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History of games

Indian Ambassadors presentChaturanga to Khosrau I, from "A
treatise on chess", 14th century
The history of games dates to the ancient human past.[1] Games
are an integral part of all cultures and are one of the oldest form of
human social interaction. Games are formalized expressions of play
which allow people to go beyond immediateimagination and direct
physical activity. Common features of games include uncertainty of
outcome, agreed upon rules, competition, separate place and time,
elements of fiction, elements of chance, prescribed goals and
personal enjoyment.
Games capture the ideas and worldviews of their cultures and pass
them on to the next generation. Games were important as cultural
and social bonding events, as teaching tools and as markers of
social status. As pastimes of royalty and the elite, some games
became common features of court culture and were also given as
gifts. Games such as Senet and the Mesoamerican ball game were
often imbued with mythic and ritual religious significance. Games
like Gyan chauper and The Mansion of Happiness were used to
teach spiritual and ethical lessons while Shatranj and Wéiqí (Go)

were seen as a way to develop strategic thinking and mental skill by
the political and military elite.
In his 1938 book, Homo Ludens, Dutch cultural historian Johan
Huizinga argued that games were a primary condition of the
generation of human cultures. Huizinga saw the playing of games as
something that “is older than culture, for culture, however
inadequately defined, always presupposes human society, and
animals have not waited for man to teach them their
playing.” [2]Huizinga saw games as a starting point for complex
human activities such as language, law, war, philosophy and art.
Contents
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Pre-Modern[edit]
Some of the most common pre-historic and ancient gaming tools
were made of bone, especially from the Talus bone, these have been
found worldwide and are the ancestors of knucklebones as well
as dice games.[3] These bones were also sometimes used for
oracular and divinatory functions. Other implements could have
included shells, stones and sticks.
Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean world[edit]
A series of 49 small carved painted stones found at the 5,000-yearold Başur Höyük burial mound in southeast Turkey could represent
the earliest gaming pieces ever found. Similar pieces have been
found in Syria and Iraq and seem to point to board games having
originated in the Fertile Crescent.[4] The earliest board games seem
to have been a pastime for the elite and were sometimes given as
diplomatic gifts.[5]
The Royal Game of Ur, or Game of Twenty Squares was played with
a set of pawns on a richly decorated board and dates from about
3000 BC.[6] It was a race gamewhich employed a set of knucklebone
dice. This game was also known and played in Egypt. A Babylonian
treatise on the game written on clay tablet shows that the game had
astronomical significance and that it could also be used to tell one's
fortune.[7] The Ur game was also popular with the lower classes, as
attested by a 2,700-year-old graffiti version of the game, scratched
onto a gateway to a palace in Khorsabad. Similar games have been
found in Iran, Crete, Cyprus, Sri Lanka and Syria.[7]
Among the earliest examples of a board game is senet, a game
found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burial sites in Egypt (circa
3500 BCE and 3100 BCE, respectively) and in hieroglyphs dating to
around 3100 BCE.[8] The game was played by moving draughtsmen
on a board of 30 squares arranged into three parallel rows of ten
squares each. The players strategically moved their pieces based on
the throw of sticks or bones. The goal was to reach the edge of the
board first. Senet slowly evolved over time to reflect the religious
beliefs of the Egyptians. The pieces represented human souls and
their movement was based on the journey of the soul in the afterlife.
Each square had a distinct religious significance, with the final
square being associated with the union of the soul with the sun

they are all Egyptian in origin. lat. also known as simply "dice". knucklebones. dice games (Tesserae). The artifacts include two dice and 60 checkers. Bear games. Both Plato and Homer mention board games called 'petteia' (games played with pessoi'. "alea") developed from this Iranian game.god Re-Horakhty. Nine Men's Morris (mola) and various types of board games similar to checkers.[12] Gallery[edit] A Senet gameboard and game pieces from theKV62 tomb ofTutankhamun—originally from Thebes. This game was extremely popular and was spread throughout Europe by the Romans. Tic-tac-toe (Terni Lapilli).[9][10] Games such as Nard and the Roman game Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum (game of 12 points. The name 'petteia' seems to be a generic term for board game and refers to various games.[11] The Romans played a derivation of 'petteia' called 'latrunculi' or Ludus latrunculorum (the soldiers' game or the bandits' game).[8] Senet may have also been used in a ritual religious context. about 2600-2400 BC . According to Plato. 'pieces' or 'men').e. i. the object being to get one of the adversary's pieces between two of one's own. popular games included ball games (Episkyros.a kind of handball). It was a war game for two players and included moving around counters representing soldiers. Boards have been found as far asRoman Britain. Expulsim Ludere . One such game was called 'poleis' (city states) and was a game of battle on a checkered board. southern Iraq. Royal Game of Ur. In Ancient Greece and in the Roman Empire. The Byzantine game Tabula is a descendent of the game of twelve points. Excavations at Shahr-e Sukhteh ("The Burnt City") in Iran have shown that a board race game existed there around 3000 BC which is the earliest ancestor ofBackgammon. It is first mentioned by Varro (116–27 BC) and alluded to by Martial and Ovid. Harpastum.

Crete) Ludus duodecim scriptorum table in the museum at Ephesus. Museum Quintana of Archaeology.Ludus latrunculorum (The bandits' game or the soldier's game).Board game with inlays of ivory. covered with gold and silver leaf. Germany . on a wooden base (Knossos.New Palace period 1600–1500 BC. an ancestor of Backgammon. rock crystal and glass paste. HeraklionArchaeological Museum. Modern reconstruction of the Roman board game. in Künzing.

a comprehensive work on the game. glazed fritware. endgames and chess problems. During the reign of the TurkoMongol conqueror Timur (1336–1405). Horses. . Kings and Soldiers. The Abbasid Caliphs Harun alRashid and Al-Ma'mun were avid Shatranj players.Roman Statue of a girl playing astragaloi 130 . Islamic chess pieces were therefore simple cylindrical and rectangular shapes. Al-Adli also developed a system for ranking players. While pre-Islamic chess sets represented Elephants. including history. Berlin. Antikenmuseum. Elite players such as Al-Adli.[13] During this period Muslim chess players published several treatises on chess problems (mansubat) and chess openings (ta'biyat). 12th century After the Muslim conquest of Persia (638-651) Shatranj spread to the Arab world.150 BC. The game became immensely popular during Abbasid Caliphate of the 9th century. Al-Adli (800-870) is known for writing Kitab ash-shatranj (book of chess). a variant of chess known as Tamerlane chess was developed which some sources attribute to Timur himself who was known to be a fan of the game. the Islamic prohibition against image worship led to increasing abstraction in chess set design. al-Suli and Ar-Razi were called aliyat or "grandees" and played at the courts of the Caliphs and wrote about the game. openings. Middle East[edit] Shatranj set.

and cups as suits. Other popular games included Mancala and Tâb.[14] It passed from Sassanid Persia to the neighboringByzantine Empire at an early date. Arabic: sawlajan) was first played in Sassanid Persia. however they are still played today in many Arab countries. featuring polo sticks.[15] After the Muslim conquests. it passed to the Ayyubid and Mameluke dynasties.A Persian miniatureillustrating the poemGuy-o Chawgân ("the Ball and the Polo-mallet") from theSafavid dynasty Various games in the Tables family were also quite popular and are known as ifranjiah in Arabic (meaning "Frankish") and as Nard in Iran.[16] Playing cards were imported from Asia and India and were popular during Mamluk Dynasty Egypt. swords. Many of the early Arabic texts which refer to these games often debate the legality and morality of playing them. whose elites favored it above all other sports. Notable sultans such as Saladin and Baybars were known to play it and encourage it in their court. Polo (Persian: chawgan. India[edit] Hindu deities Shiva and Parvatiplaying chaupar. This debate was settled by the eighth century when all four Muslim schools of jurisprudence declared them to be Haraam (forbidden). coins. and a Tzykanisterion (stadium for playing polo) was built by emperor Theodosius II (r. 408–450) inside theGreat Palace of Constantinople. ca 1694–95 .

Texts such as the Mahabharata indicate that dice games were popular with Kings and royalty. c.[18]The oldest text to mention Chaturanga is the middle Persian work Wizârîshn î chatrang ud nîhishn î nêw-ardakhshîr (The explanation of Chatrang and the invention of Nard. Igo. but so far their history has not been established prior to the 16th century. Japanese. This texts tells the arrival of Chatrang in an embassy from 'Hind' during the reign of Khosrau I (531–579). The emperor himself was a fan of the game and was known to play on a courtyard of his palace using slaves as playing pieces. Another early reference is the list of Buddha games (circa 500 BC) which is a list from the Pali Canon that Buddhist monks were forbidden to play. It is also mentioned in Book XVII of the Analects of Confucius[26] and in two of the books of Mencius[27] (c. 1000 BC). and Korean. however the earliest source for this four sided board game is AlBiruni's 'India'. 600 AD).[19] The name 'Hind' was often used to refer to eastern regions such as Balochistan. . circa 1030 AD. and was popular during the Warring States period (476 BCE – 221 BCE) and the Han Dynasty (202 BCE – 220 CE). Ashtapada and Daśapada were race games. respectively). is first mentioned in the historical annal Zuo Zhuan[25] (c. and also had ceremonial purposes. Historians of Chess such as Yuri Averbakh have surmised that the Greek board game petteia may have had an influence on the development of early Chaturanga. East Asia[edit] The extinct Chinese board game liubo was invented no later than the middle of the 1st millennium BCE. 2300 BC). the predecessor of Chess. also known as Weiqi. The earliest textual mention of games in India is the Rig-Veda's mention of the use of dice (c. Chaturanga (which means 'quadripartite' and also 'army').The use of cubical and oblong dice was common in the Indus Valley Harappan civilization (c. Petteia games could have combined with other elements in the Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek Kingdoms. 4th century BC[26]). This list mentions games on boards with 8 or 10 rows (Ashtapada and Daśapada). or Baduk (in Chinese.[17] Cowry shells were also widely used. Chaupar was a popular gambling game at the court of Mughal emperor Akbar the Great (1556-1605).[20]Another game named Chaturaji was similar but played with four sides of differing colors instead of two. it was apparently a race game not unlike Senet in that playing pieces were moved about a board using sticks thrown to determine movement. Go.[23][24] Although the game's rules have been lost. [21][22] Cross and circle games such as Chaupar and Pachisi may be very old games. games which use floor diagrams (one game called Parihâra-patham is similar to hop-scotch). dice games and ball games. possibly developed in the Indian subcontinent or Central Asia during the Kushan (30–375 CE) or Gupta (320–550 CE) periods from an amalgamation of other game features and was transmitted to Sassanid Persia (where it was known as Shatranj) and China through the Silk Road.

3rd century BC[26]).[36] The pre-modern Chinese also played ball games such as Cuju which was a ball and net game similar to football. Go was one of the four cultivated arts of the Chinese scholar gentleman. Several Xiangqi pieces are known from the Northern Song Dynasty (9601126).[32][33]:131 The modern game of Dominoes developed from early Chinese tile based games.[34] The earliest definite references to Chinese dominoes are found in the literature of the Song Dynasty (960-1279). Go was brought to Korea in the second century BC when the Han Dynasty expanded into the Korean peninsula and it arrived in Japan in the 5th or 6th century AD and it quickly became a favorite aristocratic pastime. leaf) from the earlyMing dynasty. Chinese Chess or Xiangqi seems to have been played during the Tang Dynasty. It is unknown exactly how Xiangqi developed. any earlier attestation is problematic. daughter of Emperor Yizong of Tang. in Chinese writings no later than 900 AD. In ancient China.Janggi (Korea) and Sittuyin (Burma). and examinations of skill in those arts was used to qualify candidates for service in the bureaucracy. described Princess Tongchang. Other traditional Asian Chess variants include Shogi (Japan).[29][30][31] The first reference to card games dates from the 9th century. the family of the princess' husband. painting and playing the musical instrument guqin. along with calligraphy. Gallery[edit] A pair of Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 CE) ceramic tomb figurines of two gentlemen playingliubo . with the earliest examples being of early18th century Italian design. and Chuiwan. Playing cards were invented in China[28] as early as the 9th century during the Tang Dynasty (618–907). or Yèzí [葉子]. hanging horse. used in gambling. when the Collection of Miscellanea at Duyang. which is similar to modern golf. playing the "leaf game" in 868 with members of the Wei clan. or "bone tiles". written by Tang Dynasty writer Su E. while Western-style dominoes are a more recent variation. What appears to have been the earliest references to gaming tiles are mentions ofkwat pai. Makruk (Thailand).[35] The modern tile game Mahjong is based on an older Chinese card game called Mǎdiào (馬吊) (also known as Ma Tiae.

A screen painting depicting people of theMing Dynasty playing Go. Go and Sugoroku. Early Rattanakosin period Makruk set with pieces made from albino and black water buffalos' horn. The Ming EmperorXuande (1425-1435) playing Chuiwan. Japan. Africa[edit] . 1780. by Kanō Eitoku Xiangqi game pieces dated to the Song Dynasty(960–1279) Shogi.

sometimes called "sowing" games. it was a race game played with beans or dice on square and oval-shaped boards and gambling . Axum. Americas[edit] Patolli game being watched byMacuilxochitl as depicted on page 048 of the Codex Magliabechiano Archaeologist Barbara Voorhies has theorized that a series of holes on clay floors arranged in c shapes at the Tlacuachero archaeological site in Mexico's Chiapas state may be 5000 year old dice-game scoreboards. Mancala is a family of board games played around the world. some names denote the same game.[37] Dice games were popular throughout the Americas.e. Matara (now in Eritrea). mancala) boards in the base of an Aksumite stele. If so this would be the oldest archaeological evidence for a game in the Americas. and Yeha (also in Ethiopia). while some names are used for more than one game. More than 800 names of traditional mancala games are known.Ethiopia The most widespread of the native African games is Mancala. The earliest evidence of Mancala consists of fragments of pottery boards and several rock cuts found in Aksumite in Ethiopia. and almost 200 invented games have been described. which describes the gameplay. which have been dated by archaeologists to between the 6th and 7th century CE. the game is played worldwide. with many distinct variants representing different regions of the Third World. Patolli was one of the most popular board games played by mesoamericanpeoples such as the Mayans. or "count-and-capture" games. Toltecs and Aztecs. However. Today. The word mancala: ‫منقلة‬comes from the Arabic word naqala:‫ نقلة‬meaning literally "to move".Pit marks supposed to be ancient Gebeta (i.

and the goals could range from 500 yards (460 m) to 6 miles (9.was a key aspect of it. The indigenous North American peoples played various kinds of stickball games. often featuring human sacrifice. Ōllamaliztli was played as far back as 1.[38] dressed as a ball player. As many as 100 to 1. The games were played in open plains located between villages.400 BC and had important religious significance for the mesoamerican peoples such as the Maya andAztec. though it was also played for leisure by children and even women.000 men from opposing villages or tribes would participate.[42] Although the rules of the games were never explicitly recorded. Sak Ch’een. The Andean peoples also played a dice game which is called by the Quechuaword pichca or pisca. and Lapland. Formal ballgames were held as ritual events. including Iceland. Italy and Southern . Tafl was spread by the Vikingsthroughout northern Europe. Traditional stickball games were sometimes major events that could last several days.[39] One of the oldest known ball games in history is the Mesoamerican ballgame(Ōllamaliztli in Nahuatl).8th century.7 km) apart. lord of Motul de San Jose c.[43] Chess was introduced to the Iberian emirate of Cordoba in 822 during the reign of Abd ar-Rahman II. Ireland. By the middle of the 10th century it was being played in Christian Spain. which are the ancestors of modern Lacrosse. The game may have served as a proxy for warfare and also had a major religious function.[40] The game evolved over time but the main goal was to keep a solid rubber ball in play by striking it with various parts of the body or with tools such as rackets.[41] European games[edit] The Tafl games were a family of ancient Germanic and Celtic board games played across much of Northern Europe from earlier than 400 CE until the 12th century. Britain. it seems to have been a game with uneven forces (2:1 ratio) and the goal of one side was to escape to the side of the board with a King while the other side's goal was to capture him.

hearts. Dice games were widely played throughout Europe and included Hazard. in Old Spanish) which was commissioned by Alfonso X of Castile. Alquerque. dados e tablas.Germany. Fox & Geese. Boules. Outdoor games were very popular during holidays and fairs and were played by all classes. Kolven. Many of these games are the predecessors of modern sports and lawn games. it had reached Britain and Scandinavia. [44] Initially there were many differing local Chess games with varying rules orassizes such as Short assize chess. with suits very similar to the Swords. divided radially into twelve areas. Lawn Billiards (later brought indoors as Billiards). played on a board of seven concentric circles.[46] The four suits most commonly encountered today (spades. or Libro de acedrex. The symbolism of the text indicates that some of these games were given metaphysical significance. Published circa 1300. By 1200. medieval football. Horseshoes and Quoits all predate the early modern era. the book was immensely popular.Chess and tabula. and some game variants are astronomically designed. Cups and Coins (also known as disks. Nim. dice and tables". such as a game titled "astronomical chess". Courier chess and Dice Chess. Chess was also used to teach social and moral lessons by the Dominican monk Jacobus de Cessolis in his Liber de moribus hominum et officiis nobilium super ludo scacchorum ('Book of the customs of men and the duties of nobles or the Book of Chess'). Catch the Hare and the Game of the Goose. diamonds. Gallery[edit] . ("Book of games"). Staves.[45] The manuscript contains descriptions and color illustrations of Dice games. Other pre-modern European board games include Rithmomachy or "the philosophers game". An important source of medieval games is the Libro de los juegos. each associated with a constellation of the Zodiac. Nine Men's Morris. Jeu de paume (early racketless tennis). The decks were also sometimes used for Cartomancy. andpentacles) and those still used in traditional Italian. Card games first arrived in Italy from Mamluk Egypt in the 14th century. Galicia and León in 1283. Spanish and Portuguese decks. a predecessor of Backgammon. Draughts. ("Book of chess. Glückshaus. Königrufen and French tarot. Chuck-a-luck. Shut the Box andknucklebones.[47] 1430s Italy saw the rise of tarot cards and this led to the development of Tarot card games such as Tarocco. and clubs) appear to have originated in France circa 1480. The book portrays these games within an astrological context. Skittles (an ancestor of modern ten pin Bowling). Stoolball (an ancestor ofCricket).

Hnefatafl reconstruction Christian And Muslim Playing Chess. 1350. Wood carving of two youths playing ball on a misericord at Gloucester Cathedral. c. Mid 15th Century . Italian Sancai Bowl depicting a card game. Libro de los juegos.

Chess books by authors such as Ruy López de Segura and Gioachino Grecobecame widely studied. Modern games[edit] Professional board games[edit] Emanuel Lasker (right) playing Steinitz for the World Chess Championship. Chess was the favored game of Voltaire.'Game of Skittles'. Soon after modern time . Writings on chess theory also began to appear in the 15th century with the first text being the Repetición de Amores y Arte de Ajedrez (Repetition of Love and the Art of Playing Chess. the first international chess tournament was held in London and won by Adolf Anderssen. Rousseau.[48] In 1851. New York 1894 Modern chess rules began taking shape in Spain and Italy during the 15th century with the adoption of the standard Queen and Bishop movements (initially called "Mad Queen chess"). Benjamin Franklin and Napoleon. 1497) by Spanish churchman Luis Ramirez de Lucena. copy of 1660-68 painting by Pieter de Hooch in the Saint Louis Art Museum Medieval illustration of tabula players from the 13th century Carmina Burana.

Capablanca Chess. Threedimensional chess. player ratings and chess tournaments. By the 20th century. During the 20th century the Japan Shogi Association and the Japan Go Association were founded and began organizing professional tournaments. Circular chess. the game of Chess had developed into a professional sport with chess clubs. and Xiangqi tournaments are held worldwide by national Xiangqi associations. In 1997 the first Mind Sports Olympiad was held in London and included traditional as well as modern board games. boards and scoring.Scrabble and Risk are also played professionally with dedicated world championships. Commercial board games[edit] . The Chinese Xiangqi Association was formed in 1962.control rules were adopted for competitive play. Chess with different armies. publications. Both games were promoted in Japan by the Tokugawa shogunate in the 17th century. The World Chess Federation (FIDE) was founded in 1924 in Paris. with varying pieces. Alice Chess. The first Official World Chess Championship was held in 1886 in the United States and won by Wilhelm Steinitz. Among them areKriegspiel. Go and Shogi became the major board games played at a professional level. and Bobby Fischer's Chess960. During the Qing dynasty. rules. A large number of Chess variants were also developed. Hexagonal Chess. In Japan. and top players (Meijin) received government endowments. many Xiangqi clubs were formed and books published. Other board games such as Backgammon.

[49] A version of the game called Ludo was patented in 1896. Moksha Patam). While demonstrating the commercial viability of the ancient race game format. A similar German race game. A Buddhist version.[51] Designed in England by George Fox in 1800. The first board game published in the United States was 'Traveller's Tour Through the United States'. popularly known as snakes and ladders.k. in which material successes came as a result of accomplishments such as attending college. . Late 18th CenturyJain game board on cloth in the decorative arts gallery of the National Museum of India. marrying. Mensch ärgere dich nicht ("Man. or The Siege of the Stronghold of Satan by the Christian Army (1844). Lockwood in 1822.Gyan chauper. became immensely popular with German troops during World War I. the ladders represented virtues and the snakes vices. The game was first brought to Victorian England and it was published in the United States as Chutes and Ladders (an "improved new version of England's famous indoor sport") by game pioneer Milton Bradley in 1943. The first board game for which the name of its designer is known is 'A Journey Through Europe or the Play of Geography'. Another Indian game which was adopted by the West was Gyan chauper(a. Acc. don't get annoyed"). a map-based game published in 1759 by John Jefferys. its moralistic overtones were countered by Milton Bradley in 1860 with the introduction of a radically different concept of success in The Checkered Game of Life. The Mansion of Happiness became the prototype for commercial board games for at least two centuries to follow. while vice led to endless reincarnation.a. published by New York City bookseller F. 85. No. The game dates to medieval India were it was played by Jains and Hindus. known as "ascending the [spiritual] levels" (Tibetan: sa gnon rnam bzhags) is played in Nepal and Tibet [50] while a Muslim version of the game played during the mughal period from the late 17th or early 18th centuries featured the 101 names of God. Likewise the Game of the District Messenger Boy (1886) also focused on secular capitalist virtues rather than the religious. This was a game which was intended to teach lessons aboutkarma and good and bad actions. a Geography and writing teacher. The earliest board games published in the United States were based upon Christian morality and included The Mansion of Happiness (1843) and The Game of Pope or Pagan. The moral lesson of the game was that spiritual liberation. and getting rich.312 The Ancient Indian game of Pachisi was brought to the west by the British in the 1863 and an adaptation of the game namedParcheesi was first copyrighted in the United States by EG Selchow & Co in 1869. or Moksha could only be achieved through virtuous action.

[53] A series of board games were developed from 1906 through the 1930s that involved the buying and selling of land and the development of that land. Though the first commercial version of the game of Battleship was Salvo. and by Milton Bradley into Stratego.The Game of the District Messenger Boy (1886) encouraged therags to riches idea that a lowly messenger boy could ascend the corporate ladder to become president First patented in 1904.[52] was originally intended to illustrate the economic consequences of Ricardo's Law of Economic rent and the Georgist concept of a single tax on land value. a board game had been created much like the version of modern Monopoly by the Parker Brothers. By 1933. designed by Elizabeth Magie. The Landlord's Game. having been designed two years prior as a military-themed imperfect knowledge game based upon the earlier Chinese children's board game Dou Shou Qi.[54] The French board game L'Attaque was first commercially released in 1910. the latter having been trademarked . L'Attaque was subsequently adapted by the Chinese into Luzhanqi (or Lu Zhan Jun Qi). the game itself dates to before the first world war when it was played on paper by Russian officers. published in 1931 in the United States by the Starex company.

Diplomacy was a game favored by John F. or Eurogame. Board wargames such as Squad Leader. Kennedy. The Settlers of Catan. Scrabble received its first mass-market exposure in 1952. Starting with Gettysburg in 1958. was the first murder mystery game which served as the basis for games like Cluedo. Originally released in 1957 asLa Conquête du Monde ("The Conquest of the World") in France. variants of which have been implemented in numerous later board and video games such as Sid Meier's Civilization. D-Day and PanzerBlitz. in 1954. the company Avalon Hill developed particular board wargames covering specific historical themes such as Midway. Recentwargames such as 'A distant plain'. Agricola. Ticket to ride and Puerto Rico. 1915. Tactics and Europa developed extremely complex and realistic rules. Initially designed in 1938. Card games[edit] Main article: Playing card British soldiers playing cards inFrance. began in the late 1970s and early 1980s in Germany. two years prior to the release ofDiplomacy. and Henry Kissinger. 'Labyrinth' and the satirical War on Terror have focused on counterinsurgency and contemporary terrorism. Risk was first published under its English title in 1959. Jury Box.[55] and led to the development of board games such as Carcassone. A concentrated design movement towards the German-style board game.in 1960 while the former remains in the public domain. published in 1935. . Avalon Hill's Civilization introduced the use of the technology tree (or "tech tree").

The first documented game of poker dates from a 1834 Mississippi river steamer. and Fraternities because the revolutionary French national assembly believed the people should not play with Kings or Queens. 1742 saw the publication of Edmund Hoyle's 'Short Treatise on the Game of Whist' which became one of the bestselling publications of the 18th century. Basset. This would ultimately be reversed in 1805 with the rise of Napoleon. Portuguese traders introduced playing cards toJapan. which turned the game into a spectator sport.[58][59] During the French Revolution. a game popular in France during the 17th century. in 1970. The first reference to twenty-one. both of which were very popular during the 19th century. Queens. and the straight.[62] During the American Civil War the game was popular with soldiers and additions were made including stud poker. During the mid 16th century. and Primero. Equalities. "poque".[60][61] and bears resemblances to the card games Faro andBasset. as is named after a similar French game.Karnöffel. The rules of Contract bridge were originally published in 1925. the precursor of Blackjack is found in a book by the Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes. The game derives from a Persian game called "as nas". Early European card games included Noddy. In 2009 the International Federation of Poker was . but with the ideals of the revolution at hand. and the main characters of his tale Rinconete y Cortadillo are cheats proficient at playingventiuna (twenty-one). as an adaptation of the earlier card game Noddy. Moderntournament play became popular in American casinos after the World Series of Poker (WSOP) began.During the 15th century card suits began to approach the contemporary regional styles and the court cards evolved to represent European royalty.[56] Whist was widely played during the 18th and 19th centuries. The game of Cribbage appears to have developed in the early 17th century. Hofamterspiel. Cervantes was a gambler. Bridge games. having evolved from the earlier game of Whist. one of the first books which set out to outline rules for many card and dice games. and Jacks became Liberties. In 1674 Charles Cotton's published his 'Compleat Gamester'. While possibly dating back as far as the reign of Charles VIII of France (1483–1498).Pinochle was likely derived from the earlier Bezique. Ruff. largely because of the introduction of online poker and hole-card cameras. All Fours.[57] having evolved from the 16th century game ofTrump (or Ruf) by way of Ruff and Honours. the traditional design of Kings.[63] Poker's popularity experienced an unprecedented spike at the beginning of the 21st century. the game having been derived from Bridge games with rules published as early as 1886. Piquet. Baccarat first came to the attention of the public at large and grew to be widely played as a direct result of the Royal Baccarat Scandal of 1891. in turn.

Jack Scruby. It had a board with 1. Italians. created in 1780 by Helwig. Miniature Figurines and Hinchliffe. first achieved wide popularity in the 1990s. British. H.French.[65] In the early 19th century. Wells playing Little Wars Miniature figure games have their origin in a German chess variant called 'The King's Game'. Collectible card games or trading card games while bearing similarities to earlier games in concept. [64] The 1990s saw the rise of games such asMagic: The Gathering and the Pokémon Trading Card Game. known as the "Father of Modern Miniature Wargaming" organized the first miniatures convention and he was also a manufacturer of military miniatures and editor of a wargaming newsletter. In 1956.S. G. Japanese and Russians all began to make use of wargaming as a training tool. Miniature war games became affordable and mainstream in the late 1950s with the rise of cheaper miniature production methods by miniature figure manufacturers such as Scruby Miniatures. Jane in 1898. By 1889 wargaming was firmly embedded in the culture of the U.666 squares of varying types of terrain. the Austrians. Navy. with pieces representing modern military units.[66] The first non-military wargame rules were developed by Naval enthusiast and analyst Fred T. Wellspublished rules in his Floor Games (1911) and Little Wars (1913) designed for wargaming with toy soldiers. with staff officers moving pieces around on a game table. becoming the official governing body for poker. Master of Pages to the Duke of Brunswick.founded in Lausanne. and registered on 4 April 1904 featured 104 unique baseball cards with individual player attributes printed on the cards enabling each collector to build a team and play the game against another person. During the 1980s there was a boom in miniature . G. using dice rolls to indicate chance or "friction" and with an umpire scoring the results. Miniature wargaming[edit] Main article: Miniature wargaming H. Switzerland. After the stunning Prussian victories against Austria and France in the 19th century. the Prussian army developed war games or 'kriegspieler'. The first trading card game was the 'The Base Ball Card Game' produced by The Allegheny Card Co.

Role playing games[edit] Main article: History of role-playing games D&D game in progress. fantasy and science fiction settings as well as Naval wargaming (Don't Give Up the Ship!. Today miniature wargaming includes most historical eras.[67] Sic bo was introduced into the United States by Chinese immigrants in the 20th century and is now a popular casino . Dave Arneson had developed a miniatures game calledBlackmoor which contained elements that would become widespread in fantasy gaming: hit points. R. A. and dungeon crawls.wargaming with the development of games such as Warhammer Fantasy Battle and Warhammer 40. The game was very successful and several other games such as the Science fiction RPG Traveller and the generic GURPS system followed in imitation. armor class. experience points. character levels. By 1971. Air wargaming and Space combat wargames (Full Thrust. Gary Gygax of the University of Minnesota's wargaming society developed a set of rules for a late medievalmilieu. This game was called Chainmail and was a historical game. wizards and dragons. Early role-playing games such as those made by M. This was later shortened to craps and after several adaptations became the most popular gambling dice game in the United States. but later editions included an appendix for adding fantasy elements such as spells. Traditional Roleplaying games were the basis for the modern Role-playing video game. Arneson and Gygax then met and collaborated on the first Dungeons & Dragons game which was released in 1974 by Gygax's TSR. the game of Hazard was called crapaud by the French in New Orleans (a French word meaning "toad" in reference to the original style of play by people crouched over a floor or sidewalk). Barker and Greg Stafford developed from miniature figure wargames.000. In the late 1970s TSR launched Advanced Dungeons & Dragons (AD&D) which saw an expansion of rulebooks and additions. The 80s saw several Dungeons & Dragons controversies such as the claims that the game promoted Satanism and witchcraft. General Quarters). Other indoor games[edit] In colonial America. Attack Vector: Tactical).

released between 1977 and 1983. Golf originated in Scotland. Beginning in 1971. Electronic games[edit] Main articles: Electronic game and History of video games The earliest reference to a purely electronic game appears to be a United States patent registration in 1947 for what was described by its inventors as a "cathode ray tube amusement device". though this eventually came to an abrupt end with the North American video game crash of 1983.O. Another casino game. and more distantly to the stickless bocce and balls. where the first written record of golf is James II's banning of the game in 1457. which saw a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan.[70][71] The golden age of arcade video games began in 1978 and continued through to the mid-1980s. specialized gaming home computers. Roulette. The first home video game console.[68] and as such to be related to trucco. The homevideo game industry was eventually revitalized with the third generation of game consoles over the next few years. French kings like Francis I of France(1515–47) and Henry II (1547– 59) were well known players. the earliest table games appear to have been the Cue sports. These team sports were spread worldwide by the influence of the British empire. which originate in China and date as far back as the Song Dynasty (AD 1120). saw increased popularity as a result of this. the Magnavox Odyssey. This same time period saw the advent of the personal computer game. many of them played by European royalty. first appeared in Europe during the 18th century. Dominoes. and Snooker. or Pocket billiards. The cue sports are generally regarded as having developed into indoor games from outdoor stick-and-ball lawn games(retroactively termed ground billiards). was released in 1972. Pool. Tennis developed in France. The ban was lifted by James IV in 1502 who also played golf. The Chinese tile gameMahjong developed from a Chinese card game known as Mǎdiào sometime during the 17th century and was imported into the United States in the 1920s. . and was probably adapted from English wheel games such as Roly-Poly and E. which include Carom billiards. Cricket can be traced back to Tudor times in early 16th-century England and the modern rules ofassociation football and rugby football are based on mid-19th century rules made to standardise the football games played by English public schools. A second generation of video game consoles. With the possible exception of Carrom (a game whose origins are uncertain). video arcade games began to be offered to the public for play.game. Outdoor games[edit] Main article: History of sport Modern sports developed from different European games.[69] Through the 1950s and 1960s the majority of early computer games ran on university mainframe computers in the United States. croquet and golf. has been played since the late 18th century.

earlyonline gaming. . and the introduction of LED handheld electronic games and eventually handheld video games.