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fdsdfssdddvccvcxsMeaning and Nature of Human Riall persons irrespective of any d
istinction whatsoever among them. The human rights inalienabl rights are also in
terrelated and indivisible in the sense that all categories of rights like polit
ical, civil, economic rights are complementarc idea behind the Human Rights is t
hat there are certain rights which are to be respected in all parts of the world
for the sake of international peace and security as well as development of huma
n society.
Theories of Natural Rights
The most plausible explanation of human rights is offered by the theory
of Natural Rights. The theory of Natural Rights is so because it is originated a
nd grounded in the motion of Law of Nature, initially postulated by Stoics and l
ater elaborated by Romans. The Stoics held that human conduct should be judged a
ccording to, and brought in to harmony with, the Law of Nature. The Roman idea o
f jus gentium (law of nations) implied that there are certain universal rights w
hich extended beyond the reghts of citizenship. The modern conception of natural
laws implying natural rights was elaborated primarily by the thinkers of 17th a
nd 18th century such as Hobbes, Descartes, Spinoza, Bacon, Locke and Rousseau. T
he theory of Natural Rights assumes that there are certain basic rights availabl
e to human beings by birth in the state of nature before the origin of state and
which are sanctioned by the law of nature. The very purpose of the origin of st
ate is to protect these rights. If the State fails to protects these rights or a
brogates these rights, the people have the natural right to overthrow the state.
John Locke, the main propounder of natural rights, identifies three natural rig
hts namely right to life, liberty and property. Much of the philosophical base o
f the human rights is derived from the theory of Natural Rights.
The Principle of Reciprocity
The Golden Rule or the ethics of reciprocity states that one must do unt
o others as one would be treated himself. This principle prescribes that recipro
cal recognition and respect of rights ensures that one's own rights would be pro
tected. The principle of reciprocity is found in almost all religions of the wor
ld. This pricciple was enshrined in the 'Declaration towards a Global Ethic' by
the Parliament of the World Religions in 1993.
The other theories of human rights are The Instrumental Theory and the I
nterest theory. The Instrumental Theory is elaborated by the philosopher John Fi
nnis. This theory justifies human rights on the ground that these rights are ins
trumental in creating necessary conditions for human well-being. Thus, the human
rights should be available to all as they are the fundamental requirements for
the survival and development of civilized human beings. The Interest Theory asse
rts that the people respect the rights of other individuals on the ground of tht
heir own self-interest. According to noted scholar Neeraj Nathwani, the human ri
ghts law, applied to a state, own citizens serves the interests of states by min
imizing the risk of violent resistance and protest and by keeping the level of d
issatisfaction among people within the manageable limits. Yet there is another n
otion called Human Security Approach, which justifies human rights as a prior co
ndition for ensuring human secutity. This school of thought challenges the tradi
tional, state-based conception of security and argues that a people-focused appr
oach to security is more appropriate in modern interdependent world and would be
more effective in advancing the security of individuals and society across the
globe. The international regime of human rights is a complementary requirement t
o realize the new idea of human security.