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RC NETWORK

The purpose in employing RC filters, apart from damping the switching over–
voltages, damping the re–strike current in order to keep it away from the breaker
chopping level thus making the breaker interrupt the current at its next zero value
crossing and avoid multiple re–strikes.






To prevent capacitor failures at a breaker restrike or failure.
To limit the risk of repeated breaker restrikes.
To prolong the service life of the capacitors by limiting high overvoltage’s.
To serve as an “insurance” against unforeseen resonance conditions which otherwise
would lead to capacitor failures.
For overall limitation of transients related to capacitor bank switching which can be
transferred further in the system and cause disturbances in sensitive equipment.
For upgrading of capacitors by preventing high over voltages and/or for increasing the
service voltage.
To serve as protection against lightning for capacitor banks connected to lines.

However, the high frequencies of this phenomenon deals which can be hazardous
for the transformer, because they could even be similar to the natural resonance
frequencies of the transformer windings, thus causing a significant dielectric stress
to the transformer windings. And can damage the insulation of the transformer. The
purpose of RC filters is thus to prevent the re–strike current from re–crossing the
chopping level immediately and being chopped. If the filter is correctly designed,
after the first re–strike the current is not chopped again until its next natural zero
value passage.
The usage of protection devices in employing arc furnace transformers is
fundamental to limit the enormous stresses these machines must suffer during their
common life. Furnace transformers have to endure very heavy solicitations, many
times per day. In order to ensure service continuity, and prevent serious damages,
protections design and employment is absolutely necessary.
Finally, the filter has been calculated according to the procedure indicated in the
reference [12].
On the basis of experienced cases,

c  90 x

i 0%  A
2

i – No Load current in %, A is the rating of the transformer, f
is the frequency, Vn is the System Voltage.

f  vn

The calculated capacitance is increased to 0.2 μF. This value of capacitance should
guarantee a good performance in terms of over–voltage limitation joined with a
reasonable power rating of the resistor.
In the above formulas i0% is the transformer no load current, A the transformer rated
power [MVA], Lc the connection cables inductance [H], Vn the HV rated voltage [kV]
and f is the network frequency [Hz]. It has also been considered the existence of a
stray inductance of the filter resistance of 50 μH, a value known by the resistance

construction features. In Fig. 8 the furnace power plant obtained using the data
listed above is shown.

Insulation failures were observed at the transformer primary winding and the VCB
due to the Frequent switching’s, so a suitable station type LA and a Surge capacitor
in series with the surge resistor is used to limit no load switching chopping voltages
connected from each HV bushing to ground, these were mounted on the
transformer tank in order that the connections would be short as possible.
It was seen as during the breaking or switching of the vcb under load during arcing
furnace heavy transient voltages are developed and were the cause for insulation
failure. No load switching also develops the transient voltages but they are low in
magnitude.
The transients can be measured from one transformer primary bushing to ground
caused by repetitive switching.
VCB switch chops the low currents when switch is opened surge capacitors are
connected to each HV for controlling the magnitude of voltage transients produced
by chopping of magnetizing currents
The task of surge capacitor was that of discharging the stored magnetic energy of
the transformer core, while it is not connected to the load, but they were unable to
control the severity of the transient over voltage during the load tripping, and
moreover they generate the repetitive transients also by storing and discharging
energy at different frequencies so additional protection is also required,
The various methods to be incorporated along with the surge capacitor are as
followed.
1) Damping resistors
2) LA connected to phase to phase on the transformer primary terminals.
The value of capacitor chosen were to limit the no load chopping voltages to 2.5
times normal line to neutral crest voltage this assures that these transient voltages
are below spark over of the LA
Small value of capacitor is chosen as the magnitude of these load currents would be
lower for chopping the current, and current from the capacitor should pass from the
resistor continuously hence low value of capacitor is chosen,.
Use of LA
Due to repetitive switching’s of the VCB the transient voltages are developed and it
will again reignite the arc,
Hence surge capacitors and resistor are used so that the voltage values do not
reach the crest values so that it again reignites,
But they can limit the transient voltages up to some limits above that we need to
use LA for the protection of the transformer against the transient voltages above
the spark over voltage of the LA

C = Cs+Cc
Cs surge capacitance, Cc cable capacitance, Lc cable inductance