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BASIC ELECTRICAL LAB (ENGG 103)

DIFFERENT SIGNAL WAVEFORMS

Objectives: i) Familiarization with function of function generator and oscilloscope.

ii) Measurement of average and root mean square value of (Sinusoidal,

triangular and square) signal waveform.

Materials and Equipments Required:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Digital multi-meter

Function Generator

Breadboard

Probes [3]

Resistors ( 1K, 10K)

Theory:

In alternating current (AC, also ac) the movement (or flow) of electric charge periodically

reverses direction. An electric charge would for instance move forward, then backward, then

forward, then backward, over and over again. In direct current (DC), the movement (or

flow) of electric charge is only in one direction.

Average value: Average value of an alternating current is expressed by that steady DC

current which transfer across any circuit the same charge as is transferred by that AC during

the same time period.

Root Mean Square (RMS) Value: The RMS value of an alternating current is expressed by

that steady DC current which when flowing through a given circuit for given time produces

same heat as produced by that AC through the sane circuit for the same time period. In the

common case of alternating current when I(t) is a sinusoidal current, as is approximately true

for mains power, the RMS value is easy to calculate from the continuous case equation above.

If we define Ip to be the peak current, then in general form

Where t is time and is the angular frequency ( = 2/T, where T is the period of the wave).

For a sinusoidal voltage,

.

,

The factor

is called the crest factor, which varies for different waveforms. For a triangle

Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:

1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram of fig. 1.

2. Set the value of frequency in 100 Hz in the function generator.

3. Adjust the ground of channel 1 and 2 of Cathode Ray Oscilloscope and then set

it into DC mode.

4. Connect CRO across the load in DC mode and observe the waveform. Adjust

the DC offset of function generator.

5. Note down the amplitude and frequency.

6. Set the multimeter into AC mode and measure input voltage and voltage

across point AB. This value gives RMS value of sinusoidal AC.

7. For average voltage measurement set multimeter into DC mode and measure

voltage.

8. Repeat experiment for different frequency and different peak to peak

voltage.

9. Measure the RMS and Average value of DC signal also where instead of

function generator you can use DC supply.

NOTE: Multimeter is designed to measure the RMS value of sinusoidal signal only so there

can be slight error while measuring RMS value of different signals.

Observations:

i)

Draw the waveform of voltage across resistor 10 K for (Sinusoidal, Triangular

and Square wave input of 1 KHz with peak to peak voltage 6V.

T/4

T/2

3T/4

5T/4

3T/2

7T/4

2T

i)

ii)

iv)

Peak Value: ...iii) Average Value .

RMS Value:..., (from calculation) ..( from measurement)

T/4

T/2

3T/4

5T/4

3T/2

7T/4

2T

i)

ii)

iv)

Peak Value: ....iii) Average Value ..

RMS Value:..., (from calculation) ..( from measurement)

T/4

T/2

3T/4

5T/4

3T/2

7T/4

2T

i)

ii)

iv)

Peak Value: ....iii) Average Value ..

RMS Value:..., (from calculation) ..( from measurement)

T/4

T/2

3T/4

5T/4

3T/2

7T/4

2T

i)

ii)

iv)

Peak Value: ....iii) Average Value ..

RMS Value:..., (from calculation) ..( from measurement)

Type of Waveform

Sinusoidal

Peak voltage

(Input)

Frequency

2V

4V

6V

2V

4V

6V

2V

100 Hz

100 Hz

100 Hz

1000 Hz

1000 Hz

1000 Hz

10 KHz

4V

10 KHz

6V

10 KHz

Avg.

Square

RMS

Avg.

Triangular

RMS

Avg.

RMS

Peak voltage

(Input)

resistor

resistor

2V

4V

6V

8V

Type of Waveform

Pure DC

Peak voltage

(Input)

2V

4V

6V

Avg.

RMS

Pulsating

DC Pulsating

(Sinusodial)

(Square)

Avg.

RMS

Avg.

DC

RMS

Exercises:

1) Calculate the RMS value (using integration approach) for (any one peak value) of

sinusoidal square and triangular wave.

2) For same peak to peak value which signal has highest RMS value?

3) Which signals have same RMS and peak value?

4) Which signal has same RMS and average value?

5) Verify the voltage divider rule for resistive circuit.

Instructors Signature

Performance Date

Submission Date

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