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Computer Technology Courses

Introduction to SPSS For Windows


Version 10.07

Presented by:
Computer Services

No part of this publication may be used or reproduced in any form without prior written permission
of Computer Services.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University


SPSS for Windows (Version 10.07)

This manual provides introductory instructions for the use of SPSS. The
training materials do not cover all the features and components of the software, but
focus on the basics of what SPSS is used for and how to “get around” in it.
Although some statistical concepts are covered in our SPSS workshops, the
materials are not intended to serve as a reference for basic statistics, but help
familiarize the user with some of the terminology you encounter in the use of the
software. The materials include resources from:

Academic Computing Services, Appalachian State University


SPSS 10.07 Software OnlineTutorial
SPSS.com web site
Statistics, Larsen, Richard J.
University of Bristol, UK
University of Indiana

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University


Table of Contents

Topic Page

Computer Services Help 1


Software help
Scan sheet data read
Download MUSIC data file

Statistics Overview 3

SPSS Terms 6

Introduction 9

Basic Steps in SPSS 10

SPSS Environment – The Main Windows 11


Data Editor
Viewer

Getting Data into the Data Editor 17


Enter Data Directly
Read Data From Database
Read Data From Excel File
Read Data From Text File
Save Data File
Change Data File

Selecting a Procedure for Output 22


Select Procedure From Menu Bar
Select Chart or Graph
Use Dialog Recall Button

Selecting Variables for a Procedure or Chart 23


Select Variables for Procedures and Non-Interactive Charts
Select Variables for Interactive Charts

Examining/Editing Output 24
Work With Output in Outline Pane
Work With Tables in Display Pane
Work with Charts in Display Pane

Other Tasks in Viewer Window 28


Save Output
Print Output

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University


Copy Output Into Another File

Shortcut Keys 30
Accelerator Keys in Data Editor
Keys While in Edit Mode
Dialog Box Commands
Data Editor Keys
Viewer Window Keys
Accelerator Keys in Chart Editor

Exercise 37

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University


Computer Services Help

If you need help in using SPSS, call Computer Services 339-4357.

If you have collected your statistical data on standard scan sheets, you may
want to have the responses scanned into a data file at Computer Services. You can
then download the file from your MUSIC directory to your desktop and read the
data into SPSS for your statistical work.

To have scan sheet data read:


1. Arrange scan sheets so that they are all facing the same direction.
2. Make sure the sheets are not folded or bent in any way.
3. Bring the sheets over to Computer Services, first floor of Academic, room 110.
4. Complete the Request for Creation of MUSIC Data File from Scan Sheets form.
5. Carry the scan sheets and completed form into Trisha’s office and place them in the
middle bin marked “Evaluations and/or Surveys“ on the top shelf of the bookcase.
6. Unless there are unexpected problems, your sheets should be scanned by the
following work day morning.
7. The MUSIC file should be found in the account code signified on the request form.
8. You will want to stop by Computer Services to pick up your scan sheets after they
have been scanned. (They will be located in the rightmost column of bins on the
wall behind the secretary’s desk in Computer Services.)

To download the MUSIC data file to your desktop:


1. Launch the WIN3270 application.
2. At the command line of the Southeast dome screen, type: D MUSIC then press
Enter key.
3. Another Southeast Dome screen will appear with instructions at the bottom of the
screen to press Enter to see more.
4. You will then be at the sign on screen.
a) In the ID Command: area, type your MUSIC account name and Tab.
b) In the Password: area, type your MUSIC password and press Enter.
5. Check your account to see if it has received the data file yet.
a) At the *Go prompt, type: FLIB and Enter.
b) Wait about 30 seconds and a listing of your MUSIC files will be displayed on
the screen.
c) Press the F8 key to advance through the listing.
d) Once you have found the file, press the F3 key to exit FLIB.
(YOU MUST EXIT OUT OF FLIB IN ORDER TO TRANSFER FILES.)
6. Transfer the file from your MUSIC account to your PC.
a) Select Transfer from the menu bar.
b) Select Receive (download)... from the drop down menu.
c) In the Download a File dialog box, complete the following:
i) Download from (Host File Name): type the name of your data file.
ii) Select the Download to Disk option button.
iii) Select the C: or A: drive from the Drives list box.

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iv) In the Directories list box, double click on the open folder C: or A:
v) Select the subdirectory from this list into which you would like to place the
data file.
vi) In the PC File Name text box, type the name that you want the file called
on your hard drive or diskette (give it a .txt extension).
vii) In the Host System area, select the TSO/MUSIC option button.
viii) In the General Options, select ASCII and CRLF checkboxes.
ix) Select the OK button.
7. Once the file has transferred, close the Transfer File window.
8. Exit WIN3270
a) At the *GO prompt, type logoff to log out of MUSIC.
b) Select File from the menu bar and then choose Exit.
9. Once you have opened the downloaded data file in SPSS, you can replace the generic
variable names with your own variable names.
10. You may also need to delete the first row of data (this row is used by the scanner
program for formatting.)

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Why use statistics?
• statistics are useful – they summarize data or graphically display relationships
and quickly identify unusual points
• statistics are easy to understand – they are easy to read and interpret with straight-
forward formats, tables and charts
• statistics add value to decision-making– they allow you to quantify relationships
(instead of relying on hunches) and go beyond information spreadsheets and
databases provide.

In order to create statistics, you must measure what you want to analyze.
(Remember: data is a measurement of some occurrence or event.)
• Determine the data type for each variable in a case.
• Once data type is established, you can select a suitable statistical procedure.
• To analyze data a certain way, you must collect it a certain way!

The levels of measurement: Data is measured categorically or continuously.

Data is treated in SPSS in one of two general ways, then further processed
according to its measure (scale, nominal, or ordinal).

Data Measurement in SPSS


1. Categorical data are measured in a group.
• nominal (group identifiers - department, unit)
• ordinal (implied order within a group – military rank, education level)

2. Continuous data (scale) are measured with specific numbers.


• interval (numeric scale without a true zero - temperature, achievement test
scores)
• ratio (a true zero designating the absence of what is measured - age, net
worth)

The statistical techniques/procedures you use to analyze/present your dataset


depend on the type of data you have.

Statistical Techniques Used to Analyze Categorical Data

• Frequencies are used to:


o summarize all possible responses to a question.
o tabulate answers to survey questions and check for data entry errors.

• Bar charts give you:


o a graphic overview of a categorical variable.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 3


• Crosstabulation tables (crosstabs) allows you to:
o consider the frequencies of two variables at once.
o determine whether variables are possibly related.
o measure the strength of that relationship.
o examine data for data entry errors.

Statistical Techniques Used to Analyze Continuous Data

• Descriptives give you:


quick overview of variables by calculating
o mean (average)
o standard deviation (data spread or dispersion around average)
o minimum
o maximum
o count (number of cases)

• Histograms work like a bar chart to:


o provide an overview of distributed data values.
o show the distribution of continuous data.

• Boxplots graphically show you:


o unusual values
o data patterns.
o The minimum, maximum, range, average and outliers (extreme)
o cases for a variable.
o data distribution (whiskers show the upper and lower range of
o data, up to 1 1 /2 times the box length from the mean)
o the range of data between the 25 and 75 percentiles and outliers (as dots).

• Scatterplots allows you, through points on a graph, to:


o examine whether two continuous variables are related.
o isolate trouble spots.
o identify groupings .
o draw attention to unusual points that may affect averages.

What are you trying to do when you use SPSS?


• Summarize the data.
• Find patterns or trends in the data.
• Find relationships between different variables in the dataset.

Statistically significant means that data allows us to reject the null hypothesis (There is
no difference or pattern or relationship present shown in the data.) There is a “switch
value” called the critcal or significant level by which significance is determined. If the
switch is set at .05 (five percent chance) or .01 (one per-cent chance), then a significant

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 4


value returned from output that is greater than the switch means the relationship occurs
by chance (i.e.The null hypothesis is supported, meaning no pattern or difference exists,
meaning no statistical significance is indicated by the data.)

To look at it another way, the significance level (or p-value) is the probability of
randomly obtaining results as extreme as the one observed.
• If the significance level is very small (less than 0.05) then getting the same results by
chance is rejected and the data pattern/relationship/difference is supported.
• If the significance level is relatively large (for example, 0.50) then getting the same
results by chance is supported and the data pattern /relationship /difference is
rejected.

Correlations
• A correlation is a relationship. In SPSS, you check for the relationship between two
or more variables.
• A strong linear correlation is indicated by a correlation coefficient close to 1 or –1.
• Correlation coefficients may be between –1 and 1 where:
o -1 indicates a perfect negative linear relationship.
o 1 indicates a perfect positive linear relationship.

Even if the correlation between two variables is not significant the variables may be
correlated but the relationship may be nonlinear. Before calculating correlations, plot a
scatterplot of the two variables to see how they are related.

Linear Regression estimates the coefficients of the linear equation, involving one or
more independent variables, that best predict the value of the dependent variable. For
example, you can try to predict a salesperson’s total yearly sales (the dependent variable)
from independent variables such as age, education, and years of experience.

The One-Way ANOVA procedure produces a one-way analysis of variance for a


quantitative dependent variable by a single factor (independent) variable.
Analysis of variance is used to test the hypothesis that several means are equal.
You can spot trends across categories using ANOVA.

There are two types of tests for comparing means:


• a priori contrasts - set up before running the experiment
• post hoc tests - run after the experiment has been conducted

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 5


SPSS Terms

Active window – window in the foreground, When new syntax or viewer window is
opened, that window is both active and designated.

Attribute – characteristic of an object, For variables, examples would be data type,


format, label, name, etc.

Case – one observation, similar to a record in a database. For example, each respondent
to a questionnaire is a case.

Command pushbuttons – buttons that instruct SPSS to perform an action, such as run
the procedure, display Help, or open a sub-dialog box to make additional specifications.

Data Editor – window that displays the contents of the working data file in a spreadsheet
format. This window opens when you start an SPSS session.

Designated window – syntax or viewer window that receives output or action, indicated
by an exclamation point (!) in the status bar (dimmed when designated, enabled if not).
You can change the designated windows by clicking on the (!) button. The designated
window does not have to be the active window (the window in the foreground).

Missing values – data files may have missing values for certain variables, There are two
ways missing data are determined and processed appropriately by SPSS:
System-missing – empty data cells for non-string variables are defined this by
default
User-defined – the user must define the missing data indicators for SPSS

Nominal – “measured by name only” data that has no intrinsic order. Nominal data can
be numeric or string. You can use numeric data to represent categories, like yes/no
answers.

Ordinal – “measured by rank” data, Data is considered ordinal when there is an intrinsic
rank or order to the possible values. In SPSS, strings and certain numerics can be
ordinal. (With strings, the order is alphabetic so use integers and variable labels for
ranking terms like low, medium, high.)

Outlier – data value that lies “outside” the general pattern or range of the other data
values for a variable

Scale – “measured by numeric value” on an interval or ratio scale, This requires numeric
data. Examples are age, income, height, etc.

Session – the actions and work done in SPSS from opening the program to exiting the
program

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Source variable list – a list of variables in the working data file, Only variables whose
types are allowed by the selected procedure are displayed in a source list. Use of short
string and long string variables is restricted in many procedures.

SPSS Files – files used and created in SPSS have different file name extensions. These
suffixes are appended by the Save action in SPSS. Tip: One way to organize your work
is to use the same file name for a single session’s data, output, and syntax.
Data files are saved with .sav as encoded text.
Output files are saved with .spo
Syntax files are saved with .sps
Production job files are saved with .spp
Journal files are saved with .jnl
TableLooks (table style set up) are saved with .tlo

Target variable list – one or more lists indicating the variables you have chosen for the
analysis, such as dependent and independent variable lists.

Transform – change the representation and/or use of data in existing variables through
the creation of new variables using functions or through recoding

Trend – long term change in level of time series data

Variable – reference object used to store separate data item in an observation. For
example, each question in a survey is a variable (i.e. something you measure, control, or
manipulate in research is a variable).

Variable label – descriptive information about a variable, up to 256 characters long, A


variable label can be used in output instead of a variable name.

Variable name – 8 characters or less according to following rules:


• Unique name
• Begins with a letter
• Not case-sensitive (Num = num)
• Remaining characters (letter, digit, period, @, #, _, or $)
• Can’t end in a period
• Avoid conflict with procedure-created variables by NOT ending names with _
character

Variable type – the category of data values that a variable will hold, The default type is
numeric. The available data types are:
• Numeric – marked by (#) icon. The values are numbers and are displayed in
standard, decimal format. The data can be entered with standard or scientific
notation.
• String – marked by (A<) or (A>) icon, The values are alphanumeric group of 0 or
more characters, up to designated length of variable. Case is considered in value.
o Short strings (8 or less characters) - < subscript in icon

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 7


o Long strings (9 or more characters) - > subscript in icon
• Comma – numeric type whose values are displayed with commas delimiting every
three places, and with the period as a decimal delimiter. The data can be entered with
or without commas or in scientific notation.
• Dot – numeric whose values are displayed with periods delimiting every three places,
and with the comma as a decimal delimiter. The data can be entered with or without
dots or in scientific notation.
• Scientific Notation – numeric whose values are displayed with an imbedded E and a
signed power-of-ten exponent. The data can be entered with or without an exponent.
The exponent can be preceded either by E or D with an optional sign, or by the sign
alone. 123, 1.23E2, 1.23D2, 1.23E+2, and 1.23+2 are equivalent.
• Date – numeric whose values are displayed in one of several calendar-date or clock-
time formats. You select a format from a list. You can enter dates with slashes,
hyphens, periods, commas, or blank spaces as delimiters.
• Dollar – numeric that is displayed in dollar and cents format you select from a list,
Data can be entered as dollars and cents, using decimal as needed.
• Custom currency – numeric whose values are displayed in one of the custom
currency formats that you have defined in the Currency tab of the Options dialog box.

Viewer – window that displays the tables, statistics, and charts. This window opens
automatically when you run a command that produces output.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 8


Introduction

SPSS for Windows is a widely used statistical package of computer programs


designed to generate descriptive statistics and to perform inferential statistical analyses.
It provides a wide variety of data manipulation capabilities, file creation, graphics, and
reports in addition to both simple and highly complex statistical procedures. Output
comes with helpful plot/chart/graphics information. SPSS handles report writing, data file
management, and data massaging through a variety of transformation techniques. The
windows facilities of SPSS provide most of this through menu/dialog box selections.

SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) was originally designed to run
on a mainframe computer with a file of command lines entered to generate and run
procedures for output. SPSS for Windows uses the “point and click” method to
automatically build a command file for the user. A file of these “built” commands (a
syntax file) may be saved for future use. So, for basic statistical needs, SPSS for
Windows automates any programming and program running.

A spreadsheet-like Data Editor window permits data defining, entry/editing, and


IO management; an output Viewer window provides output review, editing, and IO
management. For users who want to directly control what SPSS does, a Syntax Editor
window allows direct program development and execution. Graphics can be achieved
through the usual “menu/dialog box selections” or “interactively”. A Chart Editor
window is available to edit graphics. A Draft Viewer window can alternately display the
output, the statistics tables in typewriter format, the graphics remaining in high-
resolution, and the table borders using box characters for clean, non-break lines. Finally
there are Help windows for both general help and help with a given dialog box. In
addition, specific help for most items in a dialog box is available with a right click of the
mouse.

Since SPSS is generally oriented towards research (particularly survey research)


rather than instructional purposes, a basic knowledge of statistics is necessary in order to
understand the options and interpret the results. Many of the higher-level procedures
produce output that requires the interpretation of an expert statistician. If you have
any questions about your results and are using them for academic research, I
recommend you contact a mathematician who specializes in statistics and ask them
to review both your data and any SPSS procedural output.

SPSS is a high user of memory resources so exit all other programs unless it is
absolutely necessary to leave them active. SPSS will run more quickly and with less risk
of “crashing” due to lack of memory problems.

While developing a new data file and the different procedures you want done
with the data, it is easy to get “lost”, especially if you are running groups of
procedures on different data sets. File organization is very important and best
achieved through intuitive naming conventions and grouping. Develop a grouping

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 9


and naming system that works for you and use it for all your work in SPSS! It is
also helpful that each time you use SPSS you keep in mind …

The Basic Steps in SPSS Analysis

1. Get the data into the Data Editor. How and from where?
a. Open a saved data file.
b. Read a spreadsheet, text file, or database.
c. Enter the data directly into the Data Editor.
2. Select a procedure from the menus. Procedures can:
a. Create tables.
b. Calculate statistics.
c. Create charts.
3. Select the variables you want to use for the analysis.
a. Select variables from list in a dialog box.
b. The selected procedure processes the data in the variables.
c. The procedure displays the results in the Viewer.
4. Examine the results and determine their meaning.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 10


The SPSS Environment – The Different Windows and Available Views

The available windows in SPSS are:


• Data Editor – used to enter/edit data for analysis
• Viewer – used to view results of analysis, including tables, charts
• Draft Viewer – displays output as simple text
• PivotTable Editor – used to edit results displayed in pivot tables
• Chart Editor – used to modify charts and plots in a separate window
• Text Output Editor – used to edit output text (not in pivot tables) and that text’s
attributes
• Syntax Editor – used to enter/edit the SPSS commands used to generate output,
accepts paste action from dialog box
• Script Editor – used to automate tasks in SPSS through the creation of script

The main windows used in SPSS are the Data Editor for data entry and the
Viewer for output. The other windows are usually opened from either the Data
Editor or the Viewer. You can have only one data file open at a time.

All the windows have these components with features appropriate to a specific window:
1. Dropdown Menu Bar (at top of window)
Menus allow you to select different files, statistics, charts, and actions.
2. Toolbars (dockable)
Buttons are shortcuts to actions available through menus
Toolbar components have pop-up descriptions.
3. Dialog Boxes (these open up for user input)
User selects variables or options for statistics and charts, etc.
(To get information on any of the controls in a dialog box, click the right
mouse button on the control you want to know about. A pop-up window
displays information about the control.)
4. Status Bar (at bottom of window)
Command – processed cases for procedure or command or iterations for
iterative statistical procedures message
Filter status – Filter On message for subset or random sampling
Weight status - Weight On message for use of a weight variable to weight
cases
Split File status – Split File message for data file that has been split into
separate groups for analysis, based on the values of one or more grouping
variables.

You can have several open Syntax and Viewer windows, but only one of each
type can be the "designated" one. The "designated" window should not be confused with
the "active" window. The “designated” Viewer window is the one to which new output is
routed, while the “active” window is the window currently in the foreground. To change
the designated window, make the selected window the active window and then click on
the exclamation point in the tool bar.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 11


1. Data Editor
When SPSS opens, you will see a window like Fig.1. Click next to your
selection and then click OK to open the selection. The data for your session can be
entered into the Data Editor window directly (Type in data), the records pulled by an
existing query on a database (Run an existing query) or a new query (Create new
query using Database Wizard), or from a SPSS file (*.por – portable or *.sav – system
) or data file of another format (Open an existing data source). Data for SPSS can be
imported from a wide variety of software formats, including ASCII text, Excel, MS
Access 7.0, Lotus 1-2-3, SYSTAT, dBASE, FoxPro, and Paradox.

Fig.1 SPSS for Windows startup dialog box and Data Editor window

Look at Fig.2. The Data Editor window is a grid-type spreadsheet with two view tabs:
• Data View tab – Click on this tab to show all the data entries.
• Variable View tab – Click on this tab to show all the variables and their attributes.

When in Data View, the grid illustrates a basic data file structure where:
• A row is a single case (observation).
• A column is a single variable.

When in Variable View, the grid displays the list of variables and their attributes where:
• A row is a single variable.
• A column is a single attribute of that variable.

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You can:
• Enter and edit data in the Data Editor.
• Enter and edit variables and their attributes.
• Use the Transform menu to calculate new values and variables and recode data.

Fig.2 Data Editor window

The Data Editor Toolbar - The toolbar buttons are used to do actions in fewer steps
than using the menu bar. (A button is dimmed if that action is currently not available.)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

1. Open File – open data file


2. Save File – save current data in Data Editor
3. Print – open Print dialog box
4. Dialog Recall – shortcut to recent output actions
5. Undo – undo last change
6. Redo – redo last change

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7. Goto Chart – select chart to move to
8. Goto Case – input record number to move to (cell in currently active column is
activated in the requested record)
9. Variables – open Variable info dialog box
10. Find – find certain data in active variable
11. Insert Case – insert row before active one for new case
12. Insert Variable – insert row/column before active one for new variable
13. Split File - open Split file dialog box
14. Weight Cases – open Weight cases dialog box
15. Select Cases – open Select cases dialog box to filter cases
16. Value Labels – toggles value labels and values in datasheet
17. Use Sets – opens Use Sets dialog box to allow variable restriction to defined subsets

2. Viewer window
This window opens automatically when output is first generated. Results are
displayed in the Viewer window (Fig. 3), which has two panes (outline and display).
You can pull already saved output (*.spo files) into the Viewer window. The outline
pane, on the left, shows the objects within the output as a tree of separate objects. The
display pane, on the right, shows the actual procedural output, the charts, tables, etc.
created from the data input into the procedures through the variables that you select.

You can:
• browse the output results with scrollbars.
• click on an item in the outline to go to/ select the corresponding table or chart in the
display pane.
• click and drag the right border of the outline pane to change the width of the outline
pane.
• click on the book icon by item in outline pane to toggle item between visible and
hidden in the display pane.
• format output for printing/saving as an output file or template file.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 14


Fig.3 – Viewer window showing output of an analysis

The Viewer window has two different toolbars.

Viewer standard toolbar

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

1. Open File – open a file


2. Save File – save the current file
3. Print – opens the Print dialog box
4. Print Preview – opens preview window of how hard copy will look
5. Export – opens Export Output dialog box (used for HTML formatting of output)
6. Dialog Recall – shortcut to recent actions
7. Undo – undo last change
8. GoTo Data – makes Data Editor current/active window
9. GoTo Case - input record number to move to (cell in current active column is
activated)
10. Variables – open Variable info dialog box
11. Use Sets – open Use Sets dialog box to allow variable restriction to defined subsets
12. Select Last Output – selects the last output result displayed in Viewer

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13. Designate Window – designates current/active window as receiver of output (if
dimmed, window is already designated)

Fig. - Viewer outlining toolbar

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1. Promote – move outline item up in hierarchy


2. Demote – indent/move outline item down in hierarchy
3. Expand – expand outline tree selection
4. Collapse – collapse outline tree selection
5. Show – show selected item, if not already showing
6. Hide – hide selected item, if already hidden
7. Insert Heading – insert header at top of output display
8. Insert Title – insert title at top of output display
9. Insert Text – insert text into selected item

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 16


Basic Step 1 in SPSS: Get Data into the Data Editor - How?
• By Entering Data Directly into the Data Editor

To enter numeric data:


1. Select a cell by clicking into it.
2. Enter the number. The data value appears in the cell and in the cell editor.
3. Press Enter to record the value.
4. If not already assigned, the Data Editor assigns a unique variable name.

To enter non-numeric data, define a variable for it first:


1. Double-click on the variable name at the top of the column or click on the Variable
View tab to activate that sheet. (A row is used for each variable.)
2. Type in the variable name under Name column (see Terms for rules).
3. Click the Type cell in the row for the variable.
4. Click the button in the cell.
5. Select the data type in the Define Variable Type dialog box.
6. Click OK.
7. Click on Data View tab to make it the active sheet.
8. Enter the data in a cell in that variable’s column.

You can define descriptive variable and value labels for data values. These labels can
be used to make your dataset more readable and enhance your output.

To define a variable label:


1. Click on the Variable View tab to make it the active sheet.
2. Click the Label cell in the row for the variable.
3. Enter the descriptive label.

To switch the display between variable names and variable labels:


1. Select Options from the Edit menu in any window.
2. Choose the setting you want on the General tab.

To define value labels:


1. Click on the Variable View tab to make it the active sheet.
2. Click the Value cell in the row for the variable.
3. Click the button in the cell.
4. Enter the data value and a descriptive phrase for the Value Label.
5. Click on Add to record the value label for the data value. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 for all
values.
6. Click on OK when you are finished entering value labels.

To display value labels in Data Editor window and use them to enter data:
1. Select Value Labels from the View menu or click on the Value Labels button on the
toolbar.
2. Click the cell where you want to enter the value.

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3. Select the label from the list.
4. The value is entered with the value label displayed in the cell.

To copy attributes to other variables (use standard Cut, Copy, Paste shortcuts):
1. Click on Variable View tab to activate it.
2. Highlight the cell for the attribute you want to copy.
3. Use Ctrl-C, then click in same attribute cell for the variable to which you want to
apply the attribute. (You can copy and paste into multiple cells also.)
(Note: You can copy all attributes of a variable by selecting the row, Ctrl-C, then paste
into a new row. A new variable is displayed with the same attributes.)

• By Reading Data From Database Files Using the Database Wizard

1. Select File, then Open Database.


2. Choose New Query.
3. Click the appropriate data source in the Database Wizard.
4. Click Next. (Note: If the data source isn’t displayed in the list, click Add Data
Source. Then use the ODBC Data Source Administrator to add the data source. For
some data sources, you may also have to select a file and/or supply a username and
password.)
5. Each table is now shown in the Available Tables list.
6. Click the plus sign (+) to show all the fields in a table.
7. Drag and drop the table(s) you want to import into the Retrieve Fields list.
• Fields become variables in the Data Editor.
• You can also select a subset of fields.
• Specify join types if you are importing fields from more than one table.
• Select a subset of cases based on conditional expressions.
8. Specify user-friendly variable names.
9. Save the query to a file for future use in SPSS sessions.

• By Reading Data From Excel Files

For Excel 5 or later files: if a column contains a mix of data types, the column items are
read as strings.
For Excel 4 or earlier files: if a column contains a mix of data types, the column items
are read as data type of first with value and data of other types set to system-missing (or
blank for string variables.)
1. Select File, then Open.
2. Select Data from the sub-menu.
3. Select the file type Excel (*.xls) from the drop-down list. Browse to find folder the
file is in, then select the file shown in dialog box window by double-clicking on it.
4. If the first row of the Excel file contains column headings or labels, click to place
checkmark by Read variable names from first row of data. (Note: For Excel 5 or
later, you can also specify the sheet in the Excel file that you want to read.)
• Column headings become variable names (up to first 8 characters)
• Column headings become variable labels.

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• If a column heading cell is blank, default variable name is assigned.

• By Reading Text (ASCII) Data Files


1. Click on File, then select Read Text Data.
2. Select a text data file to read.

3. The Text Import Wizard will open up with the text file in its preview window. If a
previously saved import format can be used, click beside the Yes option, click the
Browse button to find the format file (*.tpf), highlight the format file, then click the
Open button.
• If you need to define a new import format, click the Next button.
4. Click option buttons for variable arrangement and presence of names.
• Fixed format – data items are in aligned columns in text file
• Delimited – data items in record are ordered, not aligned, and record is
partitioned by delimiters (space, tab, or character). Consecutive delimiters
indicate missing data.
• Any descriptive labels in first row of file can be used as variable names.
5. Click Next button.
6. Click appropriate option buttons for case information.
• Data will start on second row if you used labels from the text file for variable
names.
• If not a case per line, click by option button and type in variables per case.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 19


• If a case per line, the number of variables is set by maximum data items per line
in file.
• Click and enter, where appropriate, to include all, a number, or a randomly-
selected percentage of cases.
7. Click Next button.
8. Modify, if necessary, the Text Import Wizard’s data reading by changing the
delimiter (for delimited) / breakpoints (for fixed width). Preview window reflects
any changes.
9. Click Next button.
10. Modify, if necessary, variable format and which variables will be included in the final
data file.
• To change a variable’s format, click the variable in the preview window, then
select a format from the drop-down list.
• To leave out a variable from the imported file, click the variable in the preview
window, then select Do Not Import from the drop-down list.
• If desired, you can rename your variables here.
11. Click Next button.
12. Save the import specifications you created in the steps to read other text data files
(you can paste and save the underlying command syntax into a syntax file that can be
edited and saved, also).
13. Click Finish button to read the data into Data Editor.

SAVE YOUR SPSS DATA FILE!!!

When all your data has been entered in the Data Editor (no matter where
you got it!) , you should SAVE it. This encodes the text in the necessary format for
use in SPSS. Any time you make changes to your dataset, you should SAVE the file.
1. Select File, then Save or click Save File button on toolbar.
2. Browse to folder where you want to save the file.
3. Type in an appropriate name for the file.
4. Click Save button.
5. SPSS will append the extension .sav for data files.

Once your data is in the Data Editor, you may want to generate other data,
dependent on the data in the Data Editor, or change the representation of the
existing data and include the new values in the analysis.

To Transform Data Values:


1. Select Transform, then Compute.
2. Enter the name of the target variable (the new variable that will hold the transformed
data).
3. Enter the numeric expression using
a) Variables from the source list.
b) Numbers and operators from the calculator pad.
c) Functions from the function list.

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4. Use If button to open dialog box for entering condition for filtering cases.
5. The new variable for transformed data is at the end of the data file.

You may want to divide a dataset into different groups for analysis. You can
group on the values of up to eight variables. For example, you may want to group
by gender and ethnicity.

To Split a Data File for Analysis:


1. Sort file by grouping variables’ values first.
2. Select Data from the menu.
3. Select Split File…
4. In dialog box, select Compare groups to display output for each group together for
comparison.
5. Select Organize output by groups to display output for a group separately.
Note: If data file is not sorted by grouping variables, then select Sort file by grouping
variables.

You may want to merge data files, making one dataset from two or more
data files.

To Merge Files with the Same Variables and Different Cases:


1. Open a data file. The cases from this file will appear first in the new, merged data file.
2. Select Data from the menu, then select Merge Files.
3. Select Add Cases...
4. Select the data file to merge with the open data file.
5. Remove variables you don’t want in merged file from the Variables in New
Working Data File list.
6. Add any variable pairs from the Unpaired Variables list that represent the same
information recorded under different variable names in the two files.
To Select a Pair of Unpaired Variables:
a. Click one of the variables on the Unpaired Variables list.
b. Ctrl-click the other variable on the list. (Press the Ctrl key and click the
left mouse button at the same time.)
c. Click Pair to move the variable pair to the Variables in New Working
Data File list. (The variable name from the working data file is used as the
variable name in the merged file.)

To Merge Files with the Same Cases but Different Variables:


1. Open a data file.
2. Select Data from menu, then select Merge Files.
3. Select Add Variables... .
4. Select the data file to merge with the open data file.
5. Select key variables.
To Select Key Variables (files should first be sorted on key variables):
a. Select the variables from the external file variables (+) on the Excluded
Variables list.

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b. Select Match cases on key variables in sorted files.
c. Add the variables to the Key Variables list.
6. Click on OK button.
Note: Key variables must exist in both files. Both data files must be sorted by ascending
order of the key variables, and the order of variables on the Key Variables list must be
the same as their sort sequence.

For large files and repeated procedures, it may be useful to ‘cache” the data
so the procedures and data searching will run quicker.

To Create a Data Cache:


1. Select File from the menu.
2. Select Cache Data.
3. Click OK or Cache Now.
OK creates a data cache the next time the program reads the data.
Cache Now is useful when:
• A data source is "locked" and can’t be updated by anyone until you end your session,
open a different data source, or cache the data.
• For large data sources, scrolling through the contents of the Data view in the Data
Editor will be much faster if you cache the data.

Basic Step 2 in SPSS: Select And Run A Procedure - How?


You may need help in deciding what analytical procedure is appropriate and
meaningful for your data set. Use the Statistics Coach to help you decide the best
way to use your data set for information.

To Use The Statistics Coach:


1. Select Statistics Coach from the Help menu.
2. Click on appropriate responses to Prompts from the coach.
3. Use visuals to find appropriate statistical procedure or chart for your data.
4. Click on Finish button to go to the dialog box (with a help topic automatically
displayed) for the procedure).
5. Click Tell me more… for added help.
6. Annotated examples explain the data types required for the procedure and how those
types of data look in the Data Editor.

• By Selecting A Procedure From The Menu Bar


1. Select Analyze from the menu bar.
2. Select a category from the Analyze menu.
3. Select a procedure from the submenu. (e.g. use the Frequencies procedure to obtain
counts and summary statistics; see Statistics Coach on-line for help)

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• By Selecting A Chart/Graph

1. Select Graphs from the menu bar.


2. If you want help in your selection, select Gallery. (A help window will open with
graph images to click on that detail each graph/chart).
3. Select a graph type from the dropdown menu.
4. A variable and option dialog box for the selected graph will open up.
5. Make your selections, then click OK button.

• By Using Dialog Recall Button


1. Click on the Dialog Recall button on the toolbar.
2. A list of your frequently used dialog boxes drops down with most recently used first.
3. Select an appropriate dialog box (one used to create output) that you want to use.
4. The variable and option dialog box for the recalled procedure or graph will open with
the prior settings and options.
5. Change any settings or selections then click OK button.

Basic Step 3 in SPSS: Select Variables For Analysis - How?


• By Selecting Variables and Options in dialog box (for procedures
and non-interactive charts)

1. After you select a procedure/graph from the Analyze or Graph menus or from the
Dialog Recall dropdown list, a dialog box will pop up.
2. Select the desired variables from the source list.
3. Use the arrow buttons to move selected variables into the target lists.
Note: Most procedures contain the minimum specifications on a single dialog
box. To modify analysis with optional selections, you select different options on
subdialog boxes that you open from within a dialog box.
4. Select any options you want processed.
5. Click on OK to run the analysis or chart process.
6. The results are then displayed in the Viewer window.

• By Selecting Variables and Options in dialog box (for interactive


charts)
1. After selection of an interactive chart, a dialog box for the chart will open up.
2. Drag and drop variables from the source list to the target lists.
3. Switch display of labels or names by right-clicking in the list. (Note: Right-click
variable info and control help are not available in the interactive charts dialog boxes.)
4. Select the options from pop-up window.
5. Click OK to run the interactive chart process and display the results in the Viewer.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 23


Basic Step 4 in SPSS: Examine/Edit Analysis Results - How?
Once your output has been generated, what does it mean? To help interpret
the meaning of the analysis, use the Results Coach for pivot tables generated by
analysis. From the display pane in the Viewer window, you select the table you
want help in interpreting.

To access the Results Coach for pivot tables:


1. Double-click a pivot table to activate it.
2. Select Help from the menu bar.
3. Select Results Coach form the list.
4. This displays a help topic that provides information on the selected table type.

• By Working With Output Objects In The Outline Pane

You can do some of the editing and arranging of your output by working
with them in the output tree shown in the Outline pane. Work done in the Outline
pane affects the contents of the Display pane.

To hide a table or chart in the display without deleting it:


1. Double-click its book icon in the outline pane.
2. Icon should be changed to a closed book icon and item is hidden.

To hide all the results from a procedure:


1. Click on the box to left of the procedure name in the outline pane.
2. The outline view collapses and the display window is blank.

To change the position of tables or charts:


1. Left-click on the items in the outline or display pane.
2. Hold mouse button down and drag item to desired position.
3. Release the mouse button to drop them in the new location.

To display variable names and data values instead of labels or display both names
and labels:
1. Select Options on the Edit menu in any window.
2. Select the Output Labels tab in the Options dialog box.
3. Change the settings for outline labeling or pivot table labeling.

• By Working With Tables in the Display Pane

To get definitions of terms displayed in a pivot table:


1. Double-click on the table in the display pane.
2. Right-click the mouse on the term you want explained.
3. Select What’s This? from the pop-up menu.

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4. A pop-up definition will open up.

To transpose rows and columns in a table:


1. Double-click on the table you want to pivot to select it for editing.
2. Select Transpose Rows and Columns from Pivot menu.

To pivot a table (change layer orders, etc.):


1. Double-click on the table you want to pivot to select it for editing.
2. Select Pivoting Trays from the Pivot menu.
3. Click and drag a pivot icon from one dimension/position to another.
4. Close out Pivoting Tray by clicking anywhere on Display pane.

To display variable names and data values instead of labels or display both names
and labels:
1. Select Options on the Edit menu in any window.
2. Select the Output Labels tab in the Options dialog box.
3. Change the settings for outline labeling or pivot table labeling.

To collapse a large two-dimensional table into three-dimensional layers:


1. Double-click on the table.
2. Select Pivoting Trays from the Pivot menu.
3. Click with left mouse button, hold the mouse button down, and drag a pivot icon
from the row or column tray to the layer tray.
4. To view the different layers, click the arrows on the layer pivot icon.
5. Close out Pivoting Tray by clicking anywhere on Display pane.

Note: You can also change layers by selecting a category from the drop-down list.
You can put multiple table elements in the layer dimension.

To change font attributes or alignment in a table:


1. Double-click on the table you want to change.
2. Click on the table cell or label you want to modify.
3. Use the Formatting toolbar to change the font, style, color, or alignment.
4. If the Formatting toolbar is not open, select it from the View menu.
5. For additional font and alignment control, select Font from the Format menu to open
the Fonts dialog box.

To modify text in a table: (WARNNG - If you change a numeric value in a table


cell, the row, column, and grand totals are NOT recalculated.)
1. Double-click on the text you want to change.
2. Edit the text by typing in new text, backspacing, highlighting and deleting, etc.

To hide a row or column in a pivot table:


1. Double-click the pivot table to select it.
2. Ctrl-Alt-Click on the label for the row or column you want to hide.
3. Click the right mouse button.

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4. Select Hide Category from the pop-up menu.
5. The selected column is hidden but not deleted so you restore it by selecting Show
All on the View menu.

To change the display format of data in pivot tables:


1. Ctrl-Alt-Click on the column label to select the column. (Select multiple columns
with Shift-Ctrl-Alt-Click )
2. Right-click on the label of the selected column
3. Select Cell Properties from the pop-up menu.
4. Enter formatting information.
5. Click OK. Button.

• By Working With Charts in the Display Pane

Viewing a Chart
• After you create a chart, it is displayed in the Viewer.
• Any defined labels are automatically displayed in the chart.
• Descriptive variable and value labels make it easy to interpret your results.

Editing a Chart
You can:
• change the title, labeling, fonts, or colors.
• delete categories.
• change the scale, axis, or range.
• swap axes.
• change the chart type.

To open a chart for editing:


1. Double-click on the chart you want to edit in the Display pane.
2. This displays the chart in the Chart Editor window.

To select and edit an object on the chart:


1. Double-click on the chart item to place a selection box around it.
2. An appropriate dialog box for that item will open up.
3. Make any desired changes.
4. Click OK button.

To change the font of an object:


1. Select a text item in Chart editor window.
2. Click on the Text tool.
3. Select the font you want.
4. Select the size you want.
5. Click on Apply button to display the new text style to the selected object in the chart.

To insert a title:
1. Select Title from the Chart menu.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 26


2. Enter a title in the dialog box.
3. Click on OK button.
4. The title now appears on your chart.

To delete a category in a chart:


1. Double-click on one of the chart bars.
2. Move the category you want to delete into the Omit list.
3. Click on OK button.

To change the scale axis range and intervals:


1. Double-click on the axis.
2. Change the displayed range.
3. Change the intervals and values displayed on the axis.

To use the color tool to change the colors of a chart:


1. Click on a chart object/element.
2. Click on the color tool on the toolbar.
3. Select a color.
4. Click on Apply button to apply the new color to the chart bars.
5. Leave the Colors dialog box open to change other colors on the chart.
6. When you are finished changing colors, click on Close button.

To swap chart axes:


1. Click on the Swap Axes tool on the toolbar.
2. The scale axis is now horizontal and the category axis is now vertical.

To change the chart type:


1. Select a new type of chart from the Gallery menu.
2. Select the type of chart you want from the dialog box.
3. Click on Replace button.
4. A dialog box opens where you select the variables for the new chart.
5. Click OK button.
6. The new chart appears in the chart window with all of the original chart data in it.

To create an interactive chart:


1. Select Interactive from the Graphs menu.
2. Drag and drop variables from the source list to the target lists.
3. Click OK button.
4. Double-click the chart to activate it.

To create an interactive chart that summarizes two or more variables:


1. Ctrl-click to select multiple variables in the source list.
2. Drag and drop the variables onto one of the axes.
3. Specify the labels you want to use in the chart.
4. Click OK to close the Specify Labels dialog box.
5. Click OK in the chart creation dialog box to create the chart.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 27


6. Two temporary variables are created when you select multiple variables.
7. The Category variable identifies the variables used in the chart.
a. For scale variables, Value contains the summary values for each category.
b. For categorical variables, Value contains the category values of each
variable.
8. If you specify your own labels, these labels are used to identify the temporary
variables.
9. For categorical variables that use the same category values (e.g., low, medium, high),
you may want to use the temporary Category variable to identify the different
variables. Otherwise, identical categories are combined in the chart.

To create a chart from a pivot table:


1. Activate the pivot table (double-click anywhere in the table).
2. Select the cells you want to display in the chart.
3. Right-click anywhere in the selected area.
4. Click Create Graph on the pop-up menu.
5. Click the chart type you want.

To edit an interactive chart:


1. Double-click the chart to activate it.
2. Double-click an element to modify its attributes.
3. This opens the dialog box for the element.
4. Select the changes you want made.
5. Click OK button.

To add your own custom fill styles to chart bars:


1. Click More Styles.
2. Click the Texture icon.
3. Click the Browse button.
4. Select the bitmap file that contains your custom style.
5. Select your custom style from the palette.
6. Now the bars for the selected group display the custom fill style.

To use the Chart Manager to modify chart attributes.


1. Click the Chart Manager icon on the chart toolbar.
2. Select the chart element you want to modify.
3. Click Edit.
4. Make changes.
5. Click OK button.

To add other graphical elements to a chart:


1. Click the Insert Element icon on the toolbar.
2. Select the type of chart element you want to add.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 28


Other Tasks That Can Be Done In The Viewer Window

To SAVE the output:


1. Select Save from the File menu (or click on Save button on toolbar).
2. If file hasn’t been saved yet, a Save As dialog box will open.
3. Enter a suitable file name (one recommendation is that output files use data set
name). The default name is Output1 for the first output file.
4. SPSS will append the file extension .spo to the file.]

To PRINT the output:


1. Select Print from the File menu (or click on Print button on toolbar).
2. The Print dialog box will open up.
3. Select options in dialog box.
4. Click on OK button.

To copy output into another application as a metafile:


1. Click the item in the outline or contents pane of the Viewer to select it.
2. Select Copy from the Edit menu.
3. Select Paste Special from the Edit menu in the receiving application.
4. Select Picture in the Paste dialog box.

To copy a pivot table into another application as unformatted text:


1. Click the item in the outline or display pane of the Viewer to select it.
2. Select Copy from the Edit menu.
3. Select Paste Special from the Edit menu
4. Select Unformatted text.

To export output as a file:


1. Select File from menu, then Export….
2. In Export Output dialog box, select what parts of output you want to export from
Export dropdown list.
3. Select File Prefix under Export File area (what file to save it in) or click Browse.
4. Select File Type.
5. Click OK button.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 29


Accelerator Keys in the Data Editor

Press To

Shift+Tab; Left Arrow Previous variable (left)

Enter; Down Arrow Next case (down)

Up Arrow Previous case (up)

Ctrl+Left Arrow First variable

Ctrl+Right Arrow Last variable

Ctrl+Home First variable, first case

Ctrl+End Last variable, last case

F2 Edit cell contents (Edit mode)

Enter Finish editing cell contents

Shift+F2 Raise the value label pop-up

Shift+Spacebar Select current case (row)

Ctrl+Spacebar Select current variable (column)

Shift+Left Arrow Select cell to left

Shift+Right Arrow Select cell to right

Tab or Right Arrow Next variable (right)

PgDn/PgUp Scroll down/up a page

Ctrl+PgDn/Ctrl+PgUp Scroll right/left a page

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 30


In Edit mode:

Press To

Right Arrow or Left Arrow Next/previous character

Shift+Right Arrow or Shift+Left Arrow Extend selection

Tab Next cell (right)

Shift+Tab Previous cell (left)

Home Move to start of value

End Move to end of value

Shift+Home Select to start of value

Shift+End Select to end of value

Esc Restore cell contents

Using Dialog Box Commands from the Keyboard

Press To

Alt+[underlined letter] Activate a control

Tab Next control

Shift+Tab Previous control

Spacebar "Click" the active control

Esc Cancel dialog box

Ctrl-click Select several items in list box

Ctrl+A Select all items in list box

Alt+Down Arrow Open a drop-down list

Alt+Up Arrow Select item in a drop-down list

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 31


Shortcut Keys in Data Editor Window (DE)

Key Plain Shift+ Ctrl+ Alt+

F1 Help Menu-bar Help

F4 Close window

F6 Next window

F10 Activate menu bar

Del Delete Delete

Home Beginning of line Select to beginning First cell (DE)

End End of line Select to end Last cell (DE)

PgUp Page up Select up

PgDn Page down Select down

Right Arrow Char right Select right Last variable (DE)

Left Arrow Char left Select left First variable (DE)

Up Arrow Up

Down Arrow Down

Esc Cancel Task list Next applic.

BkSpc Del char left

Tab Next control Previous control Prev. applic.

PrtScr Screen capture Window cap.

Space "Click" control Application

control menu

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 32


ShortCut Keys in the Viewer Window

Press To

Ctrl+A Select all

Ctrl+C Copy to clipboard

Ctrl+F Edit>Find

Ctrl+O File>Option

Ctrl+P Print

Ctrl+S File>Save

Ctrl+V Paste from clipboard

Ctrl+X Cut to clipboard

Ctrl+Z Undo

Ctrl+Shift+Up Arrow Move up

Ctrl+Shift+Down Arrow Move down

Alt+Esc Next application

Ctrl+Esc Switch to Start menu

PrtScr Screen capture to clipboard

Alt+Spacebar Application control menu

F1 Help

F10 Access menu bar

Ctrl+Ins Copy to clipboard

Shift+Ins Paste from clipboard

Del Delete selection

Shift+Del Cut to clipboard

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 33


Ctrl+Home Go to start of document

Shift+Ctrl+Home Select to start of document

PgUp Move up a screen

Ctrl+PgUp Previous page

PgDn Move down a screen

Ctrl+PgDn Next page

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 34


Accelerator Keys in Chart Editor (CW)

Key Ctrl+ Alt+

A Select all Activate control

B Activate control

C Copy Activate control

D Activate control

E Activate control

F Activate control

G Activate control

H Activate control

I Activate control

J Activate control

K Activate control

L Refresh chart (CW) Activate control

M Activate control

N New Activate control

O Activate control

P Activate control

Q Activate control

R Run as command Activate control

S Pause scrolling Activate control

T Activate control

U Activate control

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 35


V Paste Activate control

W Activate control

X Cut Activate control

Y Activate control

Z Activate control

+ Move list item down

- Move list item up

/ Select all in list box

\ Cancel all in list box

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 36


Introduction to SPSS for Windows Session

Exercise: Enter data directly into the Data Editor, import Excel and text files into
the Data Editor, save, merge, and split data files, paste into and run syntax file,
select variable for and run Frequencies procedure, create bar chart, and save and
print output file.

Note: In this session, save all your files as instructed in the SPSS folder in My
Documents.

To open C:\My Documents\SPSS folder:


1. Click on Start, go to Documents.
2. Select My Documents from submenu.
3. Open SPSS folder.
4. Minimize SPSS folder.

To Launch SPSS:
1. Click on Start button.
2. Select Programs.
3. Select SPSS for Windows.
4. Select SPSS 10.0 for Windows.
5. Since the software is a client/server installation, it may take awhile to load the
application.

The Data Editor and dialog box (Figure 1 on pg. 12) is now visible.

To select direct data entry:


1. Click option button beside Type in data to select it.
2. Click on OK button (or press Enter key).

************************************************************************

Just the Data Editor window is now visible. Click on Data View tab.
Note that the grid columns are all headed by ”var”. The rows are numbered
consecutively going down the screen. The upper left cell in the grid should now be
active (it will have a heavier border than the others) and ready for data input.

First we need to change some of the settings.

To show all the toolbars in SPSS (where appropriate):


1. Select View from menu bar.
2. Select Toolbars.
3. A Show Toolbars dialog box opens up.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 37


4. Select All from Document Type dropdown list.
5. Click beside all the names in the Toolbars box to mark them all. Mark Show
ToolTips also (from here, you can also create custom tools and toolbars).
6. Click OK button.

SPSS options can be set to apply to the entire session or to all sessions. We may
want to change some of these.

To set an option in SPSS:


1. Select Edit from the menu bar.
2. Select Options.
3. The Options dialog box opens up (see pg. 39). This box has named tabs to click to
get to the settings for those objects in SPSS.
4. Select the General tab (it may be displayed automatically).
5. Make sure the Session Journal area has a checkmark beside Record syntax… and
Append is selected. (You can rewrite over journal log files, if desired.)

A session journal log is a record of the commands run in an SPSS session and can be
used later to reproduce a previous session.

6. Use Browse to specify the name of the journal file. Name it exercise1.
SPSS will append the .jnl extension. Click on Save button.
7. Make sure the Variable Lists area has Display Names and File selected.
8. Click Apply.
9. Click on Data tab. Right-click on the different objects to investigate the context of
the selections.
10. Click on Viewer tab. At bottom of Initial Output State area, place check mark by
Display commands in the log. Any commands will be displayed in the Viewer with
output for review.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 38


11. In Text Output Page Size area, select width of 80 characters and length infinite.
Output will now use the minimum amount of paper for printing.
12. Click on Apply.
13. Click on different tabs then right-click on objects to explore context. We will cover
more of these settings in SPSS 2.
14. Click OK then minimize the Viewer window, if it opens.

Options dialog box

************************************************************************

As you work through the data entry, refer to pg. 40 and 41f or Data Views and
Variable View. They show you the completed data entry and variable attribute
settings.

To type in data for each case/observation, remember:


• Each row represents a case.
• The columns in the file represent data items (variables) in a case.
• Correspond the row/column grid of the Data Editor to the row/column format of the
data file.
• Don’t worry if the data seems formatted incorrectly (e.g. 1 becomes 1.00 after you
move from that cell). We will reformat them later. This happens because the default
data type for variables is numeric and the default decimal setting is 2.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 39


To type in data:
• Type in the entry for the active cell.
• If this is the first data item in that column, SPSS changes the default var at top of the
column to var0001. This is the default variable name given to the data item by
SPSS.
• Use the appropriate arrow key to move to next cell on right or below.
• Use the Tab key to move to the next cell that SPSS determines data entry is for. (If
no other data within the next column to the right, the tab action will send you to the
first cell on the next row.)
• Use the left mouse button to point and click in cell you want to enter data into.
• For any missing data, use Tab or arrow key to move on to next cell. SPSS enters the
decimal point because of the default settings.

Data View
Values showing

Value Labels showing

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 40


Variable View

Use the above guidelines to start entering the data.


1. Type 1 in first cell.
2. Move to cell on right.
3. Type in 27.
4. Move to cell on right.

Remember: To avoid conflicts, string variables should be defined in SPSS BEFORE


you enter the data.

To declare the third variable:


1. Double-click on the third column’s heading.
2. The corresponding variable’s row (Row 3) in the Variable View will be at top and
highlighted. Notice the column headings. They all refer to a variable’s attributes.
3. The first cell of that row is active and ready for entry (under Name heading).
4. Type in the variable name gender. (If you use caps, SPSS will revert them to lower
case as the SAX Basic language used in SPSS for processing doesn’t look at case for
variable names.)
5. Click on right side of cell beside gender under Type heading. The Variable Type
dialog box should open up. (If not, click on the button with … that appeared on the
right side of cell.)
6. Click the option button beside String .
7. Press Tab key. The number 8 will be highlighted in box beside Characters.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 41


8. Type in 1.
9. Click OK button. Note that some of the attributes have changed. Type of the
variable gender is now String, the Width is 1 character, and Decimals attribute is
now 0 and dimmed.

While in Variable View, set the attributes for the other variables now. Look at the
questionnaire and think about what the variable types should be and what width or
decimal place to use for each of the variables.

While working…
To adjust the column widths so you can see all the headings:
1. Hover mouse pointer over right side of column heading until bar with double arrow
appears.
2. Hold left mouse down and drag left to narrow or right to widen column (you can
double-click to automatically widen to data and heading).

For first variable:


1. Use Ctrl+Home keys to go to first cell in first row.
2. Type in recnum then move to cell under Width in the same row.
3. Use down arrow on right side of cell to move the number shown to 3. Move to next
cell.
4. Type in 0 for Decimals.

For second variable, copy the attributes of the first variable:


1. Click on the row number 1 beside the recnum variable name. The entire row will be
highlighted.
2. Select Copy from the Edit menu (or press Ctrl+C keys).
3. Click on the row number 2 to highlight the second variable’s row.
4. Select Paste from the Edit menu (or press Ctrl+V keys).
5. The attributes for Width and Decimals will be changed for the second variable.
6. Type in the variable name age. (The cell will be ready for entry.)
7. Click in any other row to deselect the entire row.

For fourth and fifth variables, continue the copy action:


1. Click and hold the left mouse button down on the row number 4 (the row will be
selected and the pointer will turn into dark arrow pointing to right).
2. Drag the mouse down till rows 4 and 5 are highlighted/selected.
3. Release the left button on the mouse. Press Ctrl+V keys. The attributes for both
rows will have changed.
4. Type in gpa for fourth variable name. Change Width to 6, Decimal to 3.
5. Type in workhrs for fifth variable name. Change Width to 3, leave Decimal at 0.
1
For sixth variable:
1. Move to first cell in row 6. Type in major.
2. Press Tab key to get to Width cell.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 42


3. Type in 1 to replace the 8 then try to move to next cell. (An error message will pop
up. You must change decimal setting to 0 first.)
4. Click on OK button. The Decimals cell will be active.
5. Use down arrow in cell or type in to change to 0.
6. Change the Width to 1 now.

For the seventh variable:


1. Click in name cell in row 7. Type in active.
2. Change Decimal to 0 and Width to 1.

For the eighth through twelfth variables:


Since these have the same width and decimal place, you can use the copy and paste
action again. This time…
1. Select entire row 7 for attributes to be copied. Copy the row to the clipboard.
2. Select entire Row 8.
3. Select Paste Variables from Edit menu. A dialog box will pop up.
4. Change the Number of New Variables to 5.
5. Type in inclev for New variable names. Leave 1 for starting number.
6. Click OK button. If message appears, click Yes button.
7. The new variables inclev1 through inclev5 will be inserted below the existing
variables.
8. In this case, we will change the names. (In other uses, you could use this feature to
generate numerous variables with similar names and the same attributes.)
9. Change the variable names inclev1 to inclevel; inclev2 to satlevel; inclev3 to
marital, inclev4 to class, and inclev5 to degree.

For the last variable:


1. Enter lastname for Name.
2. Set Type to String and Width to 8. We have to choose a short string due to missing
values in files we will import.

************************************************************************

Move to the first cell in the Label column. Here is where you input details of what
the variable stands for. The maximum length of a label is 256 (no restrictions on
characters).

To assign the labels for the variables: (You can press F2 key to enter edit mode for the
current cell.)
1. Type in Record Number.
2. Press down arrow key.
3. Type in Age last birthday.
4. Moving down the column, type in:
Gender (M for Male, F for Female)
What is your current GPA?
How many hours per week do you work for pay?

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What is the category for your major?
I am involved in extra-curricular and community service activities.
What is your household income level?
I am satisfied with my personal life.
What is your marital status?
What is your current standing as a student?
Do you have a college degree already?
Last Name (optional)

Now, enter the value labels for the variables, if appropriate. Remember: value
labels are descriptive substitutes for data values. The default entry is None.

To enter value labels for gender:


1. Move to the third cell in Values column.
2. Click the … button in right of cell to open the Value Labels dialog box.
3. Type in F by Value.
4. Type in Female by Value Label.
5. Click on Add button.
6. F = “Female” appears in box. This will be a list of the value labels for the variable.
7. Click in box by Value and repeat Steps 3 – 5 using M and Male.
8. Click OK button.

To enter value labels for other variables:


1. Enter value labels for major values of 1 through 8 using
Business, Education, Health and Human Services, Liberal Arts, Science and
Mathematics, Polytechnic Studies, General Studies, Undecided
2. For active, use 1 = Strongly disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3 = Agree, and 4 = Strongly
agree. Blank means No Opinion, which will be handled as system-missing data..
Use the above method to create active’s labels, then copy and paste that cell to the
Values cell for satlevel.
3. Copy the same labels to Values for marital, class, and degree.
4. For each variable, click on button to open Value Labels dialog box. Click on a
specific label in the list to pull it into textboxes. Edit the Value Label, then click
Change button. Adding labels will be necessary for inclevel; removing labels will be
required for degree. Click OK button when done with each variable’s labels.
1. For inclevel, use 1 = 0 to 10,000, 2 = 10,000 to 20,000, 3 = 20,000 to
30,000, etc. through 60,000 as upper range.
2. For marital, use 1 = Single, 2 = Married, 3 = Divorced, and 4 =
Surviving Spouse.
3. For class, use 1 = Freshman, 2 = Sophomore, 3 = Junior, and 4 =
Senior.
4. For degree, use 1 = No, and 2 = Yes. Highlight 3 = “Agree” in list, then
click Remove button. Repeat removal for 4 = “Strongly Agree”.

Move to the top cell in the Missing column. The handling of missing data by SPSS is
VERY important. For example, there is the data item of 999 for a person’s age in a

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 44


file we will import. Do we want to consider that the actual age of a person? This
would greatly distort statistical output using that variable. For missing values like a
blank for No Opinion in active or satlevel, a missing answer is appropriate, yet
needs to excluded from statistics using these opinion ratings. SPSS will handle these
as missing information. This is known as system-missing data. For numeric data,
SPSS will recognize empty cells as missing data. For nonnumeric, you must define
what means “missing data”. That’s why so many SPSS users try to design their
surveys to use numeric data where possible.

To define how SPSS should treat the missing data for age:
1. Click on right side of second cell down in Missing column to activate … button and
open the Missing Values dialog box.
2. Click option button beside Discrete missing values.
3. Type in 999 in the first textbox. (SPSS allows 3 distinct values or a range and 1
distinct value to identify missing data.)
4. Click OK button.
5. Notice the 999 in the Missing attribute for the age variable.

Note: If entering missing values for string variables, the required value should
be enclosed in single quote (') marks, so an empty cell would be denoted by
''. Again, there is data missing for that variable in a file we will import.

To define the missing data (empty string) for lastname:


1. Click on right of Missing cell to open Missing Values dialog box.
2. Enter ‘’ for one Discrete Missing Value and a space for another. (Belt and
suspenders recommendation!)
3. Click OK button.

************************************************************************

WARNING: If you have empty strings as missing values in string data, you must
use short strings (< 8 characters). You can’t define missing values or value labels
for long strings. Try to change the Width attribute of lastname to 9.

The Columns attribute designates how many characters wide the column for the
variable is in the Data View. This is useful when you have many variables and want
to show as many as possible when in Data View or in making a printout of the Data
View contents.

The Align attribute designates the alignment of the data within the cells holding the
data for the variable in the Data View. Note that the defaults are left for String and
right for Numeric data types.

To change the setting for Columns attribute:


1. Move to first cell in Columns.
2. Change to 4.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 45


3. Click the Data View tab.
4. You will see the width of the first column (recnum) has changed to 4 characters
wide.
5. Click on Variable View tab.

To change the setting for the Align attribute:


1. Move to first cell in the column.
2. Type in c for Center or l for Left.
3. SPSS “autocompletes” the word for you.
4. Click on Data View tab and notice the change in alignment for recnum’s data.
5. Go back to Variable View.

The attribute Measure is used to define the measurement property of the variable.
Remember: SPSS has 3 categories for data values:
• Scale - processing values as actual scalars/numbers
• Ordinal - processing values as an ordered list
• Nominal – processing values as simply names

Move down the Measure column and determine the entry for each variable. Leave
recnum’s measure attribute as Scale (it could be any of the three).

To change the Measure attribute for variables:


1. Move to cell you want to change.
2. Type in o for Ordinal, s for Scale, or n for Nominal.
3. SPSS “autocompletes” the word for you.
4. Move to next cell down.
5. Repeat for the remainder of the variables.
Note: A click on the arrow on the right side of cell reveals a dropdown list with
visual reminders of what the categories mean.

You are done defining the variables. You can always return to Variable View and
change some of the attributes if the need arises. Now save your work.

************************************************************************

To save the data file:


1. Click on Save button.
2. The Save Data As dialog box will open up.
3. Enter exercise1 as the file name.
4. Click on Save button. SPSS appends the .sav automatically for data files. If the
Viewer window opens up, click on GoTo Data button.

To finish entering the data from the data file:


1. Click on Data View tab. Type in the data for the first case using the Tab key to
move across the row.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 46


2. Type in entries for three cases (given below). If you want, do Step 4 after entering
the first case to see the difference during data entry.

3. When you enter the values for gender, BE SURE to use uppercase F and M. (or you
can go back and redefine Labels to also use the lowercase values for gender).
4. Select View from menu, then click beside Value Labels.
5. Notice F has become Female, M is now Male… All the values with Value Labels
have been replaced with their labels.
6. Repeat Step 4. The values are back in the cells in Data View.
7. Compare with the data shown on pg. 47.

Save your file again using Save button.

************************************************************************

Data entry can be very tedious. If data can be pulled from prior entries done in a
database or from a spreadsheet of data, the process is much easier. If survey data is
collected on scan sheets, a text file can be created that eliminates hand entry of the
data. For our exercise, we are going to import data from an ASCII text file and also
from an Excel file and save the data as separate files.

First, we will pull in the data from the Excel file. When completed, the Data Editor
contain seven cases.

To read text from an Excel file into SPSS:


1. Select File from the menu.
2. Select New, then Data.. Data Editor will clear and Untitle will be default working
file name.
3. Select File, then Open, then Data from the submenu. (Step 3 by itself will do what
Step 1 – 3 does. Again, there are several ways to do the same action.)
4. In the Open File dialog box, make sure the folder by Look In is SPSS.
5. Change the File of type to Excel (*.xls).
6. Double-click on exercise1.xls.
7. An Opening Excel Data Source dialog box opens up.
8. Make sure check box beside the Read variable names from the first row of data is
checked!!!
9. Click the OK button.
10. The data from the Excel file will be in the cells of the Data Editor.
11. Click on the Variable View tab. Notice the attributes SPSS has applied to the data
according to what it read. Which do we need to change? Hint: Remember the
limitation on long string variable names. Do not proceed unless you are sure
what to do!

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 47


************************************************************************

Save the data in the editor as excel.sav. Review the instructions from above, if
needed.

We want to import data from a text file now.

To read data from a text file into SPSS:


1. Click on File, then select Read Text Data.
2. Select exercise1.txt from the SPSS folder.
Text File Wizard Step 1

3. The Text Import Wizard will open up with the contents of exercise1.txt in its
preview window. Since we need to define a new format, click the Next button.
(Formats can be saved for reuse if you have data files that use the same format.)
4. In Step 2, if needed, select option button for Delimited (data items in record are
ordered, not aligned, and partitioned by delimiters (a tab in this case). Consecutive
delimiters indicate missing data.
5. Click No to indicate there are no variable names at the top of the text file.
6. Click Next button.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 48


Step 2

7. Click appropriate option buttons for case handling (Step 3)


• Our data starts on line 1.
• Each line is a case.
• Include all the cases for importation.
• Notice SPSS can select a random sample, if desired.

Step 3

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 49


8. Click Next button.
9. In Step 4 of Text Import Wizard, check beside Tab, if necessary. Clear any other
boxes.
10. Click Next button. Notice Variable name and Data format textboxes in Step 5.
The Text Wizard has assigned generic variable names to the columns in Data
preview, but allows us to change them here.
11. We want to rename the variables here (all but last 3). Rename v1 as recnum.(see
Step 5). (Click into first column in Data preview. The Variable name textbox will
become available for data entry. Enter recnum. Note Data format’s value.)
Step 5

12. Repeat renaming process, in order from left to right, for age, gender, gpa, workhrs,
major, active, inclevel, satlevel, and marital. Use scrollbar for Data preview pane
to reach the other columns. Leave the last three variables as generic names.
13. For V13, CHANGE the Characters number to 8!!!
14. Click Next button.
15. Here you could save the import specifications you created in the steps to read other
text data files (you can paste and save the underlying command syntax into a syntax
file that can be edited and saved, also).
16. Click Finish button to read the data into Data Editor.
17. The Data Editor window should contain values 10 through 20 for recnum.

Save the file as text.sav.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 50


*****************************************************************
*******

We should now have 3 data files (exercise1.sav, excel.sav, and text.sav). Now we
want to merge the files into one data file.

To Merge Files with Different Cases:


1. Open the file exercise1.sav. These cases will appear first in the new, merged data file
and the defined variables will be effective.
2. Select Data from the menu bar.
3. Select Merge Files.
4. Select Add Cases.…
5. Select excel.sav. Add Cases from… dialog box will appear.

Add Cases from…

6. The variables in the files share common names so the pairing is done for you. If not,
you would have to pair the names so the data column (variable) from excel.sav would
correspond with the correct column (variable) in the merged data file.
7. Click on Paste button. Syntax1 will open up with commands in the SPSS Syntax
Editor window. What you have done is create a syntax file, a list of SAX Basic
Language commands that can be saved and rerun later as a “program”.
8. Click on Run from menu, then All.
9. Click GoTo Data button on toolbar. The window should have ten cases in it now.
10. Save the new data file as merged2.sav.
11. With merged2.sav still in Data Editor, let’s merge another file, adding cases.
(Remember how?)
12. Select text.sav this time from file list.
13. Because not all the variable names match, we must pair three from each file. See pg.
52.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 51


Add Cases

14. Pair by holding Ctrl key down and clicking on the two variables, one from each file
in Unpaired Variables list, then clicking Pair button. This will move them to
Variables in New Working Data File.
15. Repeat for the other two variables in each file. All variables should be paired up on
the right side list now. (If the pairing fails for V13 and lastname, you did not change
the characters to 8 during importation of text file. Click on Cancel, then go into
text.sav to change Width for V13 to 8. Resave text.sav, then repeat the merge
attempt.)
16. Click OK button.
17. Save the merged file as merged.sav.

************************************************************************

We have finished SPSS Basic Step 1. Let’s find out something about our dataset.
How? Through the selection of a procedure (remember: this is Step 2 in using
SPSS) . For example, if you want to know the number of males and females in this
sample, you need to see the distribution of the variable gender. You can use the
Frequencies procedure for this.

To select the procedure Frequencies in SPSS:


1. Select Analyze from the menu bar.
2. Select Descriptive Statistics.
3. Select Frequencies in the Descriptive Statistics submenu.
4. The Frequencies dialog box will open up.

Now we are at Step 3 in the use of SPSS, the selection of the variables for use in the
Frequencies procedure.

To select the variable(s) for the procedure Frequencies:


1. Select gender from the source list on the left.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 52


2. Click button to move gender into the Variables box (the target list).
3. Place check beside Display frequency tables.
4. Click on Charts… button.
5. Select option Bar Charts.
6. Click Continue button.
7. Click OK button.
8. The status bar will show the message Running Frequencies…
9. When SPSS is finished running the procedure, the Viewer window opens with the
output created by the procedure.

We have reached Step 4. The results of the Frequencies procedure can now be
examined in the Viewer window.

Frequencies and Bar Chart for Gender

You can select different objects in the Display pane by clicking on the name of the object
in the Outline pane. The Display pane shows you:
• all the respondents indicated their gender (no missing data).
• the breakdown of gender as percentages.
• a bar chart showing a graphic display of frequencies
• the log file of the commands used to create the output (at the top)

Notice the button (the designated window) at the top. This means this output file
is the receiving file of all output generated during this session (as long as it remains

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 53


designated). It is not just tied to one data file. Output files are “spool files” where
the output is appended to the file. You can delete objects from the output file by
selecting them and pressing the Delete key. You can also select objects and save the
selection or print the selection instead of the entire file. Spend some time clicking on
different objects in the Display pane/Outline pane. Note how the selection is
reflected in the other pane.

When you are finished exploring the Viewer window, click on GoTo Data button.
You will change to Data Editor window.

***********************************************************************
*

Now we want to split a file to group cases according to a variables’s values. You can
group data on a maximum of 8 variables’ values, in order of selection.

To split the file:


1. Select Data, then Split File…. The Split File dialog box will open.
2. Since the file is not split yet, Analyze all cases… is selected.

3. Click beside Compare groups.


4. Select gender and move to target list ( the Groups based on: area).
5. Click OK button.
6. Click on GoTo Data button, if the Viewer becomes active.
7. Notice the Status Bar message “Split File On” in the lower right of Data Editor
window.
8. Repeat Frequencies procedure, using marital as the variable for the procedure and
creating a bar chart. Hint: Use the Dialog Recall button to rerun the procedure. You
will have to move the variable gender out of the target list in Frequencies dialog
box.
9. Notice your output is now grouped by gender value, instead of all the cases together.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 54


To remove the “split” from the data file:
1. Click on Split File button on toolbar.
2. The message on the Status Bar in lower right will disappear. Analysis by groups is
now turned off.
Note: The variable gender will be kept in the Split File list (Groups Based on) for easy
repeat use.

To save the output:


1. Select Window from menu, then click beside Output1.spo: SPSS Viewer.
2. The Viewer window will open up.
3. Click on the Save button on the toolbar.
4. The Save As dialog box will open up.
5. SPSS automatically assigns Output and a digit as the filename.
6. Enter file name exercise1.
7. Click on Save button.
8. SPSS appends .spo for Viewer files(output files).

************************************************************************

To export the output:


1. In Viewer window, select File from menu, then Export.
2. The Export Output dialog box will open up.
3. Select Output Document from Export.
4. Click on Options, then select image format as JPEG.
5. Under Export Format area, select HTML for File Type.
6. Click on Browse, then name file exercise1 under C:\ My Documents\SPSS.
7. Click on Save button.
8. Click on OK button in Export Output dialog box.
9. Click on minimized SPSS folder on task bar at bottom of screen.
10. Open exercise1.html to view it. Close the file and minimize SPSS folder. Return to
Viewer window.

To export a chart:
1. Double-click on one of bar charts in Display pane. Chart Editor window will open
up.
2. Select File from menu, then select Export Chart.
3. In Export Chart dialog box, select JPEG for File Type.
4. Name file exercise1.
5. Click Save button.
6. Select File, then Close to close out Chart Editor window.
7. Click on minimized SPSS folder on task bar at bottom of screen.
8. Open exercise1.jpeg to view it. Close the file. Return to Viewer window.

In case, we do not get to Exercise 2 today, exit SPSS.

To exit SPSS:

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 55


In either the Data Editor or the Viewer window,
1. Select File from the menu bar.
2. Select Exit.
3. If changes were made to any open file or the file has not been saved yet, SPSS will
prompt you to save the open files. If changes have already been saved, SPSS will
close.

Copyright  2001 by Computer Services Southeast Missouri State University 56