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**subjected to six correlated earthquake components
**

Taher Ghazvini1a, Hamid-Reza Tavakoli*1b, Bahram Navayineya1c, Leyla Kalani-Sarokolayi1d

1

Department of Civil Engineering, Babol University of technology, Babol, Iran

(Received

, Accepted

)

**Abstract. Ground motions at a point on the ground surface can be decomposed to six components, namely
**

three translational components and three rotational components; translational components include two

components in the horizontal plane, and one in the vertical direction. Rotation about horizontal axes leads to

rising of rocking, while the rotational component about a vertical axis generates torsional effects even in

symmetrical buildings. Due to evident and significant contribution of ground shakings to the overall response of

structures, rocking and torsional components of these motions resulted by strong earthquakes are recently

subjected to widespread researches by engineering and research communities. In this study, first rotational

components of ground motion are determined using a method developed by Hong-Nan Li and et al (2004). This

method is based on frequency dependence on the angle of incidence and the wave velocity. In consequence,

aboveground storage tanks with different water elevations have been analyzed with the effects of these six

components of earthquake. Three translational components of six important earthquakes have been adopted to

generate relevant rotational components based on SV and SH wave incidence by the Fast Fourier Transform

(FFT) with the discrete frequencies of time histories of translational motion. Using finite element method, linear

properties of tank material including steel for cylindrical tanks have been taken into with considering fluidstructure interaction. Numerical linear dynamic analysis of these structures considering six components of

earthquake motions is presented; results are compared with cases in which three translational components are

considered.

Keywords: above ground storage steel tanks; six components of earthquake motion; fluid-structure interaction

1. Introduction

For Liquid storage tanks have been constructed over centuries, and are extensively used to store a variety of

liquids, e.g. water for drinking and firefighting purposes, petroleum, chemicals, and liquefied natural gas.

Nowadays they have become a major topic in seismic engineering world. In conventional earthquake

engineering, these structures are designed to resist only against simplified representation of the ground motion

of strong earthquakes in terms of its three translational components, which could only be measured directly.

Analytical studies were first accomplished in late 1940s till early 1960s by Jacobsen and Housner. Jacobsen

(1949) developed equations that could consider effective hydrodynamic mass and the mass moment of the

contents of cylindrical tanks which are subjected to horizontal translation. Graham and Rodriquez (1952)

simulated the behavior of liquid contents of rectangular tanks by an equivalent multi degree-of-freedom

mechanical spring-mass system. Housner (1963) developed a simplified procedure for estimating liquid

response in rigid rectangular and cylindrical tanks which are seismically excited. Many current standards and

guides such as ACI350.3-06 and ACI 371R-08 have adapted Housner’s method for seismic design of these

structures with the consideration of some modifications which are the results of subsequent researches. Edwards

(1969) was the first researcher who considered tank's flexibility in establishing hydrodynamic forces exerted on

ground-supported cylindrical tanks which were subjected to horizontal earthquake ground motions. Besides,

Edwards (1969) was the leading investigator that employed the finite element technique to dynamic analysis of

liquid storage tanks. Subsequent finite element investigations were conducted by Shaban and Nash (1975) and

Haroun (1980). Effects of liquid slosh were considered in designing water storage tanks which were exposed to

translational components of earthquake by Kana and Dodge (1975). Many investigations have been conducted

for analyzing water storage tanks under translational components of the ground motion; which are focused on

**a MSc student, E-mail: t.ghazvini@stu.nit.ac.ir
**

*b Assistant Professor, Corresponding author, E-mail: tavakoli@nit.ac.ir

c Assistant Professor

d PhD student

. and Castellani and Boffi (1986. which were obtained by time derivation methods with constant wave velocity used by Ghafory-Ashtiany and Singh (1986) were approximately 6 to 8 times larger than the obtained value by dense array and other methods. the Lagrangian approach has been employed by several researchers (Hamdi. Falamarz-Sheikhabadi and Ghafory-Ashtiany 2012). The frequency of the wave motion and the angle of incidence are two substantial factors which define the value of the wave's velocity. Yamaguchi and Odaka. the torsional response of tall buildings in Los Angeles was attributed to torsional excitation (Trifunac. 1989). Alemdar and Dumanoglu. where not only the requirement of a constant plane wave velocity of propagation was overlooked. Nouri. Khalvati and Wilson. Takeo 1998. simple accurate LagrangianLagrangian equation was employed for taking into account fluid-structure interaction in finite element mesh of . 1983. an improvement in the approach proposed by Hong-Nan Li and et al (2004) based on SV and SH wave incidence was proposed.. Ahmadi and Navayineya. Abdel Gaffar and Rubin 1984. In this paper. Kalani sarokolayi and Navayineya. motion of fluid can be expressed in terms of displacements such as a structure. hence. their study demonstrated that torsional components. Although the significance of the rotational components in strong motion excitation for predicting the response of structures has been continuously affirmed during the past two decades by the engineering studies. SV. 1996).linear and nonlinear analysis of cylindrical liquid tanks as well as consequent lateral responses of these structures (Attari and Rofooei. g. 1980). Moslemi. the progress in developing and deploying strong motion instruments which can also record rotational components of earthquake waves has continued to decelerate. 1974). the frequencies of the impinging harmonics of the ground motion essentially influence on the angle of incidence. A comprehensive method should be applied for calculating rotational components from the corresponding translational components. Detailed analysis of structural damage during numbers of earthquakes. 2008. Goel and Chopra 1994. Ratio of P and S waves in a seismic record is difficult to determine in practical applications with the absence of surface waves. 1987). 2008). 2004). Newmark and Hall. More rational methods have been developed by Trifunac (1982). the compatibility and equilibrium conditions are automatically satisfied at the fluid-structure interface. 2011). they subsequently analyzed several building models for different structural characteristics subjected to six correlated components of earthquake. Gupta and Trifunac 1989. Akkose. Shakib and Tohidi 2002. As a result. the rotational components of a seismic ground motion can be obtained. 1978. In this research. Using an improved approach proposed by Hong-Nan Li and et al (2004). In this approach. 1969. GhaforyAshtiany and Singh 1986. A simple relationship between the torsional and translational components of a motion. 2008. in subsequence. the effect of relative contributions of P. Furthermore they compared different methods for evaluation of torsional ground motion. body and surface waves will arrive at a point of ground surface with specific distance from the fault that can be the origin of either body or surface waves.g. In the research conducted by Avad and Humar (1984). 1995. In fact. Igel and Tobita (2009) generated the torsional ground motion using data collected from the Chiba dense array. The motion of a point can be completely characterized by its six components: three translations and three rotations. 1978 Miyagi-ken-Oki (Bycroft. 2006). Generally. The engineering significance of rotational components of strong seismic motion at the ground surface was noted during the late sixties and early seventies of the last century (e. and 1994 Northridge earthquakes (Trifunac et al. Precedent studies on the seismic behavior of well-designed structures being exposed to strong ground motions have distinguished that earthquake damages or even collapse of structures cannot be ascribed to the translational components only. 1971). in this method. The Fluid-structure interaction should also be considered in dynamic analysis of fluid container structures. and SH waves are included for calculating time histories of rotational components. in which dependence of the angle of incidence plus the velocity of propagation of the wave on the frequency of the harmonics constituting the ground motion at a specific site is definitely considered. Killari (1993) and Bhuj (2001) has indicated that the damage is often due to the additional stresses caused by the torsional response. the fluid kinematics is formulated in terms of displacements similar to solids. Adanur.. it can be properly assumed that in a specific seismic wave on the site not far from the earthquake source the content of S wave is primary concern rather than neglecting the content of P wave (Hong-Nan Li and et al. The importance of torsional components in seismic analysis and design of structures are highlighted in several studies (Bielak 1978. but dispersion of the waves and their transient arrival times in an elastic half-space were also considered. Mexico (1985). Kianoush and Pogorzelski. Rotational and longitudinal differential motions supposed to be the reason of the collapse of bridges during 1971 San Fernando. Owing to its simplicity. In an earthquake event. Kalani Sarokolayi and Navayineya. During the San Fernando earthquake of 1971. e. Newmark and Rosenblueth. both SV and SH waves were considered to obtain three rotational components of earthquake which were resulted by three translational components. seems to be initially established by Newmark (1969) for first time. Tombstones and stone lanterns are reported to be rotated during large earthquakes (e. The constitutive model of steel material is also an important issue to be regarded for linear dynamic analysis of structures such as aboveground steel tanks subjected to the six components of earthquake. 2008. which was based on the assumption of a constant wave velocity of propagation. Loma Prieta (1989). Lee and Trifunac (1985. Ghayamghamian.g. it is revealed that even the symmetric structures can be expected to undergo substantial torsional excitation during an earthquake.

referred to as torsional component. it is assumed here that the incident and reflected rays are in the plane of Y=0. u and w. respectively. As a result of the latter assumption. and the ray direction with the assumed positive displacement amplitudes are given by AS. the soil-structure interaction was neglected. z directions. respectively. The particles of displacement u. The particle displacements in the plane which are perpendicular to the direction of propagation are decomposed into in-plane and out-of–plane components due to SV and SH waves.fluid and structure domains. ASP corresponds to the reflected P wave. However. it induces particle displacement in the perpendicular and parallel planes to the direction of propagation. and cavitation effect in fluid domain was overlooked (El-Aidi and Hall. while the material of the structure is isotropic and homogenous. the only non-zero components of motion (at Y=0 planes) are: (a) (b) Figure 1: Propagation of (a) incident SV wave. reflecting off the free boundary of the elastic homogeneous and isotropic half space ( Z ≤ 0 ) . ϕ gy referred to as the rocking components. small displacements and material linearity are assumed.1. z) plane. are related to rotation about x axis and y axis. is related to rotation about z axis. For this excitation and coordinate system. Amplitudes of particle motion. It is assumed that direction of propagation of the waves lies in the vertical (x.1. The component ϕ gz . Nevertheless. Alongside preserving generality. Theory 2. This purpose was achieved by arranging the mesh in solid and fluid domains in a way that the location of each node of the fluid domain on the interface coincided exactly with that of the corresponding solid element. AS and A0 depict amplitudes of in-plane and out-of–plane components. SV wave incidence Figure (1-a). the water behavior was considered linear. Availability of only one of the three translational components of accelerogram and a rigid foundation for structure was assumed in this study. 2. inviscid. respectively. ϕ gy . w in the x. ASS and ASP. The theory of three-dimensional isotropic elastic propagation of the wave in the soil was also considered. z) and the incident and reflected rays associated with plane SV wave. respectively. and the components ϕ gx and. Incidence and reflection of the body waves will originate three rotational components of the ground motion at the free surface: ϕ gz . in addition. As the wave passes. respectively. Rotational component Seismic ground motions are direct result of plane harmonic waves arriving at the site close to the earthquake source. 1989). (b) incident SH wave. The parameters. are given by: . In analyses. it was possible for the solid-fluid interfaces to be tangentially and relatively displaced. and irrotational. illustrates the coordinate system (x.1. It was assumed that the water medium was homogenous. where AS and ASS are associated with incident and reflected SV waves. ϕ gx . Then these coincident nodes must be coupled in the direction normal to the interface. it enforced equal displacements in the radial direction for both fluid and solid nodes. 2. which are located on the interface.

the angle of incidence. (1) to Eq. and the angle of reflection of SV waves.s-1.s-1 and 3 to 4 km. (11) can be obtained: (10) . G. the potential functions are: cos θ 0 sin θ 0 x− z −t = ψ SV AS exp iω β β cos θ1 sin θ1 φSP ASP exp iω = x+ z −t α α cos θ 0 sin θ 0 x+ z −t = ψ SS ASS exp iω β β (4) (5) (6) Where α and β are the propagation velocities of P and S waves. (sin θ 0 ) / β = (sin θ1 ) / α .∂φSP ∂ (ψ SV + ψ SS ) + ∂x ∂z ∂φSP ∂ (ψ SV + ψ SS ) w = − ∂z ∂x u = (1) (2) The relation between the rotational and translational motions in a point base on the classical elasticity theory can be expressed by: 1 ∂w ∂u ( − ) 2 ∂x ∂z = ϕ gy (3) In the above equations for frequency of harmonic waves. their values varies in the range of 5 to 7 km. respectively (Datta. respectively. According to Figure 1. ρ and ν are the Young’s modulus. and the Poisson ratio of the soil mass. They can be expressed as follows (Datta. 2010): 1 E 2 1 −ν α = ρ (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) (7) 1 1 G 2 E 1 2 β = = ρ ρ (1 + ν )2 (8) In which E. Eq. (9) as: ∂w ∂ 2φSP ∂ 2 (ψ SV + ψ SS ) = − ∂x ∂z∂x ∂2 x sin θ 0 cos θ1 sin θ1 )ψ SV φSP − [(iω iω iω ϕ= gy α +(iω sin θ 0 β α β ) 2ψ SS ] According to the Snell’s law. α and β . The angle of reflected P wave is denoted as θ1 . The value of coefficients. respectively. θ 0 . θ 2 . i. the shear modulus. are equal. at the surface of the earth. depends on the soil properties. the mass density. By imposing the free shear stress condition at the ground surface: τ xz z =0 ∂w ∂u = 0 ∂x + ∂z = z =0 (9) The rocking component can be obtained from Eq. ω . e. 2010).

Angle of incidence A modification of a developed approach by Hong-Nan Li and et al (2004) was used to calculate the angle of incident waves. ϕ gx . Therefore. iK (1 − 2 x 2 ) θ 0 < θC (16) θ 0 > θC (17) . 2. respectively. Eq. (11) and (15) could be used to define the rocking and torsional components of ground motion. (14) and (15) were employed to obtain the angle of incident SV and SH waves.1. However. Eq. there is no mode conversion in the case of incident SH wave. (14) leads to the torsional component.3. Using this approach while introducing ( x = sin θ 0 ) as well as considering Snell’s law.e= Cx Cx Cx (11) In which Cx = β / sin θ 0 . Rv and θ v are translational component and its phase. How to determine unknown parameters is the subject of the following development. The potential functions of incident and reflected waves are: cos θ 0 sin θ 0 VSH A0 exp iω x− z −t = β β cos θ 0 sin θ 0 VSH ′ A1 exp iω x+ z −t = β β (12) (13) Displacement field v. which is caused by the incident and reflected waves in y direction is: sin θ 0 v 2= VSH 2 A0 exp iω x −t = β (14) Since u does not depend on the out-of-plane coordinate. and their phase difference is π 2 . ϕ gz .2. G= 2x 1 − K 2 x2 . v and w of the ground motion at the free surface are available through measurements. ϕ gz : 1 −∂u ∂v 1 ∂v + = 2 ∂y ∂x 2 ∂x ϕ gz = π i ω = Z =0 iθ v ∂VSH sin θ 0 v iω ⇒ ϕ gz = iω = v⇒ ∂x β 2 2Cx ω Rv )(e = ⇒ ϕ gz (1e )( = )( Rv .= φgy π π ( +θ w ) i i iω ω ω iθ w ) ( Rw )(e 2 ) = w (1e 2 )( )( Rw . These equations can also be applied for the other rocking component. It is assumed that the translational components u.1. 2. in order to apply these equations to define ϕ gy . ( ω Cx Rw ) or ( ω 2Cx Rv ) . the value of incident angle θ 0 should be identified. These equations show that the amplitude of rotational components are related to translational components amplitude. hence. this is not feasible with the state-of-the-art seismology yet.e ) ( 2Cx 2Cx 2 π ( +θ v ) i 2 (15) ) In which Cx = β / sin θ 0 . the consideration of Eq. there is only one reflected SH wave with θ 2 = θ 0 and A2 = A0 . SH wave incidence According to Figure (1-b). K (1 − 2 x 2 ) G= − 2x 1 − K 2 x2 . (11) to Eq. Rw and θ w are translational component and its phase.

KB. and θC = arcsin( β / α ) is the incident critical angle. Applying Lagrangian-Lagrangian method for coupled fluid-structure systems. and the fluid bulk modulus. Kianoush and Pogorzelski. For establishing Lagrangian fluid elements.= G tge = v / u is related to torsional component in x-y plane due to SH waves.2. K = α / β . the following principal dynamic equation can be achieved (El-Aidi and Hall. displacements and external loads of the coupled system. For Lagrangian solid elements. The mass matrix of the fluid element can be also obtained as lumped mass matrix (Moslemi. are mass. the shear modulus was set to zero. velocities. P is pressure.where= G tge = w / u and= G tge = w / v are related to rocking component in x-z and y-z plane due to SV waves. α1 and β1 may be determined by specifying the two damping ratios of the tank. u . S= B= K B × 10−9 (arbitrarily small + + ∂x ∂y ∂z number to set some small shear and rotational stability). 2011). γ is the shear strain. corresponding to two different frequencies (El-Aidi and Hall. damping and stiffness matrices for the coupled system. τ is shear stress. Ri and M i are rotation and twisting force about axis i respectively. C and K. 2. 1989): = α1 2ω1ξ1 − (ω12 β1 ) (22) . The six earthquake components must be involved for defining the force vector of F (t ) (Chopra. respectively. the displacement is regarded as the key variable for solid and fluid domains.00001×η . u . Finite element model In the displacement-based finite element methodology (Lagrangian-Lagrangian method). respectively. was used to obtain the elastic stress-strain relations using the stiffness matrix as follows: ε bulk γ xy γ yz γ xz R x Ry Rz 0 0 0 0 0 0 P 1 / K B 0 1/ S 0 0 0 0 0 τ xy 0 0 1/ S 0 0 0 0 τ yz 0 0 1/ S 0 0 0 × τ xz 0 0 0 0 0 1/ B 0 0 M x 0 0 0 0 1/ B 0 M y 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 / B M z Where ε bulk = (19) ∂u ∂v ∂w is bulk strain. respectively. CS is defined by following equation which is known as Rayleigh expression: = [CS ] α1 [ M S ] + β1 [ K S ] (21) Where the proportionality constants. the structural damping. 1989): Mu + Cu + Ku = F (t ) (18) In which M. u and F (t ) are vectors of accelerations. 2008). The damping matrix of the fluid element which relates the strain rates (strain differentiation with respect to time) to the stresses can be defined as follows: εbulk γ xy γ yz γxz R x R y Rz 0 0 0 0 0 P 0 0 0 1/ η 0 0 0 0 0 τ xy 0 0 1/ η 0 0 0 0 τ yz 0 1/ η 0 0 0 × τ xz 0 0 0 0 0 0 1/ C 0 0 M x 0 0 0 1/ C 0 M y 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1/ C M z (20) Where η is viscosity= and C 0.

Characteristics of these earthquakes are summarized in Table 2.9 0 0. Poison’s ratio of steel is 0. which were depended on frequency. the rotational components at each discrete frequency could be obtained from Eq. ES = 200GPa. Fast Fourier transform was applied to time histories of translational motions with different discrete frequencies for these earthquakes. Numerical results Geometrical characteristics and finite element model of considered structures are represented in Figure 2. respectively. This process was followed for calculating the Fourier spectra of the rotational components at all discrete frequencies. Bulk modulus of elasticity is 2.27 and the mass density of steel and water were 2400kg/m3 and 1000kg/m3. It was assumed that the recorded motions were primarily generated by shear waves (Hong-Nan Li and et al. hr. The damping coefficient in the structure domain was maintained at 5% and the viscosity of fluid was considered 1% (El-Aidi and Hall. Eq.123 Half 4. Full transient analysis was performed to determine the dynamic responses of water tanks subjected to three and six components of earthquake. hw) of the structures shown in Figure (2-b) which are related to one finite element model of aboveground water storage tank: Table 1: Geometrical characteristics of water storage tank R H hw hr FEM (m) (m) (m) (m) Empty 4. (a) (b) Figure 2: (a) Finite element model of aboveground water storage tank.2GPa.85 7. the tank and the contained fluid were meshed. in this case. 3. . Knowing the angle of incidence. (18). To solve Eq. three translational components of six earthquakes have been used to derive the time histories of the corresponding rotational components. H.85 7. Using shell elements with four nodes and solid elements with eight nodes.9 7. These earthquakes are selected such a way that they have been different PGA.123 Linear constitutive properties of material of the tank at ambient temperature were assumed to be as follows: Young modulus of steel. (b): Geometrical characteristics Table 2 presents geometrical characteristics (R.85 7.9 3. shear wave velocities and epicentral distances. For this purpose. (11) and (15) that they are related to the rocking and torsional components. In subsequence. each node had three degrees of freedom. The time history of rocking and torsional components for earthquakes of table 2 are obtained using improved approach and mentioned comments in MATLAB software.β1 = 2 (ξ1ω1 − ξ 2ω2 ) (ω12 − ω2 2 ) (23) K s and M s are also the stiffness and lumped mass matrices. related rotational components could be obtained. Therefore. Newmark method (Chopra.392 0. respectively. 1989). (16) and (17) were used to calculate the angles of incidence for each harmonic component.123 Full 4. A finite element analysis was accomplished to determine the dynamic response of the tanks during earthquake. 2004). respectively. 2008) is applied in the finite element formulation for dynamic analysis. the rotational time histories were achieved from inverse Fourier transform of these spectra.95 0.

.6836 95.68 1.61 0.Table 2: Earthquake characteristics Number Earthquake Station Record Component PGA (g) Epicentral distance (km) Shear Wave Velocity (m/s) 1 Chi-Chi Taiwan 1999/09/20 ALS ALS-V ALS-E ALS-N 0.156 0.1085 0.1334 -12.163 37.10 3 Kern County 1952/07/21 1095 Taft Lincoln School TAF-UP TAF021 TAF111 0.88 -447.49 385. their predominant frequencies and Fourier power spectrum are listed in table 3 and their rotational time histories are shown in figure (3).001 rad As shown in table 3.24 0.00 5 San Fernando 1971/02/09 279 Pacoima Dam PCDDWN PCD164 PCD254 0.86 2016.62 -51.439 0.79 629. Table 3: rotational characteristics of earthquakes peak rotation rate 2 (mrad/s ) Earthquake Chi-Chi Taiwan Imperial Valley Kern County Northridge San Fernando Tabas Predominant Frequency (Hz) Power Amplitude (1/s) Rocking Component Torsional Component Rocking Component Torsional Component Rocking Component Torsional Component -11.454 28.52 14.098 0.089 74. the Imperial Valley earthquake has a high rotation rate and Power Amplitude of rocking and torsional components.44 153.602 0.183 0.40 4 Northridge 1994/01/17 00000 LA Dam LDM-UP LDM064 LDM334 0.59 0.39 27. Iran 1978/09/16 Boshrooyeh 70 BOS-V1 BOS-L1 BOS-T1 0.10 6 Tabas.61 9.12 0.769 4.16 11.40 2 Imperial Valley 1979/10/15 958 El Centro Array #8 H-E08-UP H-E08140 H-E08230 0.156 1 mrad = 0.107 0.3497 0.91 0.09 206.49 -10.085 0.04 13 0.43 0. These two parameters can be affected on the response of structure subjected to rotational components of earthquake and related to natural frequency of structure.60 The peak rotation rate of these earthquakes.178 43.073 0.036 0.424 0.349 11.56 -68.0435 0.699 1.66 338.52 0.0437 0.23 0. the resonance phenomena can be occurred.3327 0. The Northridge earthquake has also a high rotation rate and the Tabas earthquake has also a high Power Amplitude but other earthquakes have a lower amount of these parameters.511 0.58 -32.226 1.244 0.039 0.1 11.111 273.109 0.83 553.077 0.

1994/01/17 (a) (b) San Fernando.(a) (b) Chi-Chi Taiwan. 1999/09/20 (a) (b) Imperial Valley. 1952/07/21 (a) (b) Northridge. 1979/10/15 (a) (b) Kern County. 1971/02/09 .

. variables ( R h ) . 2008) work in figure 4.4782 and 4. 1971 at Pacoima dam station where its horizontal (S74W) and vertical components had a peak acceleration of 1055 and 696 cm/s2.7810 Hertz for full tank and 3. In these tables. respectively.4332 Hertz. separately and the results are summarized in table 4 and 5 for empty tank and tank with water. rotational components of San Fernando earthquake are obtained with this method and results are compared with results of (Lee and Liang. (U ) and ( Rv ) are denote the normalized structure responses where ( R ) is the ratio of maximum base shear force for the model subjected to six components of ground h motion to the same result obtained when the model is subjected to the three translational components. This earthquake is recorded on Feb 9. 2008) and 0.5653 and 4. -0.3833 rad/s2. Model Verification To evaluate the verification of improved method. respectively. The peak values of rocking and torsional accelerations for shear wave velocity of 300 m/s are calculated -0. Figure 4: Rocking Component of San Fernando Earthquake by (Lee and Liang. 2008).3725 rad/s2. 2008) and present work 5. respectively. Normalized response larger than unity implies that the rotational components of the ground motion increase the tank’s response and vice versa.4498 and 4. which their differences are less than 3 percent. Seismic response of water storage tank The modal analysis of water storage tank shows that the first two natural frequencies of empty tank are 3. Linear analysis of these tanks are also carried out considering three translational and all six components of ground motion. 1978/09/16 Figure 3: (a) time history of rocking components.(a) (b) Tabas.2545 rad/s2 by our research. The rocking component time history at present work is also compared with (Lee and Liang.4791 Hertz for half tank. 3. (b) time history of torsional components 4.2480 rad/s2 by (Lee and Liang. -0. (U ) and ( Rv ) are ratios regarding the maximum horizontal displacement and vertical reaction force respectively. Iran.

881E-02 3.409E+01 3.868E-02 3. the effect of rotational components of ground motion on linear response of water storage tanks cannot be negligible in some cases.328E+02 Tabas 1.134E+02 1.811E-02 3.277E+02 0.328E+02 For empty tank.997E-02 3.890E-02 3. But the horizontal reaction and displacement can increase or decrease related to type of earthquakes.000 6C 4.318 1. Max.000 Fernando 6C 4. the effect of rotational components of ground motion change the normalized responses.928E+01 1.000 Country 6C 3. Time history of peak horizontal displacement and reaction force of empty tank due to Imperial Valley earthquake for the range of maximum variation is available are shown in figure 5.037E-02 3.025 1. rotational components of Imperial Valley earthquake have maximum effects on the response of empty tank. As shown in this figure. These results are presented in table 5 for Imperial Valley earthquake and the time history of peak horizontal .658E+01 1.990 0.234E+01 1.748E+01 1.628 1.986 1.Table 4: Results summary of linear dynamic analysis of empty water storage tank Max.855E-02 3.930E+01 1. it is remarkable that the maximum vertical reaction was not affected by the rotational components of ground motion.137E+02 3C 3.434 1.409E+01 1.000 1.000 Valley 6C 4.870E-02 3.000 Taiwan 6C 2.741E-02 3.007E+01 1.328E+02 0. As shown in table 4.328E+02 3C 3.277E+02 Imperial 3C 3.263E+01 2.137E+02 0.330E+02 San 3C 4.000 6C 3.024 1.047E+01 1. Normalized Number of Max. Horizontal Vertical response Earthquake Earthquake Base Shear Displacement Reaction ~ Component Rh (kN) ( R h ) ( Rv ) (U ) U (mm) Rv (kN) Chi-Chi 3C 2.134E+02 Kern 3C 3. Figure 5: Linear response of empty tank for Imperial Valley earthquake When the water storage tanks are filled with water in different elevations and fluid-structure interaction is considered.951E-02 3.330E+02 Northridge 1.836 1.074E+01 2.999 0.891E-02 3.999 1.416E+01 1.998 1.027E-02 3.

Normalized Number of Max. Horizontal Vertical response Earthquake Earthquake Base Shear Displacement Reaction ~ Component Rh (kN) ( R h ) ( Rv ) (U ) U (mm) Rv (kN) 3C 3.833E+03 Figure 6: Linear response of half water storage tank for Imperial Valley earthquake .037E-02 3.125E-01 3.000 0.134E+02 3C 8.833E+03 Full 1.000 1.741E-02 3.617E+03 5.409E+01 3.000 6C 1.075E+03 Half 1.986 1.392E+02 1.213E-01 6.092 1.392E+02 1.075E+03 3C 1.000 6C 4.134E+02 Empty 1.434 1.displacement and reaction force are shown in figures 6 and 7 for half water and full water tanks respectively. Max.122E-01 3.000 6C 8.285E-01 6.836 1.617E+03 5.074E+01 2. Table 5: Linear response of water storage tank with different water elevation for Imperial Valley earthquake Max.

Dynamic response of buildings to ground motion. 1984.1-b. 2008. N. Earthquake Eng. As shown in table 5. Bayraktar. G. 2. 1995.. G. Castellani. 4856. J. Adanur. No. Applied Mathematical Modeling. 4. 17-30. and the reliability of the method was confirmed by other references. 3. 751-767. Boffi. Elasto-plastic earthquake response of arch dams including fluid-structure interaction by the Lagrangian approach. J. As the elevation of water increased. For this purpose. T. B. Fluid-structure interaction based on Lagrangian-Lagrangian approach was considered.. K. Vol. 6. J. So six-component-earthquake analysis of these structures is necessary for design control. Civil Eng.. inversed result can be obtained for rotationally stiff structures. 5.The rotational components of earthquake did not affect vertical reaction force in linear analysis. Dyn... the rotational components of earthquake could increase the response of structure. A. Hydrodynamic Interaction Analysis of Dam Reservoir Using Lagrangian Approaches. and Navayineya. No.. Discussion and Conclusions Effect of six correlated components of earthquake on linear dynamic responses of water storage tanks was investigated by finite element method. 1989. Humar. Rotational components of the surface ground motion during an earthquake. Linear dynamic analyses of these structures under six earthquakes led to the following specific conclusions: 1. L. F. Rofooei. A. frequency content of earthquake and its rotational components. Dynamic response of building foundation system. of Engineering. results in lower responses due to six components of ground motion compared to three components. 14. Bielak. Dyn. 11. but they could alter the maximum base shear force and the maximum displacement.. A.The increase in the base shears and horizontal displacement of tank due to rotational excitations of ground motion are largest for empty aboveground tank.. References Ahmadi. S.Figure 7: Linear response of full water storage tank for Imperial Valley earthquake As shown in tables 4 and 5.2396-2412. Struct. (in Persian) Int. 1986. A. M. 1978. all responses of structure due to six components of ground motion near those due to three components and more increase of water elevation. In contrary... the rotational stiffness of water storage tanks increased and the response of structures decreased. On the rotational components of seismic motion. Akkose. Earthquake Eng. water elevation. Several types of storage tanks varying in water elevation were modeled. Attari. Journal of sound and vibration. A. Castellani. it can be concluded that the rotational components of ground motion can decrease or increase some of the responses of structure depend on structure frequency and also frequency content of earthquake. Struct. J. . R. Can. M. On lateral response of structures containing a cylindrical liquid tank under the effect of fluid-structure resonances. 2008. pp. and tank characteristics. Awade.. M. rotational components of the earthquake were obtained from translational components. it may be due to similar variations of the natural frequencies and predominant frequency of their rotational components. 32.The analyses showed that structure responses could change by variation in peak acceleration..In some cases in which structure was laterally stiff and rotationally flexible. soil type. 2008. 6. University of Science and Technology. and Dumanoglu.The effect of rotational components was the most significant in tanks with less elevation of water. Dyn. Earthquake Eng. when the water elevation is increased. Iran.. Boffi. 6.

struct.13. 2004 . Lee. 2004. ASCE.5. Y. Dyn. Verchery. A method for synthesizing realistic strong ground motion. M. Trifunac. T.. A. Coupled tilt and translational ground motion response spectra. ASCE.. Int. M. P. No. M. 1982.... 5-6. M. G. No. Preliminary empirical model for scaling Fourier amplitude spectra of strong ground acceleration in terms of earthquake magnitude. Struc. 1978. Navayineya. A note on rotational components of earthquake motions on ground surface for incident body waves.2B.. Improved approach for obtaining rotational components of seismic motion. Trifunac. Trifunac.. 2. Seismic analysis of structures. M. Empirical scaling of rotational spectra of strong earthquake ground motion. 131-137. 2009. Earthquake Eng. Moslem. Chile. Vaseghi Amiri. vertical. Earthq. PP. Journal of Iran geophysics. W. Ghafory-Ashtiany. 61. 75-89. W.. V. E.. Kana. 1986.4. 307-337. A comparison among different methods in the evaluation of torsional ground motion. 2074-2084. V. ISET. Hashemifard. Journal of Eng. and Tobita. V.. 2008. R.a review.. Seismol. Structural response for six correlated earthquake components. Dual-level approach for seismic design of asymmetric-plan buildings. J. . Kalani sarokolayi. 1261-1270. M.. 1975. Vol.. angular accelerations and tilt.. 1963. Chopra.4. Technol. Bull..1. No. Trifunac. CE 89-02. W. E. Rericha. Li-Ye Sun. The dynamic behavior of water tanks. 1969. Eng.. 6. A displacement method for the analysis of vibration of coupled fluid-structure system. Theory and application to earthquake engineering. and Design. B. Ground rotational motions recorded in near-source region of earthquakes. M. ISET. 1976. 2007b. M. Seismol. Igel. 2B..R. M. 2010. D..789-792. Investigation of buildings response to translational and rotational earthquake excitations. Pogorzelski. 232. University of Southern California. 381-387.. Seismol. Hosainalibegi. China.. Nouri. Hamdi. Goul. 161-179. M. Graizer. 44. 6. D. 2010. 25. Lett. W. 39-69. W.. D. Gupta. 785-797. 99. K. M. Struct. G. No. 99. Soc. 1343-1373. Beijing. Chopra. No. M. Housner. V.. Report No. R. Graizer..Mohr-Coulomb failure condition and the direct shear test revisited. 7589. Torsion in symmetrical buildings. No. Nuclear Eng.. Earthquake Eng. Singh.19-A3. Dynamic of structures. Su-Yan Wang. 44. W. Earthquake Eng. D.. Technol. John Wiley and Sons. 103-119. 53. M. Bulletin of Seismological Society of America.18. K. R. Rocking strong earthquake accelerations. Lee. Seismic response of liquid-filled elevated tanks. No. 2009. D. Prentice Hall of India. G. Soil Dyn. Hong-Nan Li. Eng.. 11-19. 14.32. J. M.. 1. R. source to station distance and recording site condition.. P. 2007. Ousset. Dynamic analysis of water tanks with interaction between fluid and structure. Santiago. D. H... J.. Ghayamghamian. R. 1985. Trifunac. D. 259-284. Takeo. Vol. No. N. K. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 2007a. 1987. Multi component ground motion response spectra for coupled horizontal. 2011. A. 120. Geophys. Trifunac. V. G. J. Department of Civil Engineering. M. L. D. Nouri. Acta Polytechnica. 2008. 32-44. 33. Earthquake Eng. V. M. Datta. Ghayamghamian. Soil Dyn. In: Proceeding of the 4th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. 609-619..1.. Kianoush.. K. Trifunac. 1378-1390... Torsional accelerograms. Design support modeling of liquid slosh in storage tanks subjected to seismic excitation. Am. Kalkan. Soil Dyn.. J. The effect of torsional ground motion on structural response: code recommendation for accidental eccentricity. Lee. 133. 1971. 3rd Ed.E. The 14th word conference on earthquake engineering.6. T. V. M. 1730-1753. 66. Dodge. and Struct. Soc. E. Lee. Res. Newmark. No.. D. 1989... Am. Bull.44. Kalkan. J. Empirical scaling of strong motion response spectral amplitudes. AM. Bull. K.. Soc.. A3. A.... 1998. M. 1994. Earthq.

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