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DEDICATION

To Almighty God, family, and my beloved friends

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advises. I would like to give thanks to my soul mates who unceasingly keep me into their prayers in strengthening my soul. Wei. Dr. Also. I have no doubt to express my gratitude to family and friends in my homeland for their spiritually support.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Many thank to my project supervisor. Without Him. Lastly. thank you very much to all my dearest professors and course mates in University of Nottingham for their teaching. I am nothing. guidance. and helping either directly or indirectly throughout the academic year. Sun. 2 . She demonstrates a good model to me with her passion and knowledge sharing to motivate and assist me to establish the skills I required. I am very appreciate the warm advises from my personal tutor.Carol Eastwick for her verbally helps and guidance throughout the entire project. Of course. Dr.

ABSTRACT A two-dimensional Luton tractor-trailer based van is used as baseline model to investigate the drag force exerted on the vehicle using CFD at urban speed. Therefore. combination of features work more effectively than the single aerodynamic feature in drag reduction. They are two configurations for cab roof design and three different angles for inward flap at rear end trailer. the features will work distinctively to improve the upstream flow condition before they reach to downstream feature and consequently. When the combination is considered. The results verification and justification has been carried by applying different size of element in the critical zones nearby the vehicle to avoid diffusion of solution. Each feature has their distinction function only in the particular location. However. flow separation point may delay further to downstream. 3 . Investigation of drag force reduction is achievable by having aerodynamic devices installed on the vehicle. The simulated results have reflected that the cab roof feature enable to reduce significant amount of drag. the results of features combination are not equal to the sum of their individual result. It becomes a connecting bridge to enclose the exposed region on top of the tractor where flow separation starts immediately after it passes the front end trailer.

.8 2.2 4 .27 4.50 Appendix D: Figures of optimal model for transient solver…………………………………….1.2 Results of Cab Roof Options…………………………………………………………………25 4.……………………..…...36 Appendix A: Work Schedule…………………………………………………………………….13 Chapter Three: Methodology 3....1 Introduction……………………………………………………………….…………….1 1.ii Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………..39 Appendix B: Design configurations and its results………………………………………………40 Appendix C: Figures of baseline model for transient solver…………………………………….3 Meshing……………………………………………………………………………………….…….1 Background and Context………………………………………………………………..1....…………….1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………..…………3 1.....15 3.. ……..…………15 3..……..61 Appendix E: Project supervision forms………………………………………………………….22 4..……………………….18 3.3 Front End of the Tractor…………………………………………………….…………………….8 2..70 List of figures and tables Figure 1.6 1....3 Results of Rear Flaps……………………………………....1.1 Character of flow..……….5 Vortex Strake Device (VDS) ……………………………………………………………….…11 2.26 4..4 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation…………………………………………..1 Verification on Baseline Model Result………………………………………………………...iii Chapter One: Introduction and Background 1.4 Result of Optimal Combination………………………….2 Principle of Bernoulli……………………………………………………..…………10 2..30 Chapter Five: Conclusion and Reccommendation.2 Effect of pressure gradient on boundary layer profile. viscous flow past a flat plate parallel to upstream velocity……….………………………………….Contents Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………….2 Problem Statement…………………………………………………………………………….7 Chapter Two: Literature Review 2....2 Bluff Bodies Design……………………………………………………..……………………….1 Effects of Viscosity………………………………………………………………….6 Flow Vane s and Rounded Corners of Trailer……………………………………………….………………….5 Transient Simulation………………………………………………....19 Chapter Four: Discussion 4.2 CAD Model and Testing Domain Preparation……………………………………………….………………….2 Figure 1.3Principle of Aerodynamic……………………………………………………………4 1.…………………..12 2.3 Objectives……………………………………………………………………………. PI = point of inflection……….34 References…………………………………………………………………….4 Underbody Flaps…………………………………………………………….1 1..

.....2 Bluff body with sharp edges………………………………………………….2 Forces by second order upwind scheme solution………………………...5 Reference values………………………………………………………....4 Figure 1.3 Figure 1....……23 Table 4.......3 Meshing Zone…………………………………………………………….....10 Flow vane device…………………………………………………........7 Effect of vortex strake device behind the trailer………………………...……12 Figure 2.………15 Figure 3.5 Effectiveness of tractor and trailer side skirts……………………………..……20 Table 3....….….……......…………28 Figure 4...........…31 Figure 4......……….............1 Mesh Sizes……………………………………………………………..……14 Figure 2.4 Forces on a body………………………………………………………………….....…………24 Figure 4..………...1 Luton box van…………………………………………………………......8 Analysis of wake region at rear end trailer…………………………….....…………20 Table 3.9 Flow vane device……………………………………………………….……12 Figure 2..........…………24 Figure 4..11 Forces for optimal model over time…………………………………..…..... 1994 to 2011…………….…………14 Figure 2...…25 Table 4.…………26 5 ...1 Velocity field around the baseline model……………………………….…….…...4 Inflation layers…………………………………………………………….....…6 Figure 2....5 Results obtained by both cab roof designs…………………………....……...…….....…………22 Table 4.............……13 Figure 2.6 Wake at rear end trailer…………………………………………….5 Velocity field at optimal model…………………………………………..3 Relationship between shapes of vehicle front and drag coefficient…………...1 Typical airflow pattern around a bluff body vehicle…………………………...…....…..........4 Optimal model…………………………………………………………..2 Solver type…………………………………………………………..5 4 Figure 1...7 Licensed vehicles by body type: Great Britain.…... depending on speed………………………………………………………………………………….7 Pressure contour at optimal model……………………………………...……..9 Forces for baseline model over the time………………………………….....……………19 Table 3.7 Solution methods………………………………………………………..……18 Figure 3....………17 Figure 3....1 Forces by first order upwind scheme solution…………………………..2 The virtual testing…………………………………………………..…………22 Table 4......3 Flow field and pressure distribution for a vehicle-shaped body in two-dimensional flow…………………………………………………………………....……9 Figure 2..6 Results obtained by three geometry flaps………………………………......3 Standard deviation for both solution methods………………………….8 Flow vane device……………………………………………………………........……29 Figure 4.…..………14 Figure 3...……21 Table 4.……........…….…9 Figure 2.Figure 1...5 Change of the rear wheel load of a notchback car through lift..6 Figure 1.6 Boundary conditions…………………………………………………..…………29 Figure 4.…..…….......12 Average forces for optimal model from 4s to 6s…………………..10 Forces for baseline model from 4s to 6s………………………………......……24 Figure 4...……...………………20 Table 3...….…….6 Vortex strake devices……………………………………………………....……10 Figure 2........…………32 Table 3..…………27 Figure 4..………19 Figure 4..…28 Figure 4...6 Drag coefficients of two-dimensional bodies at ℜ>10 .…11 Figure 2...………20 Table 3........…….……20 Table 3..4 Types of material………………………………………………………...….3 Simulation model………………………………………………………....3 Pressure contour of baseline model……………………………………...4 Effect of streamlined front ends on the drag coefficient of rectangular bodies in ground proximity……………………………………………………...2 Velocity field behind the vehicle……………………………………….............… 30 Figure 4.........……30 Figure 4......….4 Standard deviation at each part………………………………………...……………23 Table 4...

……….……27 Table 4..10 Comparison results of optimal model by two different solvers……...9 Comparison results of baseline model by two different solvers………...7 Results of combination features………………………………………...……….……28 Table 4...32 6 .......31 Table 4.…….........…....….Table 4..8 Comparison of result…………………………………………………………...

Free Stream Velocity L – Life Force W – Gravity Force M – Pitching Moment x – Distance in horizontal direction P – Pressure y – Distance in vertical direction P∞ .NOMENCLATURE A – Projected Area CD – Coefficient of Drag CL – Coefficient of Lift CP – Coefficient of Pressure D – Drag Force Df – Skin Drag U – Velocity DP – Pressure Drag U∞ .Free Stream Pressure ρ – Density of air Re – Reynold Number τw – Wall shear stress T – Thrust Force H – Height of vehicle CFD – Computational fluid dynamics HGVs – Heavy goods vehicles LGVs – Light goods vehicles VSD – Vortex strake device W – Width of vehicle 7 .