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How Can Teaching Aids Improve the Quality of
Mathematics Education
Impact Factor: 0.55 · DOI: 10.1023/B:EDUC.0000040412.39121.e0



Adrian Oldknow
University of Chichester

Available from: Adrian Oldknow
Retrieved on: 27 August 2015

ABSTRACT. KEY WORDS: interactive technology. teaching aids The principles here advocated are receiving daily verification in many schools. pure and applied. where the practical and theoretical aspects of mathematics are co-ordinated and developed: where simple descriptive geometry aids and is aided by clay-modelling and drawing: where theoretical geometry and practical geometrical drawing and mensuration illustrate and assist each other: where theoretical and experimental mechanics are associated with each other and with pure mathematics: where. langage et symboles qui portent vers le raisonnement math´ematique et la formulation des propositions math´ematiques d’une grande g´en´eralit´e m´eritent d’ˆetre e´ tudi´es davantage. The interplay among and connections between objects (structured or unstructured). Pendant la s´eance pl´eni`ere. all the branches of elementary mathematics. Printed in the Netherlands. Educational Studies in Mathematics 56: 313–328. using practical examples and situations. je voudrais explorer la distinction entre les id´ees math´ematiques qui sont discut´ees dans les salles de classe et les objets qui servent a` aider les abstractions. The use of interactive technology in the creation of mathematical meanings will form an important part of my colleagues’ contributions. 2004. mathematical abstractions. ALISON CLARK-JEAVONS and ADRIAN OLDKNOW HOW CAN TEACHING AIDS IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF MATHEMATICS EDUCATION1 RESUME. instead of a thing of shreds and patches. In the plenary. 22–28 July. images. L’interaction et les liens entre objets (structur´es ou peu structur´es). Benchara Branford (1908). L’usage de la technologie interactive pour la cr´eation des significations math´ematiques sera une partie importante des contributions de mes coll`egues. Plock. and powerful whole. avec l’aide des coll`egues et l’emploi des exemples et des situations pratiques. well-ordered. Je crois que la distinction subtile entre la mani`ere de laquelle les id´ees math´ematiques sont construites a` partir des objets.AFZAL AHMED. are commingled at appropriate times. language and symbols that lead to mathematical reasoning and the stating of mathematical propositions of very wide generality is well worth closer study. in fine. 2003. theoretical and experimental. Poland. I would like to explore the distinction between the mathematical ideas that are being discussed in classrooms and the objects that are used in helping with abstractions. images. so that the mind sees and uses its mathematical conceptions and processes as a beautiful. A Study of Mathematical Education 1 This article is based on a plenary lecture delivered at the 55th International Conference ´ of the ‘Commission Internationale pour l’Etude et l’Am´elioration de l’Enseignement des Math´ematiques’(CIEAEM). with the help of colleagues. I believe that the subtle distinction between the way mathematical ideas are constructed from objects and the particular characteristics of the objects is often not clear in many teachers’ minds.  . et les caract´eristiques particuli`eres des objets n’est pas toujours claire pour les professeurs. C 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

our Polish hosts. For some it meant the logical foundations. For example. used to support the teaching and learning of mathematics. The aim of the conference was to reconcile these many aspects. or structured apparatus designed to demonstrate mathematical properties and principles. These are either commercial packages with interesting mathematics. It has been a real pleasure for me to have worked on presenting this plenary for which I (Afzal) would like to thank the organisers. TEACHING AIDS AND THEIR USE Let me begin by demonstrating to you some examples of artefacts and tools. I shall therefore use ‘teaching aids’ to encompass structured and unstructured materials. I kept returning to the following three areas: – The nature of mathematics. which. I have found. I will grapple with these ideas. to others again it might have meant the framework of elementary ideas which is the key to the pursuit of higher levels of the subject in its current state of development. – How people learn. often misused. but not systematically. often interest teachers of mathematics in the UK. The use of didactic materials for developing pupils’ mathematical activities. . In this plenary. However much I tried to focus on an aspect of the theme. which brings together all the essential elements concerned with mathematics education and makes it possible for participants to articulate their diverse experiences and perspectives in a way which helps all of us to reflect on and refine old issues and bring to surface new ones. Choice of ‘subtle’ themes is an art in which the Polish mathematics educators seem to excel. The aim of this conference was to interpret ‘didactic materials’ in the broadest sense and shift the emphasis from materials themselves as an issue for discussion to the use of these in the learning and teaching of mathematics. including computers and calculators. The International Programme Committee of CIEAEM 55 made it clear in their Second Announcement that much discussion and research had taken place on teaching aids and structural materials as embodiments of mathematical structures in the past.314 AFZAL AHMED ET AL. to other the utilitarian topics which should be in the school course for every child. 1. – Perceptions of mathematics and the way people react to and engage with mathematics. I believe that the theme of this conference has many parallels with the 1960 conference. particularly mathematics. They have chosen a really rich theme. the theme of 1960 CIEAEM conference in Krakow was math´ematiques de base.

If they work. Let me take an example of the use of fractions blocks that had led pupils to drawing fraction rectangles to calculate the answer for. (1984) illustrated six totally different manifestations of the fraction 3/5. This is in contrast to the whole numbers. others divided the two rectangles in quarters and did the same to get the answer 3/8. Thus any particular number. if they do not. The interplay among and connections between objects (structured or unstructured). According to these authors. all of which occur in everyday life applications. If ideas and resources appeal. This is not the time or the place to discuss this phenomenon beyond offering a context to the listeners for the reasons why I may be selecting and emphasising some issues. Some pupils (Figure 1) drew two rectangles and divided one in halves and another in quarters and counted the shaded parts and the total number of parts to get the answer 2/6. or counting repetitions of measuring units as in working out lengths.TEACHING AIDS IN MATHEMATICS 315 In the UK there seems to be a great tendency among teachers to be looking for such ‘good ideas’ for teaching. which are used mainly either for counting discrete objects. they are taken in the classroom. Dickson et al. With regard to misconceptions about fractions. Children’s solutions of a fraction problem. say. It was not even clear if those pupils who obtained the correct answer of 3/4 could justify why the answer was correct with reference to the tool used. . can be interpreted concretely in many ways. they become a part of the teachers’ repertoire. language and symbols that lead to mathematical reasoning and the stating of mathematical propositions of very wide generality is well worth a closer study. decimals and percentages is that they have a multiplicity of meanings. One of the difficulties of operating with fractions. I believe that the subtle distinction between the way mathematical ideas are constructed from objects and the particular characteristics of the objects is often not clear in many teachers’ Figure 1. say 3/5 (or 0. the function of providing good ideas and recommending resources has been taken over by the central government agencies along with prescribing the best time.6 or 60%). one can always look for something else. 1/2 + 1/4. and so on. such as the above. images. More recently. however. sequence and methods of teaching. for whatever reasons.

. which aids mathematical thinking and can be much richer than an object. As mentioned earlier. . Papert (1980) described such mental vehicles as “objects-to-think-with”. The first issue of The Bulletin of The Association for Teaching Aids in Mathematics. University College Chichester. we have seen a considerable increase in research and literature on ‘human learning’ as well as on the development in technological aids in learning. . No one can do it better than those who are actively working in the classroom. possibly with blunt corners! This does not seem to make any difference to the proof. AIMS OF TEACHING MATHEMATICS INFLUENCE THE USE OF TEACHING AIDS There are profound and ongoing discussions on the nature and the science of mathematics education and research at the international level. it is worth reflecting on how it is that this very particular triangle leads us to deduce something of such wide generality. The teaching of mathematics requires constant research. 2. A clearer articulation of the purposes and the economical and effective utilisation of these insights and tools in order to achieve these purposes are a challenge to all those interested in mathematics education. minds. consider the following ‘crude’ polarisation. It is a mental image drawn from the real world. I do not believe that teachers can remain on the fringe of this process. paying particular attention to the use and development of teaching apparatus and visual aids. At The Mathematics Centre. 1955) that it will carry articles covering the whole field of mathematics teaching. In this case the triangle really is an idea. it will be obvious that it is not a triangle at all—three rather uneven marks. though. the use of teaching aids. • Mathematical procedures are taught to all the school pupils because they will help them in everyday life as well as in application. when we draw a triangle on a sheet of paper and by means of this we prove a general proposition that the three angles add up to 180◦ . Since these early days. and perhaps it is even more important. our view of why we teach mathematics and how it can be learned effectively is bound to influence the approach to teaching and hence. It went on to say. outlined in the Editorial (Fletcher. For example. and research which aims to advance knowledge of the craft of teaching is just as difficult as research which aims to advance knowledge of mathematical techniques. For the purpose of illustrating this argument further. If we examine closely the figure we have drawn. not an object.316 AFZAL AHMED ET AL. the major focus of our work concerns the active involvement of teachers in the research process as well as in the interpretation and formulation of theory.

Hence. generalisation. industry or commerce. one would have to believe something like: Learning mathematics encourages the attitudes. strategies etc. habits of thoughts. patterns of thinking. The second approach is obviously a rich one as it allows a range of explorations and questions such as: ‘Does it only work with 2 × 2 squares? Does it work with rectangles? What about other shapes? What about other sizes of table squares?’ It can also lead to new discoveries and new questions to follow up. To justify the second approach. 6 × 12 = 8 × 9. In order to illustrate the above. Pupils can be asked to practice multiplication by offering them 20 or 30 sets of numbers to multiply.TEACHING AIDS IN MATHEMATICS 317 Figure 2. they can be offered a multiplication table square such as the one illustrated in Figure 2 and asked to investigate what happens if the two diagonally opposite numbers in a square of their choice are multiplied. which they have not met before. • Ninety-five percent of the population will need to use less than 5% of the procedures on the syllabus either for everyday life or for applying to sciences. Noticing patterns in a multiplication table: e. let me take two equally polarised examples of teaching approaches used to accompany the above beliefs. On the other hand. it is completely stripped of any outside irrelevancies and only the conceptual .g. For him. which enable all to comprehend and respond to new situations. proof etc. Dienes (1978) stressed the abstract character of mathematics. teaching mathematics is not mainly about the content but about processes such as abstraction.

fortuitous discovery cannot be planned but it does happen. Hence. patterns invented by the human mind. The broad implications being that. A more productive perspective on materials would be to ask how we can offer materials with sufficient openness to encourage children to describe the different ways in which they perceive things. bare bones have been retained. 3. To grow mathematically. This ‘cutting through the noise’ and getting rid of irrelevancies and getting down to real message is. programmed discovery implies a rigid and directed learning sequence.318 AFZAL AHMED ET AL. free and exploratory. and even patterns created by other patterns. I would now like to focus on the use and characteristics of teaching aids. implies that the discovery and expression of patterns and relationships require action on the part of learners regardless of age or ability. the fundamental concepts of mathematics have to be drawn from human experiences and existence. an asset which will enable all to cope with the diverse and evolving contexts of our lives. Perhaps the formalising of mathematics has often prevented us from regarding ‘common sense’ based on experience as a valid. Cuisenaire and Dienes’ blocks and availability of materials such as counters. CHARACTERISTICS OF TEACHING AIDS Biggs (1972) classified the process of discovering mathematics in five categories: fortuitous. It may be tempting to classify didactic materials to parallel this classification particularly when we have examples of structured apparatus such as Stern. children must be exposed to a rich variety of patterns appropriate to their own lives through which they can see variety. regularity and interconnections. according to Dienes. for me. pebbles and commercial packages which are not designed with a particular mathematical structure or property in mind. . directed. I believe. the use of didactic materials/tools can play an important role in the discovery and expression of relationships. Central to the process of abstraction in mathematics is the discovery and representation of regularities or patterns. To quote Steen (1990): Mathematics is an exploratory science that seeks to understand every kind of pattern—patterns that occur in nature. and programmed. At the other extreme. guided. indispensable and legitimate basis for checking the mathematical procedures and algorithms. The fact that mathematical relationships can be communicated in a variety of ways makes it accessible to all children and adults. Obviously. while ensuring support for their mathematical development. at one extreme. This.

She sees exploration as occurring in novel situation and as being directional with the goal of determining the properties of an object. – They assist future problem solving/mathematical activity through enhancing future access to knowledge. Hutt (1966) draws a distinction between exploration and play. which involves both experimentation and creativity to generate ideas. – They help develop links between students’ current mental schemata while they are interacting with the tools. then note the interaction of his energy and that of material employed. .. For example. The play will often go further than is necessary for the solution of the current problem. it is designed to allow complete freedom on the part of the solvers to wander over the mathematical landscape available to them. However.TEACHING AIDS IN MATHEMATICS 319 Dewey (1966) saw play as being of value at all levels of development and maturation. at whatever age of maturity. – They utilise students’ current knowledge. to do something with material. . and improve successful learning and understanding in mathematics generally. and it is equally what happens when a scientific man in his laboratory begins to experiment with unfamiliar objects. play occurs only in a known environment with a goal of not ‘what does this object do’ but rather ‘what can be done with this object’. . there is a long-term goal and that is the solution of the problem in hand. The advantages of mathematical play were also stressed by many mathematics educators. This is what happens when a child first begins to build blocks. engender a positive attitude towards the subject. the following implications about how tools are presented are implicit. – They reinforce current knowledge. The first stage of contact with any material. – They must allow student-centered activity with the student in charge of the process. in play. An individual must actually try. increase the connections between their separate pieces of mathematical knowledge. (Holton et al. Mathematical play can be profitably used by people of all ages when faced with new mathematical situations. We believe that the use of this play can extend the participant’s mathematical horizons. There are no obvious short-term goals for mathematical play. On the other hand. must inevitably be of trial and error sort. and using formal rules of mathematics to follow any ideas to some sort of conclusion. 2001) By mathematical play we meant that part of the process used to solve mathematical problems. In our description of mathematical play.

320 AFZAL AHMED ET AL. school mathematics has responded hardly at all to curricular changes implied by the computer revolution. tools cannot ensure that a particular understanding will come about. Examples from a project on linking algebraic and geometric reasoning I (Adrian) want to rephrase Papert’s question in a slightly different form: We have many powerful ICT tools—for doing mathematics. school and workplace—is able to provide such links. But the computer—a mathematics-speaking being in the midst of the everyday life of the home. Twenty three years later. stated. In spite of the intimate intellectual link between mathematics and computing. texts. We now come to computers. COMPUTER AS A MEDIUM FOR TEACHING AIDS Papert (1980) believed that before we had computers there were not many points of contact between fundamental and engaging aspects of mathematics and experiences firmly planted in everyday life. 4.are all products of the pre-computer age. My colleagues Adrian and Alison will now respond to the above issues concerning the use of technology in the teaching and the learning of mathematics. for learning mathematics and for teaching mathematics—but how can we harness them to best effect? . Little could be worse for mathematics education than an environment in which schools hold students back from learning what they find natural. Teachers’ role is crucial in the way they introduce the use of the tools. Different students will engage with the same tool in different ways depending on the conceptions they bring with them and hence will establish different understanding. and teaching habits—but not the students.1. Through raising the above points I have attempted to suggest that although tools can vary in the degree of inherent or built-in mathematical structures. Curricula. tests. to what extent are we any nearer to responding to Papert’s challenge in the context of access to the increasingly sophisticated electronic aids as well as evidence on learning and acquisition of knowledge? “Everybody Counts”. The report on the Future of Mathematics by the USA National Research Council (1989). The challenge to education is to find ways to exploit them. 4.

There also appears to be arcs of ellipses in the image. etc. My examples are taken from a current project for the UK’s Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) on which I am working with Kenneth Ruthven from the University of Cambridge: Linking algebraic and geometric reasoning with dynamic geometry software. near Manchester.). 86 No. and also from two articles by Oldknow (2003a. A photo of a roof structure. It shows part of the roof structure of Stockport railway station. These enable teachers and students easily to bring images from the outside world into the mathematics classroom.TEACHING AIDS IN MATHEMATICS 321 Figure 3. there is a sequence of (green) circles whose radii are diminishing as they become more distant. 507 Nov. bmp. Through technology such as digital cameras. So we could explore geometric ideas of perspective by drawing lines joining corresponding points in the image. Similarly we could explore numerical ideas of perspective by taking measurements from the image. For example. the image in Figure 3 was scanned from a photograph reproduced on the title page of the Mathematical Association’s journal: The Mathematical Gazette Vol. 2002. . so we could explore algebraic ideas from coordinate geometry by superimposing axes and plotting graphs of functions (Figure 4). Such an image can easily be imported as part of the background for a sketch in dynamic software such as the Geometer’s Sketchpad (GSP) or Cabri Geometry II Plus—both of which are now common in many schools. UK. 2003b). scanners and the Internet we have easy access to a wealth of digital images in a variety of common formats (jpeg. tiff. We can identify several features of mathematical interest in this image— for example.

Using such tools as digital images. For example. such as finding the velocity with which the water leaves the dragon’s mouth. we have the means to bring the so-called ‘real world’ into the classroom—or wherever else learning takes place. The government is . and seek to find its physical equivalent. The parameter a1 determines the quadratic function f (x) = a1 x2 . So. numeric and algebraic tools for their analysis. but its use in the teaching of many subjects in the curriculum is still far from widespread and far from satisfactory. We can use such images with pupils of all ages. the models we superimpose can be interpreted to give physical results. but not yet a clear body of what we would call ‘best-practice’ in its educational use. together with software to provide geometric. In this way.322 AFZAL AHMED ET AL. The UK government has invested huge sums of money in ICT in education over the past 5 years. Figure 4. what sort of mathematical questions could you raise from the images in Figure 5? How would such tools as Sketchpad or Cabri enable you to explore them? With an image like the one in Figure 5(d) of the Merlion fountain in Singapore harbour you can take measurements from the drawing. here is an example where we have the technology. such as the height of the fountain. The software provides a number of utilities to help vary a1 —among which the most visually effective is ‘animation’—where we can control the rate at which a1 is varied. maybe using the Internet. Mathematisation of the roof structure. In Figure 6 a quadratic model is used with its origin in the mouth. or the angle at which it enters the harbour. as well as the set of values it is constrained to take.

. Photos to explore. Minister for Education May 21st 2003. Alison will now illustrate how the power of ICT tools can be made accessible to teachers.TEACHING AIDS IN MATHEMATICS 323 Figure 5. now setting a new strategy for ICT in schools with a new focus: “to unlock the value that ICT can undoubtedly bring to education” (Charles Clarke. DfES 2003).

in relation to mathematics teachers. 2000). Making the power of ICT tools accessible to teachers In the UK.000.” This leads us to consider.324 AFZAL AHMED ET AL. between 1999 and 2003. They are less able to employ ICT to meet the different needs of pupils. A model of the Singapore harbour fountain.000 euro or 1. they change the actions of the users and deeply affect their conceptualisation of reality. and because of weak planning are more liable to be drawn in to teaching ICT skills to the detriment of the mathematics which the ICT is intended to support (Office for Standard in Education. Despite this high level of funding. a recent evaluation report of this initiative said. what is it that the tools “make happen”? . “Tools are NOT neutral. . How do the technological tools enhance the teaching and learning processes? 2. Figure 6.000 zloty) has been allocated to provide additional training for ALL state school teachers and librarians to develop their use of information technology. . How do teachers perceive the technology in relation to the mathematics that is being learned? In response to the first question.000.000 (320. there are two questions worth considering: 1. In developing teachers’ use of technology.2. 4.472. .000. Verillon and Rabardel (1995) say. the power of the data handling facilities on graphical calculators or the facility of graph plotting software to transform general shapes. £230.although they know the general advantages of ICT use. many mathematics teachers remain unaware of the potential of specific software and tools: for example.

. In the first example explored. The resulting graphs often led to further explorations on the part of the teachers. based on their subject knowledge. involving changing the functions y1(x) and y2(x). “How do teachers perceive the technology in relation to the mathematics that is being learned?” or. As the variable is dragged. “What are the inter-relationships between the teacher’s view of the mathematics and the way in which the technological tool is used?” The example in Figure 8 has been used with teachers during professional development activities to initiate discussions around these questions. x and some related functions are shown (see Figure 7). For example. most teachers could confirm the result. Teachers are asked to predict what the resulting graph of y1(x) * y2(x) might look like. for the given value of x? for any value of x? The power of this technological tool lies in the way that teacher and pupils can physically vary the value of x and determine whether initial conjectures are true for all cases. Of course. put another way. A model of the number line in Geometer’s Sketchpad. – Where will all of the points coincide? – Can you predict where 5x will lie on the number line. or in this case the interactive mathematics package. graphical calculator. many say they have never approached the teaching of quadratic . This leads to the second question. The Geometer’s Sketchpad software is used to model a number line on which a variable. however. so questions can be posed that encourage pupils to explore the nature of some related functions. . Two linear functions y1(x) and y2(x) are entered into a graph-plotting package.TEACHING AIDS IN MATHEMATICS 325 Figure 7. Texas Instruments TI Interactive.

FINAL REMARKS To sum up and end this plenary. I will quote Papert (1980): We are learning how to make computers with which children love to communicate.326 AFZAL AHMED ET AL. since teachers can use: good materials well. are we now beginning to realise Papert’s vision by developing technological tools that speak the language of mathematics. bad materials well and bad materials badly. with individual dialects that capitalise on human intuitiveness? 5. functions in this way with their pupils. Exploring linear functions. classroom research with teachers carried out by Laborde (2001) reported “the role played by technology moved from being a useful amplifier or provider of data towards being an essential constituent of the meaning of tasks” as teachers developed their use of technology in the classroom. “Why do we not talk about the roots of linear functions when there is an obvious mathematical progression from these to the roots of quadratic functions?” In France. Some 23 years later. The ICT was prompting a review of the teaching methodology and encouraging teachers to ask questions such as. Figure 8. When this communication occurs. I (Afzal) would like us to be aware that how materials and tools are used is the most important factor. good materials badly. To finish my contribution. . children learn mathematics as a living language.

Oldknow. and Ahmed. 61–81. A Study of Mathematical Education Including the Teaching of Arithmetic. London.TEACHING AIDS IN MATHEMATICS 327 Hence.. REFERENCES Ahmed. Children Learning Mathematics . Papert. E. 283– 318. Ahmed. A. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London . 401– 415.. Fulfilling the Potential: Transforming Teaching and Learning through ICT in Schools . O. The Process of Learning Mathematics. London.).: 1972. Chichester. A. and Williams. Galbraith. and Rabardel. Horwood Publishing. Brooker and I. (ed. Teaching Mathematics with ICT .: 1992. Biggs. A. H.): 1990. A. and Williams. 1–10. J. Steen. modelling and communication in secondary school mathematics’ in P. A. New York. International Journal of Mathematics Education . H. 11–20. Washington. 16–19. A.: 1966 (first published in 1916). London. R. Hutt.: 1995. G. A. Department for Education and Science. Dewey. R. 141–148. No. G. W. M. Continuum. Raising Achievement in Mathematics. P. . Eastbourne. ‘Mathematics from still and video images’. Mindstorms: Children . ‘Applications. D. and Taylor. Williams. Oldknow.: 1908. ‘On the importance of mathematical play’.: 2003a. the effective use of didactical materials used in the classroom will depend on the nature of classroom tasks. Branford. ‘Cognition and Artefacts: A contribution to the study of thought in relation to instrumented activity’ .: 1995. West Sussex Institute of Highher Education/Department of Education and Science.: 1955. H. G. Teaching Mathematics and Its Applications 14(4). J. pp. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Oldknow. A.: 2001. role of the teacher and the climate and social culture of the classroom. The Government’s Strategy for ICT in Education – What’s in it for Mathematics? . Oxford: Clarendon Press. M. C. L. Blum. Verillon. Holt. On the Shoulder of Giants – New Approaches to Numeracy . Oldknow. ‘Mathematics – A tale of three worlds?’ . T. L. Computers and Powerful Ideas. Democracy and Education. I. East Sussex. ‘Editorial’ Mathematics Teaching 1. National Academy Press. P. DfES (Department for Education and Science): 2003. B. A. Office for Standard in Education: 2000. 77–101. 30–34. Fletcher. European Journal of Psychology of Education 10(1). Science and Technology 32(3). Huntley (eds. C. 18. and Gibson. ‘Investigational Methods’ in L. Holton. Mathematical Association’s Millennium Annual Conference.: 2000.: 1966. Basic Books. Rinehart and Winston. Association of Teachers of Mathematics Micromath Journal 19(2). International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning. ‘Integration of technology in the design of geometry tasks with Cabrigeometry’ . 2–4. Laborde. Chapman (ed.: 2003b.: 2001. D. 6(3). Dickson. Association of Teachers of Mathematics Micromath Journal 19(2). ‘Geometric and algebraic modeling with dynamic geometry software’ . S. E. Ahmed. Brown. Mathematical Modelling – Teaching and Assessment in a Technology-Rich World. DC. New York: Free Press.: 2000.).: 1980.: 1984.: 1998.

University College Chichester. West Sussex. School of Teacher Education. Telephone: +44(0) 1798 812467 E-mail: a. PO21 1HR United Upper Bongor .328 AFZAL AHMED ET AL. Bongor Regis.