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Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA

Practical Traffic Management
Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA
(Issue 0.3)

Muhieddin Najib
Dept. 2779

Core RF Engineering

Wireless Solutions

NORTEL NETWORKS

June 1999

Nortel Confidential and Proprietary

06/15/99

Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA

Table of Contents
1

Introduction............................................................................................................ 3
1.1 Scope .............................................................................................................................3
1.2 Audience........................................................................................................................3
1.3 Document Revision History ..........................................................................................3
1.4 Contact ..........................................................................................................................3
1.5 References .....................................................................................................................3
1.6 Acknowledgment...........................................................................................................3

2

Overview of Traffic Management Methods for Multi-carrier CDMA .................... 4
2.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................4
2.2 Traffic Management Using the IS-95 Hashing Function .............................................5
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4

Channel Assignment.......................................................................................................... 5
Deployment Recommendations and Possible Uses ............................................................. 6
Advantages........................................................................................................................ 7
Disadvantages ................................................................................................................... 7

2.3 Traffic Management Using GSR Messaging ................................................................8
2.3.1
2.3.2

Channel Assignment.......................................................................................................... 8
Possible Uses..................................................................................................................... 9

2.4 Traffic Management Using Neighbor Pilot’s Ec/Io......................................................9
2.4.1
2.4.2

Idle-frequency handoff between two Carriers ..................................................................... 9
Deployment Considerations ............................................................................................... 9

2.5 Traffic Management Using MCTA ............................................................................10
2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3
2.5.4
2.5.5
2.5.6
2.5.7

3

Introduction......................................................................................................................10
Channel Assignment.........................................................................................................11
Cell ID and the Pilot Data Base (PDB)..............................................................................11
Populating of SBSC Databases .........................................................................................12
Carrier Determination Algorithm (CDA)...........................................................................12
A Special Case .................................................................................................................14
Recommended Datafill – Configuring the MCTA .............................................................15

Capacity Considerations for Traffic Management Methods................................. 17
3.1 Erlang Capacity for MCTA........................................................................................17
3.1.1
3.1.2

Erlang Capacity for MCTA with up to Three Carriers .......................................................17
Erlang Capacity of MCTA with more than Three Carriers .................................................20

3.2 Erlang Capacity of Hashing and GSR Functions.......................................................20
3.3 Impact of Paging on MCTA Capacity........................................................................20
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4

4

One RF carrier with Half-Rate Paging (Baseline Scenario) ................................................21
One RF carrier with Full-Rate Paging ...............................................................................21
Two or Three RF carriers with one Half-Rate Paging ........................................................21
Two or Three RF carriers with one Full-Rate Paging.........................................................21

Traffic Management in Hybrid (Mobile/Fixed) Networks.................................... 22
4.1 Traffic Management in Fixed Wireless Networks .....................................................22

Nortel Confidential and Proprietary

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06/15/99

Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA

4.2 Traffic Management in Hybrid Systems ....................................................................22
4.2.1
4.2.2

First Approach (Preferred): Mixing Fixed and Mobility Traffic Across All Carriers...........22
Second Approach: Separating Fixed and Mobility Traffic on Different Carriers.................23

4.3 MCTA Erlang Capacity of Hybrid Systems ..............................................................24

5

Deployment Issues and Recommendations........................................................... 25
5.1 One Paging Channel and Excess Delay ......................................................................25
5.2 More than 3 Carriers Situation ..................................................................................25
5.2.1
Hashing in Conjunction with MCTA.................................................................................26
5.2.1.1 Four Carriers................................................................................................................26
5.2.1.2 Five Carriers ................................................................................................................26

5.3 When One Carrier is Wilted.......................................................................................27
5.4 MCTA on Multi-Carrier Border Cell Sites................................................................28
5.4.1
5.4.2

Problem Statement ...........................................................................................................28
Deployment Considerations ..............................................................................................28

5.5 Disabling the MCTA Feature on Metro Cell Sites .....................................................30
5.5.1
5.5.2
5.5.3

Two Carriers ....................................................................................................................30
Three Carriers ..................................................................................................................31
In-door Metro Cell (Four Carriers)...................................................................................31

5.6 MCTA Deployment for Hot Spot Areas.....................................................................31
5.7 MCTA Restriction on Using PN Offsets.....................................................................32

6

Acronyms.............................................................................................................. 33

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1. “CDMA FWA RF Planning Guidelines”. System Engineering and RF Engineering (US) 05/26/99 For release to audience 0. Multi-Carrier Deployment Guidelines. 1. 185 – 198. Sec.MCTA Deployment Guidelines. 209 – 217. Multicarrier Traffic Allocation. [6] Yves Choiniere. [3] Nishith Tripathi. [2] Reid Chang. 3.6. 0. The advantages.6 Acknowledgment I wish to thank Brian Troup and Farhad Bassirat for the helpful discussions and invaluable comments. Deployment recommendations and possible uses of each method are provided.2 05/05/99 For review by Core RF Engineering. the RF capacity of all methods is discussed and the impact of paging on air-interface capacity is quantified.8.Also.0.3 Document Revision History Issue No. applications and limitations of each method are discussed. March 1999. pp. version 0. CDMA Performance Group. Product Line Management. 2nd edition. Issue 0.2 Audience This document is intended for Nortel Networks CDMA RF Engineering teams in all regions. Finally. MCTA Simply Stated. contact Muhieddin Najib at ESN 444-2404. For more information.7. CDMADPLY AA03 .Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA 1 Introduction 1. A presentation on “Multi Carrier Traffic Allocation (MCTA)”. Issue 1. Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 3 06/15/99 .3 Author & Department Muhieddin Najib (2779) Muhieddin Najib (2779) Muhieddin Najib (2779) 1. Sec.5 References [1] Brian Troup and Thomas Snellbaker. Sec.1 Release Date Reason(s) for Reissue 04/29/99 Initial draft for internal review 0. [5] Muhieddin Najib. pp. [4] Sarvesh Sharma. 1. Distributing Traffic Among Two Carriers.0.1 Scope The intention of this document is to discuss several different methods of traffic management for multi-carrier CDMA systems.4 Contact This document is maintained by Nortel Core RF Engineering. 1.

175. 150. One way to alleviate this problem is to deploy multiple carrier frequencies in the same geographical region. 375 425. B and C is 11. 650. F3. 575. 750. 50. 125. 100. Therefore. 600. F2. Throughout this document. there are two designated blocks: A and B. 675 725. the spectrum allocated to Blocks A. 950. The channel spacing for the cellular band should be based on 1.26 MHz because the IMF and Combiners are designed to work with 1.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA 2 Overview of Traffic Management Methods for Multi-carrier CDMA Traffic can be balanced across the carriers either when the mobiles are in idle mode or during call setup. Traffic balancing during call setup can be done using Multi-Carrier Traffic Allocation (MCTA) feature. 1125. it is assumed that F1 is the primary (or common) carrier frequency. Table 1 CDMA preferred Set Frequency Assignment for PCS Band Transmit Frequency Band (MHz) Block Designator Personal Base Station Station 1850-1865 1930-1945 A 1865-1870 1945-1950 D 1870-1885 1950-1965 B 1885-1890 1965-1970 E 1890-1895 1970-1975 F 1895-1910 1975-1990 C Nortel Confidential and Proprietary Preferred Channel Number 25. 450. 1050. 1175 4 06/15/99 . 775 825. etc are the added carrier frequencies and referred to as secondary carriers. The spectrum allocated to Blocks D. the number of CDMA carriers that can be accommodated in Blocks A. Each CDMA carrier occupies 1. 525. The following sections describe the methods in more detail.25 MHz. the BTS RF resources saturate resulting in call blocking. 1000.1 Introduction There has been a phenomenal demand for increased voice capacity as well as need for fax and data services. 500. 1075. E and F is 5 MHz both forward and reverse links. 625. 550. 75. 1150. 1100. 475. 250. Table 2 summarizes the CDMA frequency assignments for the cellular band. In areas where the traffic demand is high and with only one RF carrier per cell site.26 MHz. 2. 350. B and C is 15 MHz both forward and reverse links. The maximum number of CDMA carriers that can be accommodated in each Block is 9. 975. 225.5 MHz for the forward and reverse links. 850. For PCS band. while Blocks D. (There are restrictions on using all 9 carriers as noted in the footnotes). 875 925. Table 1 summarizes the CDMA frequency assignments for the PCS band. 1025. 275 325. For the cellular spectrum. 200. Idle-mode balancing can be achieved either using GlobalServiceRedirection or CDMAChannelList in conjunction with Hashing function at the mobile station. E and F can accommodate 3 carriers. Both blocks occupy 12.

552. Figure 1 depicts a typical deployment scenario of two RF carriers F1 and F2. GSR messaging or the Multi-Carrier Traffic Allocation (MCTA). the mobile hashes when it powers up or when it enters a region where the channel list message broadcast by paging channel indicates availability of different frequencies. Using the Hashing function. when the mobile leaves the F1 region and enters the (F1+F2) region. 7772 846. 115.985 B’ A-Band primary channel: 283 B-Band primary channel: 384 A-Band secondary channel: 691 B-Band secondary channel: 777 If the system deploys more than one CDMA carrier. 241.995 880.005 31.1 Channel Assignment Under normal operation conditions. the mobile chooses the CDMA carrier according to the following equation: 1 CDMA deployment has to start with either the primary or secondary channels. we discuss the capacity considerations associated with each method. 42 AMPS channels).025 – 880.2. The Hashing function makes decision based on mobile’s IMSI number and the frequencies available in channel list message. Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 5 06/15/99 . it will find the Channel List message of the primary carrier paging channel containing the two frequencies. 426. uniform distribution of mobile stations among the available RF carriers is desired. while the mobiles are in the idle mode..985 891. 691.52 is used as guard bands). spaced 1. which divides the traffic equally between the available carriers.495 835. 10192 A’ 844.77 MHz (1. In the following subsections. 199.495 – 848. 2. 758. we provide an overview of the functionality of these methods and in the next section.495 – 893.005 – 844. The first CDMA channel requires 1. During idle mode.995 – 891. then users are assigned to one of the available carriers using either Hashing function.26 MHz apart (i. 73.495 889. Using this method. 468.005 869.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA Table 2 CDMA preferred Set Frequency Assignment for Cellular Band Class 0 Block Designator Transmit Frequency Band (MHz) Mobile Station Base Station Preferred Channel Number1 A”A 824.e. The Hashing function achieves random distribution of mobiles among the RF carriers. 510. It will use the Hashing algorithm to determine whether it should stay in F1 or idle handoff to F2. 157. 283.25 MHz is used for traffic and 0. 7353. Additional CDMA carriers can be deployed without guard bands. 2 Requires frequency coordination with non-cellular carriers.995 – 846.995 B 384.005 – 889.025 – 835.2 Traffic Management Using the IS-95 Hashing Function 2. 594. 3 Requires frequency coordination with A-Block carrier.

2 Deployment Recommendations and Possible Uses For the two-carrier case.4. or if the call duration is not too long. the mobiles cannot be redistributed to other carriers in order to offload the overloaded carrier. N = 3).Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA CDMA Channel Number = N × ((40503 × (L ⊕ H ⊕ DECORR)) mod 216 ) / 216 + 1 where x is the largest integer less than or equal to x.. The multi-carrier region (F1+F2) should be deployed as a cluster with at least two tiers of cell sites. and if it returns to (F1+F2) region again. Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 6 06/15/99 . one may consider intentional steering of more traffic toward the secondary carrier (s) during the idle mode so that the overall loading of the two carriers can be approximately balanced. refer to IS-95.e. (For more information on the Hashing algorithm. (All frequencies should be listed in the same order in the Channel List Message on all BTSa). when leaving the region will be handed down to F1 (hard handoff). this load unbalancing effect may be neglected. it will stay with F1 (soft handoff). the GSR messaging can be used to provide uneven distribution of idle mode traffic between two carriers.2. A call initiated from F2. The primary carrier frequency F1 should be datafilled only outside the shaded region of Figure 1. In this case. If the call duration is long and mobility is high. The procedure can be also extended to two more than two carriers. Example: Depending on the content of the Words L and H. the IS-95 Hashing function can only distribute traffic evenly among N carriers. This is because. Because a call initiated from F1 region entering (F1+F2) region will stay in F1 (soft handoff). HASH_KEY is equal to the 32 least significant bits of IMSI_S1 + 224 × IMSI_S2) and DECORR = 0. However.6. both frequencies (F1 and F2) should be datafilled to both carriers’ paging channel (Channel List Message) in all sectors within the (F1+F2) region.) 2. the Word L is the bits 0-15 of HASH_KEY and Word H is the bits 16-31 of HASH_KEY where bit 0 is the least significant bit of HASH_KEY. the Channel Number = 3 × ((40503 × 64) mod 216 ) / 216 + 1 = 2. However. section 6. during the call. If the (F1+F2) region is large enough so that the border cells only occupy a very small portion of the entire (F1+F2) region. the function (L ⊕ H ⊕ DECORR) takes values between 0 and 216. N is number of the available RF carriers in the channel list. if the effect of load unbalancing is not desired.2. or if the mobility is not high. On the other hand. In the above equation. then there is a tendency to overload the primary carrier F1.2. Suppose that for one mobile (L ⊕ H ⊕ DECORR) = 64 and there are 3 carriers in the channel list message (i.

any change to the channel list requires a BTS download.2. 2. In this case.3 Advantages •Does not consume any additional BSC/BTS/RF resources. the Hashing algorithm can be used to hash among all available carriers. the channel list is not settable.2. However. erratic service (or no service) will be encountered if the channel list contains a frequency which is either wilted or out of service. This is significant when the number of available ports on a BSC is limited. All frequencies Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 7 06/15/99 . this may not apply to the Metro Cell. Classification of traffic regions for two RF carriers. Several MCTA’s are then enabled over several groups of carriers.4 Disadvantages •For the Legacy product. 2. •Does not require the overlying frequencies to be on the same BSC.1 for more details). Consequently.2. each with three or less carriers (see Section 5. The mobile will keep looking for the frequency which is not there and it will not move on to another frequency.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA Idle Handdown Boundary Hard Handoff Boundary F1 RTD RTD Border Sectors RTD F1 F1 + F2 RTD RTD F1 RTD Border Sectors F1 Figure 1. Thus. One possible use for the Hashing function is in conjunction with the MCTA with more than three carriers.

2. one can send 10%.1 Channel Assignment All sectors within the F1+F2 region are datafilled with GSR with some percentage of the mobile stations REDIRECT_ACCOLCr subfields turned “on” (the subfield corresponding to the Access Overload Class of the mobile station set to ‘1’ in the REDIRECT_ACCOLCr field of the received message). one can keep about 40% of mobiles in F1. or another service provider such as AMPS. Since mobile stations that are not for test or emergency use are assigned to overload classes ACCOLC 0 through ACCOLC 9. This is further explained in section 2. For example. traffic can also be distributed across two carriers by the Global Service Redirect message (GSR) plus the Access Overload Class (ACCOLC) of the mobile. the carrier loading may not be balanced although mobiles are evenly distributed. 2. to another system. Mobiles with ACCOLC field being turned on are directed to F2 by the GSR. •Hashing requires paging on all carriers. it should be the only mechanism used to steer traffic. using GSR and turning on a percentage of REDIRECT_ACCOLCr fields. •Does not take the excess capacity of other carriers into account when a call is being setup. Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 8 06/15/99 .6 of the IS95 standards. 90% of mobiles to F2. and direct the rest 60% to F2. 3 turned off. This problem is alleviated in the Metro Cell BTS since the channel list is settable. F1’s Channel List should not contain any other frequency.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA included in the channel list must be blossomed at all times. so Hashing function should be turned off.3. the rest turned on. Unlike Hashing algorithm.1. 80%. with subfields corresponding to classes 0. 2. Thus.3 Traffic Management Using GSR Messaging Similar to the method of Channel List + Hashing functions. If the GSR message is turned on.. which leads to a decrease in the available traffic channel power due to the power being used in paging channels. Consequently. please refer to Section 6. 2.3. … . For more information on GSR message.e.6. Others stay on F1. GSR can provide uneven distribution of traffic between two carriers only. it is possible to control the percentage of idle mobiles that are redirected to F2. i. 1.2. Failure to do so will result in mobiles showing “no service”. 20%. A GSR message is sent over the paging channel to redirect mobiles to different carriers within the system.

During inter-frequency idle mode handoff. the instantaneous loading between the two carriers appears unbalanced. Initially. 2. This method uses inter-frequency idle mode handoff to adaptively steer idle mobiles over two-carrier sectors. During normal operation of the system to redirect mobiles to another system or another service provider such as AMPS. 2. At the point (Ec/Io)F2 > (Ec/Io)F1 + 3 dB.e. During maintenance of the system to redirect mobiles to a different carrier within the system. An idle handoff occurs when a mobile station has moved from the coverage area of one base station into the coverage area of another base station during the Mobile Station Idle State. the idle handoff will go toward the other way (see Figure 2). This is required when such services or systems are collocated in the same coverage area. Initially. On multi-carrier border sites. This method is preferred over the idle hard hand-off method that is based on the “Neighbor Pilot’s Ec/Io”. although a balanced loading can be achieved over Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 9 06/15/99 .4.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA 2. and F1’s Ec/Io becomes 3 dB better. If the mobile station detects a Pilot Channel signal from another base station that is sufficiently stronger than that of the current base station. Each multi-carrier BTS site is datafilled to include its opposite in the idle neighbor list. all idle mobiles satisfying this condition will handoff toward F2. Referring to Figure 1.1 Idle-frequency handoff between two Carriers The previous two methods steer the traffic in a fixed fashion.4. the traffic is steered toward the carrier with better Ec/Io. 3. either according to mobiles IMSI or according to their ACCOLC. the mobile station determines that an idle handoff should occur. i.3. 2.. When this happens. all idle mode mobiles will hand-up to F2 until its Ec/Io degrades by another 3 dB compared to that of F1. mobiles moving into (F1+F2) region will stay in F1.4 Traffic Management Using Neighbor Pilot’s Ec/Io 2. all mobiles will stay on F1 until the Ec/Io of F2 at their locations becomes 3 dB above the Ec/Io of F1. datafill the overlapping sector in F2 as F1’s neighbor. and data fill F1 as F2’s neighbor.2 Possible Uses 1. If F1 is overloaded its Ec/Io will degrade.2 Deployment Considerations 1. If F2 is overloaded. Since a hysteresis width of 6 dB between handing down and up can only be caused by a large number of users. and the carrier with lighter traffic loading will have a better Ec/Io. idle-mode mobiles leaving the (F1+F2) region on F2 are directed to go to F1.

2.5 Traffic Management Using MCTA 2.1 Introduction Efficient use of the additional carriers is utilized if the arrival traffic is assigned to the carrier with the least interference.0). It works with a single Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 10 06/15/99 . F2 and F3) should be on the same BSC. This solution is not recommended at this time. initially.5. the multi-carrier BTSs (F1. Therefore. If it is desired to have higher percentage of mobiles be idle handoff toward F2. The 3-dB threshold used to hand-off from one carrier to another is mobile vendor specific. 2. MCTA operates at call setup and supports up to 3 RF carriers per sector.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA a wide observation window. For example. then one may intentionally make the (Ec/Io) of F2 stronger. F2 (Ec/Io)F2 F1 (Ec/Io)F1 If (Ec/Io)F2 > (Ec/Io)F1 + 3 dB. For the MCTA to work.0 (NBSS7. but listed here for the completeness of the subject. 3. 4. this method is best suited for high dense urban areas where traffic loading is usually high. Some vendors may implement different numbers while others may not entirely support such feature. one may reduce the pilot gain of F1 in the (F1+F2) region.2 dB better than (Ec/Io)F1. F1 => F2 If (Ec/Io)F1 > (Ec/Io)F2 + 3 dB. F2 => F1 Figure 2. This feature has become available since the introduction of Nortel Base Station Software – version 7. Traffic Management Using Neighbor Pilot’s Ec/Io. The Nortel Multi-Carrier Traffic Allocation (MCTA) feature can dynamically balance traffic across multiple RF carriers served by the same system. so that in this region the (Ec/Io)F2 is 1 .

and the excess capacity provided in the capacity response message. we provide a brief description of the MCTA functionality and datafill. In the following sections. the Selector Bank Subsystem Controller (SBSC) uses the Carrier Determination Algorithm (CDA) to select the best carrier. Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 11 06/15/99 . 2. Cell ID is the Cell Number plus the Sector ID. MCTA feature is no longer involved. This does not mean there is only one Pilot Data Base (PDB) record needed for that particular sector. remaining) power is assigned to the call and the traffic is balanced among carriers. using a combination of frequency priority. When populating a PDB. MCTA selects which carrier will service the call. the SBS Selector sends a “capacity request” message to each Base-station Transceiver Subsystem (BTS) configured as part of a MCTA cell site.. The MCTA uses the excess forward link capacity as a criterion to assign calls to RF carriers. and Sector ID. MCTA assigns traffic to carriers during call origination. all sectors of each carrier covering a particular area must have the same cell ID (where the Cell ID is the cell number and the sector ID). This is simply because the Extended Base ID (EBID) contains four fields: CDMA channel number.3 Cell ID and the Pilot Data Base (PDB) To configure a cell site as a MCTA cell site. multiple records will share the same Cell ID if the cells have co-located BTSs or a Metro Cell with multiple frequencies. the carrier with the maximum available (i. Note that once the call has been setup. When a new call arrives. Because the area is being covered by multiple frequencies. Since CDMA frequencies of BTS-1 differ from that of BTS-2 in co-located BTS cells (or the Metro has multiple frequencies). there are multiple PDB records per same Cell ID.2 Channel Assignment At call setup time. The MCTA is automatically activated when more than one Extended Base ID entry in the PilotDatabase has the same Cell Id and sector number.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA Metro Cell BTS. For more details. Each BTS responds to the request with its capacity data in a “capacity response” message. several Legacy BTSs and a combination of Legacy and Metro Cell BTSs.5. please refer to references [1] and [4]. frequency band (800 or 1900 MHz). Upon receiving this message. The selection process is accomplished as follows: During new call or hard hand-off setup. excess capacity threshold. and frequency is part of the Extended Basestation ID (EBID). a PDB record is needed for each frequency being used.5. The same procedure applies if a Metro Cell is servicing the sector. except that the Metro Cell can support multiple carriers. CDA then returns the address of the BTS (BTSCRM Address).e. Cell Number. which supports the carrier chosen to service the call. 2.

the priority.Recommended value for even loading: 0 . (2) More than 1 Metro Cell BTS is used and (3) Legacy and Metro Cell BTSs are used.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA 2. When the SBSC sends the Capacity Request to all BTSs it starts time-out timer. the test will be performed on the second highest priority carrier. whenever a PDB record is added. a corresponding Cell ID Database record is also automatically derived by extracting the Cell ID. This timer is configurable from 0 to 255 ms (milli-seconds). (i. 5 Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 12 06/15/99 .e. multiple records will share the same Cell ID if the cells have co-located BTSs or a Metro Cell with multiple frequencies. If the Cell ID record already exists. ACN address. 4 If only one Metro Cell is used. priority and threshold from the PDB record. EBID. When populating a PDB. A value of 100 ms is recommended. the EBID. the ACN Node ID. the number of calls to admit to a high priority frequency before selecting the next priority frequency).5 Carrier Determination Algorithm (CDA) The CDA determines the best carrier using a combination of Frequency Priority and threshold response retrieved from the Capacity Request Response Message. and so on. (This is also the default value). The capacity requests are sent sequentially starting with the BTS with the highest priority carrier first (this does not mean that the capacity response from the BTS with the highest priority carrier will always be received first).4 Populating of SBSC Databases Pilot Database (PDB) record can be modified to include the Frequency Priority and the Capacity Threshold. If all relative capacities are negative. 2. then the carrier with the largest relative capacity is selected (see also flowchart in Figure 3). If the carrier with highest priority can not be selected.. The preferred carrier is analyzed first and if it meets the capacity criterion (if its relative capacity is positive). Pilot Database (PDB) records are populated through the Base Station Manager (BSM) by running the datafill script files which are run from the BSM Command Line Interface (CLI) window. If (1) Legacy BTSs are used. In the mean time.5. it will be selected first. • MCTA Threshold (when datafilled at the AdvancedFA(n) MO)4 or Capacity Threshold (when datafilled at the Pilot Database MO)5 – Represents the minimum value which Excess Forward Link Capacity (EFLC) in units of calls should drop below before selecting the next preferred frequency. This datafillable parameter is used to determine the order in which the carriers should be analyzed. The following attributes are added for each PDB record to help CDA do its job: • MCTA Priority (when datafilled at the AdvancedFA(n) MO)4 or Frequency Priority (when datafilled at the Pilot Database MO)5 – A lower value means the carrier has a higher preference. .5. and the threshold are added to the array and the number of ACN Node ID’s are incremented by one.

Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA . This is also the default value. The AverageTrafficChannelPower is determined as AverageTrafficChannelPower = Instantaneous Total Traffic Channel Tx Power Number of Traffic Channels in Use (2) Calculate Capacity Estimate for each frequency in a sector Find the preferred frequency ( F ) using the priority entries Find the next preferred freq.e. Flowchart of CDA algorithm Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 13 06/15/99 . Note: EFLC represents the available power in the carrier (i.. The EFLC is then converted to number of calls according to the formula: Capacity Estimate = EFLC − LoCallBlockingThreshold AverageTrafficChannelPower (1) The blocking threshold has the effect of reserving some of the available forward transmit power in a sector.Recommended value for even loading: 64 (This value causes all Relative Capacity responses to have a negative number). using the priority entries Y is Capacity Estimate of (F) > MCTA threshold of F N Are there more frequencies available? N Y Select the frequency with the largest Relative Capacity (voting stage) Select frequency ( F ) Figure 3. the difference between total available forward link power and total power being used by existing calls and overhead channels).

F2 and F3 with capacity thresholds T1. but can be pooled as one common source for all sectors (up to three sectors). If no Capacity Response has a positive Relative Capacity. P2 and P3 where P1 is the highest priority and P3 is the lowest Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 14 06/15/99 . the SBSC will use available responses for the Carrier Determination Algorithm. All late capacity responses will be ignored. T2 and T3 and priorities P1. 2. CDA waits (time permitting) for Capacity Responses from all BTSs serving that sector to return. Note that the Traffic Channel Elements (TCE) are assigned on a per carrier basis (even with the Metro Cell). In case that a “time-out” is reached and the SBSC has not received all of the BTS Capacity Responses.MCTA Threshold (3) CDA will then select the first positive Relative Capacity value received. If all priorities are equal. Each carrier is assigned a capacity threshold. the capacity estimation is based on the channel element provisioned as follows: Current Traffic Channel Elements Provisione d Capacity Estimate = min  .5. then CDA chooses the least negative value of the Relative Capacity responses and the call is setup on that carrier. the number of CE available is used to select the carrier. In this case.6 A Special Case As indicated by equations (1) and (2). it selects the frequency that has the highest priority. the traffic would be redirected onto that carrier (assuming all carriers have the same priority) until a few calls become established on that sector. Its purposes are to: •Identify desired level of usage in F1 before MCTA allocate calls in F2 •Reduce hard handoff by maximizing F1 use at the multi-carrier border sites The CDA then calculates the Relative Capacity values between the estimated absolute capacity of each BTS and the MCTA Threshold. Example Consider carriers F1.. Relative Capacity = Estimated Capacity . If all the Relative Capacity responses are negative. the capacity estimate calculation fails when there are no traffic channels in use in the specified sector. i. If there are no calls on any of the carriers.e. if one of the carriers has more channel elements available than the other. Number of Sectors Provisione d  Total Traffic Channel Elements in BTS Not in Use } (4) The “Total Traffic Channel Elements Provisioned” refers to all configured traffic channels both free and in use. The computed Estimated Capacity = Number of CE available.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA The Algorithm makes “Capacity Requests” to all BTS serving the sector on which the call attempt was made. Therefore.

This configuration would likely be used at a border site where a frequency overlay ends. This configuration can be used to load up the underlying frequency to minimize the amount of HHO from one frequency to another. then the carrier with the highest capacity and priority is selected. Sequential Loading: Used to fill up the first carrier then the second and so on. 2. if there is no capacity response from C1 or if the capacity response from C1 is such that C1 < T1. 2. Figure 4 illustrates how the “Even” and “Sequential” datafill can be used to configure the MCTA in the core and multi-carrier border sites with three carriers. The Frequency Priority can be used to give the underlying carrier a higher preference followed by the second carrier and so on. the traffic is distributed equally among the available carriers. If a capacity response C1 is received from F1 such that C1 > T1 (positive Relative Capacity. Moving away from core of a network F1 Datafill: N/A F3 F2 F1 F2 F1 F3 F2 F1 Datafill: Sequential (Multi-carrier border sites) Datafill: Sequential (Multi-carrier border sites) Datafill: Even F1: Priority = 0 Threshold = 5 F2: Priority = 1 Threshold = 5 F1: Priority = 0 Threshold = 5 F2: Priority = 1 Threshold = 5 F3: Priority = 2 Threshold = 5 F1: Priority = 0 Threshold = 64 F2: Priority = 0 Threshold = 64 F3: Priority = 0 Threshold = 64 Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 15 06/15/99 . This configuration is recommended to be used in systems where the second or third carriers are deployed over a large area. Even Loading: In this configuration. the Capacity Threshold is datafilled at 64 (this value causes the Relative Capacity to be a negative number) and the Frequency Priority is datafilled at 0 (no preference). Blocking statistics can be used to fine tune this value.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA priority. The value of Capacity Threshold can be adjusted up or down to change the value of the “Relative Capacity” of the sector. However. To achieve this.7 Recommended Datafill – Configuring the MCTA There are two main configurations for the MCTA: 1. which indicates a light load) then the call is allocated to carrier F1 without waiting for a response from the other carriers.5.

Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA Figure 4. Even and Sequential datafill for the MCTA. Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 16 06/15/99 .

13 available circuits/users) Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 17 06/15/99 . In this section.e. 3.1 Erlang Capacity for MCTA 3.1 Erlang Capacity for MCTA with up to Three Carriers Even though the maximum number of trunked channels remains unchanged. the maximum number of carriers that can be pooled together using the MCTA algorithm is 3..g. 6.55 for mobility applications MIF = 0.5 for FWA applications PPG = Perfect Pooling Gain percentage improvement = (Erlangs with perfect pooling for M*N circuits/Erlangs without pooling) –1 (Use Erlang-B table to find the Erlang value that corresponds to the desired number of circuits and GoS) step 2: Calculate Y = M * E1C * (1 + X). the factor of MCTA improvement vs.e. step 1: Calculate X = PPG * MIF.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA 3 Capacity Considerations for Traffic Management Methods Capacity is an important factor that is used to determine which traffic management method should be deployed. Erlang-B formula) Number of users/sector/carrier = N Number of single-pool carriers = M.6 for 1% blocking. where X = percentage Erlang improvement with MCTA MIF = MCTA Improvement Factor (i. where Y = actual erlangs with MCTA improvement M = number of carriers . Mmax = 3. This section provides performance improvement in Erlang capacity for both mobility and fixed networks. perfect pooling).1.only valid for 2 or 3 carriers.. Given GoS = p Cleared Call Model (i. Thus. the overall system capacity is enhanced by MCTA. 1 sector (e. MIF = 0. The following method should be used to calculate the MCTA erlang capacity for 2 or 3 RF carriers and any given GoS and number of users/sector/carrier. Currently. we provide a summary of the Erlang capacity of the different traffic management methods discussed above. beyond that you must break up the carriers into groups of 3 or less E1C = erlangs for 1 carrier.

Similarly. Table 4 provides the MCTA Erlang capacity for fixed wireless access CDMA systems. The results in Table 3 and Table 4 assume that all the carriers cover the cell completely.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA Table 3 provides the MCTA Erlang capacity for mobility CDMA systems for 2 and 3 CDMA RF carriers and for two commonly used grade of service figures. Table 3 MCTA Erlang Capacity for CDMA Mobility Systems Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 18 06/15/99 .

59 47.3 62.21 85.88 91.86 59.13 103.54 97.6 111.44 82.77 140.20 103.95 63.60 63.55 117.95 106 70.31 133.56 59.63 55.44 52.72 43.85 40.81 57.75 66.17 43.24 68.25 61.6 Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 19 GoS = 2% 2 Carriers 3 Carriers 19.3 76.25 86.05 48.1 119.9 31.81 89.53 47.08 78.45 76.14 56.35 73.54 74.08 89.55 36.09 44.04 125.73 88.7 31.49 67.47 58.53 33.23 44.91 78.44 54.77 108.86 93.30 143.65 78.13 75.92 50.58 70.34 123.96 134.93 122.87 23.30 32.75 72.15 136.88 19.97 31.83 37.46 131.3 33.19 38.69 94.05 65.24 86.7 81.64 80.81 67.86 38.91 35.28 28.14 128.91 28.23 41.92 39.01 52.53 41.31 21.19 36.73 35.85 45.22 100.84 50.5 97.16 26.44 41.26 117.41 24.94 36.46 94.49 69.78 125.27 72.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA Table 4 MCTA Erlang Capacity for CDMA Fixed Wireless Access Systems Number of Users/Sector/ Carrier 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 GoS = 1% 2 Carriers 3 Carriers 18.28 86.34 67.91 84.63 49.07 54.35 51.51 42.10 70.66 88.60 114.87 74.20 39.61 128.59 74.05 89.88 92.68 30.95 26.58 25.11 29.48 84.69 23.99 105.23 49.24 34.63 52.03 50.31 100.64 81.70 61.18 80.32 120.26 60.54 137.00 83.93 46.52 28.06 56.86 79.77 72.37 65.43 114.18 06/15/99 .42 33.42 91.52 59.76 111.74 65.90 108.29 77.92 46.01 87.79 58.36 21.07 57.43 83.05 69.99 63.46 44.35 54.79 131.

In this case. The relationship between blocking and number of calls (or Erlangs) is approximately governed by the Erlang-B formula. then the carriers must be divided into two or more traffic pools. This represents approximately 10% of the total usable HPA power. the call is less likely to be blocked using the MCTA function since a new call is always assigned to the carrier with less loading. 3. on the average. the difference between full-rate and half-rate capacity is 5%. each with 3 or less RF carriers. Several deployment scenarios are identified below: 6 We assume that RF capacity is not affected by the reduction in interference due to paging suppression or power reduction. especially on the forward link). The selection of the RF carrier occurs while the mobile is in the idle mode without any consideration for the loading factor of the individual carriers. Assuming that capacity is forward-link limited and is proportional to the remaining power at the HPA (total – overhead power)6. This represents approximately 5% of the total usable HPA power.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA 3. if there are N users demanding service from a certain base station employing M RF carriers. We conclude that there is no improvement in Erlang capacity due to Hashing or GSR function. each with three or less carriers. Thus. number of calls/carrier is the same regardless of number of carriers. since. Since Hashing and GSR cannot reduce blocking.1.5 dB below pilot power for half-rate paging (4800 kbps). the call will be blocked.5 dB below pilot power.3 Impact of Paging on MCTA Capacity Typical pilot power setting is about 13% of the total usable HPA power. 3. Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 20 06/15/99 . the MCTA is limited to 3 carriers per traffic pool. If the capacity demand requires deploying more than 3 carriers. an equivalent amount of interference is induced in the system whether it is caused by paging or traffic. regardless of the amount of loading of each carrier. The total Erlang capacity of all carriers is the sum of the Erlang capacities of the individual MCTA groups. The distribution of the incoming traffic across the different MCTA groups can be achieved through GSR or Hashing function. when the HPA reaches its capacity limit. The paging channel power is 4.2 Erlang Capacity of Hashing and GSR Functions Both Hashing and GSR functions distribute user traffic randomly among the available RF carriers. (Note that the noise rise of different RF carriers carrying the same number of calls could be quite different. if it desired to keep blocking at the same level as that without the MCTA. the paging channel power is 1.2 Erlang Capacity of MCTA with more than Three Carriers At this time. In contrast. The Erlang capacity of several RF carriers is thus the sum of the Erlang capacities of the individual carriers. then number of calls per carrier can be increased. then each carrier will be assigned N/M users. Thus. Suppose that at one time instant the call is assigned to the carrier that has reached its capacity limit. For full-rate paging (9600 kbps).

Example 3.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA 3. 7 Usually.3.23. Example 3.3.1: For 8k vocoder and 8k EVRC. the capacity of the first carrier is reduced by 5% and the capacity of the second and third carriers is increased by 5%.3.4 Two or Three RF carriers with one Full-Rate Paging7 If one half-rate paging cannot accommodate all paging traffic required for two. paging channel load is not of a major concern. then a full-rate paging channel should be used. all with respect to a half-rate paging capacity. In this case. In this case. number of users/sector = 20 for the first carrier and 21 users/sector for the second and third carriers.3: For example 3.3. 3.82 for the two-carrier case and 14.or three-carrier MCTA.3 Two or Three RF carriers with one Half-Rate Paging This scenario is typically associated with the MCTA where 2 or 3 carriers are served by one paging channel.1. Example 3. the average Erlang/sector/carrier = 13.60 for the three-carrier case. number of users/sector/carrier = 20 (for mobility users assuming tri-sectored sites. the paging channel capacity is higher than the CM capacity. Using the MCTA.3.3. Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 21 06/15/99 .1.1.31 for the three-carrier case. Erlang/sector/carrier = 12. Using the MCTA. 2% achieved FER.2: For example 3.03.2 One RF carrier with Full-Rate Paging Capacity (number of peak users in the sector) is reduced by 5% by going from halfrate paging to full-rate paging. For 1% GoS.1 One RF carrier with Half-Rate Paging (Baseline Scenario) The capacity numbers that are communicated internally and externally are based on the assumption that paging is running at half rate.40 for the two-carrier case and 14.3. Ec/Io of > -12 dB. etc).3.4: For example 3. the capacity of the second and third carriers is increased by 5%. number of users/sector = 19 for the first carrier and 21 users/sector for the second and third carriers. number of users/sector/carrier = 19 and Erlang/sector/carrier = 11. 3. Consequently. Example 3. the average Erlang/sector/carrier = 13. 3.3.3.3.

Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA 4 Traffic Management in Hybrid (Mobile/Fixed) Networks 4. Even if the overlaying carrier (s) do not provide a contiguous coverage. 4. Third.1 Traffic Management in Fixed Wireless Networks When the traffic demand in a FWA network exceeds the capacity of one CDMA carrier. the MCTA should always be used at all sites implementing more than one carrier including the multi-carrier (MC) border sites. Since FWA capacity is expected to be higher than mobility. one or two additional carriers are deployed above the common carrier (or carriers) at different cell sites. This approach is motivated by four reasons: 1. The second approach is to mix both traffic types on the same RF carrier (s). First. 4. One approach is to assign the fixed traffic to one set of RF carriers and the mobility traffic to another set of carriers.2. In this case the traffic allocation should be done through the MCTA algorithm. there is no need to come up with a new feature for traffic management in hybrid networks. The MCTA method should be used to distribute traffic across the carriers. Since the peak hour for mobile and fixed users occurs generally at different times slots and for that matter they load the resources at different times of the day. Second. Using this method. Consequently. there are two possible approaches to distributing the hybrid traffic across the CDMA carriers. the MoU per carrier is maximized. T1/E1 and BTS control processor. distributing the fixed and mobility traffic over the same carrier (carriers) will balance the traffic distribution among the carriers. then mixing the traffic on all available carriers is recommended. but not limited to. 2. Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 22 06/15/99 . 3. the traffic resources can be shared more effectively. this approach tends to maximize the benefit of the MCTA as compared with the case where the fixed traffic is assigned to one set of carriers and the mobility traffic is assigned to another set of carriers.1 First Approach (Preferred): Mixing Fixed and Mobility Traffic Across All Carriers If the additional carriers cover the whole or a large portion of the geographical area.2 Traffic Management in Hybrid Systems For hybrid CDMA networks with more than one RF carrier available. This is because there are no hard hand-off problems associated with FWA networks. channel element. Hardware limits include. 4. the ability of reducing the hardware limits on capacity.

the fixed users in the isolated carrier (s) should be assigned to the additional carrier (or carriers using the MCTA). The mobile users should only be placed on the common carrier (or common carriers using the MCTA).2 Second Approach: Separating Fixed and Mobility Traffic on Different Carriers In some deployment scenarios. Gray-zone area Coverage area of F3 for fixed users Coverage area of F2 for fixed users Coverage area of common carrier F1 for fixed and mobility users Figure 5. the fixed users in the isolated carriers are assigned specific access classes (for example access class 0 and 1). on the other hand. This problem occurs at the cell edge of an isolated carrier due to the lack of the soft hand-off gain in the reverse link. To solve this problem. For example. The coverage in the forward link. This solution reduces the problems associated with border cells (i. … ). if the additional carriers are deployed at isolated sites. This situation is depicted in Figure 5. the frequency selection should be done using the MCTA feature. Illustration of frequency deployment in hybrid networks with noncontiguous coverage. In order to maximize the Erlang capacity. it may become necessary to separate fixed and mobility traffic from one carrier to another. To achieve this traffic assignment. As a result. hard hand problems) making it an attractive solution when the percentage of mobile users is small. F3. a gray-zone area representing the coverage imbalance between the links is created.2. which could be achieved with only one paging channel for up to 3 carriers.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA 4. Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 23 06/15/99 .. then we face the problem of gray zones. improves substantially due to the lack of the out-of-cell interference.e. The GSR on the common carrier (F1) can be used to send all terminals with access class 0 and 1 to the additional carrier (F2.

If it is desired to separate them.1. then the Erlang capacity that can be achieved with the MCTA is given Table 3 for mobility and Table 4 for fixed. then the GSR can be used to direct fixed and mobility traffic to their desired carriers.4].Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA Mobility and fixed users in areas that have only the common carrier must then share that carrier.2.3 MCTA Erlang Capacity of Hybrid Systems If the users are 100% mobiles or 100% fixed. For hybrid systems. the Erlang capacity is the weighted linear sum of the Erlang capacities of the individual mobile and fixed systems. 4. Detailed procedure and examples are given in [5. The procedure of calculating the MCTA Erlang capacity for more than 3 carriers is given in Section 3. Sec. then fixed and mobile users can be assigned to either carrier. The weights are calculated according to the percentages of the mobility and fixed users and also according to their Erlang usage per subscriber. 3. If there are more than one common carrier. Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 24 06/15/99 .

If half-rate paging cannot handle all required traffic for the 3 carriers. paging should be transmitted at half rate. In this case. although this cannot be always achieved (see section 5. If the design requirements dictate deploying more than 3 carriers. all mobiles are idle on F1) will cause mobiles to take 3 to 8 seconds before they can return to F1 after a call is established on F2. one should try to maximize the number of carriers per pool. The phone may show "No Service" for 3 to 8 seconds. The distribution of the incoming traffic among the different MCTA groups can be achieved through the Hashing.e.1). then the traffic resources should be divided into several groups. each with 3 or less carriers..2.1 One Paging Channel and Excess Delay Deploying a second carrier without Paging/Sync (i. This arrangement tends to maximize the Erlang capacity of the cell site Total Number of Carriers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 NUMBER OF CARRIERS PER GROUP Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 3 1 0 0 3 2 0 0 3 3 0 0 3 3 1 0 3 3 2 0 3 3 3 0 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 2 Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 25 06/15/99 .2 More than 3 Carriers Situation At this time. which may not be desirable to the customer. then full-rate paging should be considered. In order to reduce the effect of paging on capacity. Table 5 Optimal distribution of carriers across several traffic pools for a maximum number of carriers per pool of 3. 5. the MCTA can support only 3 carriers per traffic pool. Note that each group of RF carriers managed by an MCTA requires at least one paging channel.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA 5 Deployment Issues and Recommendations 5. paging on F2 may not be avoided. In order to maximize the benefit of MCTA. Table 5 provides a procedure of how to group the carriers.

This tends to improve the capacity performance of the MCTA. Suppose that the system is designed for 13 users per sector per carrier at 1% GoS (assume mobility).g...61 = 33.39 (for 3 carriers) + 15.05 Erlangs..2.g. one paging channel per traffic pool is required.1. the MCTA provided 20% increase in Erlang capacity over the conventional method (i.e. Distribute the traffic evenly across the carriers. then this requires 2 traffic pools one with 3 carriers and the other with 2 carriers. So. F1 and F2) in one MCTA group and the other three carriers (F3. Using Hashing function.1. F2) and (F3.F3}. followed by the carrier that has the second largest coverage. Two Paging Channels for the Five Carriers: Two carriers (e. without pooling the traffic resources).Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA Example: Suppose it is desired to deploy 5 CDMA carriers in one particular cell site. Using Hashing function with two paging channels.27 (2 carriers) = 39. Thus.1 Four Carriers Two carriers (e. 60% of the incoming traffic should be directed towards the first group and 40% should be directed towards the second group8. For example.. the Channel Lists of both F1 and F3 should be datafilled with {F1. 50% of the idle-mode 8 This may not be achieved if it is desired not to have one paging channel per carrier (see Section 5. The MCTA is then enabled on the traffic groups (F1. F4) by requiring the Cell ID of the carriers in each group to be the same in the Extended Base ID entry of the PilotDatabase. and so on). If the this goal cannot be achieved. 50% of the idle-mode traffic is placed on F1 and the other 50% is placed on F3. This number should be contrasted with 5 x 6.2 Five Carriers Two solutions are recommended based on number of paging channels: 1. from Table 3. F1 and F2) in one MCTA group and the other two carriers (F3 and F4) in another group. 5.2) Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 26 06/15/99 . So.66 Erlangs. Then.1.2.F3}. more traffic should be allocated to the carrier that has the largest coverage. 5. which is the Erlang capacity of the cell site without MCTA.1 Hashing in Conjunction with MCTA There are several possibilities of distributing traffic among the available carriers. The design strategy should attempt to achieve the following goals: 1.2. Maximize the number of RF carriers in each MCTA group according to Table 5. F4 and F5) in another group. the total Erlang capacity of the cell site is 24. for this example.e. For this scenario. then one should try to allocate more traffic to the overlaid carriers (i. but we discuss here only the recommended solution for each scenario.2. 5. the Channel Lists of both F1 and F3 should have {F1. 2.

3 for a discussion and examples of the impact of paging on the MCTA capacity performance. In this configuration. F3) and (F4. The MCTA is then enabled on the traffic groups (F1. The MCTA is then enabled on the traffic groups (F1. F1 is only datafilled in the channel list of F1 and F2 is only datafilled in the channel list of F2. F4. 5. Using Hashing function with three paging channels. F4 and F5 are each assigned 16. F5}. 33.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA traffic is placed on F1 and the other 50% is placed on F3. Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 27 06/15/99 .22% of the calls. This way. then no mobile will go to the carrier which has gone out-of service. Please refer to section 3. F3 and F5. F2 and F3) in one MCTA group and the other three carriers (F4 and F5) in another group.. One Paging Channel per Carrier with the Frequency Number Listed in its Own Carrier (Recommended Method): The result of this configuration varies depending on the product type: Non-Metro Cells: Using this method.67% of the calls. The problem with this configuration is that carriers F1 and F2 are each assigned 25% of the calls. while carriers F3.33% of the idle-mode traffic goes to each of F1.g. F5) by requiring the Cell ID of the carriers in each group to be the same in the Extended Base ID entry of the PilotDatabase. F2.67% of the calls. Metro Cells: This method cannot be used due to the limitation of one common channel list on all carriers. since it guarantees a normal operation of one carrier when the other one is wilted. Three Paging Channels for the Five Carriers: Two carriers (e. The downside of this method is that we are wasting a paging channel power in addition to a complete non-usage of the secondary carrier(s). while carriers F4 and F5 are each assigned 16. Thus. F3. This is the preferred method. this configuration has a better traffic balance than the previous one (with the overlaid carriers taking the extra loading).3 When One Carrier is Wilted The impact of wilted carrier on the MCTA functionality varies depending on how the MCTA is implemented. if either F1 or F2 goes out of service. This solution is recommended if two paging channels for the five carriers are proven to be enough and if it is desired to place more calls on carriers F1 and F2 (this may be desirable in order to avoid the problems associated with hard hand-off). F2 and F3 are each assigned 22. F3 and F5 are datafilled with {F1. carriers F1. Below. F1. So. F5) by requiring the Cell ID of the carriers in each group to be the same in the Extended Base ID entry of the PilotDatabase. 1. we identify three methods of implementing the MCTA on non-border sites and discuss the pros and cons of each method and the effect of wilted carrier on the MCTA performance. F2) and (F3. 2. the Channel Lists of F1.

it cannot find it and goes back to F1. 5. This makes it easy to change the MCTA boundaries as needed. One Paging Channel for only the Primary Carrier: The third approach is to have one paging channel on F1 only (with F1 on its channel list only). In addition. This method improves the capacity of F2. once the call is setup on F2. Consequently.4.4. The problem with this approach is that if F2 goes down and a mobile is hashing on F2. the multi-carrier border cells need to be datafilled as CELL_BORDER cell-type in the Pilot Database (PDP) on the SBS if the RTD is to be used as a hard-hand-off trigger.1 Problem Statement With the current implementation of MCTA algorithm. 3... If a mobile stay on F2 and move far beyond the RTD boundary and make a call. hashes to F2. the multi-carrier border sites should be implemented with the following considerations: Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 28 06/15/99 . MCTA border cells need no special configuration and fit in nicely with the existing deployment. The downside is that if F1 goes out of service.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA 2. the coverage of F2 border sector will extend way beyond that of colocating F1. there is no distinction between call setups due to new calls or hard hand-off calls. Again.2 Deployment Considerations To solve these problems. This problem is known as a gray-zone and is depicted in Figure 6. 5. 5. the mobile’s location may no longer be within the coverage area of F1 so there is a high probability of HHO failure. However.4 MCTA on Multi-Carrier Border Cell Sites The MCTA should also be used in border cells. but in conjunction with the MultiPilot Hard Hand-Off (MPHHO) in order to alleviate the border cell issues. will come back to F1.. and re-tries to hash to F2. the Hashing function is enabled. as shown in Figure 6. it will immediately be hard handoff down to F1. some calls could drop at multi-carrier border cells if MCTA places a hard hand-off call onto the same frequency that it was hard handing-off from. then no mobile will be able to access either F1 or F2. One Paging Channel per Carrier with both Frequencies in the Channel List of both Carriers (Not Recommended): The second approach is to include both F1 and F2 on the channel list of both carriers. it sees both carriers on the channel list. since no power is delegated to paging. However. In this case. The other problem is the capacity loss due to the transmission of two paging channels. since the outer tier of F2 doesn’t have neighbor cells in the outward direction. cannot find it. and the process will end up in a loop.

This way. The foot-print of border sector of F2 can be reduced by reducing digital gain of its overhead channels. RTD HHO Boundary Idle Hand Down to F1 Neighbors F1 F2 F1 + F2 Region Border Sectors F1 F1 F1 Figure 7. the loop condition can be reduced (i. If a mobile moves way beyond RTD boundary and still makes an access on F2. call will not go to F2). this is given by the outer tier (border sectors facing outward away from the F1+F2 region). MPHHO can be used to improve HHO performance.e. At the same time. RTD HHO Boundary F1 + F2 Region F2 F1 Border Sectors HHO to F1 (Drop Call) Figure 6. The foot-print of border sector of F2 is bigger than that of F1. so that it will cover beyond RTD. Extend the RTD boundary far enough to force hard hand-off (from F2 to F1) to occur with the neighbor cells (those without MCTA and assuming that there is only one carrier in the neighbor cells). In Figure 1. but within the foot Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 29 06/15/99 .Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA 1. after the call setup it may be HHO to a wrong F1 cell and the call drops.

two T1's must be provided instead of just one. If the first entry in the target list is an MCTA site. MPHHO allows mobile to hard handoff into up to six target cells not in the MCTA region. for Redundant 2-carrier Metro Cells. then MCTA will be invoked. Please note that this solution is not always recommended and could be prohibited if the system noise rise in the forward link results in too much degradation in the pilot Ec/Io. it is possible to daisy-chain them which would save some cost). With multiple target cells. This method requires modifying scripts by hand to allow different cell IDs per sector. (Although. Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 30 06/15/99 . In this case. Note that if the first entry in the target list is non-MCTA site.5. it may be desired to disable some RF carriers from the MCTA functionality either temporarily due to some maintenance issues or permanently due to RF problems or operational as dictated by the customer.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA print of F1. 5. as shown in Figure 7. since the MCTA is the only traffic management method that dynamically balances traffic across carriers. the cells must be split. The mobile should perform idle hand down to one of the F1 neighbor cells before it moves too far beyond the RTD boundary. the mobile can perform hard handoff with a better chance of surviving.1 Two Carriers To disable the MCTA and still use both frequencies. 5. The downsides of this approach are the obvious loss of the MCTA capacity gain and. then the MCTA algorithm is disabled for that HHO.5 Disabling the MCTA Feature on Metro Cell Sites In some Metro Cell sites. As mentioned above. It is important to note that the MCTA should be used where it is possible. but still covers beyond the RTD boundary. Note: The RTD boundary and the paging channel coverage limit should be within the reverse-link coverage limit of the mobile. so that their coverage area will shrink in. 2. and as such. Reduce the overhead gain of the F2 border sectors. it is possible to delay the hard hand-off long enough such that the mobile can move out of the underlying sector and then hard hand-off to the surrounding tier of cells. the cell IDs must be made different on both carriers. MPHHO can be utilized to alleviate the problems created when MCTA is enabled at multi-carrier border sites.

5. F1. MCTA deployment in hot spot areas. This scenario also requires one paging channel for F4 and another paging channel for {F1. one paging channel for F3 and another paging channel for {F1. Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 31 06/15/99 . F2 and F3).2.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA 5. carrier F1 is assigned higher priority in order to keep the calls on F1 (even within the hot spots) as they move out of the hot spot area.g.1..6 MCTA Deployment for Hot Spot Areas The MCTA features the ability of assigning different frequency priorities with the different carriers.. then the cell IDs on carriers F1 and F2 must be made identical. F4). thereby allowing calls to perform soft handoff.. F2 F1.g. if it is desired to disable the MCTA on one carrier (e.. One possible use of this feature is to reduce unnecessary hard handoffs under lightly loaded conditions by making the MCTA algorithm allocate calls on a single frequency. while F3 should be datafilled with a different cell ID.5. F2 F1 only (Assigned higher priority) F1. The MCTA can only be enabled on a maximum of three carriers (e.3 In-door Metro Cell (Four Carriers) The indoor Metro Cell supports four carriers.g. F1. Please refer to Section 5. F3}. In this case. Thus.1 for details. F1 and F2). 5. F3) and keep it for the remaining carriers (e. Such benefit is obtained only if the additional carriers are deployed to cover isolated areas (e. Note that with four carriers. F2} are needed. then the cell IDs on carriers F1. F2 Figure 8. it is also possible to run the MCTA in conjunction with the Hashing function on two groups of two carrier each.g. hot spots areas) as shown in Figure 8.2 Three Carriers If it is desired to disable the MCTA on one carrier (e. F2. under lightly loaded conditions. Thus. F2 F1. 5..g. F2 and F3 must be made identical and the cell ID for F4 is made different.

This restriction is due to the limitation of the Channel Assignment Message in IS-95-A. This is also mandated as per IS-95-A section 7.1. the mobile “re-tunes” to the assigned frequency and attempts to search for the same PN offset.Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA However.3. which does not have a field for PN offset.1 which states. 5. the frequencies should be assigned equal priorities to reduce call setup delays. in such cases where the entire coverage area is overlaid with the additional frequency.2. Under such circumstances. if the Channel Assignment Message is used to redirect the mobile to a different frequency.” Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 32 06/15/99 . Consequently.7 MCTA Restriction on Using PN Offsets All co-located MCTA sectors should use the same PN Offset. “The same pilot PN sequence offset shall be used on all CDMA frequency assignments for a given Base Station. such an approach may not be necessary.

Practical Traffic Management Strategies for Multi-Carrier CDMA 6 Acronyms ACCOLC ACN BSM BTS CDA CDMA CLI EBID EFLC FWA GoS GSR HHO HPA MC MCTA MoU MPHHO NBSS PCS PDB RF RTD SBSC Access Overload Class Application Communication Network Base Station Manager Base Station Transceiver Subsystem Carrier Determination Algorithm Code Division Multiple Access Command Line Interface Extended Basestation ID Excess Forward Link Capacity Fixed Wireless Access Grade of Service Global Service Redirection Hard Hand-Off High-Power Amplifier Multi-Carrier Multi-Carrier Traffic Allocation Minute of Use Multi-Pilot Hard Hand-off Nortel Base Station Software Personal Communication Services Pilot Data Base Radio Frequency Round Trip Delay Selector Bank Subsystem Controller Nortel Confidential and Proprietary 33 06/15/99 .