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Journal of Food Engineering 81 (2007) 618–623

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Effect of muscle type and washing times on
physico-chemical characteristics and qualities of surimi
Sang-Keun Jin a, Il-Suk Kim a, Su-Jung Kim a, Ki-Jong Jeong a,
Yeung-Joon Choi b, Sun-Jin Hur c,*
a

Department of Animal Resources and Technology, Jinju National University, Kyoungnam, Jinju, Chilam-dong 150, Republic of Korea
b
Division of Marine Bioscience, Gyeongsang National University, Kyoungnam Tongyeong, Inpyeong-dong 445, Republic of Korea
c
Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003, USA
Received 21 September 2006; received in revised form 2 January 2007; accepted 3 January 2007
Available online 18 January 2007

Abstract
Surimi was prepared from alaska pollack, pork leg and chicken breast by washing with water two or four times. Moisture, crude protein and crude fat were significantly higher in alaska pollack surimi than other surimi samples. Collagen contents and yield was significantly higher in pork leg surimi made by washing two times than those of other surimi samples. All physical characteristics were
significantly higher in alaska pollack surimi than those of others, whereas pork leg surimi made by washing two times had significantly
lower water-holding capacity (WHC), deformation and gel strength. Alaska pollack had higher lightness (L*) and whiteness (W), whereas
chicken breast surimi samples showed lower lightness (L*). Myoglobin content was higher in pork leg surimi samples, whereas alaska
pollack and chicken breast surimi samples were lower than those of other samples. In sensory evaluation, color was significantly higher
in alaska pollack surimi, while chicken breast surimi made by washing four times was significantly lower in color. However, aroma, flavor, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability were not significantly different among the surimi samples.
Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Surimi; Physico-chemical characteristics; Pork leg; Chicken breast; Alaska pollack

1. Introduction
Up until now, the Korean meat industry has suffered
from the lack of unpopular meat consumption that has
caused the large stock of the unpopular meat such as pork
loin, leg and chicken breast, because most of Korean meat
consumers prefer pork belly or chicken thigh meat rather
than pork loin or lean meat. Thus, we conducted the development of re-structured pork belly or surimi made from a
chicken breast (Hur et al., 2004; Jin et al., 2006) for
improvement of unpopular meat consumption. In the
mean time, there has been considerable interest in the manufacturing of surimi-like material from the muscle of spe-

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 413 687 9064; fax: +1 413 545 1262.
E-mail address: hursj@hotmail.com (S.-J. Hur).

0260-8774/$ - see front matter Ó 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.01.001

cies other than fish in Korea because many Korean
consumers prefer surimi base products. Surimi is the wet
concentrate of the myofibrillar proteins of fish muscle
(Okada, 1992). It is defined as a refined fish protein product
prepared by washing mechanically deboned fish to remove
blood, lipids, enzymes and sarcoplasmic proteins, and as
minced and washed fish flesh that has been stabilized by
cryoprotectants (Vilhelmsson, 1997). Up until now, some
studies conducted the development of surimi base products
made from beef, pork and chicken (Kenney, Kastner, &
Kropf, 1992; Park, Brewer, Novakofski, Bechtel, & McKeith, 1996; Srinivasan & Xiong, 1996; Yang & Froning,
1992). However, there is little information on effects of
muscle types and washing times on qualities of surimi.
Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate
the effect of muscle types and washing times on qualities
of surimi, and to investigate the possibility of surimi made

(v/w) of the original isolating medium and passed through a polyethylene strainer to remove connective tissue and debris. The homogenate was sedimented at 1000g for 15 min and the supernatant decanted.2. Jin et al. The WHC was determined as liquid loss and expressed as percentage of weight of liquid release. . 2. 10 ml distilled water.2.2. and diluted with distilled water to 250 ml.5. (v/w) of the original isolating medium. Cooking loss The samples were placed in polyethylene bags and cooked in a 100 °C water bath until an internal temperature of 75 °C was achieved.7. Total lipids were evaluated by the Soxhlet method. 2 ml of 4-dimethyl-aminobenzaldehyde (p-DABA) solution (10 g p-DABA. Bhd. Malaysia) with distilled water at 15. The solutions were shaken and heated at 60 °C for 20 min. 2. The sediment was resuspended at 1000g for 15 min and the supernatant decanted.000g for 25 min and the supernatant containing fat and water-soluble proteins was discarded. 20 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7. Malaysia) for 10 s in 10 vol.2.S. T3 made from chicken breast by washing two times.41 g chloramine T. Collagen The collagen content was determined after 24 h hydrolysis of 300 mg samples with 25 ml 6 M HCl at 110 °C using the modified method cited by Palka (1999).. The amount of hydroxyproline was determined from a standard curve. Fresh pork leg and chicken breast were purchased from a commercial meat market and alaska pollack was purchased from Hansung Co. WHC % = (before centrifuge weight after centrifuge weight)/(before centrifuge weight)  100. Korea). were used to further facilitate 619 passage of myofibrilla protein through the strainer. The slurry was filtered through a 1 mm-mesh metal screen to remove connective tissues. for cooked samples total water content was calculated as [100 (total protein + total lipid + total ash)]. crude protein and crude fat contents were determined according to the method described by AOAC (1990). Cooking loss was calculated from differences in the weight of uncooked and cooked samples. pH pH was measured using a digital pH meter (Model 420A. MA. 35 ml HClO4-60% and 65 ml isopropanol) was added. 2.4.1. 2.0).000 rpm for 30 s. 2. The protein concentration was determined by the biuret procedure described by Clark and Switzer (1977). Water holding capacity (WHC) Five grams of sample was weighed into centrifugation tubes and thereafter centrifuged at 5 °C at low speed (1000g for 15 min). neutralized with 10 M and 1 M NaOH.6. 2. the supernatant was sedimented at 1000g for 15 min and the supernatants decanted. USA). Minced samples were homogenized by Polytron homogenizer (T25-B. 10 ml npropanol and 80 ml citric buffer at pH 6) were mixed in a test tube and left for 20 min at room temperature. Yield % = (hole muscle weight –surimi weight)/(whole muscle weight)  100. Five more volumes. Total protein content was determined by the Kjeldhal method. (v/w) of the original isolating medium. Materials and methods 2. Hydrolysates were clarified with active carbon. and were sedimented at 1000g for 15 min.2. The external fat tissue and skin was removed from the muscles and the lean muscle was diced into approximately two cubes. The sediments were washed three more times by suspending in 5 vol.2. 2. IKA Sdn. The filtrate was centrifuged (two times or four times) at 10. Bhd. Material The surimi samples were divided into five groups (C: surimi made from alaska pollack by washing two times.2. T4 made from chicken breast by washing four times). Chemical composition Moisture. The resulting sediment was stuffed into PVDC casings (18 mm diameter) and cooked in a cooking chamber at 78 °C for 40 min. Myofibrillar protein The procedure used to determine myofibrillar proteins was similar to that of Kuo and Chu (2003). T2 made from pork leg by washing four times. (v/w) total of the original isolating medium. resulting in 10 vol. and ground through a 3 mm diameter orifice using a mincer. Orion. 1 mM EDTA and 1 mM sodium azide. Finally.1. (Seoul. / Journal of Food Engineering 81 (2007) 618–623 from pork and chicken for improvement of unpopular meat consumption. About 5 g of sample was cut into small pieces to which 45 ml of distilled water was added and slurry was made using a blender and the pH was recorded.3. the sedimented myofibrilla proteins were resuspended in 5 vol.. Moisture was determined by the oven drying method at 110 °C for 24 h. Yield Yield was calculated from the difference between the weight of whole muscle and ending mass of surimi. (v/w) of a 2 °C isolating medium containing 100 mM KCl. expressed as percentage of initial weight. The samples were cooled for 5 min in tap water and the absorbance measured at 558 nm.25. Again. 2. Cooking loss % = (before cooking weight after cooking weight)/ (before cooking weight)  100. IKA Sdn.-K.2. The collagen content was calculated from hydroxyproline content using the coefficient 7. The sediment was again resuspended in 5 vol. Next. Hydrolysate (4 ml) and 2 ml of chloramine T solution (1. Methods 2. Myofibrilla proteins were isolated from samples by homogenizing 4 g of minced samples in a Polytron homogenizer (T25-B. T1 made from pork leg by washing two times.2.

27b 14.9. Tokyo. Murata. C: surimi made from alaska pollack by two times washing. Five cylindrical pieces 3. The aroma.95 ± 0. and overall acceptability were evaluated using five-point scale. Kuwahara. One slice.01b Myofibrillar protein (mg/g) 5. Myoglobin The myoglobin content was determined by direct spectrophotometric measurement as described by Chaijan.40 ± 0.11 ± 2.36 ± 0. The mixture was homogenized at 13.8. and Visessanguan (2006).40a 77.15 ± 0. Jin et al. meat color.95 ± 0. NC) by the Duncan’s multiple range test to compare the differences among means. was cut into six pie-shaped wedges and presented to each panelist.01b 1. Chemical composition.53d 54. and the evaluation was performed with the samples at room temperature. T3: surimi made from chicken breast by two times washing. The supernatant was filtered with Whatman No. Myofibrillar protein was not significantly different among the surimi samples. 2. Shear force The samples were sheared once through the center using an Instron 3343 (US/MX50.02 ± 0.20b 43.38 ± 0. 2. myofibrillar protein.620 S. collagen and yield in surimi made from different muscle types and washing times Treatments1 C T1 T2 T3 T4 a–d Moisture (%) b 74.5 cm wide and 3 cm thick were tempered at 20 °C prior to measuring. especially alaska pollack surimi were significantly lower in collagen and yield. followed by centrifuging at 3000g for 30 min at 4 °C. a* (redness). there was no significant difference in crude protein.01 ± 0. Benjakul.92a Crude protein (%) a 17.72 ± 1.2.05 ± 2.14 ± 0.01b 1. Whiteness was determined using the following formula: 100 [(100 L*)2 + a*2b*2]1/2 (Park et al.13 ± 0. MA.20a 77.2.10.6 and a molecular weight of 16.01 ± 0.00 ± 0. myofibrillar protein. Gels were equilibrated and evaluated at room temperature. Kaneniwa. myofibrillar protein.13b 14.-K. Crude protein and crude fat were significantly higher in alaska pollack surimi than other surimi samples.26c 51.09ab 1. A&D Co.33 ± 1.68 ± 0. with measurements standardized with respect to the white calibration plate. 1 .03 Collagen (mg/g) b 1. Texture (breaking force.14 ± 0. and crude fat showed among the pork leg surimi and chicken breast surimi regardless of washing times.56cd Different letters within a column are significantly different (P < 0.500 rpm for 10 s.55 ± 0. Cary. Triplicate responses were taken to monitor the inherent texture variability associated with this sample. collagen and yield Chemical composition. 1992).03 5.83 ± 0. 3.8 were added. deformation and gel strength were measured using a texture analyzer (EZ-test.88 ± 3.71 ± 0..88 ± 0.83a 45.09b Yield (%) 30. Visessanguan. and Yokoyama (2004) reported that the protein concentration greatly affected the gel properties of alaska pollack and common carp surimi.06 ± 2. Statistical analysis The data was analyzed using SAS software (SAS Inst. collagen contents and yield was significantly higher in pork leg surimi made by two times washing than those of other surimi samples.13a 1. 2. The supernatant was added with 0.111 (GomezBasauri & Regenstein. However. collagen and yield are presented in Table 1. Color Color [CIE L*(lightness). T1: surimi made from pork leg by two times washing. 2. The panelists chose three of the most characteristic wedges in order to avoid a sample containing large pieces of connective tissue. flavor. Shimadzu. Japan) equipped with a cylindrical plunger (diameter 5 mm. However. The lipids in surimi products may bring about an adverse effect on the Table 1 Changes of proximate compositions. Myoglobin content was calculated from the millimolar extinction coefficient of 7. / Journal of Food Engineering 81 (2007) 618–623 2..27 1. Japan). 1 filter paper. and Faustman (2004). Benjakul.60 14. The chemical compositions are an important role in surimi quality.02b 1. b* (yellowness)] was measured by using a Minolta colorimeter (CR-400. Tokyo.49 ± 0. 2.2.03 5. USA). Results and discussion 3.8 cm in diameter.2.11.23a 76.05.2 ml of 1% (w/v) sodium dithionite to reduce the myoglobin. The myoglobin content was determined by direct spectrophotometric measurement at 555 nm.44b Crude fat (%) a 2.13 1.13ab 1.03 5. T2: surimi made from pork leg by four times washing. The panel evaluated each treatment within each replication in triplicate.32 ± 0.64 77.01 ± 0.1. depression speed 66 mm min).2. 1996).. Significance was defined at P < 0.2.03 ± 0. tenderness. pH 6. Two grams of chopped sample was weighed into a 50 ml polypropylene centrifuge tube and 20 ml of 40 mM phosphate buffer. 1 cm thick and 1. Inc.12.82 ± 0.13. Luo. Sensory evaluation Sensory evaluation was performed by a panel of 15 semi trained tasters. Five readings were made from the surface of samples.03 5. Equipped with a Warner Bratzler shearing device (100 mm/min crosshead speed). The myoglobin content was expressed as mg/g sample.05).47 ± 0.23b 14. Breaking force. juiciness. deformation and gel strength) The texture was determined according to the method described by Phatcharat. whereas moisture content was significantly higher in pork leg and chicken breast surimi samples. T4: surimi made from chicken breast by four times washing.

28 ± 0. because the oxidized lipids interact with proteins.94 ± 0. In this study.45 ± 0.49 ± 0. Myoglobin content was higher in pork leg surimi samples. the quality of surimi may be not much different among the surimi samples because chemical composition and yield were shown to no consistent trends. polymerization and changes in functional properties (Smith. Meat color The meat color results are presented in Table 3.79b a–c Different letters within a column are significantly different (P < 0.60b 80. whereas chicken breast surimi samples were lower significantly in lightness (L*).08bc 1241 ± 30.23 ± 0. high protein content and low water content are closely related to the high WHC and shear force in meats.23 ± 0.45c 47.46 ± 0.52b 39.23b 9.99 ± 0.00 ± 3.20 ± 0.31b 77.11c 5.52 ± 0. myoglobin plays an essential role in the whiteness (Chen.81 ± 0.31 ± 0.34 ± 0.17c 2.2.38a 75. T1: surimi made from pork leg by two times washing. high protein. For surimi processing. (2006) suggested that the standard water content of surimi is 78%.05). alaska pollack surimi showed high pH.30 ± 0.90 ± 0.86 ± 0. However.24 ± 0. Honikel (1987) reported that pH has a profound 621 effect on the physical properties such as WHC. Thus. high collagen.00A 213. and Yoshinaka (2007) reported that collagen or connective tissue may play some important roles also in the textural development of processed foods such as surimi-based products. C: surimi made from alaska pollack by two times washing.83 ± 0.35a 4.07b 1.96 ± 0. protein contents and low water content than other surimi samples. in this study.S.16 ± 0.08 ± 0.02c 1.61 81. physical characteristics of pork leg and chicken surimi samples did not showed a uniform trend. T4: surimi made from chicken breast by four times washing.56 ± 0.02b 7.26a 2. In this study.06b 75.16 ± 0.57 ± 0. The water content is also a critical factor in surimi products (Uddin et al. high myofibrillar. T3: surimi made from chicken breast by two times washing.03 ± 0.50a 37.05b 9.15b 1.00 ± 1. In this study.84 ± 0.97b 1241 ± 46.65b 213.70c 76. In general. C: surimi made from alaska pollack by two times washing. Physical characteristics also were not much influenced by washing times in the pork leg and chicken surimi samples. collagen contents and yield were higher in pork leg surimi made by two times washing. Ochiai.15 9.13b 2300 ± 14.73a 1175 ± 7.17 ± 0.41c b* b 2. T1: surimi made from pork leg by two times washing..29d Different letters within a column are significantly different (P < 0.94c 2. Physical characteristics The physical characteristics results are presented in Table 2.29 ± 0. the physical structure of alaska pollack surimi should be little more stable than pork leg surimi and chicken breast surimi samples. Mizuta.25 ± 0. whereas chicken breast surimi samples were significantly higher in redness (a*) and yellowness (b*). Nakashima.92b 48. low crude fat and adequate water are required to make a high quality surimi. 1 Table 3 Changes of meat color and myoglobin content in surimi made from different muscle types and washing times Treatments1 C T1 T2 T3 T4 a–d L* a* a 84.3.40b 77. Alaska pollack surimi had higher lightness (L*) than other surimi samples. whereas alaska pollack surimi had lower in collagen contents and yield.38 ± 0.69 ± 0. whereas alaska pollack and chicken breast surimi samples were lower than those of others.85 54.96 ± 0. high pH.53b 213. causing denaturation.54 ± 0. T2: surimi made from pork leg by four times washing.08b 2.34a 34. whereas pork leg surimi made by two times washing had significantly lower WHC.22 ± 0.03b 2.16 ± 0.20 ± 0.05c 289. 2006). alaska pollack surimi had higher protein and lipid contents. 1 .21b 5.17b 5. and Watabe (2001) suggested that high-quality surimi with higher whiteness can be obtained when dark muscle is removed as much as possible.10a W b 8.33 ± 1.92 ± 0. T4: surimi made from chicken breast by four times washing.83 ± 0.08 ± 0.37c 75.00 ± 2.78 ± 0. Redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) were significantly lower in alaska pollack surimi. 3.68 ± 0.23b 3. Jin et al.18a Mb (mg/g) a 57. whiteness is one of most important factor in quality of surimi. Hashimoto.08c 1227 ± 36.46b 7. Thus.00 ± 3.18d 5.13ab 8.23a 2.77 ± 0. / Journal of Food Engineering 81 (2007) 618–623 surimi quality. Thus.52 ± 0. 3. and Uddin et al.53 ± 0.13 2. low myoglobin content had better than high myoglobin Table 2 Changes of physical characteristics in surimi made from different muscle types and washing times Treatments1 pH WHC (%) Cooking loss (%) Shear force (kg/cm2) Breaking force (g) Deformation (mm) Gel strength (g/cm2) C T1 T2 T3 T4 7. All of physical characteristics were significantly higher in alaska pollack surimi than those of other surimi samples. Ochiai.04b 7.55 ± 1.16b 212. whereas water content of pork leg and chicken breast samples were more closely reached standard water levels as 77.96 ± 2.02 ± 0.56b 3.19b 33.-K. deformation and gel strength.38a 38.35 ± 0.94b 53.22 ± 0.02a 5. tenderness and color in meat. 2002).02b 83.03b 7. T2: surimi made from pork leg by four times washing. Usually. 1987).07a 7.05).88.38 ± 0. T3: surimi made from chicken breast by two times washing.

91 ± 0. Kim. K. References AOAC (1990). Gomez-Basauri. 2005) for agriculture and forestry. Korean Journal Food Science of Animal Resources. Kenney. Decoloration and gel-forming ability of horse mackerel mince by air-flotation washing.60 5. 64–69. we found that alaska pollack surimi was higher protein. 441–449. ministry of agriculture and forestry. L. T2: surimi made from pork leg by four times washing. 26.71b Juiciness Tenderness Overall acceptability 5.. Jin et al. deformation and gel strength showed in alaska pollack surimi sample. W. However. Vacuum packaging. Thus. H.53ab 5. J. Sanfrancisco: W. & Regenstein.78 ± 0. S. B.87 5. J. B. Kang. P. Republic of Korea.56 ± 0. M. & Chu. 2004).78 ± 0.. W.. 1337–1339..05). (2002). overall acceptability (5 = very good and 1 = very bad).60 5. J. Oshimi.78 ± 0. C. & Kropf. The washing process is necessary for color improvement and gel strengthening of surimi produced from whole muscle (Chaijan et al. Food Research International.89 ± 0. Kastner.. Acknowledgements This study was supported by technology development program(105128-3..56 ± 0. Jeong.. C.78 Flavor 6. sensory panels could not distinguish a difference in taste between muscle types and washing times. 57. F. 2970–2975. (1987).11 ± 0. ascorbic acid and frozen storage effect on heme and nonheme iron content of mackerel.67ab 5. & Joo..60 5. washing time. It may be due to the myoglobin content of alaska pollack being lower than other surimi samples. and also higher breaking force. Sensory evaluation The sensory evaluation results are presented in Table 4.83 5.67 5. Liu. Conclusion As a result of this study. However. & Faustman. Journal of Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources. (1977). Y. Muscle washing and raw material source affect quality and physicochemical properties of low-fat. Freemad & Company. (2006). & Switzer.. Luo. Characteristics and gel properties of muscles from sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) and mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) caught in Thailand. et al. DC. Thus. J. O.. I. flavor (5 = very good and 1 = very bad). H. (1992). Journal of Food Science.89 ± 0.50 5. (2004).44 ± 0. It would be useful from the point of view of surimi manufacture procedure or reduction of the waste water..00 ± 0. Kim et al. H. juiciness.. Fleischwirtschaft. T4: surimi made from chicken breast by four times washing. R.33 ± 0.71 5. 24. Experimental biochemistry. Ha. 1098–1102. juiciness (5 = very juiciness and 1 = very dry). M.78 ± 0. 4. 57. Effect of pH control and physico-chemical characteristics of chicken breast surimi. Kaneniwa. Washington. / Journal of Food Engineering 81 (2007) 618–623 Table 4 Changes of sensory evaluation value in surimi made from different muscle types and washing times Treatments1 C T1 T2 T3 T4 Aroma 2 4. restructured beef. 2 Aroma (5 = very intense and 1 = very weak). Honikel. J. J. S. Murata. Park.33 6. Chen. R. 428–438..44 5.56 ± 0.. Kuo. (2004). Chaijan. 64.88 5. 61. (2004). Jr. Y..89 ± 0. Quality characteristics of Chinese sausage made from PSE pork. S. T3: surimi made from chicken breast by two times washing. lightness. and pork leg surimi sample color was better than chicken breast surimi samples when compared between pork leg and chicken breast surimi. Kuwahara. surimi color may be good in alaska pollack surimi sample. Meat Science. However.22 ± 0. Thus. Journal of Food Science. we assumed that mechanical color of alaska pollack surimi was better than other muscle surimi samples. T1:surimi made from pork leg by two times washing. S. 3. Kang.22 ± 0.. et al. In this study. M.622 S. H. L.87 6. Evaluation of un-cooked restructured belly and cooked restructured bacon using a protein-emulsion material from pork.67 ± 0..88 Color a 6. Color was significantly higher in alaska pollack surimi. 1 content for surimi quality. Eun. we suggested that surimi can be made from pork leg or chicken breast regardless of washing times although surimi qualities are little lower than alaska pollack surimi. Hur. These results are agreed with mechanical color results. Benjakul.... R.11 ± 0. C. Visessanguan. G. Suk. Y.. 545–550. Official methods of analysis (1990)... D.. WHC. 37.87 5. Kim.67 4. whiteness and WHC compared with pork leg and chicken breast surimi samples.73ab 5. Park.88 5. K.. K. tenderness and overall acceptability were no significantly different among the surimi samples even though chemical composition and physical characteristics were different among the surimi samples. Hur.00 ± 0. H.71 5. C: surimi made from alaska pollack by two times washing.33 ± 0..33 ± 0. J.33 ± 0. J. H.44 5. In conclusion.4. (2003). future studies are needed for the improvement of pork or chicken surimi qualities. thus. H. aroma.67 ± 0. whereas chicken breast surimi made by four times washing had significantly lower in color. we assume that two times washing had better than four times washing. Journal of Food Science. Yang.67 a-b Different letters within a column are significantly different (P < 0. Journal of Food Science. Y.33 5.00 ± 0.22 ± 0.67 5. USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.89 ± 0. this result has shown that the color of surimi sample was not much affected by washing times although muscle pigment as a myoglobin was lower in surimi made by four time washing. Hayashi. tenderness (5 = very tender and 1 = very though). These results indicate pork leg or chicken breast surimi taste by panels were not much different compared with original surimi such as alask pollack. (1992). J. S.60 5.. Surimi from fillet frames of channel catfish. G.. 67. alaska pollack surimi showed higher whiteness (W) and lightness (L*). M. & Yokoyama. The water binding of meat.71 5. C.60 5. (1996) reported that the color of surimi can be improved by increasing the washing cycle.02 ± 0. Park. S. 67. S. 146–150. H. color (5 = very good and 1 = very bad).. V... Jin. H. T. M.56 ± 0. flavor. K. (1996). 1021–1030. C.-K. J. B. Effect of soy protein isolate on gel properties of Alaska Pollack . C.11 ± 0. Clark. M.50 6.

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