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Boyang Qin (TA)

Instructor: Dr. Paulo E. Arratia

University of Pennsylvania

2014 Aug - Dec

MEAM 302 Recitations

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Table of Contents I

MEAM 302 Recitations

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2014-9-3 Lecture: continuum approach

MEAM 302 Recitations

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2014-9-3 Lecture: continuum approach

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Too small: molecular fluctuation. not too large. Kn = λ . Coriolis Forces and effects Ro = inerita ρU 2 /L U = = coriolis ρ2UΩ L(2ω sin φ) the extend to which the restoring effect of corilolis forces restrict the displacement of fluid Fluid as a continuum density of a point: ρ = δm/δV . yet. how small or large should we size δV ? The answer lies in Knudsen number. we need δV not too small. L smallest length scale for water: 300nm pipe MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-3 Lecture: continuum approach 4 .Scaling ideas. we can call it density field ρ(x. t). Too large: no longer faithful to a “point”. z. When density of a point is defined. y .

centrifugal and DE 5 . centrifugal and DE MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-4 Recitation: dimensionality.2014-9-4 Recitation: dimensionality.

force [F] / mass [M]. temperature [T] . time [t]. speed [L/t]. Note: Dimension 6= Unit ! MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-4 Recitation: dimensionality. area [L2 ]. centrifugal and DE 6 .Dimensionality Primary dimensions: length [L]. Secondary dimensions: derived physical properties.

centrifugal and DE 6 . speed [L/t]. Show that Rossby number is dimensionless. area [L2 ]. time [t]. Note: Dimension 6= Unit ! Problem 1 “number”. temperature [T] . force [F] / mass [M]. Secondary dimensions: derived physical properties. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin inertial scale of (ρu · ∇u) = . hence a true Ro . coriolis scale of (2ρω × u) 2014-9-4 Recitation: dimensionality.Dimensionality Primary dimensions: length [L].

we see that Ro offer rule of thumb on when can Coriolis effect be ignored/considered. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-4 Recitation: dimensionality. centrifugal and DE 6 . hence a true Ro . inertial scale of (ρu · ∇u) = . Note: Dimension 6= Unit ! Problem 1 “number”.Dimensionality Primary dimensions: length [L]. area [L2 ]. temperature [T] . speed [L/t]. Show that Rossby number is dimensionless. force [F] / mass [M]. coriolis scale of (2ρω × u) In class. Secondary dimensions: derived physical properties. time [t].

centrifugal and DE 7 .What about Centrifugal force? Link MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-4 Recitation: dimensionality.

constant. then the conversion of the acceleration of particle P from frame B to A is given by: A P a = B aP + 2 A ω B × B vP + A ω B × ( A ω B × B rP ) | {z } | {z } Coriolis Acc Centrifugal Acc Could centrifugal Acc affect gravity? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-4 Recitation: dimensionality. but frame B is rotating(earth) with A B ω . centrifugal and DE 7 .What about Centrifugal force? Link If frame A is stationary(universe).

4 × 106 m For Jason-2 satellite: period= 6754 sec. For us on earth? R = 6. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-4 Recitation: dimensionality. r /R = 1.Centrifugal force vs Gravity? Problem 2 Your TA is afraid that the centripetal force from earth’s rotation may affect our perceived gravity. Is such worry necessary? Come up with a dimensionless number (in light of the Rossby number) to support your claim.2. centrifugal and DE 8 . i.e ~g .

Calculate the total travel time via free fall. Suppose there is a high-rise/ tunnel that extend from r = 2R all the way to r = 0. centrifugal and DE 9 . Further. buildings are so high that they go into space. the inside is pumped vaccum for unobvious reasons.Last problem Problem 3 Your TA fancies that in the future. and tunnels are so deep that they go into the center of the earth. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-4 Recitation: dimensionality.

Suppose there is a high-rise/ tunnel that extend from r = 2R all the way to r = 0. Assumptions: no fluid drag. centrifugal and DE 9 . the inside is pumped vaccum for unobvious reasons. Further. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-4 Recitation: dimensionality. buildings are so high that they go into space. homogenous distribution of earth mass. spherical earth. and tunnels are so deep that they go into the center of the earth.Last problem Problem 3 Your TA fancies that in the future. ignore centrifugal effect. Calculate the total travel time via free fall.

What how does ~g behave? Constant? Outside the earth vs inside the earth? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-4 Recitation: dimensionality. centrifugal and DE 10 .

What how does ~g behave? Constant? Outside the earth vs inside the earth? 1 0.8 g /g R 0. centrifugal and DE 10 .6 0.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 r /R How to judges whether “~g constant” is appropriate? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-4 Recitation: dimensionality.4 0.

Now the formulaic part Conservation + Constitutive + Conditions MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-4 Recitation: dimensionality. centrifugal and DE 11 .

r 0 (0) = r10 . r (t1 ) = R. MEAM 302 Recitations r (0) = 2R. Qin (R ≤ r ≤ 2R) (0 ≤ r ≤ R) 2014-9-4 Recitation: dimensionality. r 0 (0) = 0. r (t2 ) = 0. r 00 = −gR (r /R) .Now the formulaic part Conservation + Constitutive + Conditions Two regimes: ( 2 r 00 = −gR (R/r ) . centrifugal and DE 11 . r (0) = R .

centrifugal and DE 11 .Now the formulaic part Conservation + Constitutive + Conditions Two regimes: ( 2 r 00 = −gR (R/r ) . r (t2 ) = 0. r (0) = 2R.5 1 0. r 00 = −gR (r /R) . r (t1 ) = R.5 0 0 MEAM 302 Recitations 500 Qin 1000 1500 t[s] 2000 2500 2014-9-4 Recitation: dimensionality. (R ≤ r ≤ 2R) (0 ≤ r ≤ R) 2 r /R 1. r 0 (0) = r10 . r (0) = R . r 0 (0) = 0.

shear stress constitutive equation. BC 12 .2014-9-11 Recitation: flow dimensionality. shear stress constitutive equation. BC MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-11 Recitation: flow dimensionality.

z) and time t. shear stress constitutive equation. y .2 or 3 dimensional? Is it steady or unsteady? u= MEAM 302 Recitations V˙ (t) ˆi + yˆj + z k ˆ x 4π(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 Qin 2014-9-11 Recitation: flow dimensionality. is the following flow 1. BC 13 .The coordinate system used can simplify flow field Problem 1 Given Cartesian coordinate (x.

is the following flow 1. z) and time t.The coordinate system used can simplify flow field Problem 1 Given Cartesian coordinate (x. φ).2 or 3 dimensional? Is it steady or unsteady? u= V˙ (t) ˆi + yˆj + z k ˆ x 4π(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 Now consider the spherical coords (r . y . BC 13 . θ. shear stress constitutive equation. with the basis vectors: MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-11 Recitation: flow dimensionality.

u= V˙ (t) ˆr. θ.2 or 3 dimensional? Is it steady or unsteady? u= V˙ (t) ˆi + yˆj + z k ˆ x 4π(x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 Now consider the spherical coords (r .2 or 3 dimensional in this coordinate? What’s the price? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-11 Recitation: flow dimensionality. BC 13 . is the following flow 1. z) and time t.The coordinate system used can simplify flow field Problem 1 Given Cartesian coordinate (x. shear stress constitutive equation. 4πr 2 Is this flow 1. ˆr. θ. φ). y . with the basis vectors: ˆ φ ˆ is: Convince yourself that the above flow field in basis vectors.

3 m/s at this time. BC 14 .Problem 2 (Fox 8ed. If the block is released from rest at t = 0. what is its initial acceleration? Derive an expression for the speed of the block u(t). on a film of SAE 30 oil at 20◦ C (µ =0. with mass m = 5 kg.20 mm thick.4 Pa·s) that is d =0. shear stress constitutive equation.51) A block of edge size 0. 2.1m. Find the speed after 0. find the viscosity µ of the oil we would have to use. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-11 Recitation: flow dimensionality.1 s. If we want the mass to instead reach a speed of 0. slides down a smooth incline θ = 30◦ below the horizontal.

**Problem 2 (Fox 8ed. 2.51) A block of edge size 0.1m, with mass m =
**

5 kg, slides down a smooth incline θ = 30◦ below the horizontal, on a

film of SAE 30 oil at 20◦ C (µ =0.4 Pa·s) that is d =0.20 mm thick. If

the block is released from rest at t = 0, what is its initial acceleration?

Derive an expression for the speed of the block u(t). Find the speed after

0.1 s. If we want the mass to instead reach a speed of 0.3 m/s at this

time, find the viscosity µ of the oil we would have to use.

u

Ublock

Ublock =

MEAM 302 Recitations

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t

= 1 − e − md/µA

mg sin θ

µA/d

2014-9-11 Recitation: flow dimensionality, shear stress constitutive equation, BC

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**But doesn’t gravity act on the film as well?
**

Problem 3 Find the solution to the steady slanted film problem u(y ),

where the upper surface of the film is moving with constant speed U.

Also find the shear stress or force on the upper surface y = d. Compared

with that used in problem 2.

MEAM 302 Recitations

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2014-9-11 Recitation: flow dimensionality, shear stress constitutive equation, BC

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**But doesn’t gravity act on the film as well?
**

Problem 3 Find the solution to the steady slanted film problem u(y ),

where the upper surface of the film is moving with constant speed U.

Also find the shear stress or force on the upper surface y = d. Compared

with that used in problem 2.

The velocity profile of the film:

1 ρgd 2 sin θ y 2 y

y

u(y ) =

−

+

+U .

2

µ

d

d

d

The top surface of the film has:

τ (d) = µ

U

1

− ρgd sin θ,

d

2

Ufree film =

1 ρg sin θ 2

d

2 µ

**If block is sliding on such a film, the terminal speed is:
**

Ublock∗ = Ublock + Ufree film .

MEAM 302 Recitations

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2014-9-11 Recitation: flow dimensionality, shear stress constitutive equation, BC

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2014-9-17 Recitation: flow lines + multi-layered flows MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-17 Recitation: flow lines + multi-layered flows 16 .

what’s the difference? 3 When do they coincide? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-17 Recitation: flow lines + multi-layered flows 17 . x y 1 What’s the flow dimensionality? steady or unsteady? 2 Pathline vs. Streamline.Pathline + Streamline + Streakline Problem 1 Consider the cooked up flow field: u= 1−t ˆ t ˆ i + j. Pathline vs Streaklines.

x y 1 What’s the flow dimensionality? steady or unsteady? 2 Pathline vs. Streamline. y0 ) = (1. 1) for the range specified above.Pathline + Streamline + Streakline Problem 1 Consider the cooked up flow field: u= 1−t ˆ t ˆ i + j. 5 Streamline Find the streamline with 0 ≤ s ≤ 1 for a particle that is located at x0 = (x0 . y0 ). MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-17 Recitation: flow lines + multi-layered flows 17 . 6 Plot both curves for x0 = (x0 . y0 ) in the first quadrant at t = 0. Pathline vs Streaklines. in the first quadrant at t = 0. what’s the difference? 3 When do they coincide? 4 Pathline Find the particle path with 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 for a particle that is located at x0 = (x0 .

1) for the range specified above. what’s the difference? 3 When do they coincide? 4 Pathline Find the particle path with 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 for a particle that is located at x0 = (x0 . 6 Plot both curves for x0 = (x0 . y0 ) = (1. in the first quadrant at t = 0. Pathline vs Streaklines. y0 ). x y 1 What’s the flow dimensionality? steady or unsteady? 2 Pathline vs. 7 Streakline Plot the t = 1 positions of all the particles that has ever passed the location (1. 5 Streamline Find the streamline with 0 ≤ s ≤ 1 for a particle that is located at x0 = (x0 . MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-17 Recitation: flow lines + multi-layered flows 17 . Streamline.Pathline + Streamline + Streakline Problem 1 Consider the cooked up flow field: u= 1−t ˆ t ˆ i + j. y0 ) in the first quadrant at t = 0. 1) during 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.

The three lines: pathline streamline streakline 2 y √ 1 √ 1 2 √ 3 x MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-17 Recitation: flow lines + multi-layered flows 18 .

your TA derived that the steady fluid film flowing on a slope of angle θ with the horizontal is governed by: d 2u ρg sin θ =− . with multiple type of immiscible fluids flowing in contact and in parallel to each other.Multilayer fluid on slope Problem 2 Last thursday. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-17 Recitation: flow lines + multi-layered flows 19 . 2 dy µ which works even when the film is “multi-layered”.

Multilayer fluid on slope Problem 2 Last thursday. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-17 Recitation: flow lines + multi-layered flows 19 . convince yourself of the governing formula for a horizontally oriented multi-layered flow (this helps with your homework). your TA derived that the steady fluid film flowing on a slope of angle θ with the horizontal is governed by: d 2u ρg sin θ =− . 1 Using the above. with multiple type of immiscible fluids flowing in contact and in parallel to each other. 2 dy µ which works even when the film is “multi-layered”.

convince yourself of the governing formula for a horizontally oriented multi-layered flow (this helps with your homework). 2 Does this formula work if the fluid is air? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-17 Recitation: flow lines + multi-layered flows 19 . 2 dy µ which works even when the film is “multi-layered”.Multilayer fluid on slope Problem 2 Last thursday. with multiple type of immiscible fluids flowing in contact and in parallel to each other. 1 Using the above. your TA derived that the steady fluid film flowing on a slope of angle θ with the horizontal is governed by: d 2u ρg sin θ =− .

if the film is in contact with air.Multilayer fluid on slope Problem 2 Last thursday. compare to that obtained by assuming the “stress-free” condition. convince yourself of the governing formula for a horizontally oriented multi-layered flow (this helps with your homework). the so-called “stress-free” boundary condition is used on the “liquid-air” interface. In this problem. µ2 . with multiple type of immiscible fluids flowing in contact and in parallel to each other. in the context of 2-layered fluid flow between two sloped plaques. we analyze the appropriateness of this assumption. your TA derived that the steady fluid film flowing on a slope of angle θ with the horizontal is governed by: d 2u ρg sin θ =− . 1 Using the above. Determine the speed at the interface in terms of µ1 . MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-17 Recitation: flow lines + multi-layered flows 19 . Ask yourself why. 2 Does this formula work if the fluid is air? 3 Often. 2 dy µ which works even when the film is “multi-layered”.

" −1 # ρg sin θ d12 µ1 d2 U= 1− 1+ . µ2 d1 pathline streamline streakline 2 y √ 1 1 √ 2 √ 3 x MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-17 Recitation: flow lines + multi-layered flows 20 . 2µ µ2 d1 | {z } U0 µ1 d2 #= .

2014-9-25 Recitation: Pressure problem MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-25 Recitation: Pressure problem 21 .

pitot static tube Problem 1 1 What is a manometer? What is the dimension of the desired physical quantity? What about the read-out physical quantity? 2 What is the key assumption(s) when using theory of hydrostatics? What does that assumption imply for a manometer whose height of the water column is changing greatly? 3 MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-25 Recitation: Pressure problem 22 .Manometer.

Manometer. Is the mechanism used here within the realm of hydrostatics? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-25 Recitation: Pressure problem 22 . pitot static tube Problem 1 1 What is a manometer? What is the dimension of the desired physical quantity? What about the read-out physical quantity? 2 What is the key assumption(s) when using theory of hydrostatics? What does that assumption imply for a manometer whose height of the water column is changing greatly? 3 4 An important device used on aircrafts is the pitot static tube . information of the speed of the airplane can be obtained. as 2 compared with the same fluid that is brought to rest “frictionlessly”. It exploits the fact that there is a 1 apparent pressure change for a moving fluid ∆p = ρV 2 . Although it measures pressure difference.

the container should be cylindrical in shape. Due to spacing requirements. How should you size the thickness of the container t(z) to minimize material used without the container deforming irreversibly? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-25 Recitation: Pressure problem 23 . The material is structural steel (iron is one the few metals that does not amalgate with mercury) with yield strength 250 MPa. with radius R = 1m and height of H = 10m.Hydrostatic pressure and force Problem 2 You’re out in the industry trying to design a storage container for mercury (room temp specific gravity γ = 13.6).

the container should be cylindrical in shape. t t(z) = MEAM 302 Recitations Qin πγρ0 g Rz = 1. How should you size the thickness of the container t(z) to minimize material used without the container deforming irreversibly? πR σh = P. at z=10m. P = γρ0 gz. with radius R = 1m and height of H = 10m.Hydrostatic pressure and force Problem 2 You’re out in the industry trying to design a storage container for mercury (room temp specific gravity γ = 13.6). The material is structural steel (iron is one the few metals that does not amalgate with mercury) with yield strength 250 MPa. Due to spacing requirements. ασy 2014-9-25 Recitation: Pressure problem 23 .67cm. σh ≈ σvon = ασy .

49.500 ). ν = 0. predict the measured quantity of your device.Balloon problem Problem 3 How do you measure the pressure needed to pop a balloon? Obviously this pressure depends on the balloon’s mechanical properties. the balloon has t0 = 10mil and R0 = 2. UTS=2. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-25 Recitation: Pressure problem 24 . E = 5ksi.32 ksi. When un-inflated. For the Z154970 Aldrich balloon (rubber.

E = 5ksi. predict the measured quantity of your device. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-9-25 Recitation: Pressure problem 24 . t0 No volume change! Knowing one gives us the other. Hook’s law: σ11 − ν(σ22 + σ33 ) = E 11 . the balloon has t0 = 10mil and R0 = 2.500 ). 2t Axial loading volumetric change: ∆V = V0 1−2ν ∆t 1+ − 1. Hoop stress equation: R σh = P. For the Z154970 Aldrich balloon (rubber. UTS=2.49. ν = 0.32 ksi.Balloon problem Problem 3 How do you measure the pressure needed to pop a balloon? Obviously this pressure depends on the balloon’s mechanical properties. When un-inflated.

2014-10-2 Recitation: Pressure force calculation MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-2 Recitation: Pressure force calculation 25 .

Review from static force and moments Problem 1 1 What are the two governing equations in a manometer deflection problem? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-2 Recitation: Pressure force calculation 26 .

how to get total force? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-2 Recitation: Pressure force calculation 26 .Review from static force and moments Problem 1 1 What are the two governing equations in a manometer deflection problem? 2 Given some pressure distribution on a surface.

how to get total force? 3 What about the total moment.Review from static force and moments Problem 1 1 What are the two governing equations in a manometer deflection problem? 2 Given some pressure distribution on a surface. around a reference point? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-2 Recitation: Pressure force calculation 26 .

Review from static force and moments Problem 1 1 What are the two governing equations in a manometer deflection problem? 2 Given some pressure distribution on a surface. around a reference point? 4 Does the location of the reference point matter? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-2 Recitation: Pressure force calculation 26 . how to get total force? 3 What about the total moment.

around a reference point? 4 Does the location of the reference point matter? 5 How to calculate the “equivalent force” of that pressure distribution? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-2 Recitation: Pressure force calculation 26 . how to get total force? 3 What about the total moment.Review from static force and moments Problem 1 1 What are the two governing equations in a manometer deflection problem? 2 Given some pressure distribution on a surface.

Suppose d1 /d2 = 1 + . or d1 = d2 .Error in manometer due to cross section variation Problem 2 The cross section of a manometer usually has same diameter along the tube. what is the error as a function of for using the assumption that the diameter is uniform. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-2 Recitation: Pressure force calculation 27 . But this is never the case since fabrication of glass cylinders have inherent error.

This time we have to size the thickness of a stainless steel wall (AISI 302. Determine the optimal wall thickness t/R with height ratio n. yield strength σss = 520 MPa.Aquarium with rounded bottom Problem 3 You’re out in the field again solving challenging problems for demanding customers.8) for a fancy looking aquarium. specific gravity γ = 7. with a round ground viewing proportion with R = 2 m and an upper vertical portion of height n R. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-2 Recitation: Pressure force calculation 28 .

Aquarium with rounded bottom Physical root is √ a − b 2 −4a c b 0.1 0 0 MEAM 302 Recitations 1 Qin 2 n 3 4 2014-10-2 Recitation: Pressure force calculation 5 29 .3 0.2 0.4 α= 1 α= 2 α= 4 t/R 0.

2014-10-16 Recitation: Post mid term MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-16 Recitation: Post mid term 30 .

(about origin). For a choosen origin(usually some hinge of the surface) about which moments are calculated. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-16 Recitation: Post mid term 31 . F M 0 = F 0 · y 0 ..Pressure on submerged surface.. oriented in some angle θ with the vertical in a static fluid. the equivalent force system (F 0 . M 0 ) of the pressure force is given by: F 0 = A · p(yc ). aIxx y 0 = yc + 0 . Pressure force on Given a planar Z immersed planar surface Z −1 surface of area A = dA and centroid yc = A y dA. the pressure field is p(y ) = ay + b (a planar distribution). a= dp(y ) ∼→ ρg sin θ. Convince yourself this is true. y 0 . dy where Ixx is the second area moment Z around the centroid in the direction where pressure is uniform: Ixx = (y − yc )2 dA.

Mass and momentum balance Problem 1 1 How is the average velocity defined on the cross section. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-16 Recitation: Post mid term 32 . 3 How do you calcualte the momentum flow rate across a surface. 2 How do you calculate the flow rate across a surface.

Mass and momentum balance Problem 2 Find the average velocity V (z) profile out of a garden nozzle whose axis is the z-axis and whose diameter is dL − d0 d(z) = d0 + z. z ∈ [0. Ignore gravity. L MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-16 Recitation: Post mid term 33 . L].

then momentum balance will be violated. L show that if the actual velocity is uniform in x. L]. Ignore gravity. or exactly the same as the average velocity.Mass and momentum balance Problem 2 Find the average velocity V (z) profile out of a garden nozzle whose axis is the z-axis and whose diameter is dL − d0 d(z) = d0 + z. y . MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-16 Recitation: Post mid term 33 . z ∈ [0.

Mass and momentum balance Problem 3 MEAM 302 Recitations Mass and momentum In pipe. Qin 2014-10-16 Recitation: Post mid term 34 .

2014-10-23 Mass and momentum MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-23 Mass and momentum 35 .

Z Z ∂ ~ · dA ~ = 0.Concept check Problem 1 What are the assumptions that allows us to simplify the full mass balance of a control volume in inertia frame. all lets n MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-23 Mass and momentum 36 . ρV ρdV + ∂t CV ∂CV to: X (V~n · ~n)An = 0.

ρV ρdV + ∂t CV ∂CV to: X (V~n · ~n)An = 0. all lets n Assumptions: 1 CV is steady(no accumulation of mass) 2 Constant fluid density 3 uniform inlet outlet velocity profile 4 velocity normal to surface MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-23 Mass and momentum 36 . Z Z ∂ ~ · dA ~ = 0.Concept check Problem 1 What are the assumptions that allows us to simplify the full mass balance of a control volume in inertia frame.

ˆ ˆ ρ (V · i) V · nˆ An = (−ˆ n · i) pn An + F all lets n MEAM 302 Recitations all lets n Qin 2014-10-23 Mass and momentum 37 . V V ∂t CV ∂CV CV ∂CV to a simple scalar balance in x: " # " # X X a ~ ~ ~ wall · ˆi.Concept check Problem 1 What are the assumptions that allows us to simplify the ~ = ρ(uˆi + v ˆj + w k) ˆ of a control full vectorial momentum balance ρV volume in inertial frame: Z Z Z Z ∂ ~ ρdV + ~ (ρV ~ · d A) ~ = ~fB dV + ~fS dA.

MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-23 Mass and momentum 37 . z are trivially satisfied (no bearing on the problem) 2 CV is steady (no accumulation of momentum) 3 Constant fluid density 4 Uniform inlet outlet velocity profile 5 Velocity normal to surface and in x direction. ˆ ˆ ρ (V · i) V · nˆ An = (−ˆ n · i) pn An + F all lets n all lets n Assumptions: 1 Other directions y .Concept check Problem 1 What are the assumptions that allows us to simplify the ~ = ρ(uˆi + v ˆj + w k) ˆ of a control full vectorial momentum balance ρV volume in inertial frame: Z Z Z Z ∂ ~ ρdV + ~ (ρV ~ · d A) ~ = ~fB dV + ~fS dA. 6 inlet outlet surface normal is in x direction. V V ∂t CV ∂CV CV ∂CV to a simple scalar balance in x: " # " # X X a ~ ~ ~ wall · ˆi.

in terms of all the let conditions. The center is a mysterious black box.Wall force from a four way black box Problem 2 Your given a four way channel with 2 lets in the horizontal direction and 2 in the vertical. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-23 Mass and momentum 38 . The four lets has known An . (Look at TA’s sketch). namely n = 4. pn and known ~ n except for one. Express the speed at let 4 velocities V and the total force exerted by the wall.

(Look at TA’s sketch). in terms of all the let conditions. Question: what if one the lets is oriented at an angle? What if pressure is given gage versus absolute.Wall force from a four way black box Problem 2 Your given a four way channel with 2 lets in the horizontal direction and 2 in the vertical. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-23 Mass and momentum 38 . namely n = 4. The four lets has known An . The center is a mysterious black box. pn and known ~ n except for one. Express the speed at let 4 velocities V and the total force exerted by the wall.

vz (r ) = v0 1 − R Determine the pressure head needed over a length of pipe L. vr = vθ = 0. Q = πR 2 v0 /2.Momentum Balance in Pipe Problem 3 For a steady laminar Poiseuille flow in a circular pipe. the velocity profile and volume flow rate are: r 2 . MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-23 Mass and momentum 39 .

Q = πR 2 v0 /2. What is the momentum balance? Stress in cylindrical coordinates? ∂vr ∂vz + . vz (r ) = v0 1 − R Determine the pressure head needed over a length of pipe L. the velocity profile and volume flow rate are: r 2 . vr = vθ = 0.Momentum Balance in Pipe Problem 3 For a steady laminar Poiseuille flow in a circular pipe. τrz = µ ∂r ∂z MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-23 Mass and momentum 39 .

What is the momentum balance? Stress in cylindrical coordinates? ∂vr ∂vz + . MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-23 Mass and momentum 39 . A like a circuit? Show that two fully developed laminar pipe in series. the velocity profile and volume flow rate are: r 2 . their resistance are additive. Q = πR 2 v0 /2. vz (r ) = v0 1 − R Determine the pressure head needed over a length of pipe L. ∆P ≡ Resistance = Q 8µ R2 L . τrz = µ ∂r ∂z Determine the resistance of the pipe of length L.Momentum Balance in Pipe Problem 3 For a steady laminar Poiseuille flow in a circular pipe. for Poiseuille flow. vr = vθ = 0.

Momentum Balance in Pipe Problem 3 The laminar or layered flow becomes chaotic and statistical at some high energy conditions (Re #). a pheonomen known as Turbulence : Link MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-23 Mass and momentum 40 .

6 0.5 −1 0 0. n&6 instead of v0 1 − R R turb profile: v = v 0 (1 − r /R) 1/n.8 1 v /v 0 What do you expect the resistance to be for turb. the velocity profile can be approximated by Power Law Profile : h r 2 r i1/n vz (r ) = v0 1 − . n = 7 turb.4 0.2 0. n = 14 0 −0.5 laminar turb.Momentum Balance in Pipe Problem 3 Empirically. comparaed to laminar? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-23 Mass and momentum 41 . n > 6 1 r /R 0.

so what should we do if we wish to calcualate the wall resistance to flow. Now you can design piping and pumping for a power plant. case f is the moody empirical factor. this profile is not valid near wall. or wall sink of momentum? f ∆P = Q 64 2ρV R · µ | {z } Re # 8µ · R2 | {z } L A lam. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-23 Mass and momentum 42 .Momentum Balance in Pipe Problem 3 However.

2014-10-30 Mass and momentum MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-30 Mass and momentum 43 .

3 directions: Z Z Z Z ∂ ~ (ρV ~ · d A) ~ = ~fB dV + ~fS dA. ρV ∂CV Momentum balance.Working equations Mass balance: ∂ ∂t Z Z ρdV + CV ~ · dA ~ = 0. ~ ρdV + V V ∂t CV ∂CV CV ∂CV Problem 1 surfaces? MEAM 302 Recitations What changes may occur if we use absolute pressure on Qin 2014-10-30 Mass and momentum 44 .

3 directions: Z Z Z Z ∂ ~ (ρV ~ · d A) ~ = ~fB dV + ~fS dA.Working equations Mass balance: ∂ ∂t Z Z ~ · dA ~ = 0. If you p g for pressure. ρV ρdV + CV ∂CV Momentum balance. ~ ρdV + V V ∂t CV ∂CV CV ∂CV Problem 1 What changes may occur if we use absolute pressure on surfaces? x direction: " # " # X X g ~ · ˆi) V ~ · nˆ An = ~ g · ˆi. ρ (V (−ˆ n · ˆi) pn An + F wall all lets n all lets n There’s pressure from walls too! If you use p a = p g + p atm for pressure. ~a = F ~g +F ~ atm includes p 0 . then F ~g then F wall wall wall wall does not include the contribution from the atmosphere pressure from the walls. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-30 Mass and momentum 44 .

CV Scenario II: . dA ∂CV CV Scenario I: . MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-30 Mass and momentum 45 .The net force of any uniform pressure on a closed surface must vanish: Z ~ = −p atm −p atm d A ∂CV Z ~ = 0.

2 Problem 2 1 2 What is the physical meaning of this eqn? LHS.Working equations Energy balance: ∂ ∂t Z Z e ρdV + CV ∂CV 2 V ~ · dA ~ u + pv + + gz ρV | {z } 2 h ˙s −W ˙ shear − Wother . = Q˙ − W V2 where e = u + + gz. RHS? How is the work done by gravity accounted for? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-30 Mass and momentum 46 .

MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-30 Mass and momentum 47 . control volume .Pressure issue.

Hydrolic Jump Problem 3 Shockwave occurs when the air speed exceeds the travelling speed of sound wave c. Link MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-30 Mass and momentum 48 . It is known that water in shallow conduits can “jump” when flow speed exceeds the travelling speed of gravity waves ( surface waves). This is known as the hydraulic jump.

Link MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-30 Mass and momentum 48 . It is known that water in shallow conduits can “jump” when flow speed exceeds the travelling speed of gravity waves ( surface waves).Hydrolic Jump Problem 3 Shockwave occurs when the air speed exceeds the travelling speed of sound wave c. This is known as the hydraulic jump.

Hydrolic Jump Problem 3 Compute the following of a hydraulic jump from supercritical to subcritical flow. 1 Outlet height D2 . D1 . after stating your assumptions. V1 . 2 Change in temperature MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-10-30 Mass and momentum 49 . flow speed V2 . in terms of the inlet parameters.

2014-11-6: Kinematics and Stress MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-6: Kinematics and Stress 50 .

that we are experts in tensors (total stress σ is of such nature). elastic solids.Origin of the Navier Stokes.. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-6: Kinematics and Stress 51 . Problem 1 If we pretend. deformable body. for a second.. then the local balance of momentum is compactly given by the Cauchy eqn: ρ Dv = ∇ · σ + ρg. Dt valid for liquid.

for a second. elastic solids.. Then. Problem 1 If we pretend.Origin of the Navier Stokes. • Question: how does the daunting total stress simplify for κ = 0? What if we add incompressible flow condition? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-6: Kinematics and Stress 51 . the above Cauchy eqn is reduced to the Navier Stokes eqn. If the fluid in question. Dt valid for liquid. then the local balance of momentum is compactly given by the Cauchy eqn: ρ Dv = ∇ · σ + ρg.has a total stress σ that looks like: 1 1 ∇v + ∇vT σ = −PI + 2µ D − (∇ · v)I + 3κ (∇ · v)I where D = . deformable body.. that we are experts in tensors (total stress σ is of such nature). 3 3 2 {z } | τ we call it a Newtonian fluid .

• Question: how does the daunting total stress simplify for κ = 0? What if we add incompressible flow condition? σ = −PI + µ2D MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-6: Kinematics and Stress 51 . Then. If the fluid in question. that we are experts in tensors (total stress σ is of such nature). then the local balance of momentum is compactly given by the Cauchy eqn: ρ Dv = ∇ · σ + ρg. Problem 1 If we pretend. Dt valid for liquid. 3 3 2 {z } | τ we call it a Newtonian fluid . the above Cauchy eqn is reduced to the Navier Stokes eqn.has a total stress σ that looks like: 1 1 ∇v + ∇vT σ = −PI + 2µ D − (∇ · v)I + 3κ (∇ · v)I where D = .. elastic solids. for a second..Origin of the Navier Stokes. deformable body.

we get the Navier Stokes equation: ρ Dv = ∇ · σ + ρg Dt MEAM 302 Recitations Qin ⇒ ρ Dv = µ∇2 v − ∇P + ρg. Dt 2014-11-6: Kinematics and Stress 52 .Navier Stokes For such total stress.

2014-11-6: Kinematics and Stress 53 .What does total and viscous stress look like? Problem 2 Consider 2-D incompressible Newtonian cases. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin τ = µ2D. what does the stress look like for pure shear and pure extensional flow? σ = −PI + τ .

What does total and viscous stress look like? Problem 2 Consider 2-D incompressible Newtonian cases. what does the stress look like for pure shear and pure extensional flow? σ = −PI + τ . any such 2-d flow can only have two free component. . namely the shear rate and the extensional rate component: τ shear = µ MEAM 302 Recitations Qin ˙ γ˙ γ˙ −˙ 2014-11-6: Kinematics and Stress 53 . Since τ must be symmetric. τ = µ2D. We get: τ shear = µ τ ext = µ 0 γ˙ γ˙ 0 ˙ 0 0 −˙ .

Force vs free vortex

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**Thermodynamic pressure vs Dynamic pressure
**

We have seen that the pressure used in the NS eqn is theormodynamic

pressure P:

Dv

ρ

= −∇P + µ∇2 v + ρg.

Dt

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2014-11-13: Couette Flow

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Appreciation of analytical solutions to the Navier Stokes 1 The Navier Stokes equation is a set of nonlinear. coupled. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 57 . partial differential equations.

coupled. partial differential equations. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 57 . the most chanllenging problem in modern science and the coolest topic in fluid mechanics.Appreciation of analytical solutions to the Navier Stokes 1 The Navier Stokes equation is a set of nonlinear. 2 The Naviers Sokes equation is believed to govern turbulence.

the most chanllenging problem in modern science and the coolest topic in fluid mechanics.Appreciation of analytical solutions to the Navier Stokes 1 The Navier Stokes equation is a set of nonlinear. 3 The solutions of Navier Stokes equation is not unique: laminar and turbulent solutions can exist for identical boundary conditions. coupled. partial differential equations. 2 The Naviers Sokes equation is believed to govern turbulence. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 57 .

the most chanllenging problem in modern science and the coolest topic in fluid mechanics. coupled.000.000. however.Appreciation of analytical solutions to the Navier Stokes 1 The Navier Stokes equation is a set of nonlinear. 2 The Naviers Sokes equation is believed to govern turbulence. is one the seven Millenium Prize problems by the Clay Mathematics Institute. 4 The Existence and smoothness problem of the Navier Stokes. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 57 . with a prize money of $ 1. partial differential equations. 3 The solutions of Navier Stokes equation is not unique: laminar and turbulent solutions can exist for identical boundary conditions.

with numerical methods almost the exclusive way. with a prize money of $ 1..Appreciation of analytical solutions to the Navier Stokes 1 The Navier Stokes equation is a set of nonlinear. 4 The Existence and smoothness problem of the Navier Stokes. 2 The Naviers Sokes equation is believed to govern turbulence. the most chanllenging problem in modern science and the coolest topic in fluid mechanics. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 57 . is one the seven Millenium Prize problems by the Clay Mathematics Institute. except in a handful of special cases. 3 The solutions of Navier Stokes equation is not unique: laminar and turbulent solutions can exist for identical boundary conditions.. however. 5 The Navier Stokes equation is very tough to solve.000.000. coupled. partial differential equations.

Assumptions: MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 58 . let Ro − Ri = δ be the gap size. For convenience. The outer one is rotating with angular velocity ω while the inner one is stationary. Derive the velocity profile in the gap.One canonical case: Couette Flow between cylinders Consider the steady laminar flow between two concentric cylinders of inner radius Ri and outer radius Ro .

Assumptions: 1 steady. Hence vθ (r ). another consequence is vr ≡ 0. The outer one is rotating with angular velocity ω while the inner one is stationary. 5 flow has pt symmetry around r = 0 ⇒ no dependence on θ. 3 the violation of the following assumptions is the hallmark of instability and turbulence: 4 ~v has no variation in z. For convenience.One canonical case: Couette Flow between cylinders Consider the steady laminar flow between two concentric cylinders of inner radius Ri and outer radius Ro . MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 58 . let Ro − Ri = δ be the gap size. vz (r ) only. Newtonian fluid. laminar. incompressible flow. 2 gravity perpendicular to plane. Derive the velocity profile in the gap. 6 pressure in z is equilibriated with gravity identically.

incompressible flow. 3 the violation of the following assumptions is the hallmark of instability and turbulence: 4 ~v has no variation in z. Boundary conditions: MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 58 . Newtonian fluid.One canonical case: Couette Flow between cylinders Consider the steady laminar flow between two concentric cylinders of inner radius Ri and outer radius Ro . laminar. Assumptions: 1 steady. 5 flow has pt symmetry around r = 0 ⇒ no dependence on θ. vz (r ) only. 2 gravity perpendicular to plane. Hence vθ (r ). let Ro − Ri = δ be the gap size. 6 pressure in z is equilibriated with gravity identically. The outer one is rotating with angular velocity ω while the inner one is stationary. Derive the velocity profile in the gap. For convenience. another consequence is vr ≡ 0.

Newtonian fluid. 5 flow has pt symmetry around r = 0 ⇒ no dependence on θ. Assumptions: 1 steady. 2 gravity perpendicular to plane. Boundary conditions: 1 Outer wall: vθ (Ro ) = ωRo . Hence vθ (r ). 2 Inner wall: vθ (Ri ) = 0. vz (r ) only. Derive the velocity profile in the gap. 6 pressure in z is equilibriated with gravity identically. 3 Globally: vr = 0.One canonical case: Couette Flow between cylinders Consider the steady laminar flow between two concentric cylinders of inner radius Ri and outer radius Ro . laminar. vz (Ro ) = 0. let Ro − Ri = δ be the gap size. vz (Ri ) = 0. another consequence is vr ≡ 0. The outer one is rotating with angular velocity ω while the inner one is stationary. 3 the violation of the following assumptions is the hallmark of instability and turbulence: 4 ~v has no variation in z. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 58 . For convenience. incompressible flow.

Conservation of mass The conservation of mass in cylindrical coordinates (r . • Show that the continuity is satisfied. z) is: ∂ρ + ∂t 1 ∂ρrvr 1 ∂ρvθ ∂ρvz + + r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z = 0. θ. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 59 .

vθ (r ): ρ h ∂v z ∂t ∂vz vθ ∂vz ∂vz i + + vz ∂r r ∂θ ∂z 1 ∂ ∂vz 1 ∂ 2 vz ∂ 2 vz ∂P =µ r + 2 + ρgz + − 2 2 r ∂r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ∂z +vr Reduces to: MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 60 . note that vr ≡ 0.Conservation of momentum vz component.

vθ (r ): ρ h ∂v z ∂t ∂vz vθ ∂vz ∂vz i + + vz ∂r r ∂θ ∂z 1 ∂ ∂vz 1 ∂ 2 vz ∂ 2 vz ∂P =µ r + 2 + ρgz + − 2 2 r ∂r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ∂z +vr Reduces to: 0=µ 1 ∂ ∂vz r .Conservation of momentum vz component. note that vr ≡ 0. r ∂r ∂r • What does this equation mean for vz ? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 60 .

vθ (r ): ρ h ∂v z ∂t ∂vz vθ ∂vz ∂vz i + + vz ∂r r ∂θ ∂z 1 ∂ ∂vz 1 ∂ 2 vz ∂ 2 vz ∂P =µ r + 2 + ρgz + − 2 2 r ∂r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ∂z +vr Reduces to: 0=µ 1 ∂ ∂vz r . MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 60 . r ∂r ∂r • What does this equation mean for vz ? Integrating: vz (r ) = c1 ln r + c2 but from BC. So: vz (r ) ≡ 0.Conservation of momentum vz component. hence c1 = c2 = 0. 0 = c1 ln Ri + c2 and 0 = c1 ln Ro + c2 . note that vr ≡ 0.

vθ (r ): ρ h ∂v r ∂t ∂vr vθ ∂vr v2 ∂vr i + − θ + vz ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z ∂ 1 ∂rvr 1 ∂ 2 vr ∂ 2 vr 2 ∂vθ ∂P =µ + 2 + + ρgr − − ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ2 r 2 ∂θ ∂z 2 ∂r +vr reduces to: MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 61 . note that vr ≡ 0.Conservation of momentum vr component.

r ∂r • What is the meaning of this equation? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 61 . vθ (r ): ρ h ∂v r ∂t ∂vr vθ ∂vr v2 ∂vr i + − θ + vz ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z ∂ 1 ∂rvr 1 ∂ 2 vr ∂ 2 vr 2 ∂vθ ∂P =µ + 2 + + ρgr − − ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ2 r 2 ∂θ ∂z 2 ∂r +vr reduces to: ρ vθ2 ∂P = . note that vr ≡ 0.Conservation of momentum vr component.

vθ (r ): ρ h ∂v r ∂t ∂vr vθ ∂vr v2 ∂vr i + − θ + vz ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z ∂ 1 ∂rvr 1 ∂ 2 vr ∂ 2 vr 2 ∂vθ ∂P =µ + 2 + + ρgr − − ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ2 r 2 ∂θ ∂z 2 ∂r +vr reduces to: ρ vθ2 ∂P = . note that vr ≡ 0. r ∂r • What is the meaning of this equation? The pressure gradient in the radial direction is providing the centripetal force needed by any tangential velocity vθ ! MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 61 .Conservation of momentum vr component.

o i 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 62 . vθ (r ): h ∂v ∂vθ vθ ∂vθ vr vθ ∂vθ i θ ρ +vr + + + vz ∂t ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z 1 ∂ 2 vθ 2 ∂vr ∂ 2 vθ ∂ 1 ∂rvθ 1 ∂P + 2 + + + ρgθ =µ − ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ2 r 2 ∂θ ∂z 2 r ∂θ simplifies to a really simple equation: d 1 d(rvθ ) 0= dr r dr integrate to get: vθ (r ) = c1 r + c2 r −1 To get 2 constants. noting vr ≡ 0. vθ component.Conservation of momentum Lastly. we need 2 BCs: ( vθ (Ri ) = c1 Ri + c2 Ri−1 = 0 vθ (Ro ) = c1 Ro + c2 Ro−1 = ωRo MEAM 302 Recitations Qin ⇒ c1 = c2 = Ro2 ω Ro2 −Ri2 Ro2 − R 2 −R 2 ωRi2 .

Result So after some rearrangment: MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 63 .

Result So after some rearrangment: Ro Ri vθ (r ) = 2 · Ro − Ri2 MEAM 302 Recitations Qin Ri r − Ri r · ωRo . 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 63 .

Result So after some rearrangment: Ro Ri vθ (r ) = 2 · Ro − Ri2 Ri r − Ri r · ωRo . • Question: what happens if Ro → Ri ? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 63 .

• Question: what happens if Ro → Ri ? Ro R i (r − Ri )(r + Ri ) vθ (r ) = · ωRo .Result So after some rearrangment: Ro Ri vθ (r ) = 2 · Ro − Ri2 Ri r − Ri r · ωRo . (Ro − Ri )(Ro + Ri ) r Ri MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 63 .

Ro − Ri 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 63 . (Ro − Ri )(Ro + Ri ) r Ri Taking the limit: R →R i vθ (r ) −−o−−→ MEAM 302 Recitations Qin r − Ri · ωRo . • Question: what happens if Ro → Ri ? Ro R i (r − Ri )(r + Ri ) vθ (r ) = · ωRo .Result So after some rearrangment: Ro Ri vθ (r ) = 2 · Ro − Ri2 Ri r − Ri r · ωRo .

• Question: what happens if Ro → Ri ? Ro R i (r − Ri )(r + Ri ) vθ (r ) = · ωRo . Ro − Ri It becomes a linear profile in r ! Is this intuitive? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 63 . (Ro − Ri )(Ro + Ri ) r Ri Taking the limit: R →R i vθ (r ) −−o−−→ r − Ri · ωRo .Result So after some rearrangment: Ro Ri vθ (r ) = 2 · Ro − Ri2 Ri r − Ri r · ωRo .

Hint: What component of the tress tensor is needed? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 64 . needed to maintain such flow profile vθ .Torque • Express the torque on the outer cylinder.

needed to maintain such flow profile vθ . Hint: What component of the tress tensor is needed? ∂ vθ 1 ∂vr ∂ vθ τr θ = µ r + → τr θ = µr . ∂r r r ∂θ ∂r r MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 64 .Torque • Express the torque on the outer cylinder.

∂r r r ∂θ ∂r r Which reduces to: τr θ = µω MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2Ri Ro Ro Ri .Torque • Express the torque on the outer cylinder. Hint: What component of the tress tensor is needed? ∂ vθ 1 ∂vr ∂ vθ τr θ = µ r + → τr θ = µr . needed to maintain such flow profile vθ . r 2 Ro2 − Ri2 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 64 .

Torque • Express the torque on the outer cylinder. needed to maintain such flow profile vθ . r 2 Ro2 − Ri2 At the two cylinder surfaces: . Hint: What component of the tress tensor is needed? ∂ vθ 1 ∂vr ∂ vθ τr θ = µ r + → τr θ = µr . ∂r r r ∂θ ∂r r Which reduces to: τr θ = µω 2Ri Ro Ro Ri .

τr θ .

.r =Ro = µω 2Ri2 . Ro2 − Ri2 outer wall.

τr θ .

r =R = µω 2Ro2 . Ro2 − Ri2 inner wall. i MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 64 .

Torque

• Express the torque on the outer cylinder, needed to maintain such flow

profile vθ . Hint: What component of the tress tensor is needed?

∂ vθ 1 ∂vr

∂ vθ

τr θ = µ r

+

→

τr θ = µr

.

∂r r

r ∂θ

∂r r

Which reduces to:

τr θ = µω

2Ri Ro Ro Ri

.

r 2 Ro2 − Ri2

At the two cylinder surfaces:

τr θ

r =Ro = µω

2Ri2

,

Ro2 − Ri2

outer wall,

τr θ .

does these torque agree with what you expect for a linear profile? Is the shear stress uniform in the gap? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 64 . i • As Ro → Ri . Ro2 − Ri2 inner wall.r =R = µω 2Ro2 .

Torque The total torque on the outer surface: Z T = dF · r S MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 65 .

Ro − Ri2 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 65 .Torque The total torque on the outer surface: Z T = dF · r S For a finite gap: T = (τr θ |Ro )(2πRo h) · Ro = MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2Ri2 µω 2 (2πRo h) · Ro .

Torque The total torque on the outer surface: Z T = dF · r S For a finite gap: T = (τr θ |Ro )(2πRo h) · Ro = 2Ri2 µω 2 (2πRo h) · Ro . Ro − Ri2 For a limiting gap: ωR T −−−−→ µ · 2πRh · R. δ Ro →Ri MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 65 .

δ Ro →Ri • This device is widely used to measure viscosity of a fluid.Torque The total torque on the outer surface: Z T = dF · r S For a finite gap: T = (τr θ |Ro )(2πRo h) · Ro = 2Ri2 µω 2 (2πRo h) · Ro . can you see why? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 65 . Ro − Ri2 For a limiting gap: ωR T −−−−→ µ · 2πRh · R.

can you see why? • How do you enhance the sensitivity of such device if you’re to build one? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 65 . δ Ro →Ri • This device is widely used to measure viscosity of a fluid.Torque The total torque on the outer surface: Z T = dF · r S For a finite gap: T = (τr θ |Ro )(2πRo h) · Ro = 2Ri2 µω 2 (2πRo h) · Ro . Ro − Ri2 For a limiting gap: ωR T −−−−→ µ · 2πRh · R.

can you see why? • How do you enhance the sensitivity of such device if you’re to build one? • What if you have a shear thinning fluid. Ro − Ri2 For a limiting gap: ωR T −−−−→ µ · 2πRh · R. What parameter is important to monitor carefully? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-13: Couette Flow 65 . whose viscosity depends on shear rate. δ Ro →Ri • This device is widely used to measure viscosity of a fluid.Torque The total torque on the outer surface: Z T = dF · r S For a finite gap: T = (τr θ |Ro )(2πRo h) · Ro = 2Ri2 µω 2 (2πRo h) · Ro .

2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session

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**Problem 1 Would Stokes’ law be expected to hold for very tiny
**

particles falling in air if the diameter of the particles is of the order of the

mean free path of the air molecules? Explain.

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**Problem 1 Would Stokes’ law be expected to hold for very tiny
**

particles falling in air if the diameter of the particles is of the order of the

mean free path of the air molecules? Explain.

Sol: No, at that length scale, the Knudsen number, defined by

Kn = λ/D, is of order 1. The behavior of such particle will be governed

by statistical mechanics rather continuum mechanics, which is the

framework for Stokes’ Law.

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Problem 2 A liquid enters a fluid machine at section (1) and leaves at sections (2) and (3) as shown below.7 psi MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 68 . All of the flow occurs in a horizontal plane and is frictionless and adiabatic. Patm = 14. determine the amount of shaft power involved. Unit Conversion: 1 slug = 1 lb s2 /ft . (40 Points) Hint: The shaft power is done by/on the system. 1 hp = 550 ft lb/s . For the above mentioned and additional conditions shown in the Figure below. The density of the fluid is constant at 2 slugs/ft3 .

ignore temperature(or internal energy) variation. Velocity normal to cross section. outlets. iii) gravity out of plane iv) no external heat flow. constant density ii) uniform profile at all inlet. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 69 .Assumptions: i) steady state.

Velocity normal to cross section.Assumptions: i) steady state. ignore temperature(or internal energy) variation. → A2 = V1 V3 A1 − A3 = 7. ρdV + ρV ∂t CV ∂CV Simplifies to: 0 − V1 A1 + V2 A2 + V3 A3 = 0. iii) gravity out of plane iv) no external heat flow.5in2 . Conservation of mass: Z Z ∂ ~ · dA ~ = 0. V2 V2 Conservation of momentum: Can be used to get forces from wall (not asked to) MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 69 . outlets. constant density ii) uniform profile at all inlet.

− P1 + V1 A1 + P2 + V2 A2 + P3 + V3 A3 = −W 2 2 2 since area is given in in2 might as well convert ρV 2 /2 to units of psi.Conservation of energy: Z Z 2 ∂ V ~ · dA ~ u + Pν + e ρdV + + gz ρV | {z } 2 ∂t CV ∂CV h ˙s −W ˙ shear − Wother . Also. = Q˙ − W becomes: P1 V12 P2 V22 P3 V32 + (−ρV1 A1 ) + + (ρV2 A2 ) + + (ρV3 A3 ) ρ 2 ρ 2 ρ 2 ˙ s. always use absolute pressure for energy eqn. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 70 . = −W or: ρV12 ρV22 ρV32 ˙ s.

0 hp. s s 550 ˙ s = 32. s 144 ft3 s ft3 ft So the resultant power will be in units of: 1psi · ft lbf ft 1 · in2 = 1 = hp. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 71 .ρV 2 /2 unit conversion: 1 2 2 1 slug ft lbf s2 / ft ft lb = 1 =1 2 = psi. W outside. hence doing work to the Plugging in numbers. its positive.

(35 points) b) What is the ratio of average to maximum velocity in the slit? (Derive the equation. Sketch the velocity profile from x = −B to x = B. For a pressure driven flow and a slit of finite length L and width W . (The fluid is flowing in between the two solid walls.Problem 3 Consider the laminar flow of an incompressible.) The walls are separated by a distance 2B. where W B: (50 points) a) Derive and determine the velocity distribution inside across the slit. You may neglect end and entrance effects.) (15 points) MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 72 . Newtonian fluid in a vertical slit formed by two parallel walls as shown in the Figure below.

iv) The above two leads to: ~v (x) only d~v . incompressible. Cartesian coordinates. Newtonian.Assumptions: i) steady state. ii) Ignore end and entrance effects: fully developed. iii) No variation in y direction(dummy direction). laminar. ~v has not variation in z.

.

Hence =0 . v) Symmetry about centerline x = 0.

dx x=0 vi) constant pressure gradient in z only. vii) gravity has gz = −g . gx = gy = 0. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 73 .

iii) No variation in y direction(dummy direction). Cartesian coordinates. incompressible. Newtonian. laminar. ~v has not variation in z.Assumptions: i) steady state. iv) The above two leads to: ~v (x) only d~v . ii) Ignore end and entrance effects: fully developed.

.

Hence =0 . v) Symmetry about centerline x = 0.

dx x=0 vi) constant pressure gradient in z only. vii) gravity has gz = −g . Boundary Conditions 1) No slip: ~v (B) = ~v (−B) = 0. dvy . gx = gy = 0.

.

dvz .

.

dvx .

.

2) Symmetry: =0= = .

.

.

. dx x=0 dx x=0 dx x=0 MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 73 .

Conservation of mass incompressible ~v (x): ∂vx ∂vy ∂vz + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 74 .

MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 74 .Conservation of mass incompressible ~v (x): ∂vx ∂vy ∂vz + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z Simplifies to: dvx = 0. Using the boundary conditions. dx ⇒ vx (x) = c. we arrive at: vx (x) ≡ 0.

vx = 0: ∂vy ∂vy ∂vy ∂vy ρ + vx + vy + vz ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2 ∂ vy ∂ 2 vy ∂ 2 vy ∂P =µ + ρgy + + − 2 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 75 .y momentum(dummy direction) ~v (x).

y momentum(dummy direction) ~v (x). using no slip BC. 0=µ dx 2 ⇒ vy = c1 x + c2 . vx = 0: ∂vy ∂vy ∂vy ∂vy ρ + vx + vy + vz ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 ∂ vy ∂ 2 vy ∂ 2 vy ∂P =µ + ρgy + + − 2 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y simplifies to 2 d vy − 0. Again. we get: vy (x) ≡ 0. vy (−B) = 0 = vy (B). MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 75 .

vx = 0 = vy : ∂vz ∂vz ∂vz ∂vz + vx + vy + vz ρ ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2 ∂ vz ∂ 2 vz ∂ 2 vz ∂P =µ + ρgz + + − 2 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 76 .z momentum (flow direction) vz (x).

MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 76 . µ dz Note the effect of pressure gradient and that of gravity are indistinguishable.z momentum (flow direction) vz (x). vx = 0 = vy : ∂vz ∂vz ∂vz ∂vz + vx + vy + vz ρ ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z simplifies to: 2 d vz dP 0=µ − ρg . − dx 2 dz 2 ∂ vz ∂ 2 vz ∂ 2 vz ∂P =µ + ρgz + + − 2 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z ⇒ vz00 = 1 dP def + ρg = A.

− dx 2 dz 2 ∂ vz ∂ 2 vz ∂ 2 vz ∂P =µ + ρgz + + − 2 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z ⇒ vz00 = 1 dP def + ρg = A. Integrate: vz (x) = MEAM 302 Recitations A 2 x + c1 x + c2 . vx = 0 = vy : ∂vz ∂vz ∂vz ∂vz + vx + vy + vz ρ ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z simplifies to: 2 d vz dP 0=µ − ρg . 2 Qin vz0 (x) = Ax + c1 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 76 .z momentum (flow direction) vz (x). µ dz Note the effect of pressure gradient and that of gravity are indistinguishable.

we need 2 BCs.z momentum (flow direction) vz (x). vx = 0 = vy : ∂vz ∂vz ∂vz ∂vz + vx + vy + vz ρ ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z simplifies to: 2 d vz dP 0=µ − ρg . MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 76 . turns out no-slip alone ain’t enough: ( ( c1 = 0 vz0 (0) = c1 = 0 ⇒ 2 A 2 vz (B) = 2 B + c2 = 0. Integrate: vz (x) = A 2 x + c1 x + c2 . c2 = − AB2 . − dx 2 dz 2 ∂ vz ∂ 2 vz ∂ 2 vz ∂P =µ + ρgz + + − 2 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z ⇒ vz00 = 1 dP def + ρg = A. µ dz Note the effect of pressure gradient and that of gravity are indistinguishable. 2 vz0 (x) = Ax + c1 To get 2 constants.

Our profile: x 2 A 2 AB 2 AB 2 vz (x) = x − =− 1− . MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 77 . 2µ dz B a concave down parabolic ending at zero at x = ±B. 2 2 2 B 1 dP replacing A = + ρg : µ dz vz (x) = x 2 B2 dP − − ρg 1 − .

Our profile: x 2 A 2 AB 2 AB 2 vz (x) = x − =− 1− . 2 2 2 B 1 dP replacing A = + ρg : µ dz vz (x) = x 2 B2 dP − − ρg 1 − . 1 vz (0) = − AB 2 . 3 −1 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 77 . 1] 1 vz = 2B MEAM 302 Recitations Z B 1 vz (x)dx = 2 −B Qin Z 1 2 vz (˜ x )˜ x = − AB 2 . 2µ dz B a concave down parabolic ending at zero at x = ±B. Max velocity is at centerline. 2 Mean velocity let x˜ = x/B ∈ [−1.

1 dP − ρg stress with A = µ dz τxz = µ MEAM 302 Recitations vz = µAx. dz 2014-11-18: Pre 2nd Midterm review session 78 . x Qin τxz (B) = µAB = dP − ρg B.

2014-11-20: Post 2nd Midterm session MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-20: Post 2nd Midterm session 79 .

we assume it’s large and therefore V small. = Q˙ − W MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-20: Post 2nd Midterm session 80 . no heat conduction d) no “fancy” shaft powers etc e) ignore gravity f) since we aren’t given area of inlet.Exam problems Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 Stokes equation Re Unsteady Energy: Assume: a) Unsteady(transient) b) ideal gas c) short time. Z Z 2 ∂ V ~ · dA ~ u + Pν + e ρdV + + gz ρV | {z } 2 ∂t CV ∂CV h ˙s −W ˙ shear − Wother . hence V 2 /2 can be ignored.

Problem 4 Consider the steady laminar flow of an incompressible. d) Oil at 20◦ C (density = 888 kg/m3 and viscosity = 0. Determine the flow rate of oil through the pipe assuming that β=15◦ . For the described flow: (50 points) a) Derive an equation for the stress and velocity profiles in the inclined pipe. respectively. (25 points) b) Derive an expression for the average velocity in the inclined pipe (10 points). MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-20: Post 2nd Midterm session 81 .800 kg/m·s) is flowing steadily through a 5-cm-diameter 40-m-long pipe (see Figure below). The goal is to pump fluid upward along the incline from point A to point B. (b) and (c). Newtonian fluid in an inclined cylindrical pipe as shown in the Figure below. that is. you may assume an infinitely long pipe if you wish. the pipe is inclined 15◦ upward. (10 points) HINT: For (a). The pressure at the pipe inlet and outlet are measured to be 745 and 97 kPa. c) Derive an expression for the flow rate Q as a function of the pressure drop (5 points). Show all your steps in the derivation.

MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-20: Post 2nd Midterm session 82 .

Assumptions: MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-20: Post 2nd Midterm session 83 .

2 the violation of the following assumptions is the hallmark of instability and turbulence: ~v has no variation in z. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-20: Post 2nd Midterm session 83 . another consequence is vr ≡ 0. Hence vθ (r ). vz (r ) only. Newtonian fluid. 5 pressure in direction normal to pipe is equilibriated with gravity identically. laminar. 3 4 flow has symmetry around r = 0 ⇒ no dependence on θ. incompressible flow.Assumptions: 1 steady.

another consequence is vr ≡ 0. Hence vθ (r ). laminar. 2 the violation of the following assumptions is the hallmark of instability and turbulence: ~v has no variation in z. pressure in direction normal to pipe is equilibriated with gravity identically. vz (r ) only. Newtonian fluid. 3 4 flow has symmetry around r = 0 ⇒ no dependence on θ.Assumptions: 1 steady. Boundary conditions: 5 MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-20: Post 2nd Midterm session 83 . incompressible flow.

Newtonian fluid.Assumptions: 1 steady. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-20: Post 2nd Midterm session 83 . incompressible flow. Centerline: ∂r ∂r Globally: vr = 0. laminar. Boundary conditions: 5 1 2 3 Outer wall: vθ (R) = ωr (R) = vz (Ro ) = 0. vz (r ) only. ∂vz ∂vθ (0) = = 0. 3 4 flow has symmetry around r = 0 ⇒ no dependence on θ. pressure in direction normal to pipe is equilibriated with gravity identically. Hence vθ (r ). 2 the violation of the following assumptions is the hallmark of instability and turbulence: ~v has no variation in z. another consequence is vr ≡ 0.

MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-20: Post 2nd Midterm session 84 . z) is: ∂ρ + ∂t 1 ∂ρrvr 1 ∂ρvθ ∂ρvz + + r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z = 0. θ.Conservation of mass The conservation of mass in cylindrical coordinates (r . • Show that the continuity is satisfied.

vθ (r ): h ∂v vθ ∂vθ vr vθ ∂vθ ∂vθ i θ ρ +vr + + + vz ∂t ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z ∂ 1 ∂rvθ 1 ∂ 2 vθ ∂ 2 vθ 2 ∂vr 1 ∂P =µ + 2 + + ρgθ + 2 − ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ2 r ∂θ ∂z 2 r ∂θ using the assumption that pressure equilibriates with gravity in this direction: d 1 d(rvθ ) 0= dr r dr integrate to get: vθ (r ) = c1 r + c2 r −1 To get 2 constants. noting vr ≡ 0. we need 2 BCs: ( . vθ component.Conservation of momentum Lastly.

vθ0 (0) = c1 − c2 r −2 .

2014-11-20: Post 2nd Midterm session 85 .r →0 = 0 vθ (R) = 0 MEAM 302 Recitations Qin ⇒ ( c1 c2 =0 = 0. ⇒ vθ ≡ 0.

vr component. note that vr ≡ 0. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-20: Post 2nd Midterm session 86 . vθ (r ): ρ h ∂v r ∂t ∂vr vθ ∂vr v2 ∂vr i + − θ + vz ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z ∂ 1 ∂rvr 1 ∂ 2 vr ∂ 2 vr ∂P 2 ∂vθ + 2 − − =µ + + ρgr ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ2 r 2 ∂θ ∂z 2 ∂r +vr is satisfied as we assume pressure equilibriates gravity in the off axial direction.

note that vr ≡ 0 ≡ vθ .vz component. 4 ( = 12 A0 + c1 /0 = 0 c1 = 0 ⇒ c2 = − 41 AR 2 . r µ ∂z Integrating: 1 2 Ar + c1 ln r + c2 . = 14 AR 2 + c2 = 0 vz (r ) = ( vz0 (0) vz (R) MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-20: Post 2nd Midterm session 87 . vθ (r ): h ∂v ∂vz vθ ∂vz ∂vz i z +vr + + vz ρ ∂t ∂r r ∂θ ∂z 1 ∂ ∂vz 1 ∂ 2 vz ∂ 2 vz ∂P =µ r + 2 + ρgz + − 2 2 r ∂r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ∂z Reduces to: 1 ∂ ∂vz ∂P 0=µ r − − ρg cos β r ∂r ∂r ∂z or: 1 ∂P 1 0 0 def (rvz ) = + ρg cos β = A.

but if gravity overwhelms the flow. 4 R 4µ ∂z R where A= 1 0 0 1 ∂P (rvz ) = + ρg cos β r µ ∂z shear stress: ∂vz ∂vr 1 ∂P τrz = µ + = + ρg cos β r . the stress can be positive. ∂r ∂z 2 ∂z ∂P note that in general is negative. as expected. so τrz will be in the negative ∂z direction.hence: vz (r ) = − r 2 r 2 AR 2 R 2 ∂P 1− =− + ρg cos β 1 − . MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-20: Post 2nd Midterm session 88 .

e. no gravity. if the pipe is horizontal. R = 0.124m3 /s. ∂z Volume flow rate: πR 4 Q = πR vz = − 8µ 2 ∂P + ρg cos β .Result Mean flow: 1 v z (r ) = πR 2 R Z 0 R2 1 vz 2πrdr = − AR 2 = − 8 8µ ∂P + ρg cos β . ∂z Evaluating with ρ = 888kg/m3 . MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-11-20: Post 2nd Midterm session 89 . µ = 0.025m. β = 15◦ : Q = 0.0015m3 /s.8kg/ms. ∆P = −648kPa. Less that 2% difference. L = 40m. i. the value is 0.

Boundary layer MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-12-4: Stream function. Boundary layer 90 . dimensions.2014-12-4: Stream function. dimensions.

λ. of a free-surface gravity wave in deep water is a function of wavelength. dimensions. g .Dimensions analysis Problem 1 The speed. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-12-4: Stream function. Boundary layer 91 . ρ. D. V . Use dimensional analysis to find the functional dependence of V on these variables. depth. and acceleration of gravity. density.

λ. ρ. density. M/L L/t Can there be dependence on ρ if we don’t introduce new variables? MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-12-4: Stream function. dimensions. and acceleration of gravity. λ L D ρ g v L 3 2 L/t. Boundary layer 91 . V . Use dimensional analysis to find the functional dependence of V on these variables. of a free-surface gravity wave in deep water is a function of wavelength. depth.Dimensions analysis Problem 1 The speed. g . D.

V . λ L D ρ g v L 3 2 L/t. g . M/L L/t Can there be dependence on ρ if we don’t introduce new variables? V ∗ D F . λ λg MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-12-4: Stream function.Dimensions analysis Problem 1 The speed.√ = 0. ρ. Boundary layer 91 . density. D. dimensions. λ. and acceleration of gravity. Use dimensional analysis to find the functional dependence of V on these variables. depth. of a free-surface gravity wave in deep water is a function of wavelength.

√ .Dimensions analysis Problem 1 The speed. of a free-surface gravity wave in deep water is a function of wavelength. σ may be important in some cases. Use dimensional analysis to find the functional dependence of V on these variables. depth.√ = 0. dimensions. D. λ λg λg MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-12-4: Stream function. ρ. g . √ = 0. V . Boundary layer 91 . density. How does this affect your analysis? ! p σ/ρλ V ∗ D F . λ L D ρ g v L 3 2 L/t. and acceleration of gravity. M/L L/t Can there be dependence on ρ if we don’t introduce new variables? V ∗ D F . λ λg • Later experiments revealed that surface tension. λ.

ψ in Arbitrary curvilinear orthogonal coordinates the stream function for arbitrary such cooridnates x1 . 1 Cartesian planar flow in x.Stream function ψ Applicability : 2 dimensional flow in 3-D space. Boundary layer 92 . 2 Cylindrical planar flow r . 4 Spherical axisymmetric flow in r . θ) h3 = hz = 1 Cylindrical (z. where ez is spatially uniform. x2 . x2 . x2 . y ) h3 = hz = 1 Cylindrical (r . where θ is the pole angle. where ez is spatially uniform. r ) h3 = hθ = r Spherical (r . θ. where eθ . θ) h3 = hφ = r sin θ Qin 2014-12-4: Stream function. θ. t) = ∇ψ(x1 . z. 3 Cylindrical axisymmetric flow in r . t) × e3 h3 where h3 is some scaling factor: MEAM 302 Recitations Cartesian (x. x3 is given by: def v(x1 . y . dimensions.

x2 . Boundary layer 93 . t) = ∇ψ(x1 . t) × above. x2 . Proposition If v(x1 .Continuity is always satisfied. then: e3 with h3 given as h3 ∇·v =0 MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-12-4: Stream function. dimensions.

MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-12-4: Stream function. x2 . Boundary layer 93 . t) = ∇ψ(x1 . t) × above. dimensions. then: e3 with h3 given as h3 ∇·v =0 Pf: the divergence of the velocity is: e3 ∇ · v = ∇ · ∇ψ × h3 observing ∇ · (a × b) = b · (∇ × a) − a · (∇ × b). which is held constant for 2-D geometry. x2 . Proposition If v(x1 . Note that curling e1 . e2 need not give zero. we get: e3 e3 ∇·v = · (∇ × ∇ψ) + ∇ψ · ∇ × =0+0 h3 h3 where the first zero is for curling a gradient and the second is for curling the 3rd dimension.Continuity is always satisfied.

θ) Cylindrical (z. Boundary layer 94 . θ) MEAM 302 Recitations Qin ∂ψ ∂y 1 ∂ψ vr = r ∂θ 1 ∂ψ vz = r ∂r 1 ∂ψ vr = 2 r sin θ ∂θ vx = ∂ψ ∂x ∂ψ vθ = − ∂r 1 ∂ψ vr = − r ∂z 1 ∂ψ vθ = − r sin θ ∂r vy = − 2014-12-4: Stream function.Coordinate versions Cartesian (x. dimensions. y ) Cylindrical (r . r ) Spherical (r .

Spherical where: ∇4 = ∇2 (∇2 ). Cartesian Ec4 ψ Es4 ψ = 0. ∂r r ∂θ sin θ ∂θ ∇2 = 2014-12-4: Stream function. ∂r r ∂r ∂z ∂2 sin θ ∂ 1 ∂ 2 Es = 2 + 2 . Ec4 = Ec2 (Ec2 ). MEAM 302 Recitations Qin ∂2 ∂2 + . for an appropriate 2-d flow. dimensions. Es4 = Es2 (Es2 ). ∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂2 1 ∂ ∂2 Ec2 = 2 − + 2.Stream function for Stokes equation: creeping flow The creep flow equation: ∇p = µ∇2 v. Boundary layer 95 . can be equivalently recast as: ∇4 ψ = 0. Cylindrical = 0.

Boundary layer 96 .Stream function vs Streamline Problem 2 i) Show that for steady flow. the level curves of ψ are the streamlines. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-12-4: Stream function. dimensions.

the level curves of ψ are the streamlines. This mean in the direction of v. ψ is constant. Boundary layer 96 .Stream function vs Streamline Problem 2 i) Show that for steady flow. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-12-4: Stream function. v “travels” on the level curves of ψ. everywhere in the flow. Thus. the velocity v is everywhere perpendicular to the gradient of the stream function ∇ψ. dimensions. 2. 4. 3. Pf: 1. Hence the level curves are identical to the streamlines. by definition.

y ≥ 0. This mean in the direction of v. dimensions. MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-12-4: Stream function. 2. the velocity v is everywhere perpendicular to the gradient of the stream function ∇ψ. t) = Ae −ny sin(nx). ii) Given stream function: ψ(x. ψ is constant. the level curves of ψ are the streamlines. Calculate the forumla for the corresponding streamline. where A. 4. Thus.Stream function vs Streamline Problem 2 i) Show that for steady flow. everywhere in the flow. Pf: 1. v “travels” on the level curves of ψ. Hence the level curves are identical to the streamlines. Boundary layer 96 . y . by definition. 3. n are constants.

5 0 0 MEAM 302 Recitations 0.5 1 0. Boundary layer 97 .ny = ln | sin nx| 2.5 2 n·y 1. dimensions.4 n ·x 2π 0.8 1 2014-12-4: Stream function.2 Qin 0.6 0.

664 Cf = √ Rex Show that a simple sinudoidal approximation of the BL profile remarkably yields error to less than 2%. Note that this model has a boundary layer growth profile of: δ 4.BL over flat plate Problem 3 i) What are the difference between the flow within the boundary layer and that without? ii) What is the so-called Blasius solution? What are the assumptions for such analytical result? iii) The wall stress from Blasius solution is: τw def = 1 2 2 ρU 0. Boundary layer 98 . x Rex MEAM 302 Recitations Qin 2014-12-4: Stream function.8 =√ . dimensions.

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