Minerals Engineering 20 (2007) 739–746

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Recycling EAF dust by heat treatment with PVC
Gye-Seung Lee a, Young Jun Song
a

b,*

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569, Japan
b
Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Samcheok Campus Kangwon National University,
253 Gyodong, Samcheok, Republic of Korea
Received 29 September 2006; accepted 15 March 2007
Available online 4 May 2007

Abstract
This study investigated whether polyvinyl chloride (PVC) can be used as an additive for the treatment of electric arc furnace (EAF)
dust. The PVC powder was mixed with the dust in order to test the synchronous treatment of two resources: waste PVC and EAF dust.
The mixture was made into pellets and subjected to heat at various temperatures. The effects of the heat treatment and heating rate were
investigated. The PVC emitted hydrogen chloride gas by pyrolysis and generated chlorides of zinc, lead, and cadmium in the pellets.
These chlorides can be recovered by volatilization or leaching after the heat treatment. The residual pellet of this process contained over
45% iron, and it is expected that the residual pellet can be injected into the electric arc furnace.
Ó 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: EAF dust; PVC; Recycle; Heat treatment; Volatilization

1. Introduction
Generation of the electric arc furnace (EAF) dust in
steel-making companies has increased, and many research
studies on its treatment have been published. Although
most of the researches focused on the recovery of metals,
prior consideration about using the dust may be re-injection into the furnace as the principal ingredient of the dust
is iron. Therefore, the subject of those researches, like this
study, can be regarded as pretreatment for re-injection.
EAF dust refining methods can be classified as wet and
dry, and their main target metals are zinc, lead, and cadmium. A typical dry refining method involves mixing the
dust with an additive and subjecting it to heat. The noticeable point is that lead and cadmium are recovered as chlorides. For example, the WAELZ kiln method mixes the
dust with a reductant and roasts the mixture in about
1200 °C. Zinc can be recovered as metal by deoxidation
and volatilization. Although this method can recover
almost all lead and cadmium in the dust, all of those are
*

Corresponding author.
E-mail address: yjsong64@kangwon.ac.kr (Y.J. Song).

0892-6875/$ - see front matter Ó 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
doi:10.1016/j.mineng.2007.03.001

recovered as chloride and the source of chlorine is the dust
itself (Lee et al., 2000).
This research began from the idea that target metals of
the dust can be recovered as chlorides by volatilization.
We choose waste polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as the source
of chlorine and tested whether PVC can be used as the
additive. PVC is composed of about 57% chlorine and
about 43% hydrocarbon. It begins emitting hydrogen chloride gas by pyrolysis under 300 °C and remains hydrocarbon. Hydrogen chloride gas may pose a problem during
the incineration of waste, but it can be used as a provider
of chlorine. Moreover, the residual hydrocarbon of PVC
can be used as a reductant.
Therefore, this research was carried out for the simultaneous treatment of two kinds of resources: EAF dust and
waste PVC. The entire process of this research aimed to
recover the zinc, lead, and cadmium from the dust and
was adjusted so that the residual dust can be injected into
the EAF.
Instead of using waste PVC, pure PVC powder was used
in this research. The characteristic of the dust and PVC was
investigated. The dust and PVC were mixed and made as
pellets at various mixing ratios. The pellets were heat-treated

1% were ignored except cadmium.07 lm. Table 1 Composition of the dust (unit: wt%) ZnO Fe2O3 PbO CuO CdO Al2O3 CaO MgO Na2O K2O Cl 27. The chemical composition of the prepared solutions was analyzed by ICP (VISTA-Pro.2. RIGAKU) was used for the analysis of crystalline phases of samples.1.J.39 32. and the effects of the heat treatment and the heating rate were investigated. and SiO2 (quartz). Pure PVC powder (LS100S. Lead. Experimental The EAF dust was collected from a baghouse of a steelmaking company in Korea. Carbon content was calculated from the weight variations of the absorber (Korean Industrial Standard. the dust and PVC powder were blended by a rod mill for over 2 h. As can be seen. The X-ray diffraction technique was applied in the analysis of the crystalline phases of the dust. LG Chem Co. XRD patterns were compared with the list in the Joint Committee on powder diffraction standards (JCPDS) data files. 2 were collated with JCPDS and the results imply that the dust contains the following crystals: ZnFe2O4 (franklinite). A hydraulic oil press machine compressed about 3 g of the mixture at 200 kg f/cm2 for 30 s. Gases were exhausted through a condenser for the recovery of chlorides from the exhaust gases.) was used in experiments and was mixed with the dust in various ratios. JEOL) and EDX mapping technique.11 5. Fig. In this research and chemical analysis. Varian) except chlorine and carbon. 1998). and chlorine were minor elements. the use of binder or cement to solidify was not needed.48 0. Fe3O4 (magnetite). 3. The principal elements in the dust were iron and zinc. argon gas was injected into the furnace at a rate of 0. 3. producing cylindrical pellets. To control the atmosphere inside the furnace and draw out the volatilized gases.27 3. Intensities and positions of XRD patterns in Fig. Pyrolysis of PVC and reaction with the dust Fig. 2. Table 1 and the XRD result imply that chlorine in the dust mainly makes compounds with alkali metals. Characteristic of the EAF dust Table 1 shows the composition of the dust. Dust size was under 10 lm except approximately 8% of over 9 lm.46 4. Song / Minerals Engineering 20 (2007) 739–746 at various temperatures. Results and discussion 3. The mixture was injected into a cylindrical hole of a mold with an inner diameter of 11 mm. into which room-temperature argon gas was injected. Lee. 5 shows the size distribution and SEM photograph of the PVC sample. Fig. minor elements less than 0. the size of PVC particles ranges from 70 lm to 200 lm.740 G. The content of chlorine was measured by potentiometric method. ZnO (zincite). The roasted pellets were immediately removed at the end of roasting time and chilled in a cooling device. As the pellets generated by over 150 kg f/cm2 of compressive force were hard enough for the experiments to be performed. The weight of the chilled pellet was measured and weight decrease was calculated.69 3. 2003). NaCl (Halite). Y. Schematic diagram of experimental apparatus. 3 shows the particle size distribution of the dust. The solid samples were dissolved by an acid mixture for analysis.95 .07 1.23 5. the sample was pulverized into under 45 lm and heated in a tube furnace at 800 °C. Photographs of SEM in Fig. We used five pieces of pellets in a crucible for each roasting experiment. particles of over 9 lm can be regarded as aggregate of other smaller particles. alkali metals. Prior to making pellets. X-ray diffraction technique (D/max-2200. 4 indicate that dust particles were spherical in shape with a diameter of about 1 lm. 1 shows the schematic of the furnace used in this research. Therefore. The configuration of the samples and the distribution of several elements in the sample were observed by SEM (JSM6300. which is the titration method using a silver electrode and silver nitrate titrant (Clesceri et al.-S. KCl (Sylvite).25 m3/h. 1.31 0. Oxygen gas was injected into the furnace and the exhaust gas was drawn out through a carbon dioxide gas absorber using sodium hydroxide.23 2. coinciding with the median size of the dust: 1.. Fig. To measure the carbon content of the sample.

Particle size distribution of the dust. Fig. TG–DTA curves of PVC powder. After the emission of hydrogen chloride. 3. 2. XRD patterns of the dust (Cu Ka). ΔT Differential frequency (%) 100 Particle size (μm) -2 20 1 -4 0 0. It lost only 28% of its weight under the argon atmosphere. 5. Consequently. under the air atmosphere.) ducted in the atmosphere of air and argon. 6. SEM photographs of the dust.J.G. For confirmation of the pyrolysis of the PVC sample.-S. 4. The tests were con- 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Temperature (ºC) Fig. the entire residue burned with the exothermic peak of the DTA under 600 °C. It indicated that the PVC pyrolyzed and emitted hydrogen chloride with a little hydrocarbon. Fig. Both TGA curves commonly showed sudden weight loss of about 62% between 250 °C and 350 °C and those were accompanied with small endothermic peaks in both DTA curves. thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG– DTA) of PVC sample were performed. respectively. 6 5 100 4 TGA in Ar TGA in air DTA in Ar DTA in air TGA (wt%) 80 3 2 4 2 60 0 40 DTA.. the PVC 10% pellet. 150 200 250 Fig.1 0 1 10 100 Particle size (μm) Fig. Fig. Lee. the PVC began to emit hydrogen chloride gas under 300 °C and the hydrocarbon residue decomposed at over 400 °C. which was 4% of weight loss and it was noticed as benzene or toluene (Saeed et al. the mixing ratio of the dust and PVC is 9:1 was heated at 300 °C for 1 h and its cross-section was observed by the EDX mapping technique of SEM. the residue began to decompose at about 400 °C. (Heating rate of 10 °C/min. However. Y. 2004). Particle size distribution and SEM photograph of PVC powder. To confirm the pyrolysis of the PVC in the pellet. 6 shows the result. 7 shows the distribution of the carbon and . Song / Minerals Engineering 20 (2007) 739–746 N F Z Z 14 Particle size distribution (%) Intensity K N Z F 16 F : Franklinite or Magnetite Z : Zincite (ZnO) K : Sylvite (KCl) N : Halite (NaCl) F F F F F K N Z K F 741 Z 12 10 8 6 4 2 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 80 50 2θ Fig.

Y. The PVC 30% pellets were heated in temperatures varying from 300 °C to 1000 °C for 1 h. Volatilization of cadmium finished at 800 °C. Volatilization of zinc. 7b and c indicate that the residual PVC contained no chlorine and the hydrogen chloride reacted with the dust around that. It implies that the generation of the zinc chloride is slower than other chlorides or something interrupts the generation or volatilization of the zinc chloride. 100 Cd Pb Zn Fe Volatilized ratio (%) 80 60 40 20 0 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Temperature (ºC) Fig. Therefore. However. However. Fig. can be volatilized at 300 °C is FeCl3. 8. Song / Minerals Engineering 20 (2007) 739–746 Fig.implying that the volatilization of iron was mainly caused by the generation of FeCl3. and particularly from 600 °C. 10 is the XRD patterns of the pellets roasted from 800 °C to 1000 °C shown in Fig. although ZnCl2 could volatilize at a lower temperature than the chlorides of lead and cadmium. 800 Zn 700 2 Cd 500 CdCl ZnCl 2 PbCl 2 600 400 F eC l2 300 3 200 100 0 FeCl Vapour pressure (mmHg) chloride on the cross-section with SEM photograph. 9. (b) carbon and (c) chlorine. Lee. As can be seen. (a) SEM photograph. This implies that potassium chloride can restrain zinc chloride from volatilization until 900 °C by generating K2ZnCl4. 8. The effect of the heat treatment on the volatilization of metals is shown in Fig. 7. the heating rate was very fast but could not be measured. As can be seen. the form of iron which 200 400 600 800 1000 Temperature (ºC) Fig. 1975). This result can be explained by vapor pressure of the chlorides as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 11a is the SEM photograph of the pellet roasted at 800 °C. instead. it vanished at 1000 °C and. Variation of vapor pressure as temperature. Vapor pressures of PbCl2 and CdCl2 can explain that the volatilization of lead and cadmium had rapidly increased from 600 °C. However. Fig. The dust and PVC combined with each other and lost their original shapes. .J. Its volatilization was stopped by sudden chilling at the end of the heat treatment. the peak of KCl became bigger. volatilization began to rapidly increase. There were needle-shaped materials around the residual PVC. lead. the new peak of K2ZnCl4 appeared at 800 °C. its volatilization finished at about 1000 °C. the material can be regarded as the result of the sudden chloride growth.-S. Fig. and those of lead and zinc were finished at 1000 °C. As can be seen in the figure. EDX mapping of the cross-section of the pellet (PVC 10% pellet roasted at 300 °C for 1 h). 9 (The Chemical Society of Japan. and cadmium increased in proportion to the temperature. 8.742 G. This pellet was heated at 800 °C and much of volatile chlorides still remained inside it. 8. Cross-sections of those pellets were observed by SEM. 17% of iron was volatilized at 300 °C and the volatilized amount hardly varied with the temperature. Volatilized elements as temperature from PVC 30% pellets roasted at each temperature for 1 h. Because the pellets were quickly injected into the furnace when the internal temperature of the furnace reached the target temperature. the PVC particle decomposed in the pellet and had a hollow structure.

Fig. Effect of heating rate Fig. Y. SEM photographs of the cross-section of PVC 30% pellets. because reaction (1) does not occur at the temperature in which hydrogen chloride gas is emitted. lead. . 13 shows the predictable chemical reactions in the pellet and the variation of the Gibbs free energy of those reactions (Barin. Lee. and cadmium. F : Fe3O4 or ZnFe2O4 W : FeO Z F I : Fe Z : ZnO K : KCl N : NaCl P : K2ZnCl 4 K I K F N ZZ W N F N K 1000 ºC F ZF IK IN N Intensity F Z W P K P F P N Z P N Z I N ZF N F KW Z Z 900º C F W IK Z I W NW N F I W Z K P F P P N 10 20 N P F Z 30 N F KW K 40 800 ºC N ZF Z 50 I WF I W W N Z K 60 743 70 N 80 F 90 2θ Fig.0% of zinc. and cadmium can be generated earlier than FeCl3. and 97. However. reaction (2) can be regarded as the main reaction of generating FeCl3. and those of (7) and (8) are about the generation of cadmium chloride and lead chloride. the pellet had shrunken as the roasting time. respectively. 12 shows the variation of appearance of the pellet as roasting time at 1000 °C. Reactions (5) and (6) are about the generation of the zinc chloride. Fig. As can be seen. Roasting at 1000 °C in Fig. 11b shows the pellet heated at 900 °C. Therefore. the roasting of the PVC 30% pellets at 1000 °C for 1 h can recover 97. 3. 11c shows the SEM of crosssection of this sample.G. 1995.3. Residual dust grew into plate-shaped crystals of very porous aggregation. (a) 60 min at 800 °C. 1998). (b) 60 min at 900 °C and (c) 90 min at 1000 °C. 11. lead. Consequently.. As can be seen.-S. XRD patterns of PVC 30% pellet roasted as temperature (Cu Ka).J. although the chlorides of zinc. about 20% of iron was volatilized unsuitably. 11c sintered those crystals and reduced pores. However. 10. Song / Minerals Engineering 20 (2007) 739–746 Although residual PVC was not found.5%. 99. about 100 lm space of the PVC particle remained vacant. the reactions from (5) to (9) have lower Gibbs free energy than reaction (2). Fig. caused by volatilization and sintering. some amount of Fig. respectively. Shimada et al. Reactions (1) and (2) are about the generation of FeCl3.2%.

The FeCl2 was prepared by roasting FeCl2 Æ 4H2O at 200 °C and this dehydration was confirmed through another preliminary test.l) + H2O(g) 13 14 (10) FeCl2(s. Song / Minerals Engineering 20 (2007) 739–746 Fig. 90 min.l) + Fe2O3(s) + H2O(g) 0 (6) ZnO(s) + 2HCl(g) = ZnCl2(s. The samples were separated into soluble and insoluble material as they were leached in water and analyzed.744 G. because the volatilization of ferrous chloride is possible at a higher temperature than other chlorides. and (13) indicate the chlorine exchange reaction between the ferrous chloride and others. Sodium hydroxide was injected into that solution until its pH becomes 9. Photograph of PVC 30% pellets roasted at 1000 °C for 5.l) + H2O(g) 10 (7) CdO(s) + 2HCl(g) = CdCl2(s. Those are influential reactions. and it can be also used as a chlorine provider.J. The synthetic franklinite (ZnFe2O4) and FeCl2 were used in the test. The synthesized franklinite was confirmed by XRD. and cadmium in the EAF dust. Variations of DG° as temperature. 9. 30. 12. Ferrous chloride can be generated as in reaction (4). 1992). The possibility of the reaction (10) was tested by the experiment in Fig. It was subjected to heat until the temperature reached 1000 °C. The zinc chloride also can be used as chlorine provider to both cadmium and lead as in reactions (12) and (14). The franklinite was prepared according to the following method. 14 was calculated . On the contrary. (1) Fe2O3(s) + 6HCl(g) = 2FeCl3(s.l) + 2FeCl3(g) + 4H2O(g) 4 (3) Fe3O4(s) + CO(g) = 3FeO(s) + CO2(g) 2 (5) ZnFe2O4(s)+2HCl(g)= ZnCl2(s. A Japanese patent had tried to treat the EAF dust by using ferrous chloride (Sugawara. rapid pyrolysis of the PVC leads to the partial high concentration of the hydrogen chloride gas. 14.g) + 3H2O(g) 8 (2) ZnFe2O4(s) + 8HCl(g) = 1 ZnCl2(s. Each aliquot was collected at each temperature at an interval of 100 °C. 15.-S. 60. it is expected that a low heating rate can avoid the concentration of hydrogen chloride and proceed with the reactions from (5) to (9). Under the high heating rate.l) + H2O(g) 4 -4 11 5 12 6 o ΔG ( x 10 -4 J/mole) (4) Fe3O4(s) + 2HCl(g) = FeCl2(s. Lee. Reactions (10).l) + H2O(g) (9) CaO(s) + 2HCl(g) = CaCl2(s. The precipitated mixture of Zn(OH)2 and Fe(OH)3 was recovered and roasted at 600 °C for 17 h and at 800 °C for 1 h. The ZnFe2O4 and FeCl2 were mixed as 1:1 of the mole ratio and injected into a furnace at room temperature. ZnCl3 and FeCl3 Æ 6H2O were mixed as 1:2 of the mole ratio and dissolved in water. (11). at a heating rate of 2 °C/min.l. and asserted that ferrous chloride is a good chlorine provider to zinc. The percentage of zinc and iron shown in Fig. Y. which increases the possibility of reaction (2).l) + Fe2O3(s) + H2O(g) 3 (8) PbO(s) + 2HCl(g) = PbCl2(s. iron volatilized due perhaps to the following reason. lead. as shown in Fig.l) + ZnFe2O4(s) = ZnCl2(l) + Fe3O4(s) -8 (11) FeCl2(l) + ZnO(s) = ZnCl2(g) + FeO(s) (12) ZnCl2(g) + CdO(s) = CdCl2(l) + ZnO(s) 7 -12 8 (13) FeCl2(l) + CdO(s) = CdCl2(l) + FeO(s) 9 200 400 (14) ZnCl2(l) + PbO(s) = PbCl2(l) + ZnO(s) 600 800 1000 Temperature (ºC) Fig. 13. in which the mixture of ferrous chloride and dust was mixed at 1000 °C.

and chlorine of the PVC. the following observation can be made. When the excess PVC was mixed with the dust. Therefore. 25 100 90 80 Recovery (%) Volatilized Fe (%) 20 15 10 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Mixed PVC (%) 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Heating Rate (ºC/min) Fig.05 mol/L for precipitating the residual ferrous chloride in the roasted pellet into Fe(OH)3. The volatilized amount of metals was obtained by the analysis of the roasted pellet before the washing. . 15. Recovery of metals as PVC mixing ratio by roasting at 800 °C and washing. hydrogen chloride reactions. Finally. However. Dissolved Zn Volatilized Zn Chlorine of PVC Dissolved Pb Volatilized Pb Dissolved Cd Volatilized Cd Fig. lead. the chlorine exchange began at about 600 °C and finished at about 800 °C. 16 shows the recovery of zinc. Y.J. Rapid heating rate makes excessive concentration of the hydrogen chloride gas and induces to generated ferric chloride. the heating rate slower than 4 °C/min progresses the reactions in sequence of Gibb free energy in Fig. from the above results. and chlorine exchange. 745 Therefore. As can be seen. In case of 700 °C. The effect of the heating rate on the volatilization of iron was tested in Fig. The volatilization of iron decreased in proportion to the decrease of the heating rate. Dissolved and volatilized zinc increased in proportion to the decrease of FeCl2. because the particles of the latter were sintered.G. the effect of the mixed PVC ratio was investigated. we do not need to increase the temperature until 1000 °C. such as the pyrolysis of the PVC. under the concept that soluble and insoluble materials make up 100%. The amount of dissolved metals was obtained by the analysis of the supernatant of the washing solution. The technique used in this research left much chloride residue in the roasted pellet. The PVC 30% pellets were injected into the furnace at room temperature and heat-treated at 400 °C for half an hour. the pellet was washed after heat treatment. 13. The chlorides of transition metals can be volatilized by heat treatment. heat treatment at 800 °C will be safe because FeCl2 can still remain in the pellet. The heat treatment will be undertaken at 800 °C for the following reasons. Song / Minerals Engineering 20 (2007) 739–746 100 Soluble Zn Volatilized Zn Concentration (%) 80 Soluble Fe (FeCl2) Volatilized Fe 60 40 FeCl2 20 0 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Temperature(ºC) Fig. about 45% of soluble iron decreased and about 44% of zinc was dissolved or volatilized. About 3. The volatilization of zinc increased with the temperature and almost all zinc volatilized at 1000 °C. for the re-injection of the residual pellet.-S. The pellets were heated at 800 °C for 1 h and the heating rate was 2 °C/min. cadmium. Chlorine exchange between FeCl2 and ZnFe2O4 as temperature. The heated pellets were pulverized under 150 lm and injected into the dilute hydrochloric acid solution. 14. 11 that the state of the pellet heat-treated at 800 °C is more suitable for washing than the pellet heat-treated at 1000 °C. The chlorine exchange between iron and zinc occurred as an equivalent mole ratio. but the chlorides of alkali metals and alkaline metals cannot. The PVC powder was mixed with the dust as the ratio from 10% to 45%. The heating rate varied from 2 °C/min to 60 °C/min. but iron did not volatilize. 15. 16. When the washing step is included in the process. Moreover.9% of iron volatilized at the heating rate of 10 °C/min and none of the iron volatilized at the heating rate of 4 °C/min. All of the necessary reactions occur under 800 °C. it can be noticed in the SEM photograph shown in Fig. H2O2 was injected into the solution as 0. Fig. Lee. whose pH was adjusted at 5. Relation between the heating rate and volatilization of Fe from the PVC 30% pellet.

Clesceri..D. 17. K. Recy..6% of the original pellet after the heat treatment and washing. The recovery of cadmium was irrelevant to the PVC ratio and exceeded 92% at the 10% PVC mixing ratio.9% carbon. The recovery of zinc and lead increased in proportion to the mixed PVC ratio and converged at 40% and 30%. 1565–1583. it should be considered. Chemical Handbook. heat treatment at 800 °C. Korean Inst. 20th ed..4% of lead. and the concentration of iron and carbon in the final residue were 46% and 20.-S. 895. implying that mixing 45% of PVC is excessive. Haapala. The pellets were subjected to heat treatment at various temperatures. The recovery of chlorine decreased in proportion to the mixed PVC ratio. 1995. Takeda. A. Cl. which occurred because the ferrous chloride in the heattreated pellet precipitated into ferric hydroxide during washing..J. Ltd. References Barin.8% of cadmium. The recovery of chlorine of the PVC was calculated under the assumption that volatilized metals were recovered as chlorides. 3rd ed. Res. For instance. Y..9%. respectively. and cadmium of the dust. but the heating rate lower than 4 °C/min did not. K. 2004. and 98. 702–705. Kajinami. 97. the weight of the PVC 40% pellet was reduced to 29. the optimum condition identified in this research is the following: 40% of the PVC mixing ratio.S. The PVC 40% pellets were heat-treated at 800 °C at a heating rate of 2 °C/min. 3–15. I. and 98. 97. L. Saeed. The weight of residue decreased in proportion to the mixed PVC ratio. Fe.. Kumagi. but that of the PVC 45% pellet increased. T. Korean Industrial Standard. Sugawara. KSD 1789. and the mixture was made into pellets. Lee. Inc. lead. VCH Pub. J.9% carbon. Tohka. A. Pb.. 1995. 1992.. 85. and The PVC powder was mixed with the dust in various mixing ratios. The final residue has 46% iron and 20. Zevenhoven.746 G. Japanese Patent H04-159965. The concentration of those increased in proportion to the mixed PVC ratio. The final residue has 46% iron and 20.. Consequently. The Chemical Society of Japan. Ind. This research can be used for synchronous treatment of both resources: EAF dust and plastic waste loaded with PVC.. 2003. MARUZEN Co. Carbon Iron Weight ratio of residue (%) 60 50 40 30 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Mixed PVC (%) Fig. T. 2000. Characteristics of vaporization of coal ash minerals chlorinated by gaseous hydrogen Chloride. The principal ingredients in the final residue were iron and carbon. Content of the residual pellet after roasting at 800 °C and washing. . T. Y. Eng. Shimada. and it can be injected into the EAF. 4–69. R. S. L. T... Hayashi. Resour. Conclusion etc. 37. second ed. 1998. S. Cu and Cd compounds in EAF dust with carbon.2% of zinc. and that of the PVC 45% pellet was about 92%. This process recovered 96. M. Thermochemical Data of Pure Substances. 17 shows the concentration of iron and carbon in the washed residue.E. respectively. Kim.. General rules for determination of carbon in metallic materials. 10 4. Fuel Process.. Rapid heating rate generated ferric chloride in the pellets. Song / Minerals Engineering 20 (2007) 739–746 20 washing.. 1998. Lee. Chem. Potassium chloride restrained the zinc chloride from volatilizing until 900 °C by generating K2ZnCl4. Technol. pp. Chiba. Prior to practical application. However. The concentration was calculated under the concept that the amount of each element in the pellet before roasting is 100%. EATON. ISBN 0-87553-235-7... Kim. pp. and the effects of the heat treatment temperature and the heating rate were investigated. Seo. This process recovered 96..4% lead.8% cadmium. heating rate of 2 °C/min.. this process may create dioxin and it is not investigated yet. Pyrolysis and combustion of PVC. 9 (4)... and the heat-treated pellets were pulverized and washed.. J. Y. Ferrous chloride functioned as the chlorine provider to the zinc.. Lee.2% zinc. J. Fig.. PVC-wood and PVC-coal mixtures in a two-stage fluidized bed process. A. Greenberg. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Reduction behavior of Zn.