi′ ) xi

=

A

P

xβ

P i i = Mixed Sum = X ,

βi

Formal solution

As the amount of item i in the mixture is Aβi′ , and xi is the price per

measure.

P

X

βi

∴ A= P

.

x i βi

Portion × Mixed sum

βi X

=

∴ Amount (Measure) of type i = βi′ A = P

.

x i βi

Sum of quotients

X

(as βi = βi′

βi )

.

**(Price of i) × Portion × Mixed Sum
**

x i βi × X

.

=

Price of item of type i = P

Sum of quotients

x i βi

.

**Mixed quantities: Example
**

Example in Verse 98.

k+:pRUa:=+~ya va:=+~ya ;a;na;Sk+:yua;ga;le+.nEa;k

M :pa;lM :pra;a;pya;tea

;vEa;Zya;a;na;nd;na;.
a;nd;na;~ya .
a :pa;lM dÒ+mma;a;;Ba;a;gea;na .
ea;t,a Á

A;;Ma;Zea;na ta;Ta;a.Y;ga:=+eaH :pa;l+.d;lM ;a;na;Sk

e +:Na mea :de;

a;h ta;a;n,a

Ba;a;gEa;=e+k+:k+:Sa;ea;q+.Za;a;;k+:Æa;ma;tEa;DRUa;pMa ;a;.
a;k

+:a;Sa;Ra;}ya;h;m,a Á Á 98

ÁÁ

**“If a pala of best camphor may be had for two nisk ′s
**

(=32 drammas) and a pala of sandalwood for the eighth

part of a dramma and half a pala of alae wood also for

eighth of a dramma, good merchant, give me the value

for one nis.ka (=16 drammas) in the proportions of 1, 16,

and 8, for I wish to prepare a perfume.”

Solution

Here proportion:

Prices:

X

(1)

Camphor:

32

(x1 )

(2)

Sandalwood:

1 81

(x2 )

(3)

Alaewood

= 1 : 16 : 8

1

4

(x3 )

1

1

× 16 + × 8 = 36.

8

4

Total price = Mixed amount = 16 drammas = X =16.

xi βi = 32 × 1 +

Quotient, q =

16

Mixed sum

X

4

=

= P

= .

xi βi

Sum of quotients

36

9

βi X

βi X

4

= βi , Price = xi P

= xi × Amount.

Amounts of item i = P

9

xi βi

xi βi

4

4

64

4

32

∴ Amount of Camphor: 1× , Sandalwood = 16× =

, Alaewood = 8× =

9

9

9

9

9

128

1 64

8

1 32

8

4

, Sandal: ×

= , Alaewood: = ×

= .

Prices : Camphor: 32× =

9

9

8 9

9

4 9

9

Merchants, trading. Alligation: Mixture of gold of different quantities.

**Section six on combinations
**

Verse 130-132.

ñÍ

v.ya;~ta;a Ba;a:$ya;aH :pxa;Ta;a;#~Ta;tE

////////////////// aH Á

O;;k+:a;dù;aÅe ;k+:ea:a:=+a;*:+.a

öÅ

:pa:=.H :pUa;veRa;Na .sMa;gua;Nya ta;tpa:=+~tea;na .tea;na ..
a Á Á 130 Á Á

O;;k+:

a;d

õ :ya;a;

a;d;Bea;d;aH

.~yuaH I+.dM .sa;a;Da;a:=+NMa .smxa;ta;m,a Á

C+.nd;
a;(

ãÉa:yua:a:=e C+.nd;~yua;pa;ya;ea;ga;ea.Y;~ya

mxa;Sa;a;va;h;na;Bea;d;a;d;Ea

ta;

a;d

õ ;d;a;m,a Á Á 131 Á Á

**Ka;Nq+.mea:=+Ea ..
a ;
a;Za;pa;k
**

e Á

;vEa;dù;a;k

Å e

.=+sa;Bea;d;a;yea ta;a;ea;M ;

a;va;~txa;tea;BRa;ya;a;t,a Á Á 132

ÁÁ

**“Let the figures of one upwards, differing by one, put in the
**

inverse order, be divided by the same (arithmetical

sequence) in direct order; and let the subsequent be

multiplied by the preceding, and the next following by the

foregoing (result). The several results are the changes, ones,

twos, threes, etc. This is termed a general rule.”

Combinations

**It serves in prosody, for those versed therein, to find the
**

variations of metre; in the arts (as in architecture) to

compute the changes upon apertures (of a building);

and (in music) the scheme of musical permutations; in

medicine, the combinations of different savours. For

fear of prolixity, this is not (fully) set forth.”

n(n − 1)(n − 2)(n − r ) . . . (n − r + 1)

n!

n n · (n − 1)

,

,...,

=

1

1·2

1 · 2 · 3···r

r !(n − r )!

Out of n: 1 at a time: 2 at a time: 3 at a time, ... , r at a time.

Combinations: Example

Example in Verse 134.

O;;k+:

a;d

õ :ya;a;

a;d;mUa;Sa;a;va;h;na;Æa;ma;a;ta;ma;h;ea

b.rUa;

a;h mea BUa;Æa;ma;Ba;tRuaH h;}yeRa

Å

É

ì;+[Na;Za;a;l+.a;

**.=+}yea.Y;;mUa;Sea ..
a;tua:=+
**

a;va:=+a;.
a;tea (

a;va;Za;a;le Á

O;;k+:

a;d

õ :ya;a;

a;d;yua;+.a;a

å ÅÉ

ma;Dua:=+k+:f

u ;k+:Sa;a;ya;a;}ì++.k+:[a;a:=+

a;ta;

E ;H O;;k+:a;sma;n,

///////// a

ú

:Sa;q"+.sEaH .~yua;gRa;Na;k k+:a;ta va;d v.ya:ê

*+;ne

ÁÁ a v.ya;a;+:Bea;d;aH Á Á

**“In a pleasant, spacious and elegant edifice with eight doors,
**

constructed by a skillful architect, as a palace for the lord of

the land, tell me combinations of doors taken one, two, three,

etc. Say, mathematician, how many are the combinations in

one composition, with ingredients of six different tastes

sweet, pungent, astringent, sour, salt and bitter, taking them

by ones, twos, threes etc.”

87654321

12345678

Example contd.

8×7

= 28, 3 at a time

No. of ways: 1 at a time = 81 = 8, 2 at a time = 1×2

8×7×6×5

8×7×6

= 1×2×3 = 56, 4 at a time = 1×2×3×4 = 70. 5 at a time

8×7×6×5×4

8×7×6×5×4×3

= 1×2×3×4×5

= 56, 6 at a time = 1×2×3×4×5××6

= 28, 7 at a time

8×7×6×5×4×3×2×1

8×7×6×5×4×3×2

= 8.

= 1×2×3×4×5×6×7 = 8, 8 at a time = 1×2×3×4×5×6×7×8

**Total no. of variations = 28 − 1 = 255.
**

Combinations of 6 different tastes:

654321

123456

No. of different types of compositions: 6, 15, 20, 15, 6, 1. Total

= 26 − 1 = 63.

Chapter 5. Progressions.

P P 2 P r (r +1) P 3

Standard results on

r, r ,

r , etc., Arithmetic and

2 ,

Geometric Progressions.

**Number of verses with a fixed number of syllables
**

Verse 130-131:

:pa;a;d;a;[a:=+Æa;ma;ta;ga;.
Ce gua;Na;va;gRa;P+.lM ..
a;yea ;

a;d

õ ;gua;Nea Á

ñÍ

É +;a;a

ta;d

.sa;ma;vxa:a;a;na;Ma .sa;*

õ ;ga;eRa va;gRa;va;gRa;(

ãÉa Á

Ë

ù

Á

,

**.~va;~va;pa;d;ea;na;Ea .~ya;a;ta;Ma A;DRa;sa;ma;a;na;Ma ..
a ;
**

a;va;Sa;ma;a;Na;a;m,a Á Á 130 131

ÁÁ

**“The number of syllables in a verse being taken for the
**

period, and the increase twofold, the produce of

multiplication and squaring (as above directed) will be

the number of (variations) of like verses. Its square and

square’s square, less their respective roots, will be (the

variations of) alternately similar and of dissimilar

verses.”

This rule refers specifically to the example in Verse 132.

Example

Example 132.

.sa;ma;a;na;a;ma;DRa;tua;ya;a;na;Ma ;

a;va;Sa;ma;a;Na;Ma :pxa;Ta;k

,

:pxa;Ta;k

, Á

ñÍ

É +;a;M

vxa:a;a;na;Ma va;d mea .sa;*

u ;pC+.nd;Æa;sa dÒu+ta;m,a Á Á 140

Ë

ù a A;nua;

Á

ÁÁ

**“Tell me directly the number (of varieties) of like,
**

alternating-like, and dissimilar Verses respectively in

the metre named anus.tup.”

x

x

4 caran.as

.x

x

◮

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

8 Syllables

8

8

8

Total 32 Syllables.

**Variations of like Verses. (All the caran.as are alike.)
**

= 28 = 256.

Example

◮

◮

**Alternatively, alike caran.as. To find the number of these, we
**

find the number of varieties of the syllables in two caran.as

= 216 = 65536. If we place each one of these under itself,

we get all the cases included in “alternatively like”. But of

these, the number of cases of “all like” are also included.

Therefore number of cases of “only alternatively like”

= 216 − 28 = 65536 − 256 = 65280.

**Total no. of variations = 232 . Subtracting the case of “all
**

like” and “alternatively like”, Number of dissimilar Verses

= 232 − 216 . Note that the “dissimilar” only means it

excludes “all like” and “alternatively like” and does not mean

that all the caran.as are dissimilar. For instance, it includes

cases in which “first two caran.as are alike, as also last two,

etc.”

Plane Figures

Chapter 6 is on this topic.

As expected, begins by considering Right Triangles.

Upright

Diagonal

side

A right triangle

**Concentrates on Rational triangles. One type is described in
**

Verse 139.

È

îå Á

x +:tyEa;k+:

a;va;yua;+:ya;a;a;m,a Á

I+.e;na Bua:$a;ea.Y;sma;a;d, ;

a;d

a I+.;~ya k

õ ;gua;Nea;na;a;na.*+;a;t,

k+:ea;a;fH :pxa;Tua;k

, .sea;;gua;Na;a;Bua:$a;ea;na;a k+:Na;eRa Ba;vea;t,a ya;(ra;Æa;ma;dM tua .$a;a;tya;m,a

ÁÁ

**A Rational right triangle
**

“A side is put. From this multiplied by twice some assumed

number, and divided by one less than the square of the assumed

number, the upright is obtained. This, being set apart, is

multiplied by the arbitrary number, and the side as put is

subtracted; the remainder will be the hypotenuse. Such a

triangle is termed right-angled.”

2an

n 2 −1

a(n 2 +1)

(n 2 −1)

a

2an

yields a right triangle

n2 − 1

a(n2 + 1)

2an

×n−a=

.

with hypotenuse = 2

n −1

n2 − 1

It is stated that side = a, upright =

Explanation by S¯

uryad¯asa in his commentary

Consider two triangles. The first triangle has side = n2 − 1, upright = 2n and

diagonal n2 + 1. Correct as (n2 + 1)2 = (n2 − 1)2 + (2n)2 . Let the second

triangle be similar to the above, with side = a.

2an

n 2 −1

?

n2 + 1

2n

n2 − 1

a

(a)

(b)

Similar right triangles

The upright of the second triangle =

a

× 2n.

n2 − 1

**Now, hypotenuse of the first triangle
**

= upright × n − side = 2n × n − (n2 − 1) = n2 + 1.

Then, hypotenuse of the second triangle

2an

a(n2 + 1)

= Upright × n − side = 2

×n−a=

.

n −1

n2 − 1

References

1.H.T.Colebrooke, Algebra with Arithmetic and Mensuration from

the Sanskrit of Brahmagupta and Bhaskara, London 1817; Rep.

Sharada Publishing House, New Delhi, 2006.

2. Bh¯askar¯

ac¯arya’s L¯ıl¯

avat¯ı with Colebrooke’s translation and

notes by H.C.Banerji, Second Edition,The Book Company,

Calcutta, 1927; Rep. Asian Educational Series, New Delhi, 1993.

3.L¯ıl¯

avat¯ı of Bh¯asakar¯

ac¯

arya II: Ed. with Bh¯

askara’s V¯

asan¯

a and

Buddhivil¯

asan¯ı of Gan.e´sa Daivaj˜

na by V.G.Apte, 2 Vols., Pune,

1937.

4.L¯ıl¯

avat¯ı of Bh¯asakar¯

ac¯

arya , A Treatise of Mathematics of Vedic

Tradition, Tr. by K.S.Patwardhan, S.M.Naimpally and S.L.Singh,

Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 2001.

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