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Updated Edition 201 I-2012




This volume meant for Civil Engineering Drawing-I included in the Third Semester in
(C-09) for Civil Engineering Students includes Building Drawing and Simple Cross-masonry
works like Pipe Culverts, Causeways, Culverts and Bridges.

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As the drawing is the language of Engineers, he musl be well versed with dilferent
conventional signs, and symbols to be used for different Sanitury & Electrical Fixtures lct be
used in building drawings so as to present the drawing in a simple nenner ancl ut the same time


making them more informative.

No pARI oR full of rl-ris book N{Ay bt RtpRoducrd sloRrd iru
ANy R€r Rie vaI syste rtr oR I RANsrrn irrrd ir',,t ANy Ionrrn by


eIecIRoNi(, rvrechnruir:n[, phoTocopyiNq, RECoRdiNq
oR or[-rrRwisI wirhour rkr pRioR wRiiIEN prRMissioru of

rlre pubtishens.

The drawings are to be drawn in accordance with the speci/icalions and olher details so as

to work out detailed estimate of all the components. To achieve the above obiective, the quthor
has taken the necessary steps in presenting the drawings, specificutions and methotlology in
developing dffirent views of the buildings.

Pnirurirrrc, of books pAssES r[rnouqh MANy sTAqEs-u/Ririr,rq,
coMposiNq, pRooI nendiitq, pniNlin*q, EIC We IRy ouR [EVt[
bEsr ro rraakr rhe book ERRon- f ne e . lf ANy nristnke kns
irundvERTENTty cREpr ir,{, wE R[cjRFI iT qrud woutd be de e p[y
irudrbrrd To Thosr wko poirr iT ouT We do NoT tnke nrvy

Civil Engineering Drawing - I will be more meaningful and help the students in better

leqnl REspoNsibiliry.

Though the publishers and author have taken every care to ntake the drawings sharp, neat
and meaningful, there is every possibility that few mistakes tnight have crept in. To make this
volume free from any mistakes, the author requests the Civil Engineering staff members to


kindly bring to the notice of publishers to take appropriate measures.


I 85, 6673 0577

tu nft. Rf,DlAilT POBLTSHIIlG lrOqSE,
Hyderabad and other men who ltave taken keen interest and carried out the
Finaily, the author would like to express

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The author would like to convey his sincere thanks to his colleagues who have encouraged
take up this work in the interest of the students. It is strongly believed that this book on

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instructions in making the drawings to


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satisfaction. -

Page No.


' $i,.;'*',f, ft*' i




Some of the terms usedvalues - Types of stairs.

Conventional signs and symbols'




. ,:rj:ti.rjl


Important terms in building construction - Bonds in Brickwork
Exercise - 2


Doors and Windows



frame Shutter

l t-14

Dimensions and sizes of door
: 1003 Designation and

shutter as recommended in I.S
sizes of doors & windows.




. Trusses


t 5-20

King post truss Principle of construction Drawing
procedure Queen post truss Drawing procedure.
Exercise - 4






Planning and Arrangement Rooms in Residential
Building as Per Standards of Building Bye-Laws

Building Drawings and their Development


... ..

Exercise - 7


Exercise - 8


Exercise - 9




Exercise - 20


Short Answer Questions







- II
Exercise - 12
Exercise - l3
Exercise - 14
Exercise - l5
Exercise - l6
Exercise - 17
Exercise - l8
Exercise - l9

..r. 2l-27

Exercise - 6

Exercise -

in-stairs Some of the guiding

Page No.


l5 Exercise .Bonds in Brickwork Exercise . ir'& . tn 4t-65 lry ' $i.l6 Exercise .tr T] NTENTE| Page No.l3 Exercise . Exercise .8 34 Exercise .14 Exercise .. .+ Conventional signs and symbols' :.r.67 28-40 30 l0 .l8 Exercise .20 65 Short Answer Questions 44 46 48 53 55 57 59 6l 66.4 r6 -5 t8 Exercise eat his tol Planning and Arrangement Rooms in Residential Building as Per Standards of Building Bye-Laws Building Drawings and their Development ..h.'' ent -I I .6 Exercise - in-stairs Some of the guiding 39 Page No.. ft*' i tlll 'ffi..'.7 32 Exercise .l9 Exercise .2 7 Doors and Windows d.12 Exercise .. -3 Exercise l2 .II Exercise . Exercise .. 2l-27 Exercise .:rj:ti. Trusses ied on ter t 5-20 King post truss Principle of construction Drawing procedure Queen post truss Drawing procedure.f.S sizes of doors & windows.Types of stairs..'*'.'=€ffi.* ffi'''"' Exercise Some of the terms usedvalues .t '?or in Door frame Shutter l t-14 Dimensions and sizes of door : 1003 Designation and shutter as recommended in I.. .17 Exercise . .9 37 '*'Chapter 63 Exercise .rjl be me Important terms in building construction . .


an ability for co-relative details and their arrangement in a losical seouence oulo De provloe Only minimum notes to suppolt the drawings should be indicated in the drawing. kitchen sinks. simple and clean. various water supply and sanitary fixrures .. positions of furniture like chairs. Avoid confusion and to understand the drawings. : Conventional signs are used to represent the particular item in the drawing. water & sanitary fittings.2 PRIME REOUIREMENTS OF A GOOD DRAWING : The quality of drawing can be improved by considering the following points : l..C) or as per the Indian Standard Specifications. bridges or any other civil engineering works. movement of shufiers when ttrey are closeci or openeci. Save time in making out various details in the drawing to enable others to quickly understand without any confusion. Drawings. power socket. fan. 6. EXERCISE II Draw the Conventional signs. it is necessary to prepare detailed drawings which will inform the conhactor. switch. To indicate positions of furniture in drawing room. Sufficient space should be provided between different views so as to mark the dimensions without crowding. Drawings provide a language with specific data to Architects. Symbols are also used to indicate the position of electrical fittings like. Should be accurately drawn so that scaled measurements agree with actual 3. Drawing should be clear. Conventional symbols for plumbing fixtures.modifications like additions or omissions can be suggested from a study of the drawings before actual construction of the structure is started.l. their fixing. cup boards. concrete are indicated by standard conventional signs. suitable symbols are used. 2. Drawings should be clear. the exact information which he needs during the construction of different items of tap. : Drawings represent reduced shape of structures and the owner will be able to see what is going to happen. Beds. Electrical fixtures. wash basin. In case of public buildings. For example. it becomes to assess the possibility of further vertical expansion by referring to the foundation details initially provided. the detailed drawings form as an essential contract documents. 2. w. simple. lB and lC.B. brick masonry. Thus. Identiff supply the various details viz. when the materials are cut by any imaginary plane. lNTRoDucTloT workout different items of construction with their quantities for estimating the total cost of construction project. Exact inforniation should be provided iit orderto carry out the work at site without scaling for missing measurements. 3. Hence. stone masonry. Electrical fittings and other symbols generally required to be shown in building drawings. The Bureau of Indian Standards (B. lamp. it is essential to scaled measurements agree CONVENTIONAL SIGNS AND SYMBOLS dimensions and free from repetive details. 1. " In case of public buildings. Prevent any dispute between contractor and owner (or executing authority) in actual construction of the structure. For this purpose. Materials of construction. the functional aspects are studied and accordingly the drawings are prepared as per the recommendations laid down in National Building Code (N. The drawings are prepared as per the requirements of the owner. windows. Further. thus prepared should be carefully preserved even after the completion of work.3 lNTRoDucnoN 1. They are only represented in the section i. .S) has recommended conventional signs and symbols in order to : l. kitchen sink. etc. when the work is handed over to a contractor. Engineers and workmen at the site to construct the stnrcture accordingly. bed room. clean and accurately drawn so that with actual figures. Similarly conventional symbols are provided to indicate doors.lntroduction (Chapter-11 1. Neatness. drawings of different parts and different views are essential so that approval of work from the sanctioning authority can be obtained.Select 30 mm x 25 mm height rectangular blocks for drawing the conventional silrs and symbols as shown in PLATE lA. cooking range etc. 4. 4. shower etc. tables. 5. urinals.

^! Drawing-l (Chapter-l) PLATE: l-A CONVENTIONAL SIGNS bFoc oGno Jftuno ftr-AU0 BRICK BRICK EXISTING STONE EXISTING ASHLAR CINDERS SANO GROUND LEVEL PLY WOOD' ROUGH WOOD wooD STONE r* ( (( ( COT. ' -\-.AZED EXIS] iNG CI.-.--------- a t---------- t-------!--- t------!--_ r---------- GLASS SHEET METAL STEEL AND C)AST IRON ALUMINIUM WATER..Civil Enginee.1 CONCRETE PIASTER RUBBLE STONE I | CLAY TILE GI. PETROL FIBRE BOARD AND INSULATING BOARD -_ STEEL STRUCTURAL SECTIONS .------------------- r---------- r--------p- // la..ICRETE EXISTING za ( c c(( (( ..\.AY TILE CERAMIC TILES ACROSS ALONG GRAINS GRAINS UNGISZED // ----------------------------------------------------.



Main Switches. Flourescent Light (Doubte) + 16. Aerial Y 34. Control Board 32.t 28. Exhaust Fan 37. Electric Unit Heater 18. Main fuse board with out switches. Power 8. Pilot or Corridor Lamp H -o Batten Lampholder OBH 13. i Power Plug 5. Meter 9. Thermostat 22. Immersion Heater Qwr f-l I t-o-l Horn or Hooter One-way Switch Siren T 27. Bell Push 24.ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING SYMBOLS AS PER I. l. 4. t2. Television Receiving Set ro ffi N { -( 2t. Telephone Instrument Point Internal 26. Distribution fuse board with switches. Humidistat 23. Main Switches.. Main fuse board with Lighting 3. Ceiling Fan 35.S. Lighting. Fire Alarm Push @ 29. Amplifier 31. Light Plug 6. Bracket Fan 36. Convection Heater r:1 t- 17.I Symbol l. Bell Connected to Fire Alarm >+[ 30. Lighting 2. Lighting 7. Water Tight Light Fitting 14. Telephone Instrument Point Public Service OH tr fl A h W Telephone Private Exchange Public Service D. Switches. Radio Receiving set 10. Loudspeaker Outlet K 33. Flourescent Light (Single) r5. Bell 25. Symbol tr' Light Bracket I PLATE: l-D Two-way Switch @ Jt tr l_l OA { e e .

In case of load bearing walled structure. he bottom of C. Most of the residential building o1' one or two storeys are generally constructed with load bearings walls. : (b)Shrinkage and swelling properties in case of clayey soils due to seasotral changes. These steps are made in the form of fbotings and taken below ground level.soil. 2.' In case of brick masonry.up area at the floor level is known as plinth area. . These steps are known as footings. lndividual masonry pillars are constructed with off . 300 mm. - (c)Dcpiii of gi'oun'J waier . l.C. if W be the total coming on the soil.set (0 shall be 150 mm.C) . On rock. The number of footings depends on the depth of lbundation. the depth of foundation depends on (a) Securing adequate bearing capacity. of . for th Of - the Masonry Footings .ended by means of Plinth height shall not be less than 450 mm from the sunounding ground level. Then the frames are filled with brick masonry walls namely curtain walls. Such foundation is known as isolated footing foundation. Depth of foundation is the vertical distance below general ground level upto the bottom of concrete bed laid belorv the load bearing wall..W = W S. Since the thickness of each brick Sets for . .oil and load coming on the soil through load bearing wall. The increase in u'idth provided on either side of the wall face is known as off-set. Foundation : The portion of the building constructed below the ground level in order to distribute the structlu'al load over large area is known as fbundation or sub-structure. Also the level of the floor is usually called as plinth level and the built . Such foundations are known as spread foundations. assuming that the load from the wall above ground level will be distributed + Ha* formly at an angle ofspread 450. In order to distribute the load on large area and to bring the intensity of load coming on to the sub-soil less than the safe bearing capacity of existing soil. : i.9 * '* z The code recommends that all foundations shall extend to a depth at least 500 mm below mal ground level.B. 50 mm. 400 mm etc. 3. the size of rvall is increased by means of footings of stone masonry or brick masonry arrd finally rests on concrete bed of required size. Note : In case of spread foundation. roof's and live loads and finally transmit to the sub-soil. This entire masonry structure rests on ioncrete bed of required size which distributes the load intensiry on the sub .L. '* (d) Depth o1'frost penetration in case of fine sand and silts. Thus.C. all the load bearing walls are to be constructed over concrete bed laid directly over the soil in tlre foundation trench.sets to construct the footings.4 -. and p be the safe bearing capacity of soil and B is the width of foundation C i. The depth of such masonry footings shall be made equal to multiplies of brick thickness (200 mm. the width of wall is increased in steps and finally rests on concrete bed. the width of super structure is off .4 IMPORTANT TERMS IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION : Building may be constructed with load bearing walls namely load bearing walled structure or with number of isolated R. The width of off .set on either side shall be ral to l/4th length of brick i. the information regarding (i) Depth of foundation. -€ 4 Load bearing walls receive all dead loads like self weight of walls.or 4j i B_ pxl & ope4 As a thumb rule. L. structure. Generally the concrete off . removal of top soil known as overburden may be sufficient. of soil pxB x x Area of foundation per lm coq rhid length . columns connecled laterally by beams. According to National Building Code I983.e.B.t1 t I I abd :g * w .e.C bed over which masonry footings are constructed."4 'i s ai ln f. f bed) from the lower most I 000 course of footing. Plinth : The portion of the structure between the surrounding ground levet and the surface of the floor level immediately above the ground is te-imed as plinth.sets on all four sides to provide the required number of footings. ill be 100 mm).C. Width of foundation B where. panel walls and such structures are termed as framed ti (i) Depth of Foundation : Depth of foundation is the vertical distance measured from G. I E fr * I * g (ii) Width of Foundation : Width of foundation depends on the safe bearing capacity (S. T _ - t a 2T + 2t Thickness of wall above G. t * ! 4 r{ su[ sud Considering one metre length along the centre line of foundation trench. Footings : The width of load bearing walls is increased in steps by providing equal increase on either side.iable.soil at low magnitude than the safe bearing capacity of the sub .urvil trngtneerrng [Jrawt 1. (ii) Width foundation and (iii) Thickness of foundation concrete bed shall be known.

cantilever slab provided over openings on external walls to provide protection from sun and rain.Shade : Sun-shade is sloping or horizontal R. width = 400 mm Depth of basement:600 mm. steps. Porch : Porch or portico or canopy _. passage a handrail or balustrade to serye as According to I. parapet wall etc. width of wall in basemenr:300 mm Height of super strutture Thickness of R.M.C. width equal thick and Sun . sunshades (chajjas).S. columns. linteis. -t {':7 600 mm . where T = Thickness of wall in super structure.C.section of wall of building provided with R. stair case. slab = (from floor level to bottom of roof) = 3300 mm Width of parapet wall 100 mm Height of parapet 650 mm 120 mm . The projection of sun .C.most course (a) Type of concrete used (c) pressure Upward of the soil below Width of C.C. Depth . The remaining depth is filled with curshed stone or gravel or sand: Draw the cross .lntroduction t (Chapter-1) 'hcase $ -- 5. windows. width : Depth of first footing with brick masonry is covered surface supported on pillars or otherwise for the purpose of pedestrian or vehicular approach to a building. slab roofing as given below to a scale I :20. Depth : -_ 400 mm . Lintels : Lintels 6. almairahs etc.shade beyond the external wall when not given should be 100 mm + Half of the width of the maximum window opening.400 500 rnm . ventilators.C. l := 150 mlrl thick . B and C) Specfications As a thumb rule. width = 500 mm Depth of second footing with brick masonry:400 mm. Depth ( Width of wall in basement -. Depth : Width of first footing Brick masonry in C. the thickness of foundation concrete d can be calculated from d I2 800 mm : 400 mm .C.sets may be 75 to 100 mm and the height of each course in a footing may be 150 to 200 mm' Thickness of foundation concrete : The thickness of cement concrete bed below in spread footing mainly depends on wall the masonry (b) The projection of concrete beyond bottonl .1 m.C. . the vertical height of handrail in balconies and verandahs shall 1000 mm nominal from upper surface of top rail to floor.widthoffoundatio Depth of C. Super Structure: The portion of the building constructed above ground level is called Balcony : Balcony is a horizontal projection including or sitting out place. 7. are small beams which are of Reinforced cement concrete in present provided over small openings like door. doors.section of load bearing wall foundation details to a scale of following specifications: (PLATE 2 A.C. windows.M(l :6) 300mm Thickness of darnp proof C. Draw tlte cross . 8. the off . of rvall (iii) EXERCISE (a) 5 = 6. : 4912. Generally 150 mm consfiuction to wall width are provided. weatherproofcourse. bed = 300 mm . bedand footing. Boftorn rnost levelling coLlrse with Gravel / sand The bearing on either side (over the wall) should not be less than 100 mm.00mm.C (b) ( course 20 mm Flooring = With 25 mm thick polished stone slabs 300 x 300 mm over 100 mm thick I : 4 : 8) bed. super structure.900 mrn . I : 20 with the Depth of foundation T . This includes masonry walls.600 mnl : 4 : 8) be 300 mrn mm 300 mm Width of wall in super structure brick masonry in C. foundation 4. ( I : 4) -Width of second footing . More commonly abearing of 150 mrn willbe provided on either side of an opening.sonry of stone masonry.C. Depthoffoundation:ll. roof. Generally the height from floor to bottom of porch slab shall be 2.

of 16 mm dia. rods )* [Longitudinal reinforcement] J Lateral ties : 6 mm dia rods at 200 mm C / C. Side cover to longitudinal reinforcement : 40 mm clear.\"^ Llvll tsngtn9oftng uaawtng-t lunapter-ll ryv\/'\\..rc conshuct€d over a C. Tne rcmaining heightin basement shall be filled altd compocted with gravel or Sun-shade 100 mm lhick at the sand.v\"/\".. Anchorage for longitudinal reinforcement = All the 6 bars of 16 mm dia are taken down and extended in horizontal direction to a length 200 mm beyond the face of the column and tied to the reinforcement of the footing in the form of Dowel bars. C bed Tr€ad or goi[g ofeaoh step = 300 mm Rise of each step = 150 mm (c) Draw the cross .v Coping = 50 mm thick wilh a pojection of 50 mm Height of door - 2000 mm Thickness of lintel over door opening = = 150 mtrr wall and 70 mm thick at fiEc and Fojecting 900 mrn.C. Sleps = Brick masonry steps in c€mcnt mortor 150 mm rhick with an off set 150 mm (l : 4) . rods at 150 mm C/C parallel to each side with a clear cover 25 mm at bottom and 50 mm at sides. 1 Steel reinforcetnentfor thefooting: 12 mm dia. Flooring = Consisb of 15 mm thick tiled flooring over a bed of 100 rntr cement concrete. I : 20 with the = 1000 mm x 1000 mm Shape of footing Trapeziodal with a vertical depth of 150 mm."*. each side tapers from Size of the footings 200 mm to 1000 mm in a height of 250 mm I I looo ------{ FIG. .C. Size of eolumn:200 mm x 200 mm Steel reinforcement I = O No.\r.\?./\"."'\\". column footing to a scale of following specifi cations.a .\.v.section of Isolated square R..


l be f th brick along with ] brick along its breadth. walli For the other side of the corner. ?. thd same stretchers wiii appear in a particular course in front lace. To avoid verticaljoints. (i) : QUOIN HEADETI. Next drarv the queen closer throughout the thickness of the rvall. if stretchers appear in front face for a particular course. th stretchers will appear on back side.. draw the stretchers at the front face. the following points should one{ be obseryed.s the sarne appearance on both faces. a pafticular coLtrse shou. windi .2+ brick wall. (v) :t =T u.8.200t :-l (Chapter- 1 ) BONDS IN BRICKWORK Bond is thc arrangement of bricks by rvhich no continuous joints are formed verrically for successive coLtrses in a brick wall.2 !i i one or the d ve EII Note : Queen closer is shown by hatchirtg in the drawing. TWO BRICK WALL EVEN COURSES rtical er at ODD COURSES PLANS i : t top 0 rnrn .vall.5 200 H . sh 2. the overlapping between trvo successive courses shal. Quion headel at the conrer of a wall in the header course. l+. QUOIN HEADER ndo eze). a course will show rvither only headcrs or only stretchers when seen alternately.e. QUEEN Engiisir iiund : To draw the plan of'brick rvall in English bond for ONE BRICK WALL QU EEN C LOSER QUOIN HEADER a corner r.. The first header in eaclt header course is also called a s Quion header..e. if headers appear in front face. Walls of''. A queen closer is placed afler the first header in each header course so as break the vertical joints in the successive courses. i in the t 3 openii 2. brick u'alls).arying thickness ranging liom I brick thick and above. is of (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) r50j x t Draw the first header i. sallte headers will appear on the back o1'that courses. posit on th i.Civil Engineering Drawing-l 10 1. If stretchers appear on the front flace. Then drarv the headers throughout the front face of the wall. then headers will appear on the back of that cours The vice versa will be in the next course. headers and stretchers are laid in alternate courses i... i. If ONE AND A HALF BRICK HALL (vi) OUEEN CLOSER If rvall thickness is odd multiple of half brick i.all thickness is even multiple of half brick (1.e.

a . The continuous ertical members of the door frame called as styles or stiles. Nole . opening (modular). The centre of the lock rail shall be so placed that its centre line is at a height mm from the bottom of the shutter. bottom. These stiles and rails are iointed to each er at both ends by mortise and tenon joints. of AND STZES OF DOORS & WINDOWS As given in A. the minimum width and thickness of a panel shall be 100 mm and l5 mm respectively. (Andhra Pradesh Detailed Standard Specifications) 1002. one leaf overlaps the other vertically as a rebated joint. In order to keep both the shutters in the same plane.1 DOOR FRAME . The area of each shutter may be divided into a number of panels.3.2 SHUTTER : 2. These shutters are made so that they fit exactly into the grove (recess) made in the frame. Size of the door or window means the size of the When bottom member .1 : A door frame consists of two vertical members called styles and two horizontal members one at top called as top rail and one boftom rail or sill or threshold. These are embeded into the masonry wallto hold the frame in position. . In fully panelled shutter.S:1OO3.3 DIMENSIONS AND SIZES OF lNl. DooRs AND WlNDows Doors are the means to provide access to the rooms of a building. 2. All other rails fixed between the lock rail and top rail are called frieze rails. Grooves are formed along the inner edges of the stiles and rails to receive the panels. partly anelled and glazed or fully glazed. The top rail is projected beyond the styles by about 150 mm and these projection are known as homs. Now-a-days the bottom rail is omitted and made to flush with floor level. 4 or 6 as per the design and other practical consideration. In case of door shutters. When horns are not specified.2. top and friezerail width = 150 + (b)Lock rail width: I 66 150 + 3 mm (c) Bottom rail width : 200 + 3 pt (d)Mounting width = 100 + 3 mm (e) Glazing bar: 40 (f) Thickness for all + I mm members = 35 +I or 40 + I mm. rebates 8 to l0 mm wide and in depth equal to i12the thickness of a shutter tbr a square type or l/3 rd the thickness of the shutter for splayed type are cut as per I. the vertical members (styles) should be inserted in the floor finish by about 40 mm to 50 mm.S clamps of flat iron about 300 mm x 50 mm x 6 mm are fixed to the vertical styles on the outerside known as "l-{old fasts in the shape of letter Z ". These are built into masonry for keeping in position. There may be two or more shutters depending on the width of indow.S : 6198.days the door frames and window frames are fixed so that the frames shall flush with intemal iace of the wall in all rooms of residential buildings. Also M. Accordingiy tliey arc caiieci as singie shunereci or double shuttered doors' 2. 2. The bottom and lock rails are made wider than top or frieze rails. Similarly the shutters of window may be fully panelled. Types : It shall be indicated by the following letters of the alphabet. lock and ieze).4 DESIGNATION Shutter for the door frames may be fully panelled or partly glazed and partly panelled with one or two leaves or shutters.'Now . the number of panels may be 3. : 1003. D. when closed. The depth of the groove shall be made equal to the thickness of the panel.S. DOOR SHUTTER AS RECOMMENDED (a) Vertical stile. _ _ Two panels a_ Four panels D V _ Ventilator T _ Double shutter R Width & Depth : : S P Window Single shutter tt shall be indicated by the number of modules Modular width and height of the door or window frame in case of timber frames is always l0 mm larger than the actual width and height of door or window.Doors and Windows (Chapter-2) The joints between panel and frame shall be tongued and grooved joints. For double leaf shutters.P.S. it is usual to provide door and window frames without horns but hold fasts are compulsory. (sill) is not provided.S. According to I. the horizontal members are called as rails (top. A door consists of a frame mdone or iwo shuiters or leaves.

. l5 W Q I 2 means a window with four panels having l5 modules as width and 12 modules as height. with two single shutter windows (one on either side of door) 6 modules wide and l0 modules high. 3 A and 38.. they shall be designated as below : (ii) : (iii) (iv) 6WS l0 / I I DT 20 / 6WS l0 means I I modules wide and 20 modules high double shutter door frame combined on its both sides. and windows show in plate No. (vi) I I WR l5 means a window with three panels having I I modules as width and l5 modules as height. (v) : l0 WT l2 means a window with double shutters having l0 modules as width and 12 modules as height. When frames of doors and windows are combined with those of windows and ventilators.. (Chaptsr-2l . l0 DS 20 means a Door with single shutter with width as l0 modules and 20 modules height. (b) Fully panelled door. I 3 Draw to a suitable scale the Elevation.entilator having l0 modules as EXERCISE as width and 6 modules as height. (vii) l0 V 6 means a. section and plan of the following door. : (a) Door frame.12 Civil Enginoering Drawing-l Eramples : (i): ll DT20 shall mean a frame ofa double shufter door with a width of I I modules and h€ight of20 modules. (d) Hollow core or framed flush door (e) Fully glazed window. (c) Fully panelled ivindow.


l 1l gl EOTTOM RAIL I 70x30 S ILL 79 x 85 ELEVATION l- - -t I I I I I I f-- r- a -i I I I I I l t-- 95x70 r 38x38 t-l rl LJ ll ll tl tl rl o o (\{ Vertical Ribs 145 C/C -x LJ Horizontal Ribs Style 38 L-J Bottom x 38 ss I Rail * 38x38 Half-Sectional Elevation Jectional Plan on XX 95 g --+l Section 200 Style MM I i-l 1 ALI DIMENSIONS ARE IN .l I r-€"i -t-: It I I I I tl L-. 50 lz All Dimrnsions are in mlo SECTION . AA HOLLOW CORE OR FRAMED FLUSH DOOR # .r 30 70 x Pi r -'l o MEETING STILE O 30 |.B Top Rail it i:t I l+- Lintel Head 3 Ply F+F-{ Facing 38 x 70 Thickness of Shutqer = SO. BB PLATE :3 .r A L-r tt It tt tt A.-t I I I I I I t-- r.(Chapter-2I. Civil'Engineering Drawing-l 14 96 12oo FULLY PANELLED WINDOW H I EAt) 70x85 TOP RAIL 70 x I I 30 rt rt r-tt lr tt r--i TOP PANEL 20 mm THK ll ll ll It r-- HANGING STILE 70 x l--' 1l ft ft L--l L-L-.j I I I I I 'l t-_ a r. r-- F-r 1l . I 25x38At I I SESTION .-- F-r rl tl gl 1l C\l POST 70 x 85 r -f I I I I I I L r I I I I I I I I - .: 'i I I I I I I I <a r.

eg's:3 1--'--- *-= -.4.^$*v*- ------99*'9nli.-- .""iL9Jgg9u- FULLY GLAZED WINDOW SHUTTER HEAO 70x95 -Tl rr- trql TO P RAIL 85x30 GLASS PANEL \ I SASH BAR 30x30 ti STILE \ \ 30x95 POST 70r85 \ \ Ii I t' A \ \ I .bt ''*. I l BOTTOM RAIL E 85r30 h G SILL 70x85 I 200 SECT|ON ELEVATION I I I tst 5 -TT 55 3Bo hstltl T'l 12oo 10 sEcnoN - M sao L as 5i -'88' -Sl.

.. effective span shall be calculated by knbwing rvidth of supporting wall on either side: clear span + 2 (half of width of supporting wall) RIDGE PIECE 3 UNITS : The centre line of the tie beam and the centre line of the principal rafter meet at a point. 4.. . Thus the truss is made to have a means of fitting the common rafters and reepers on which the roofing rnaterial like tiles or A.----Jt TRUSSES 3. the depth of the menrber can be secn.. Similarly on two sloping sides another wooden member will be joincd nantely purlin. erect a perpendicular to get the centre line of king post for a length equalto the rise of the truss. For drawing the centre line of strut. this angle is marked at left and right end of tie beam andl the lines are drawn at this angle.. PRINCIPAL RAFTER KIN G POST will carry either direct (axial) compression or From the given clear span. : When pitch of the truss is given. here two verticalposts at equal intervals shall be fitted to the bottom the beam and these are known as Queen posts. intersection point shall be taken as top of the truss. 2. sheets can be arranged. 5.e.'----. The lines drawn joining the point marked on the king post and mid points of principal rafters on either side represent the centre lines ofstruts.. From the tiont view of a roof truss.t-. 3. In king post truss one purlin shall be provided on each side. Instead of single central vertical post in the King port truss. also knorvn as ridge. C'ompression memhers 3. Join both the ends of the tie beam centre line rvith the top of the king post (centre line erected fronr the centre of the tie beam centre line).1. one at the inter section point between principal strut Iine o shall fixed 'ls the a be fix shall .4 OUEEN POST TRUSS STRUT PITCH (a) J'ie bearn tension. : Draw the centre line of the tie beam horizontally for a lenglh equal to effective span. These fwo inclines represent two principal rafters and the..! J. From the mid point of the horizontal tie beam centre line. King post truss is a tinrber truss and used for pitched roofs. Purling and cleats are laid at two places i. **--.2 All KING POST TRUSS : thc members in a roof truss 'Iension nremhers A truss is forrned by joining various members to fonn a systetn of triangles. These are placed in parallel rows on walls at certain intervals depending on the span. Then the mid points along the sloped i length of principalrafters both on left side and right side shall be marked.. The struts are connected and suitably joined the principal rafter and the Queen posts usual.C. a point at about 230 to 250 rnm above the centre line ofi tie beam shall be marked on the king post centre line. and this poirrt shall pass through the centre line of the supporting wall at both the ends of a tnrss as shown in fig.3. The two principal rafters starting from each end of the tie beam shall extend upio the Quee posts and will not be continued further as in the case of King post truss. .1 SHOWING THE CENTRELINE OF THE MEMBERS OF KING POST TRUSS : (a) Principal rafter DRAWING PROCEDURE (b) (b) King post. 3. The Queen posts laterally connected by a straining beam at top and straining beam at top and straining sill at botto for stability.1 PRINCIPLE OF CONSTRUCTION : This type of truss made of wooden numbers is used for larger spans ranging from 9 metres to {4 metres. . These two lines drawn fionr tip of king post and joined with left and right ends of tie beam indicate principal rafters. These trusses are connected at top by a wooden member known as ridge piece.3 _-PURLIN 230 TO 250 mm TIE BEAM CLEAR SPAN EFFECTIVE SPAN FIG. Strut.'-----.^\ 3.

2.Civil Engineering Drawing-l and smrt and another at the end of principal rafter where it is connected to the Queen post. Three way M. l. 5. 4. ridge piece. Draw the horizontal tie beam over these bed blocks to suit the depth of tie beam and also drawthe centre line indicating by dash and dot. EXERCISE Draw to a scale Common rafters.6 -J. It shall be suitablv joined at bottom with tie beam and with Queen post at the other end. The common will extend from eaves to the ridge and suitably joined. Rise of roof J DRAWING PROCEDURE l. span. 3. : l. I4 the front elevation of wooden KING POST TRUSS to suit the following specifi cations. The other details are shown in plate I3.C. the purlins common rafters and reapers are laid to receive roofing material. reepers. Clear span = 6. roofing tiles. the stutbottom edge shall be joined with the Queen post at a height of 250 to 300 mm from the centre line ofthe tie beam. Width of supporting wall= 300 mm 3. The horizontal length befween centre to centre of supporting walls is known as effective !II ti (Chapter-31 : x 100 Kingpost = (d) Principal rafter : piece (f) Purlin (g) Cleat (h) Common rafter (i) Wall () Eaves 200 mm depth : plate board (k) Reepers = 150 200 mm x 150 x 100 x Strut (e) Ridge x : 200 (c) 300 mm width l/3 span (a) Tie beam (b) x x 100 mm. eaves board. . draw the centre line of Principal rafter at a pitch of j span upto the Queen post. Sizes of members of the truss : From the given clear span and wall thickness. of I : 20. (spars). over these walls to suit the given dimensions. 6. & bottom .'The strut shall be joined at an angle 30o to the horizontal to the Queen post and shall be extended to have the suitable joint with the principal rafter. draw the supporting walls on either side and then draw the bed block either cut stone or R. From the point. Note: Ifthe centre lines ofboth principal rafters are extended to intersect at centre ofspan. ridge tile etc. ' 7. I a-s Dal Purlins and cleats shall also be provided over the principal rafter at the joints as glven rn provroeo ar eacn e oI ue Deam so tna common ers sna fixed over the wall plate and other two purlins. Dotted lines are drawn extending the centre line of principal rafters to indicate the centra! rise. the principal rafters and Queen posts can be drawn. The centre line diagram of Queen post truss is shown below for better understanding.S.0 nr 2. The struts shall be provided to connect the princifal rafters and Queen posts. the rise from centre line of tie beam shall be equal to -j of effective span. For this. Divide the clear span into three equal parts and erect perpendiculars from the centre line of tie beam which shall represenr the centre lines of Queen posts. straps shall be fixed at the joints (a) where strut joins the principal rafter and (b) where principal rafter and straining beam are connected to the Queen post at its top. The distance is from the inner face of the wall as clear span is taken into account to draw the Queen posts. with enlarged ends at top 100 mm 100 mm 100 mm 50 x 150 mm 80 x 150 mm 200 x 100 100 x 50 mm ar450 mm C/C 80 x x 80 mm 150 mm 20 x 250 mm 50 x lz-at 150 mm C/C.C. Thus. 3. All dimensions are in mm. Then draw the centre line of the supporting wall and let it intersect the centre line of the tie beam. hall be provided as usual to suit the given dimensions. Size of cut stone bed block = 400 mm length 4. The bottorn dimension of Queen posS is slightly enlarged by about 50 mm to accommodate strut. 2.

D ON NEXT PAGE T F*uo ALL DIMENSIONS ARE lN rnm .U.l'rusqsg lchapter3l 17 KING POST TRUSS RIDGE TILE 250 X 250 RIDGE 50 100 x s0 COMMON RAFTERS OR SPARS AT 450 C/C 50 _-3 x 25 150 WAY MS. STRAP 50 x 6 t'-.s -*l x 12 REAPERS AT t S0 C/C MANGALORE TILES OVER FLAT TILES 40 THICK . B.S.Rlst + PURLIN 80 X 150 CLEAT 2AO x 1 00 x 80 3 WAY M. STRAP 50 X -T BED STONE OR BED BLOCK 400x300x200 1O 240 CLEAR SPAN 6000 EFFECTIVE SPAN 63OO DETAILS OF JOINT A. C.S STRAP 50 X - sPAFI ING POST 6 150 x 100 PRINCIPAL RAFTER 150 x 100 STR IJT 2OO X 1OO 100 TIE BEAM WALL PIATE 8C ( 150 EAVES BOARD 20 x 250 x 100 .

. Rise of roof : + span 5.Civil Engineering Drawing-l EXERCISE :" Draw to a scale of I : 50. l3 (b). Sizes of mernbers of Queen post truss : (a) Tie beam post : 180 x 150 mm with enlarged ends at bottom (c) Straining sill : 50 x 150 mm (b) Queen (d) Straining beam (e) Strut (0 Principal rafter (g) Common rafter or sPars (h) Ridge piece : 180 x (i) Purlin: 100 x I 80 mm 0) 50 mm Cleats for purlins and straining beam : 80 x 120 mm 25 x 250 mm (m) Reepers or bat-tens - 50 (k) Wall plate (l) Eaves board: x 12 mm The other details are shown in the drawing. The drawing is given in PLATE NO. following .5 : l. - 150 x 80 x at 150 mm ClC. Size 12 m of bed block of cut stone = 500 x 300 x 200 mm depth 4. Width of supporting wall = 300 mm 3. Clear sPan 2. 200 mm (Chapter-3) . the front elevation of wooden QUEEN POST TRUSS with the specifications.


Civil Engineering Drawing-l (Chapter-3) QUEEN POST TRUSS PRINCIPLE RAFTER 150 l OO PRINCIPAL lOO X 50 COMMON RAFTER noo COMMON RAFTER-- \b 60 X 150 WALL PLATE 80 x 150 PURLTN 100 a 2OO 50 x 10 Xl OO 150 X 1OO .S.00 STRUT TIE BEAM STIRRUP 2OO DETAIL x AT'A' X 2OO X 80 CLEAT DETAIL AT'B' PRINCIPAL RAFTER 50 X 150 RIDGE l 100 x 50 COMMON RAFTER-+_ 3 WAY M. DETAIL AT 'D' M. S. S. STRAb . STRAP 50 x OO KING o 100 zaA 1O x 100 STRUT x 100 TtE BEAM THiCK M.

bath and toilet (w.0 above 30 For building up to a maximum height of 7m incase building is having street on 2 or more than 2 sides the average width of front space should be 3m and at no where less than 1. l5 .5 6. Detached building Semi detached build ing Row type building (Chapto.A.Planning and Arrangem€nt Rooms in Residential Building as Per Standards of Building Sl.5 subject to certain conditions. 501 to 1000 40% of the plot area or 250 m2 which ever is more. plot area Floor area ratio (F. Back to back site + Location of gareges have exemptions above 125 4.5 to 18 18 to 30 * red a rea Plots having depth 9m and height 7m Area of plot : m 66 213% of plot area on the grounci anci firsi floor m2 2.5 m Minimum Front Open Space fio be Provided Front open space Width of street in front of plot in t\ Minimum Rear open space to be provided (Buildings upto l0m Height) Different types of Residential Buildings.45m for garages 1. above 250 t25 250 minimum in pe rm iss i b le cove Average width Minimum frontage is 6m on any street.75 : to 1. to 2 depending on type of construction. Rules and regulations laid down by concerned municipal authorities are to be followed.0 4. For maximum untility a flow diagram may be drawn in the initial planning stage indicating the relative positions.5 7.R) - I Max. 0. PLANNING AN D ARRANGEMENT ROOMS IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDING AS PER STANDARDS OF BUILDING BYE-LAWS Bye-Laws 1. Bed room. Dining roomo store room. covered areas and set backs as per building bye-laws laid by NBC and standards for various rooms in residential buildings to be followed are given in brief as detailed below. Ma Less than 200 Minimum PIot Size and Building Frontage s0 l. puja or prayer room. These are only guide lines. frontages. verandahs and corridors should be arranged according to their functional requirements.5* 3. 3. For details refer to bye-lows. height of building (not covered by FAR) - (l .5 m rear space is enough. Gurest room.+ Minimum depth of foundation Plinth height front open space 0.0 m max.5 x width of road abuting).c). plot sizes and their frontage Type of residential build ing Frontage in m Plot s ize in m2 Note x.80 no. 201 to 500 m2 50 % of the plot area or 133 m2 which ever is more.3m general value A. Kitchen.5m from centre line of the street.fu Permissible Plinth Area (or covered area) in Residential Plots Plot sizes. Rooms in a residential building like drawing or living room. 4. Minimum side open space to be provided (Buildings upto l0m height) l- 8t2 Detached building Semi detached 8 3m on both sides building 3m on one side only Total covered area of all floors Floor area ratio (FAR) m Up to 7.3m for double storeyed building minimum 0. More than 1000 m2 n!"1" of the plot m2 area or 400 m2 which ever is more.0 m for single storeyed building to l.-4} No construction work of a building shall be undertaken with in 7. . For row housing scheme frontage maybe 5.

Dining room Study room interrned iate cond itio ned. Ventilation ducts t30 cm2 area for each m2 of floor area. K itchen-c um-store ) 5. . I 2. v.5 rn 2 and for rooms in Residential Buildings Lighting and ventilation of rooms..Sl. Kitchen-cum-dining 9. Habitable rooms i. Height measured fronr floor level to the lowest point of cieling.5 m- M inimum width I . rvindow openings Shall not be less than I th t0 cf' floor area for dry hot climate. .6 For row housing m scheme.8 m2 l.2 m Shall not be less than 2.4m.l 5 Shall not be that 2. Height Remarks Shal! not bc less II^:-Lr ! -nelgnr Illeasureo Ir()nl than 2. Minimum width 2. and the other not less than 7. ro om Garage for bath 1.5m2 K I not be less than 9.75rtt floor level to the lorvest -r--- tlr 1 of the floor area for wet 6 point of cieling. c I i mate.2 m m2 for 12.5 tn- Bed room nLlmber w here the of rooms is 2 one roon-r ii. Min JOO cm2 least dimensionis+n. Shall not be Iess than 2.8 mlwith a minimum width of 1. itchen 2. Shall not be less than 2.8 Increase the above values by Drawing room hot climate I of floor area for Incase rooms are air- 2.5 m- 1.No' Minimum Minimum size of side (width) a rea and area tll 7.8 sto re iii.7 5 m. iv.4m 9.c For combined bath room and water closed minirnum area. .Civil Engineering Drawing-l (Chapter-41 Standards Specified by Building Bye-Laws (as Per NBC) F- Description of room . K itc hen rv ith seperate ) Minimum width ) Minimum width 2.4 8 with a minimum width of 2.5 m2 w.2 m Window area not less than l0% of floor area.- less Shall not be less than 2.5 m- 3 Store room 3m2 4 Bathrooms and water closets.4 m .4 4. Living room shal iii.

No. to For I storeyed building 0. l.7 5m I . M low fi nished G. Planning and Arrangelgn! Rooms in Residential Building "tl.3m C B For 2 storeyed building . Depth of foundation more than 300m 450mm General value I 5 Omm for Garages.0m to l. slope max. Other details i. P linth height ii. Description of room Stair-case Minimum area Heigh t Lighting and ventilation of rooms' window open ings Minimum size of side (width) and area I m2 per Remarks Rise 17 5 mm to I 85 mm Tread 250 mm floor height.40o min ?Oa heaci room shaii not be less than 2.L be Li i Livin L B o Bedro o Be .2 m. 6.' :.L.Orn Drawir below finished G.

width of 3rn normal size 4.E Corner connectivity with drawing room/dining room may be provided. Best location Pooja room Drawing or living room: SE-S-SW-W Minimum floor area l5m2 Lighting and ventilat ion 20m2 length to width ratio | .45m above platform ievei. l0m2 with min width of 3m. : Best locatiorr Best location : Office room: east preferable. Lighting and venti lation l5% of floor area by way of windows and ventilators.8m min height 2.2m.l2mz in direction of wind.1 rn or 2. Cupboards/Shelves are to be provided.0m for 6 persons_.. : Location One of the walls of Minimum floor area Bath room width * l. : N. Combined bath and W.7m.2m length * l.0m Two windows one fac ing north and another warci s east are ci e s ira b Ie Other requirements Sto re l5m2 with a min.C South and West I. Rectangular shape is preferable. Lighting and ventilation Bedroom lvl in im 40m2 is preferable) with To I . Window area tt-r Living-dining room: Minimurn floor area 20mz (But l0m2 .8m2 and with a .5: I . Door is to be located at corner in long wall preferably. Windows in long walls.2: I * lT%of floor area (But 20% is preferable). : B est location Minimum floor area Other requirements Similar to drawing or living room. : : Good ventilation and isolation of room.8m'.A x I .5 m. Other requirentents Dru(Iy r0()m : Mininrum area (\r Glazed tiles min. I One window towards north and another window towards .width_ 2. Verandah: Best location Minimum width Bath and W. 2m x 3m or 2m x 2. toilet shall expGSe to outside in which a window is to be placed.40rn0. Size of door * cooking plat form L-or-U shape and min width 0.60m he ight A . Other requirements Windorv area * l0% of floor area.5rn 7.5 rn2 f or kitchen -cum. 4m x 3m or 5m x 4m is general size.l5 m-0.2m min width * 2.' floor area of l. Minimum floor area um area .1 m above F. x Best Location SE S Other requirements Nearness and connectivity to kitchen is essential.d ining 5.8 6 above F . Racks/closed cup bords are to be provided. : Near to front verandah sl'relves/cupboards are to be -provided.' : Eastern or N. upto 0.e. Cupboards are to be provided.35rn are to be provided.9m and min length * 1.Civil Engineering Drawing-l Recommended sizes en for (Chapter-4Il Rooms in Residential Building (Sizes Normally Adopted in Modern Trend by Middle Class Housing Schemes) Lighting and ventilation : Best location Minimum floor are a 5 m2 with min.0m and window * 1.C .5 m (width more than 4m is uneconomical) Height of roof over verandah can be 2.2 nt x l . kitchen-cum-store. Storage SW shelves with min depth of 0.5 m2 for kitchen -cum.L. : factor. Min floor area _ l. Water closet : Width { 0.0m 3 . L. E corner Nearer to kitchen 8mt (t 5m2 to 20m2 when store is attached to kitchen i.

ted tiies to a nelgnt oi i'rm llllrr.7m x l"l5m is to be provided). be uiaro.(Min r0% of floor area to above Glai. Min size of door 0. I m clear opening at entrance * Rotting shutter preferable for Garage' Stair Case : ': Plot tn al . st 100 . to be Probath room l. Pitch of steps Rise and Tread number of 200 . Min head room 2.5 x 0. a.(Chaprer-4l. l9m min Tread 0.0m (min) above FL in W.25m.400.8m proFL.30m ventilator is to be provided at l.2m. height * 2.6l . uptr 200 abovt 200 an upto 3( ab-ove 3 r and upt 400 above 40 and dpto 500 above 500 and upto 750 .5m to 3m and length * 5rn to 6m' C ieling Garage 2.C is vided.a (L (Residential buitding) : stair : Max rise 0. Max in a flight f 15 and min number * 3 Nos' : width * 2.2 m. Planning and Lighting and ventilation : Other requirements : ArrangelngntryT 0.

3. heigh t A b u ting 1 Minimum setbacks other side in mts road wid th Remarks Less 12. . the stupulations for set backs and heights etc are to referred to G.. Still parking floor permissible uPto 200 2..d dev€lopment ruthority. such as old citylcongested areas as notified by Govt.'.b. Dt. stilt + cellar allowed cellars where permissible are excluded from heighr of building.MS No.-'-r--r--*--- Civil Engineering Drawing-l (Chaptsr-4) _ ___r --v--..2m than '12. 3. Cyber... 86.O. Note : For other 3 ones of Hyderabad area etc.utbority rre!.v-------!-w---'--*-r-----------..2006. For other municipal corporations/municipal areas in the state the building bye-law laid down by the concerned authorities are to be followed to provide setbacks and heights of buildings.5m.rerr Buddbr purrima project ruthority.res) FoR ExlsrrNc AREAs/NEw DEvELopMENT AREAs / LAyour AREAS tNcLUDING spEcIFrED AREAs. Hydarabrd Airport development ruthority &rer. -. m Pa p rkin g rovis io n Ma x.2 m ts Other to less th a n sides 18m 100 & l. above 20A and upto 3 00 a6-ove 3 0 0 and upto stilt floor allowed 400 above 400 and upto stilt floor allowed 500 bove 5 00 and upto 750 is exclusive of height of building upto l5m Height of stilt floor shall no exceed 2.--MINIMUM SETBACKSAND HEIGHT STIPULATIONS FORALLTYPES OF NON-HIGH RISE BUILDINGS * (ePPlicable to Municipal corporttioo of Hydcrrbrd rrer' rest of Hyderrbad Urbrn d-ovelopment . Building line or minimum Front seiback in mrs Plot Size in sq.

4 tllowed above 2500 stilt + 2 or 1 I more cellars I allowed Below I8 27 Remarks llars Below (Chapter-4) Minimum setbacks other side in mts uf B+ildi*g above 1500 1 stilt + 2 or and I more cellars upto 2500 .llowed I in mts Bye.0 1.Planning and Arrangement Rooms in Residential Building as Per Standards of Building Building line or minimum Front setback Plot S Pa rkin g provision ize in sq.s 6.Laws .0 6.0 9.5 6.2 m ts to less than 18m to less th a n 30 mts 3.2m l8m mts than 12. rr above 750 and upto ls00 | I I stilt + 2 ce Abuting road width Max.0 6.0 6.0 6.5 3.0 4.0 7.0 l5 r Oiher 30m and a bove Rea side sides 6.0 4.0 9.0 3.0 4.height permissible in Less 12.0 9.

portico. For buildings. AII horizontal dimensions like size of respective with their along windows and othgr openings as Breadth x [. "I'he view that can be seen while travelling along this inraginary vertical plane when looking towards left is drawn to the same scale as that adopted lor the plan arrd this vierv is callecl as sectional elevation.Civil Engineering Drawing-l BUILDING DRAWINGS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT The detailed drawings of a h'-rilding (rnay !-. Development of section : The sectional view is drarvn on the top right side of drawing sheet. In some cases an off-set is given to indicate the necessary details. Guest room.J. it is rvindows and is seen front the top after retnoval of the so cLrt ahorizontal plane at the sill tevel of the part. It is to be seen that the foundation details will be above the boundaries of the plan.B or x . offices.thegivendimentionisuptotheendofverandahretainingwall. Devblopment of Plan : The plan should be drawn at the bottom portiop on left side of the drawing sheet. cupboards. sizes ofdoors. From the given specifrcations. AII these details are very much required to workout the quantities of all items of works and to execute the process of construction. position of doors and level. basement.1 The necessity of the section is to indicate all vertical dimensions like. Finally. The relative positions of all the elements windows. buildings meanl for business) sltall inclLrde. it means the view shall be drawn while travelling from A to B and looking towards left of the line.x . hospitals. but the off set in only to shift the vertical plane froni one iiosition io another position (as shown below).a I I 1- I Note:l.C bed.. are of doors. colleges. Thus plan of a building means the details that carr be seen which are belorv the window sill verandah or corridor. position verandahs. extreme left hand corner of the building should be taken and theJhickness of rvalls. Refer. to a convenient scale. (a) Plan (b) Section along given vertical plane and (c) Elevation. ventilators which are above the sill level of windows are shown with dotted or broken lines.x. This plan shows the arrangement of rooms. AT I Br. almairahs. To start with. width of wall etc. 5'2' 3. the thickness of walls in super structure shall be taken to draw the fully dimensioned plan . masonry footings. windows. Thus it is necessary to drarv a line on the plan to indicate the sectional line. If it is indicated by A B. thickness of roofing. Dining. sunshades. These section lines are named as A . "1 The dimensions shown in a line diagram are inside to inside dimensions.Ipcaseofverandahs. and plan can be obtained accurate and sharp pencil lines. It is imagined that a finished building is cut vertically along a line so that the building is separated into two portions along the imagined veftical plane right fiom top of the building to the lowest part of the foundation. indicated each room and these dimensions of rooms are (Chapter-5) (b) Section : Section means vertical section.2. (a)plan : Plan of a building represents a horizontal section of building al given height seen a general convention to imagine that the building has been cut down by from top.ength. . sand or gravel depth in the basement. thickness of flooring. The position of beams.width and depth of parapet wall. known as line sketch. width and depth of C. p'. When the sectional line is named as x . sizes. sub floor. and to locate the position of doors. etc.walls to snow tlre position of the elements. hostels. factory buildings. Bed room. clearly shown with their sizes or dimensions -[ -J ia ^J Bc = oFF sEr AB AND CD = VERTICAL SECTION FlG 5.. sunshades. height ofsuper structure.. 5. Line diagram : Line diagram is a sketch generally not drawn to a particular scale also like living / Drawing. cross . other openings.rblic builcling like schools.e resiclentia!. openings etc.section or simply section. Toilets. details of foundation viz. then anow heads shall be marked to indicate the way in which the sectional view is to be drawn. portico and such other details. 2. lintels. details of flooring. t I t l ^J 'L _l . the dimensions are shown in each room. length of walls along length wise (vertically upward lines) and breadth wise (horizontally from the corner) ng cross . Kitchen. windows.Refer Fig. Fis. Then the building is imagined as cut into two portions along this line vertically.J.

flooring detaits roofing details are neatly drawn anci strch iriformaiion is tc be menticned in the section. The projections from sunshades. and to end points for doors. thc section of walls from bottom to top. FtG. windows shall be made both from plan and section to show the detailed drawing.?.L = PLINTH LEVEL D 3 DOO8 FRONT ELEVATION gEciloN !! = WtilOOt{ .L. G. position of doors or windows that are vier.L = GROUND LEVEL.5. P.Li thick hav . Similarly. ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS..2 . Development k ll !|j. (c) Elevation : Elevation is the outward view of a completed building along any side of the building. the view that can be viewed is known as front elevation./ '/.Building Drawings and Their Development (Chapter-5) 29 The view shall be started from starting point of the section line and the horizontal dimensions along the section are represented in sequence in developing the sectional elevation. section and Elevation of a single roomed house is illustrated in /? ./ figure 5./ 1t ? TO GIVE MAXIMUM CONSTRUCTUION DETA METHOD OF OBTAINING PORTION SECTION . building can be viewed from back side (rear elevation) or from any side of it which is known as side elevation.CD ILAN. Accordingly.2.ed shall be drarvn. The first projection line shall be from plinth off set (if provided in the plan). When a building is seen by standing in front of it. super structure walls. // . The inter section of these projections from plan and section helps to draw the elevation.r. the students during the second year study are expected to draw the front elevation. From the given specifications. Hence the front elevation shall be exactly above the top of plan and is accommodated in the top left side of the drawing sheet. But the different rnaterials used in the construction shall be indicated by drawing the respective conventional signs. METHOD OF OETAINING PLAN P. the elevation is obtained by projecting the details from the plan vertically upwards and similarly projecting the details from section horizontally towards left side. the foundation details. ln such case.1 SIDE VIEW llll t FRONT VIEW HORIZONTAL It sEciloN ls tl rl TAKEN JUST ABOVE THE SILL OF THE wTNDOW rlw ISOMETRIC VIEW OF A BUILDING TO GET PLAN : WINDOW OPENING Cenerally.AB_ The rnethod of obtaining plan.

3. thickness is 50 mm.+OO) 1: 150 mm and depth LIVING 3000 x 3600 4200 ** uni width of wall is 300 mm. l0 WT 12 DIAGRAM .R. sunshades are projected 600 mm from the face of walls. Thickness wall end is 75 mm and at the free end..C. The roof slab is provided with weather proof course 15 mm thick. Sun-shades : Continuous sun-shade is provided on front side of the-building. In the above two cases.C. (l : ) plater over a bed of cement concrete (l :4 :8) 100 mm thick.C. lintels kept ever such openings on c6*tcr three sides. The remaining part of the basement is filled and compacted with sand. rounuAtlurls: F\rr r. of sun-shade at the Isolated sun-shades are provided over windows and external doors extending from the.- - a ll rl- lt .M. windows & cupboards 3600 of footing is 600 waus are IiIKen to a oeprtt oi 900 nln beiow gl'ound level i )--L: rl -. Basement : The height of basement is 450 Roofing consists x : These are to be provided as per the schedule indicated in the D. Tread and rise of step are 300 mm and 150 mm.Ctuil Engiq"gring Drawing-l EXERCISE (Chapter-5) -6 i:' The line diagram shows one bed room residential building. 300 mm thick. windows and cup boards are 150 mm Doors.C bed 700 mm wide . Steps are provided both on front side and rear side over a C. Lintels : R. lintels on all openings like doors.c bed is 400 mm wide with equal offsets on either side I (700 . Flooring : Flooring consists of 20 mrn thick C. Draw the (a) pran (b) Section (c) Front elevation to a scale of I : 50 to suit the following specifications : (Refer alongA-A and plate i' No' 4)' I l l. 4. slab roofing 120 mm thick and projected by 200 mm beyond the of walls.C. I r ancl founded on C. outer face of R.=l0DS20 4=9DS lt l{ =. Super structure and roofing : All the walls are taken to a height of 3200 mm and are 200 mm thick. 2.C bed 150 mm thick with an off set 150 mm on allthree sides. BED ROOM The brick masonry footing over c.-.C.C.

Building Drawings and Their Development (Chapter-5)












and 40

ZTsot t





thick sl



20 mm THICK C.M (1.1) OvER
1o0 mm C.C. BEO (1.4.8)

I 50



and a|l i










3000 x 3600

x 3600






l-1 00J








Modular size (mm)



x I 800
1000 x 1200








10 D S 20



Schedule of doors and windows


- -'f


depth is





of front

brick piil
beam, the
bearn and

x 1500
NOTE : All dimensions are in

3300 rnrn i


Civil Engineering Drawing-l


With the given line sketch in Exercise - 7 and following specifications of a building, draw to
ale of l: 50 the following views. (Plate No. 5)
(a) Fully cjimensioned



section on ABCD and

(c) Froni eievation.


8. Flooring : Flooring shall be of polished shahabed srone slab 25 mm thick over g0 rnm
thick cement concrete ( I : 3 : 6) over sand filling in the basement.
9. Parapet: Parapet 100 mm thick and 700 rnm height with brick masonry in C.M. (l :4)
shall be constructed all round the building. A coping of 150 x 50 mrn thick shall be provided over
the parapet.
The dimensions givcn in line cliagram arc intei-nal dinicnsioiis ai-r,i wi,jiir uiveranciah is upro
end of verandah retaining rvall.


Foundations: The depth of foundation shall be 1000 mm below ground level. The plain
cement concrete (l : 4 : 8) bed in the foundation will be 800 mm wide and 200 mm deep. The
footings shall be of brick masonry in C.M (l : a). Width of first and second footings wilt be 500 mm
and 400 mm respectively. rvhereas the depth of both the footings will be 400 mm.

2. Plinth or basement : The

height of basement is 600 mm. Damp proof course of 50 mm
under the superstructure rvalls. Thickness of walls in basement is 300 mm.
thick shall be
3. Superstructure : The walls in the superstructure will be of brick masonry in C.M. (l :6)
the walls except the partition betrveen toilets are 200 mm thick. The partition wall is 100 rnm



10. Steps: Steps are provided in front side and rear side of length 1200 mm. The width of
300 rnm and rise of step : I 50 mm. These are founded over 150 mm C.C bed with 100 mm

off-set on all sides.

Schedule of doors and windows :



Modular size in nlm

t0 DS 2l

Dr 4 No.



Dz 3 No.

900 x 2000

Wr 4 No.

nAA x 1500
1000 x 1500




I0 wT t5


A square brick pillar 200 x 200 mm is provided at the left corner in front verandah.

l0 v


4. Lintels and sun-shades : Lintels with R.C.C. (l :2:4) are provided on allopenings and
is 150 rnm with a bearing of 150 mm on either side.

12CR T I5

thick from floor.



Sun-shades 100 mm thick at the wall face and 75 mm thick at free end are provided
all exterior openings. A continuous sun shade is provided both sides
of front verandah. All the sun-shades shall project 600 mm from the face of the wall.
projecting from lintels over

5. Verandah

: In front

verandah R.C.C. bressummer beam 200 x250 mm is laid over the
brick pillar' the bottom of the beam being at 2100 mm from floor level. Frop the bottom of the
beam, the sun-shade projects on both sides to a length of 600 mm. The remaining height above the
beam and roof consists brick masonry wall (entablature wall) in C.M. (l : 6).


12 No.
2 No.



x 2100

-doC lazed


-doGlazed ventilator


F!ushed shutters

















3500 r 3900


1500 x 4500

6. Height of superstructure : The walls in the superstructuie are taken to a height of
7. Roofing : Roofing consists of R.C.C. ( I ; 2 : 4) slab I l0 mm thick and weather proof
rse with two courses of flat tiles in C.M. ( I : 4) 50 mm thick is laid over R.C.C. slab.

Flushed door

x 600

nA} x

Cup board


A --'r;





Building Drawings and Their

Development (Chapter-S)





1t0 R.c.c. slJB covERED










x 250



200 x 200




















2000 x 1 500







!- -


4500 x 4500









size in mm






3500 x 3000















[,- aoo -{




l+-1 200



Dz _


1000 x2100





l0 wT


W2 : 2No

12 CBT I5

V :
C.B. :





Flushed Door




1000 x




2 No


1s00 wlDE


Flushed Door


Glazed window



x 600

Glazed ventilator


Cup board with
flushed shutters.



and td


wall s




x 2OA t_





Note :

All dimensions are in mm.


A coping with 50 mm projection is proyided at lhe top ofthe parap€t wall. The compound wall all round the plot is in C.C.'#'"hj1. (l : 6) on rcar and side and rest on C.tions draw the following views 10.c bed The remaining depth ofbasernent is filled with sand and gravel and thoroughly comp. Brsemenr:Arrthewarsare3o0mmwideandrheheishtorbasementis600mmabove garcral G'L' 3.C. the height being 2100 mm from floor level to the bottom of R. 13onSouthemside. (l : 2 :4) lintels are providej on all openings with 150 mm thickness and same I 50 mm bearing ort either side of openi[g. windows. Steps : Steps of | 200 mm wid€ are provided wiih brick masonry in C.M.C. slab is of brick masonry in C. Flooring : Flooring and (l :4:g). a[d 5. The remaining portion between top of beam and bottom of R.0 side = 3. Doors & windorrs : Doors. ..:ilH:ffi"th:i f€cilic. beam. and - (c) Front elevation (Refer Plare No. (l : 4).C bed ( I : 4 : 8) 150 mm thick and having offset on the three tont qlnlto 100 mm. Boundaries of the site = l0 m wide road on Westren side. The lFight of walls is 3300 mm to the bottom of R. 12 with east facing having footings 5oo mm and 400 mm wide and at€ 4oo mm and 300 mm deep. SupeKtructure : All the walls are 200 mm thick excepl two partition walls between bed toilet and dining & toilet which are consfucted on the floor with a thickness of 100 rnm.plotnollonNo.C.M. The footing are of brick an aPproach to I0 m wide toad in vidya nagar 3td line. l.i. Lintels & sun-shrdes : R. Tread ofeach step = 300 mm & ris€ = 150 mm. roof slab. Est on C.5 m Southem side = 2. 6) of I : fovidedinftonrsideofbuirdins.C. tlickness at wall 6. lgon Eastern side. 10.o""rin:"l::::.C. ventilators and cupboards shall be provided as p€r depq of 1000 nm below ground leveland lhe schedul€ given.: The FoPosed building is to be constucted in plot no.ciyil Engiqegrine Drawing-t (chapter-51 F EXERCISE I 8 @u=9 f . 100 consists of Mosaic tiled floodng over 100 mm thick c. windows rind ventilators with 90 mm wall face and 75 mm thickness at free end. ( I : 4 : 8) bed 800 mm wide and 300 mm deep. 200 mm is _ 3.cted.C.thernsideandplotno.I m Northem 2. The projedion ofsun-shades bgyond surface is 700 mm.C. R. Rear side both sides 4.l#liTi']l. Found{tion: AII lhe main walls are taken !o a mrsonry iltffiJn[|#:r[1"1"$Hfff$ffiilffiffJilT ii. plot no. The r€maining portion consists of two sitcpl'n.ndonrisht 9. Front verandah : {he Front verandah is 1200 mm wide and a souare brick oillar 200 x provided on right side comer.C sunshades are provided on all exterior doors.M (l : 6) is of 100 mm thickand 700 mrn height.C. scal€ of I : 50(a) Fully dimensional derailed plan (b) section along A .A (d) site plan to a scale sp€cifications : 8' Prrap't w'll : Brick masonry panpct wallin c.M.C. A R.C.5 m. (l : 6). beam 200 x 250 mm is provided on both sides of verandah resting on brick pillar.C.

WINDOWS.r obo-'l N umbering 15 CBT 18 Dr :. Building D.2No D2 =. A 'T1 Designation [.J FIG.. .awings and Their Development lchapter-s) SCHEDULE OF DOORS.i dr rr7f ..\ I Z IUU - UUU x I 800 1500 x 1200 1000 x t200 1500 x 1800 900 I 000 x 600 Fully panelled - dTe''or Flushed door Glazed window Glazed window Flushed shutters Glazed ventilator.00 w2 12OO WIDE VERANDAH 209 x 200 BRICK PILLAR b rooo { A1.3No Wr .B : 2No r0 v6 V - r0 DS 2l KITCHEN I 9 DS 2800 x 3400 DINING 800 x 3400 18 ls wQ t2 l0 wT t2 TOILET 1800 x 1800 D2 LIVING 4800 x 4200 BED ROOM 4000 x 30. VENTILATORS AND CUP BOARDS. LINE DIAGRAM Modular size in mm Specifications t000 x 2100 l0 D'r 2l PUJA 35 3No -:-Ln_^_ .lNo W2 _ 7No C.

v @ 200 50 SECTION LONG .AA I -r cf) l-w.I t.C.C.Civil Engineering Drawing-l (Cliapter-51 PARAPET 1OO MM THICK PLATE No.C SLAB 120 mm THICK 200 x 250 R. @ @ BRICK PILLER 200 x 2AA 200 wtDE' VERANDAH 1 10 m WIDE ROAD VIDYA NAGAR 3Td LINE W. PLOT NO. 19 tt: 6.C BED 300 388 600 SAND FILLING 400 ELEVATION -1/-I f*- -J R..C BEAM roo 30 c) o q o- 200 DINING ROOM x f o o o o o F 2800 x 3500 3400 E *-{-+ I ?ol oo rl.. s JX LIJ W.C BEAM 200 x 250 PLAr No.t KITCHEN Cl') (f) 300 Fr .@ 93 00 I COMPOUND WALL PLor No.C.4000 200 204 RESIDENTIAL BUILI}ING . 6 R. L OoC) r- _l ' o I a L- (o r- @ + LIVING ROOM 4600 x 42OO Iw2 I w2 BED ROOM 4000 I w2 x 3600 'l'L- w '-1 Fco r- 200 -{ PLOT NO. i.2 o o 3 300 400 MOSAIC TILED FLOORING OVER lOO THICK C.

2. R. sun-shades extend from bottom of these lintels provided over exterior openings by r J mm.C.of 150 mm on either side. Sit-out: Entrance of the building is provided rvith a sit out in the form of a quadrartt of a circle with a radius of 1450 mrn. 6. 10.C. R.C. (l :2 :4) lintels are provided on .s to a scale of I : 50 with the following specificarions : (Reler plate 600 mm as shown in the line diagrams. beam 200 x250 mm is provided with its bottom at 2100 mm fiom floor level. lj Specifications 1600 LOBBY B : x Foundations : Allthe rnain walls 200 mrtt thick in superstructure are taken to a depth 900 mm. section along ABCID and liont elevation.C. The partition walls in toilets are 100 rnm thick brick masonry walls constructed from plinth.7. -'maining depth of basement is filled with sand and well compacted. Steps : Steps in the same shape as that of sit-out are provided rvith brick masonry with tread:300 mm. All thesesteps have a C.Building Drawings and Their Development / EXERCISE lchapt€r-s| 37 -9 Frortr the given line diagranr of'a residential btrilding develop fully dimensioned plan. Rear side steps with the same tread and rise are of spread type having length of top step equal to 1000 rnm. windows.C.'fhe remaining portion above the curved beam and bottom of R. almairahs & cup boards sh.. BED ROOM 4000 x 3600 LIVING 4200 x 3600 Dtl I 114s DtslT . All the rvalls are taken to a height of 3200 mm from floor level to boftom of R. J D1 2400 x 3200 450 mm. : These shall be provided as ri L) c) c{ D Basement : Basement is also of stone masonry 300 mm thick and height of basement is 3. of of KITCH EN 4.' openings with a bearing. rise = 150 nun. (l :4 : 8) bed. ot. Parapet : Brick masonry parapet 100 mm thick and 700 mm height is constructed around the building and is provided with a coping projecting 50 mm beyond the face of the parapet wall. Flooring: Flooring consists of Mossaic tiled floor laid over 100 mm C.C. Th.' tzOO o o F @ LU r F l.C bed foundation 150 mm thick below G.C. Drarv these vicu. The rernaining depth 600 mm is of stone masonry footing 450 mm thick r'vith equal off set on either side.C.C.C. Superstructure : All the walls except in the toilet are of brick masonry and 200 mm thick. The bonom C. The sun-shade at-the entrance is provided extending from the curved beam provided over thr "it-out. These are 90 mm thick at the face of the wall and 75 mm thick at free end. lI.C. Similar shape of R. 9.C. ventilators.C bed (l : 4 : 8) is 850 mm wide and 300 rnm deep. roof consists of brick masonry wall 200 mm 5. roof slab.C. Lintels and sun-shades : 120 mm thick R. Doors.C.C. 8. Roofing: Roofingconsists of R. TOILET I A FIG LINE DIAGRAM ." n in the line diagram and as per the schedule given. (l:2:4) slab 120 mm thickand finished with l2 mm thick weather proof course.L.

s -.*. v.! I t_ I I BED ROOM 4000 x 3600 800 -*f _l Dr oso---{ I 1 cv D2 I 1-- OVER 1OO CC BED x o F o o I l*' MosAlc TILE PL99RING -T 300 llr I f___- l- 2No. Dr 4 No.' All dimensions are in mrn.Civil Engineering Drawing-l (Chapter-5) PLATE No. Wr 4 No.o uu 450 o: l. l Specifications Fully Panelled Door Flush Door Flush Door Glazed Window Glazed Windorv Glazed Ventilator 200 A RfiSIDENCE .indow.' -Y- l= 6. V 2No. 7 RCC ROOF SLAB 120 THICK WITH T2 THICX WEATHER PROOF COURCE 12 r20 . W 2No.o oo F J UJ Dl r- lwr l- LIVING x 3800 w Dr -\ l*' L- SITOUT Z l/t ///" w I 4200 2w Numberering l0 DT 2l r0 DS 20 9 DS 18 rs wQ t2 l0 wT t2 D l0v6 600 :-t Designation Modular size in mm 3600 I 12OA SECTIONALONGAB CD Schedule of doors. x 2t00 x I 000 2000 1000 x I 800 1500 x 1200 1000 x t200 900 I 000 x 600 A _ ALMAIRAH 1500 x C.-l ELEVATION 600 iv [Ailf cl TOILET __ KITCHEN V 1600 x 1200 LOBBY 2400 x 3200 ]'D1 D? I I :-=l. D2 2 No.B 25A0 x 2000 Note .

line From the given detailed drawings list out the detailed specifications and draw the diagram r€quired for developing the plan given. kitchen garage and clos0d verandah. {Chapte r.10 The cottage cum rest house is to be planned with trvo bed rooms. with intemal dimensions as below' 4 & dining.m in area 4.2m 2.2 x - ^s 4. hall.- Hall - 4.6x 4. Iil WIUC AIlu 4l -a.6 m Kitchen = Dining Garage - Not less than 7. Refer plate no.2 x 4.Building Drawings and Their DeYelgp^mjtnt EXERCISE .5 sq.5} .2m (2) 4.2 x 3. 8 and draw the views given to a scale of I : 50.5 m wide Attached toilet to bed rooms and general toilet have to be provided suitably.6 m Bedrooms (l)3.

BED -l wrl _J 3200 SECTIONALONGAB CD I Schedule of doors.J DAH 9 DS 18 7 DS 18 wQ t2 t0 wT t2 15 2570 ! pecifications in mm s00 ws r00 on either side of 1 000 DT 2000 side of panelled door Dr-4No 1000 x 2000 Flush Door Dr: I No.Window Glazed Window RAMP r. FLOORING:MOSAIC TILED FLOORING OVER. v..?{rDr A 3600 x Dl 2500 VERAI.:4No. SLAB FINISHED WITH TWO COURSES OF FLAT TILES INC. C. Glazed windows on either Flush Door Glazed. 3600--*T arf-_- I I 42oo#pLAN li 42oo -.V--] SECTION AT .' l 3600 x 4200 BED ROOM Nu m 'ou{$ -1 wr.C. I I 4200 x 3200 DtNtNG IF lw I D.M (1 : 4) TO A THICKNESS 40 mm ioo THtcK 999.j-- -3200 s ws .IU Civil Engineerlng Drawing-l (CitaDter-Sl PLATE No.J R _ ROLLING SHUTTER Note .----. -l TOIL ET -l o o rt crF (fF 90 XI r- x 4600 BED ROOM 42A0 t- r .C. I . c) 800 ri 290 I ELEVATION c) [rJ zR LUo 3X Fo ."'l--. 8 TPARAPET 120 R.C. 100 mm o OF NLU tj op loo 300 i. . D. COTTAGE CUM REST HOUSE .' All dimensions are in rnm.-r v i I -*.F :cg(\I [*.40 1207 I f050 I 600 21 00 _J00 -I---ru?oi v . . windovls . 900 x r 800 700 x I 800 1500 x r 200 1000 x t200 Flush Door DT 2A/5 WS l0 (D: l0 DS 20 t S size I I t IF Mocl u la r bering lNo) w Wr _ 6No.

Nosing : A small outer projection of a tread beyond the riser is known as nosing. 6. of : in one flight without any inter- (ii) Quarter . Hand rail : Wooden or metallic rail which is generally provided on the sides of stairs at about 750 mm for hand hold and safety of users is termed as hand rail. Baluster : It is the vertical member placed between as (i) Straight flight stair : the direction roomr It or landing immediately above. is known as flight. Width of landing: The width of landingshould in no case be less than width of the stairor flighr width. a (a) Public building (b) Public part of a step which is used to rest the foot while ascending 3.turn stair : In this. SOME OF THE TERMS USED IN STAIRS : 150 mm 300 mm (b) Domestic building 190 mm 250 mm 3.v^. 8. (i) (ii) (iii) Dog-legged stair Open Well stair either with half tum or quarter turn. is termed as half space landing. Riser : The vertical member between two treads is known as riser. is the This stair runs in one direction. The hall or room in which the stairs are located is called a stair case. The vertical height from top of rail to the surface of tread should not be more than 850 mm and should not be less than 750 mm. Depending on the arrangement of flights. Minimum width of stair case (width of flight) buildings buildings = = : 1.2 ffi Maximum riser and minimum width of Tread or Going. the stairs may be classified as.\:/^v. Tread : The horizontal upper : According to the building byelaws the maximum riser and minimum' width of tread are as . srnrRs AND srnrRcASES 4r is 1800.2^\-/.\. Head Max-inturn riser 2. 9. 6.C. hand rail and edges of the treads to support the hand rail. these are classified 6. Flight : A series of continuous steps without any break or horizontal platform I Minimum tread without nosing (a) Residential or descending the stairs. 14.C.5 m head room : The minimum clear head room in any stair case shall be 2.. Step : A part of stairs consisting of a tread and riser which is used to ascent or descent -from one floor to the other. 4.turn stair : The two flights will be separated by a landing so that the change verticaldistance between the tread of a step and bottom ofthe flight l. All steps will be mediate landing or with one or two intermediate landings. When it extends only for half of the stair case width. Waist : The thickness of R. Minimum l. Biturcated st4ir (iv) Circular stair or spiral (v) Geometrical stair (vi) Semi. steps are ananged in two flights and two flights make an angle of 900 separatedi by a landing (iii) Half . slab over which steps are constructed is known as waist or waist slab. lollows : Ti?e cf buitding l-he stairs are a series of steps properly arranged to connect different floors in a building. Balustrade : The combined frame work of hand rail and baluster is called as balustrade..1 fiom floor to floor. Going : It is the horizontal distance between the faces of two consecutive risers. Landing: A horizontal platform between two flights of stair is called landing. Rise : It is the vertical distance between surfaces of two consecutive steps. 2. Winders : They are angular or radiating steps and are provided to change the direction flight without introducing any landing. A landing which extends to full rvidth of stair case. 12. 7.\ Stairs are the means of vertical communication i SOME OF THE GUIDING VALUES l. 5.2 m 4.3 TYPES OF STAIRS : Depending on the direction of the flight.\-/^\.0 m 1. it is known as quarter space landing.elliptical stair . 10. 13.St€irs and Staircases lchapt€r-61 6.

ELLIPTICAL .. SECTION D-D SECTION A. rise etc.--. In most of the residential buildings dog . 6. *v---- These are shown in fig.1. CIRCULAR GEOMETRICAL DIFFERENT TYPES OF STAIRS SEMI. More commonly used stairs are (i) Dog-legged stair and : (ii) Open-well stair.legged stairs are commonly used. landing.1 ELEVATION SECTION C-C PLAN QUARTER TURN SECTION E-E HALF TURN OPEN WELL z-QUARTER TURN OPEN WELL UP PLAN BIFURCATED PLAN Figure 6.legged stair to il Iustrate the different terrns involved in stairs. floor height. tread. In case of public buildings open'weii stairs may be preierreci. 6.'12 Civil Ensineering /a/" (Chapter-61 Drawing-l &--v*-*v-.3 shows the plan and section of a Dog .A SECTION B-B DOG LEGGED FtG. like head room.


J . Rise : 150 mm Length of open well :Y.3300 mm - Length : : x 1000 :2000 mm ') .270 mm.297A . of treads in each flight No. Calculations : a No. EXERCISE -tI Arrangingintwoflights.5 m = 6000 -2(1s00) This 30 mm space is provided at the beginning of first landing.2 mm Width of each flight Inside dimensions of staircase = 6m x 4. of steps in each flight Width .3000 .270 x I I .1500 mm Width of top landing : 1530 mm m Width of intermediate landing between two flights 150 mm 1500 mm Width of open well : I 500 mm s :& 212.? Width of flight= . I :20 No. of treads in each flight. rectangular well for an office building with the following data (Refer plate no- Thickness of floor slab width of flight .2970 mm Remaining length . stair with 9-2).the plan and sectional elevation along A-B of a openwell :3'60 : 1500 mm Total length of goings 'fotal goings in one flight + 2 (width of landings) Height between the floors 1- Providing tread of each step equal to 270 mm 2 x width of flights =2 (1500 Now tread of each steP : Inside dimensions of the stair case room : -2 Length available for all I I goings in each t'light Calculations to draw the above views.:#' # l. of flight -2 .2970 mm No.1000 mm Height of each flight .Civil Engineering #*14 D rawing-l (Chbpter-61 '.. #. of treads required in each fligttt = 12 Type of stair : Dog-legged half turn No. * Number of steps required (selecting rise as 150 mm) 1 3 600 150 -24 1 - 1500 mm .300b mm 3 000 - II Data available from the above calculation :4.12 Tread .30 mm (10 x25a)+2(1000) :4500mm Draw to a scale I :20. of rises in each flight . oi flights - Provide I I No.ofrisesineachflat:+ Draw the plan and sectional elevation on C-D (as indicated in the plan) to a scale of with the following details : (Refer plate 9-l).No. Length of landing 4500 Providing landings width Any other data required may be suitably assumed' : : width of room .{ .I =II : .1650 mm Height between floors .2 (width of flight) 2 No. width of open well * l0 - Tread of each steP : 250 mm Rise of each step : 150 mm Width of flight .

7 . :. No.- 1*- PLATE: R C.AB 2.I ment is receive fl ELEVATION ON -l_ -r f* 1000 SECTION 'AA 2500 3. STAIR MTN.Stairs and Staircases (Chapter-6) 1st FLOOR LEVEL / . 1 O0o ls -*l ight Sl are I0r frorn : 4.C HAND -T 25O -t HALF LANDING t l.': Lgn Hei . I I 270 TREAD o lf) 157 RISE (o 't and bath.T 'Ri .C.1 DIMENSIONS ARE IN PLAN OF R.C. (l:4:8) !t- I WAIST SLAB Tht 150 nd depth 250 *l \ The L-l 3 -*rri o footin SECTION ON . P = 1000 x 2100 mm l/{ = 1200 x 1200 mm OPEN WELL 9.. sti with wi B + A A A o o N t - x 27O=2970 D 1000 x 2100 w 1200 x 1200 Note : All dimensions are f-- DOG LEGGED STAIR 11 wi PLAN 9..

C.section.L. (l :2 :4) slab 120 mm thick and the slab is projected 600 mm beyond the face of the walls on all sides. Lintels & sun-shades doors. ventilators and doors provided in the external walls projecting 700 mm beyond the face of walls. a surface rendering by fixing granite & black etc. the l. : R. Basement : All load bearing walls are 300 mm thick in basement and the height of ment is 600 mm. The basement is filled with sand and well compacted for laying sub base receive flooring tiles. o footings are of brick masonry in C. .C. The stair case room is taken to a height of 2500 mm and covered with R. Stair case : Dog-legged stair with the following details.M. Flooring : Flooring of the footing is 400 mm. Front elevation : The front'face of wall is given The second footing is 400 mm wide with 50 mm offset on either side and 300 mm in depth. 8.C.6 m (inclusive of R. Roofing : Roofing consists of ** 6. of treads in each flight ngth or eac flight-ll R.n . . of rises x 150 = 12 x 150 = 1800 mm I : 50 the (a) plan (b) section along A-A and (c) front elevation as shown plate. Foundations : All the walls are load bearing walls except the partition walls in toilets These load bearing waiis are taken to a ciepth oi i000 mm below G.awing-l I I2 Height from ground floor to landing No.C. 120 mm thick.C.C bed 7. (l 2.C. itt '+ ' The first footing is 500 mm wide with equal depth offset on either rtd. Doors & windows : Doors. the main walls are 300 mm thick in super structure and the partition lsare 100 mm thick constructed from floor level.t 0 with following specifications. width of hand rail : x280:3080mm Height of hand rail from tread . windows and ventilators shall be provided as indicated in the plan.6l (l :4: 8) 100 mm thick. The walls are taken to a height such that the from floor to floor is 3. beam 250 x 300 mm is provided below the roof slab.C. 5. as shown in the plan &. Superstructure : All {Cha ptsr. : a). Draw to a scale of . 9. is of Mosaic tiles l5 mm thick over C.C. case half-tum landing is provided in the left side of entrance Width of flight = 900 mm Width of landing = 920 mm Tread/going of each step = 280 mm Rise of each step - 150 mm No.C. lintels 150 mm thick are provided over all openings like Isolated sun-shades are provided over all windows. windows and ventilators.7 50 mm 100 rnm stones of different colours like grey. 4.antibath. (l :2 :4) slab - I I . Similarly height from landing to first floor = 12 x 150 : 1800 mm At the end of second flight R.Civil Engineering EXERCISE D.. red.C. slab thickness).C. g) bed 800 mm wide and 300 mm deep. and rest on C. (*#) = .

8ED OF t00 mm lvf o o oF s{ tl1 x/ 3300 x 3d00 o9 gF KITCHEN -t v..-.-lTi 7 ::j rA --J -.. n. - lNo I100 x 2lo0 Panclled l0 DS/20 Dr - ZNo 1000 x 20OO Single shutter flushcd door 9DSr20 Dr - lNo 9O{) x 2O00 DS/IE Dr - 4No 700 W - 7No I 100 x 1800 x 1200 I .-.. -'l L- 3300 r *'l {200 I t*o I DT/21 D.j l*Fpldf I'l'f '1"1"! -.?bt.c 47 P[.tffl --1 j':!' i: [: i1' r. windov's l*. - t0 wT t2 Glazed windo'*' with-two shutters I. Note : @0 v 400 600 v 600 V V.--i IIOSAIC TILE mm THICK OVER A C.-. Design a tion I f-rV r_- FLOORING l5 1 3200 wlDE LIVING CUM 800 rl 500 TOILET DINING Numberering I\'lodular size 4000 x 4500 6 WS r2lr r DT 1?J.-. - 4No 2No 6ffi x 600 x 400 600 Glazed ventilator Glazed ventilator All dimensions are in mm TWO BED ROOMED HOUS (1 :1 CEME ..c.ATE : l0 SLAE colu ELEVATION r :--1 Vl I 700 l. I -_J SECTION ALONG A-A o f-- Scheciule of doors.ritir shutter -do I BED ROOM {roo *.6 WS I D 2No Specifica tions in mm ll00 x 2lO0 BED ROOM ll00 x 2100 Pancllcd door combined on its two single 600 x 1200 shutter windowl (one in cither side of door with f--- glass pares) l*.:.iiJ' :i f .*.r trrtrrEl:r-I]:l=rl-.Staircases lchapter-6) Stairs and ro THlcx R.C.

I l.s0 The hight of roof in the ground floor is 3200 mm and in the first floor it is 3000 mm (from : ' -+ f x : of basement is 600 mm and first floor is with brick masonry walls 200 mm thick in C.c./\.. to Draw a scale of I :50 the following viervs rvith the specifications as given below vvvvv The isolated colttmn.C. are 200 x 300 rnm in size. beams 200 x 200 and the two 1000 -----+ : I I 3.footings (R. I _t x I 200 R. and C.S.C.C.C. All colurnn footings resl on levelling course consisting (l :4 :8) concrete with 40 mm hard broken granite stones laid to a thickness ol' 100 mm. concrete bedding and are taken to a depth (c) Section along AB and All these columns (d) Front elevation.750 mm Width oi hand rail :90 Balconies c : Balconies mm are provided in front and rear side as shown in the plan and ms proJec tng C.r00 L (l floor level to top of roof slab).C.C. of ! :2 :4) rest on these !eve!!ing Foundations : All the columns which are designated as C. (a) Ground floor Plan (b) First floor plan vvv x m beyond the walls. b1: R.48 vvvvvvvvvvvvvv vvv Drawino-t {Chaor€r-6t vvvvvvv\. (1 the panels in ground floor : 6). section and elevation of two storeyed framed structure are shown in plate No. i 350 at the the junction with main beam and 200 x 200 at the free end.< { :2 I going 1000 mm Rise in ground floor G I 600 R. i t t leaii (b) Below R. are 200 columns marked as C.vvvv-vvvJvvvv-v\.'-C .C. Brick masonry in super structurc : T'he portion between . COLUMN 1 Height of hand rail 800 200 200 FOOTING (t:4:8)PLAIN rooo --{ CRETE LEVELTING COURSE FOR COlUitN C. where as for rectangular columns the footing size is 1000 x 1500 rnrn.Height !i courses (a) At ground level and l.M.c COLUMN Stairs : Dog . .) are laterally connected Basemenl :. 1.:r 20C Cn' of 1900 mm with trapezoidal shape as shown bclor. as shown in the plan. il v\ The size of the column footing for square columns is 1000 x 1000 mm. roof slab 2. 27 5 mm (ln both the floors) _ 150 mm 100 ---100 100 100 - +1ooo_-4 LEVELLING 4.legged stair with half turn landing is provided for vertical communication Width of each flight :- Width of landing _ 1000 mm Tread - R./WvWvivvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv Civil Enqineerino EXERCISE I I3 l-he plan. FOR COLUMN Cr - from the tread surface . of cantilever beam (B) 200 / - Rise in first floor 200 x 300-. I 200 3.C.C.C.v (C.

Parapet : Shall be taken I 800 x 1200 1200 x t200 1500 tioo x -do-do- 900 400 x 120_0 3000 x I 500 1800 x 1500 2000 Glazed window three panels Glazed with two panels Glazed ventilator M. Flooring : Flooring consists of mossaic tiled flooring over a C. ventilators and cupboards shall be provided as given in the schedule below : Designation Numbers r0 DS 20 D 9DS20 Modular size in mnr Specifications 000 x 2000 Panelled with single shutr. 15 12 I 6V 4 20G 12 I . 8.. Rooling R. 6.tair-case room : Access is provided to go from the first floor to the open t€nace and the height stair-case provided for this purpose is with 2500 mm clear height. _ 14 No.: 4 No. thickness being 100 mrn. Grill as 100 mm thick and 700 mm height.C. Alrnairahs A _2No.C.Sta irs and Sta irca se s Hand railing. (l : 4 : 8) bed of 100 7.C.C. wT t2 'W. Same ihickness of roof slab is laid over srair _ case room.C. windows. G-2 Cupboards C. _7No. V -6No. provided alround the balconies and is at a height of 800 mm. : Any other data needed shall be assumed suitably (Chapter-61 . ventilators & cup boards : The doors. windows. roof slab 120 mm thick is laid both in ground floor and first floor.B.: D. Height of s.S. roof slab in first floor. mm thick in ground floor and over R. 5. The roof slab over the stair case projects 750 mm on all four sides. 900 x 2000 Flushed door single shutter 9 DS 18 D^I 9C0 x I 7 DS 18 700 x wR t2 Dj _4No. W -4No.

t-1'lt-< wr I .rLfiJ W {.5_ 4800 x 4600 00 c/c -1 vl GROUND FLOOR PLAN 4800 x 4600 LIVING 4600 x 4600 BED ROOM V I vl _l -t wt. I I I B r B rl KITCHEN ot ol vl I I lct --t BED ROOM 4800 x 4600 w1 c) I I 2300 wtDE DINING 4600 '.-3000 r3l I v/.t \- 4600 x 4600 LIVING BED ROOM W 1 600 F--G---- cl HH 25 r I I BI c/c 4 )rl -f 4800 . *. I I lw I I __l V 2100 x 1500 240A x 1 2100 V c2 I ARCH --J . L- 1500 TOILET 2400 * 1 500 -\ Dr t-- 10 l1 -tt rl-l fI j5i q_ x c2 2OOO WIDE OP EN ING 800 I 500 vz .l FIRST FIJOOR PLAN r11 I lcr .f -J c2T c2 r z'ool 2500 ctc ARCH 2ooo WIDE OPENING w li:l ctc --l 4800 x 4600 w'l TOILET I 4 KITCH EN I TOILET TOILET BED ROOM 2300 wtDE DiNING 4600 x 300 I I t'L c1 wl .50 Civit Ensineering Drawing-t (Chspt€r-61 TWO STOREYED FRAMED STRUCTURE PLATE No.

48 instead R. 1600 F..C. I 600 sl i^l ji-I I ELEVATION .lER PROOF COUTiSE OVER120RCCSLAB 'l- -Tto 200 1 200 -1800 +" 120 200 CANTI LEVER BEAM t.C PLINTH BEAM 200 x MOSAIC TILED FLOORING 20 THICK ovER loo THICK I 1- fffl c'c BA'E E=li 350 ll fl ( JL (i € =--J SECTION ON A B N NOTE:ALL DIMENSIONS ARE lN mrn of drawing here..i- The details of column footings are shown in page. ELEVATION SECTION ON A B Note : All dimensions are in mm a'lr^-rr .lz so 20 nrrn WF:A-Il".

The merns ofaccess ofsite shall b€ clsrly indicated. sinlq bath .ks and grade of mix and mortar shall be cleatly mentioned. lrcation of min harvesting pits . (O Details of openings Numbcr. l t r .tion and front €levatiol.n to I scale of lcm = lm. a I t i 1 ! /shatl include sectional elev. The site plan shall clearly indicatc the position of street (main) and s€tuica streeb any. ward No. layout of water supply pipes and drainage Iines is to be cle. Following drawings are to sub mitted to accord permission for construction of a residential building (a) tt : il i 7 i Building plan z The pkn is !o be drau.R shall be clearly mcrtioned in the area schedule.C. Site plan shall clearly speciry the plot (site) area and dimensions of boundaries and propos€d build up area in the site.nd drawings orere of shall be shown in sile plar. It shall essentially indicate s€tbacks provid€d. (d) Service plan tn this plan.Civil Ingineering Drawing-l (Chapter-6) TO BE TNCORPORATED THE STANI'ARI' FORMAT FOR OBTAINING SANCTION FROM LOCAL BODY FOR A RESIDENTTAL BUILDING (TWO STOREYED.€.C. Note : For more details refer to building byclaws frahed by the concemed local aulhorities. [n the case ofa multi storeyed building say two storeyed building plan ofground floor and first floor are to be dlawn on the building. constuction or Brick ino. The drawing shall include terrece plan indicating lfie drainsge . Total floor area and F. shall be dlawn though not be a scale.A..oom etc.rly shown. TWO BED ROOM BUILDING) INCLUDINC A RAINWATER HARVESTINC STRUCTURE). . size and qudity of doors and windows shall be cle.. The site plal is to be drawn to. The plan shall clearly indicate essential servic€s such as w.. The dnwing t t. scale of 1:1000.i '1 'i ii (b) Site plan The boundalies ofthe site ofthe owner and position ofsite of neighbours also shall be clearly indicated.rly mcntioned. (g) Schedule of areas Total site area. etc. (c) Location plan Location of site clearly indicating suwey No.nd slop€ of the roof. Covered sr€a. for e"xample whethers it is R-C. (e) Specifications Sp€cifications regarding construction shall be cleady mentioned i. The occupancy ofall parts ofthe building shall be indicated. The widlh ofadjoinilg streets shall be clearly mentioned.

2 m below Cround level. windows & ventilators. For front opening of 4. At the entrance 4.Stairs and EXERCISE I Staircas€s lchapt€r-61 5.C. The remaining depth of basement is filled with crushed quarry gravel and fully compacted. Roofing : Roofing consists of R.C. .C.-f-^:.C. The remaining height (between top of R. M (l : 4) as weather proof course. 300 mm deep ( I : 4 : 8) 2. isoiated sun-shades extending from the bottom of lintels over respective openings with the same projection beyond the face of wall are provided. its thickness is 50 mm. 6. beam x 400 mm is laid over this opening. Flooring : Flooring consists of polished Shahabad Stone slabs 25 mm thick over C. The walls up to basement are of Store Masonry.C.C. Draw plan.0 m wide opening is provided and height of opening is 2. - x 1000 x 750 1800 mm 1200 mm Ventilator 400 mm x 650 mm Note :Any other data required may be assumed suitably from the experience gained from previous x exercises. the remaining height is with brick masonry wall. 14 Plate No. R. section along X-X and Elevation to a scale of I : 100 from the specifications given below : l. x 450 mm deep Basement x 600 mm deep 300 mm wide The foLrndation consists of C. Superstructure: All the walls are 200 mm thick and of brick masonry in C.C. x 475 mm is provided in 3.C roof slab) is filled with brick masonry 200 mm thick.C bed 900 mm wide Parapet : Thickness of parapet wall is 100 mm and taken to a height of 53 700 mm. Continuous sun-shade from the beam projects 700 mm from the outside face of pillars.C.Windows : All doors are single leaf flushed doors and windows are glazed type. D cf : W: V: D. Doors &. beam (shown with dotted lines in the plan) 200 mm the waiting hall. For*ndations : A$ the walh ineluding +erandah retaining wal{ arc taken+o+ dep+h 1.M The height of walls from floor levelto the bottom of R. (l : 5). lintels 120 mm thick with a bearing of 150 mm on either side of opening are provided on all doors. l2 shows the Plan and Elevation of a "Primary Health Centre".C. 200 mm Another R. roof slab is 3. beam 200 mm x 350 mm is laid overthese pillars as shown in plan by dotted lines.C.C. For the other exterior winciows anci ventiiaioru. (l :4:8) bed 100 mm thick. Thickness of sun-shades at wall face is 75 mm and at free end..0 m wide. Brick pillars 200 mm x 200 mm at 3 100 mm ClC are constructed in front verandah and are taken to a height of 2100 mm and R. beam and R. 4.C.3 m. lst footing 600 mm wide x 450 mm deep 2nd footing 450 mm wide .C.C.1 m. collapsible door is provided. lr^.C. R.C. slab 120 mm thick and is finished with 2 courses of flat tiles 150 x 150 x 10 mm laid in C.

TI 2000 2OO X 2OO BRICK PILLARS AT 3100 C/C -rt 2oo .--J 1wl fI t- *I -Ttoo -l r- l* wt -J MALE DOCTQR'S ROOM 4000 x 3800 HALL FOR 1O BED.lrl t I I 3000 3000 -1 VI c\l 't -J r- I l.(3 o gal-r? FUJ x zJ utFo otr3 N 3000 x c. 5000 OFFICE ROOM 4000 x 3000 B 500 DISPENSARY 4000 x 3000 o o o uJrl dx o Fo NURSE'S ROOM 3000 x 3000 a3 LADIE'S TOILET 2000 x lso Tzoo ----.-l f- sW I t-.-l !'-.--L---J & .64- Civil Engineering - Drawing-l (Chapter-6) PLATE No..w -l LADY DOCTOR'S ROOM 3000 x 3800 Note : All Dimensions are in mm -t wl TECHNICIAN'S ROOM !-. 12 RURAL HOSPITAL X r. [l t- l:- fv CLINICAL LAB o .S 6000 x 7000 ELEVATION !-.

^. These pillars are taken to a height of 2.C (l :4 : 8) bed 1000 mm wide x 300 mm deep. tt00 R. beam 300 mm x 450 mm is laid on all three sides.C roof slab from floor level. Flooring: Flooring consists of 25 mm thick Shahabad stone slabs over 100 mtn thick C.:iade extends which is continuous alround the building to a length of 600 mm from the face of the r. The interior corridor is 2.rings doors & windows with a bearing of 150 mm on either side. 8. R. roof slab 130 mm thick and is finished with weather proof course consisting of two courses of flat tiles 150 x 150 x l0 mm embeded in C.0 m wide is provided.2\.C. Roofing : Roofing consists R.--.Stai. slab has full bearing on walls and extends I50 mm beyond the outer edge of the (l walls.2 m = W: Door with single shutter flushed type 0.i. 6.C. .C.C.C. The remaining part of the tbundation consists of brick masonry in C. : Other beams provided in (verandah) conidor are at the bottom of R.M. takert to a height of 3. 4.. Iintels 150 mm thick are provided on all viz./ .. D= Door with two shutters flushed type I .4 m Note : Suitable assumptions can be made if needed.2 m and reston C. to suit the irecifications given below : l. op. The remaining depth of basement is filled with gavel and well compacted. grills.75 m D.M (l : a) footings as below : lst footing 700 mm wide x 300 mm deep 2nd footing 600 mm wide x 300 mm deep 3rd footing 500 mm wide x 5. 2. . Foundation: All the walls including verandah retaining wall are taken to a depth of i.2 m x x 2. roof slab.2 m is covered with M. . Draw : .6 m to the bottom of R.C.1 m from floor level.1 m and R. intertr On the exterior side a continuous lintel beam is provided and from this linted beam.:. 3.C.8 m 1.v v vv v v v v v v v v v vvv v v v v v v v v v v v v v v vv v v vv\ /\.C.C bed. beams are also provided over the entrance (3000 mm wide) and on the other side m wide at a height of 2. Basement : The thickness of wall in basement is 400 mm and the height of basement is 750 mm.1 m x 1. Parapet : Thickness of parapet wall is 100 mm and is taken to a height of 700 mm.C. : a).* given plan to a scale of I : 100 and section along.5 m wide ( to the edge of verartdah retaining wall from face of the superstructure wall) and 300 mm x 300 mm brick pillars are provided with their spacing as mentioned in the plan.s and EXERCISE I T Staircases lchaptsr-61 of 5 Fully dimensioned Plan and Elevation of a "Primary School" are shown in Plate No : 13. sun-. Doors & Windows 300 mm deep : 5) and : At the entrance collapsible gate 3.M (l FE Window glazed 1.C. ABCD with its front elevation. 7..C.C. Superstructure : Allthe walls are 300 mm thick with brick masonry in C. 50 nrnrr thiryk csping is provided over the parapet. A short wall 100 mm thick (dwarf wall) and 900 mm height is constructed between these brick masonry pillars and the remaining height of 1.C.S. Lintels & Sun-shades : R..

13 SCHOOL BUILDING ='t. F W-W- a.t.-) PLAN I J d) E 6o Fgobo{ Y Fo UI I a V I .S. u$ t. 1" 600 .." J(9 X 9so Fo<> ilIV fsoo ll t.-r tu. I I 6000 D1 I 300 W 25 00 I WIDE CORRIDOR 2500 W _j 600 I I I I I CLASS ROOM 6000 x 7000 BRICK PILLARS 3OO X AT 35OO C/C EXCEPT LAST PILLAR I I I I Note : All Dimensions are in mm I I I W I BRICK PILLARS 3OO X 3OO AT 3000 c/c I Wi M. Jo I I I I LABORATORY CLASS ROOi\4 7500 x 6000 CLASS ROOM 6000 x 7500 PHYSICAL EDUCATION 6000 x 6000 9000 x 6000 Ig.56 Ciril Engineering Drawing-l lchapter-61 PLATE No.. ELEVATION D =Tl i a -w-'w- I I w-w - 600 r {-50 u)oo I . GRILL OVER DWARF WALL I I ll |-sooo{ I I ri 3oo STAFF ROOM 6000 x 4000 I I 300 x 300 BRtcK PTLLARS AT 3500 C/C -1 I I 2500 wtDE I I I Yv I ti HEAD MASTER ROOM 6000 x 2850 '' -r-J- : I ENTRANCE 6000 YvrDE oFFlcE 6000 x 2850 CLASS ROOM 7500 x 6000 CLASS ROOM 7500 x 0000 ROOM 7500 x 6000 CLASS o I CLASS ROOM 7500 r 6000.

R.1 m from floor level and similar sun-shade shall be provided on all exterior sides.v uvu uYvI ^i. 4.1 mrlso M.3 m from floor level to bottom of R.C.C.txf basement. The line diagram showing the Plan of "DIVISIONAL ENGINEER'S OF'FICE" is shown in the Plate 14. 8.C bed is laid over 150 mm thick sand bed thoroughly watered and compacted. Foundations : All the walts including verandah retaining walls are taken to a depth of 1.C. The two toilets meant for executive engineer and P.. Lintels & Sun-shades : The corridors in three sides are of 2. : = WVG: G.5 m wide including the thickness of verandah retaining wall.6) EXERCISE . Portico.C. Superstructure : All the walls in superstructure are of brick masonry and 300 mm thickness. Grill 1500 x M.: D. 7. bed (l : 4 : 8) 1000 mm wide x 300 mm deep.Grills are provided as indicated by G and G.beam 300 mm x 500 mm are provided at 3. Doors. in the plan.. Beams. Draw to a scale of I : 100 120 mm and finished with weather proof course 22mm thick shall be provided. to executive engineer are partitioned by brick wall 100 mrn thick. ..2 m consists of two stone masonry footings each 600 mm deep and 700 mm. roofing Terrazo tiled roofing l2 mm thick perfectly laid & joined shall be provided tflftmmrhirk Qrritclrlerrreteri*lsh*lll|]erl<edfnfilltheremainingoortionofthe 6..3 m if the length of conidor works out to be impossible to strictly provide 3. roof slab. Basement : Stone masonry 400 mm thick and 600 mm height becomes the basement. (The C/C spacing can be adjusted from 3 m to 3.S. The square brick pillars in the conidor shall be taken to a height of 2. Front entrance is 2.S. Square brick pillars 300 mm x 300 mm are constructed over the verandah retaing wall at 3 m CiC. Parapet Watl : 100 mm thick brick masonry parapet shall be provided to a height of 700 mm and top is finished with a coping projecting 50 mm. Any other data shall be assumed suitably. Brick pillars. 500 mm wide respectively.C.C. Roofing slab will project by 100 mm beyond the external wall face- (a) Fully dimensioned plan. Roof : R. RC. and (c) Front elevation from Specifications the given specifications : l. continuous sun-shade projecting 700 mm beyond the face of the wall shall be provided..C. The C.Sta ir s Staircases 57 (Cha pter. & Ventilators : Door with double shutter (flushed) 1200 x 2100 CollaPsible gate 3000 x 2100 Door with Single shutter (flushed) 750 WindowfullYglazed 1200 x x 1800 1500 Ventilator glazed 600 x 450 x M. 2.C. 5. These walls are taken to a height of 3. Over basement 50 mm thick D. is laid. t 6 Continuous lintel is laid (door & window openings) at a height of 2. beam 300 mmx 425 mm is provided over ttte entrance opening from which a front portico 3. Grills 1500 1500 are provided over a dwarf wall 100 mm thick and 600 mm height.1 m over which R. M. (b) Section along ABCD. T .5 m from the outer face of the wall shall be provided.) to a height of 2. 3.A.o117+ti.0 m CiC in the clerical section. Flooring: q v. beam 300 mm x 450 mm is laid.C.S.C.0 m wide projecting 2.5 m below ground level and founded on C. From this beam.0 m as C/C spacing). The remaining depth of 1.C. Windows D: D.S.0 m wide and provided with a collapsible gate (D. Grill 1800 Note: l. 2.P.

WW BLUE PRINT ROOM 4000 -z 6 DRAUGHT'S MEN ROOM 7000 x Tnnn f vvv 6000 TECHNICAL SECTION AND .Civil Engineering Drawing-l DIVISIONAL ENG INEER'S OFFICE PLATE No.RECORDS TECH NICAL ASSISTANTS 25OO v AfrAfi \rvvv 7000 x 4 6000 SA N ITA RY UNIT /lnnn avvv Ltv\. are internal clear dimensions of verandah retaining wall. All dimencions are in mm ._ 2. O o tr) N 2500 wtDE coRRtDoR w D _-J Fo Zo z< o s3 zx f 2o Oo C)o Q ?3 SANITAflY CLERICAL SECTION 1 5000 x 6000 STATIONARY ROOM 4000 x 6000 UNIT 4000 x 600Q Note : 1.6) 14 . The dimensions given for the roorns. o O UJ o . E. LINE DIAGRATTI SHOWING T}TE PLAN l (Cha pter.v x An^n WIDE CORRIDOR EX EC UTIVE ENGINEER 7000 6000 x E o o E.

ROOM 9.3 x 4 3x4 KITCHEN 9.V.O WIDE TYPICAL PLAN OF HOSTEL EDDt]ENND ATti tt^ tF f.3x4 x4 WVlV1V1 PORTTCO 5. 4 x 3.3 x 4 3. t\U. trY fLAl DINING 9.5 x 13 ROOM E 4 x 3.3 ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN METRES ROOM 4 x 3.3 T. 15 and 16.5 x 8 I I7 The dimensioned plan of an hostel building and plan of one floor consisting six apaftments in a floor are shown in Plate No.3 tU o OPEN TO SKY (o ROOM = Gi 4 x 3.3 ROOM ELEVATION 4 x 3.5 STORE ROO 3.5 ROOM 4 x 3.5 x 1 2.3 VARDEN ROOM 7 ENTRANCE LOBBY 1O x 7.EXERCISE ROOM ROOM ROOM 3.3 o o ROOM o (J TYPICAL SECTION AT 'XX' E E. Draw to a convenient scale the plans of the above assuming the suitable wall thickness.3 It ROOM lll 4 x 3. lJ .

2 Balcony First Floor Plan of an Apartment .\r O ued f'{oom 4.7 x 2.8 x 3.3 6 1.| l M.6x4 3 x 2.6 1.2 Kitchen ueo Hoom 3.vil Engineering Drawing-l I (Chapter-6) PLATE No.2 2.2 Toilet Toilet 2.3 x 3. Bed Roorn Dr awing 4.35 " BalCony Kitchen : 3.4 4x3. 16 I'o ile t x 2.4x1. Bed Room (o CI Bed Room 4.=V o c o Bed Room 4. q Balcony 1 .6 c o I (o I o ilet 1.2 @ 2.3 x 3.3 Living 4 x 3.6 co 4.1 (D @ Bed Room q 4x3..4x1.6 4.3 2. Bed Room 4.1 Kitchen 2.8 x 3.5 x 3 6 M.2 Toilet Toilet 3.6 Bed Room 3.3 X ".1 x 3.8x2. Bed Room c.3 EXc') F o o 3 I Living d.3 x 3.4 N 6.8 x 3. Bed Room 4.ffi 60 C.3x4.8 x 3.3 x 3.3 1 .6 Bed Room 3.3 x 2.5 x 2.3 6<o Bed Room 4.5 M.4 Bed Room q 6.5 F.6 Bed Room 4x3.3 4.5 Dining EX -: 6.j .5 M.2 oF Bed Room 3 x 3.8 x 3.2x1.5 Kitchen Kitchen Living 4x3.5 x 3.2 M.3.3 Kitchen 2.6 x 3.2x1.3 x 3.

C. lintels on all openings like doors. .Stsirs and EXERCISE Staircases lahapter-61 I I8 The line diagrarn shows plan of a one bed room residential building. of R. as per the schedule indicated in the DS 20 18 w==l0wr12 The roof slab is provided with weather proof course l5 mm thick. Tread and rise of step are 300 mm and 150 nrm.=9DS 3.1. 8ED ROOM I'he brick nlasonry lboting over c. 2. = l0 D. Doors.C. Super structure ancl roofing : All the walls are taken to a height of 3200 rnm and are 200 mrn thick.C. 3000 centre to centre of rvalls Living room : clear dirnensions Thickness of super structure. The rernaining part of the basement is filled and compacted with sand. Sun-shades : Continuous sun-shade is provided on front side of the building. D.C. slab roofins 120 mm tlrick and projected by 200 mm beyond the A Calcu lations : Bed roonl : clcar dimensions 3600 x 3600 m 'fhickness ol' sLtper structure wall -- 200 rnrn _ 3800 x 3800 mnl centre to centre of wall of Isolatedsun-shades are provided over rvindows and extemal doors extending from the R.C bed 700 mm wide : 300 nrm thick. Lintels : R. Roofing consists outer face of walls. Flooring : Flooring consists of 20 mm thick C. walls concrete of walls (along length) 4200 x 3600 mm 200 mm 4200 + 100 + 100 4400 mm centre of walls (along width) 3600 + 100 + 100 3800 mm. Steps are provided both on fiont side and rear side over a Cl. Basement : 'l'he height of basement is 450 nrm and width of wall is 300 mm. (l : ) plater over a bed of cement concrete (l :4 :8) 100 nrm thick. - 1-- lloundations : All the walls arc takc! te a dgpth qf 900 rnm bqlo_w ground_ lqyel arld founded on C. Thickness sun-shade at the rvall end is 75 nrm and at the free end.C.C. In tlte above two cases. rvindows & cupboards : These are to be provided F r. . Prepare a working drarving for excavation of foundations.C bed 150 mm thick with an off set I50 mm on all three sides.M. lintels kept ever such openings on other three sides. sunshades are project_ed 600 mm frorn the face of walls. thickness is 50 mm. wirtdows and cup boards are 150 mm ick having a bearing of 150 mm on either side.c bed is 400 mm wide witlr eclual offsets on either side (700 - +00) : I 1 150 mm and depth LIVIN G 360c x 36oc 4200 x of fboting is 600 mm.

L C. WORKING DRAWING FOR FOLINDATIOX EXCAUATION FORONE BED ROOM RESIDENCE . PURPOSE OF MARKING THE WIDTH OF FOUNDATION FOR EXACATION OF FOUNDATIONS FOR THE / m C No..l7 IVEN PLAN Masonry Pillars 3oo x 3oo x 3oo INDEX \CA .-o-._. [*rpo Outer line of excavation <-700 + Masonary pillars 300 x 300 (nrrn) llrmly constructed in ground and min 300 ntm above G.[.on top of which C. (not to be disturbed during construction activify).> x- %%. .--*-*--*-*---PLATE WORKING DRAWTNG FOR THf.L rnarkings of walls are marked. ' m -'Jo* .L of super structure wall.a n x^ "u%.€cy ?*o. t-N f:.. lr* lm To be excavated to a depth of 900mrn belo'uv C.^.'/A '\'s \ \ " r".93. o . Note : All dimensions are in mm.

to control one .ventilator 600 x 450 mm Glazed. 5 Arnp. . & Kitchen.l Larnp. Verandah . 2 Lamps.' T'he circuit I is meant to supply power (i) To calling bell. 2 No.-. Bell point. socket clutlets 60 No. Out side the verandah: Bell-push.lTube light 5 Arnp.\.' Is rneant to supply power to l5 Amp. One trvo-way switch to control the lamp at the entrance. socket out let. I'Tube light one 5 Arnp. Socket out let.B and D. In the Verandah . 2 No. I Lamp I Fan. T9 Draw electrical wire diagram in a single bed roomed residential building as shown in diagram. socket outlets one in dining and one in bath room. One power circuit can be provided for 2000 to 3000 watts consumption by selecting the suitable diameter of conducting wire. 2 No. two-way switch to control the lamp provided at the entrance. 1. 5 Amp. socket.' Switch board consists.Stairs and EXERCISE Staircases {Chapter-6) . room ln Kitchen & Dining -. This circuit I also supplies power to the Hall for one tube light.5 m from floor level and the detalls aregiven below. Switch Control & Swtich Boards : There are generally provided at a height of 1.lLamp. socket outlet. --= 2x 40 80 - 160 watts \.I Fan . Note : The exhaust fans and one lamp in bath are not considered since they will consume little power and will be used (exhaust fans) mostly in day time during which the lighting load is almost nil.lTube light.out lets . lFan.2000 mm x l=HH60ernmrrf200 (b) Circuir / .B) : Metre (energe metre). out lets fitted one in the kitchen Dining and another in the Bath & Toilet. Socket outlet. Total load on circuit 1200 tnltl wide & Tnbe Dining Bath and Toilet : - 4800 nlm x 2500 rnrn 2 100 : 2 No. 2 and 3. : 5 Amp. main switch and distribution boards are fixed in the verandah. socket out lets : I + I + I : 3 No. 5 Amp. two lamps. I Larnp . lamp. * 3 x Dr ln the verandah : Fans mm x 2500 tttttt All walls are 200 mm thick in superstructure 1000 x 2000 mnr Flushed D-DS Electrical rtttings Out side the verandah I rrr Bed roonl Kitchen 63 .-2 x80 5 Arnp.vatts r00 780 watts (c) Circuit 2 : This circuit is provided to supply power to bed Room Load on circuit 2 Lanrps . socket out lets. 2. three switches Iamp. Circuits I & 2 are meant for fans.:1 x40 I Bell push . (ii) Lamp at the entrance (out side the verandah) (iii) Tube light. fan and one 5 Amp..l+ l-2No. socket out let In Bath & Toilet one 15 Amp. of circuits : Three circuits are taken from the distribution board as indicated l..v\ Total 100 - I 80 -: 160 watts - 400 vvatls watts 820 lvatts (d) Circuit J . socket out lets. one l5 Amp. one fan. In the hall ligtrts := I + I . of 5 -3No. :: Total door 1000 x 1200 mtn Glazed windorv W : WT V . l. : I Fan . The circuit 3 is a power circuit to draw power for l5 Amp. and one No. one tube light and one fan. socket out let. (a) No.-z x80 Fans I + l+l+ l:4 No. lighting and 5 Amp. Metre Board and Distribution Board (M. -3 x Tubelights-. I Tube light In Bed I Exhaust Fan .l-l:2 No.4 x socket outlets.

socket out let '. 4800 x je o@ t-:-1 +---_--l # 3500 L BATH & TOILET 2100 . r ilusne Bell point unit Exhaust fan D1 Door flushed W GW Window Glazed M. of KITCHEN AND DINII{G 4. Grill Door GD 00 x 750 1000 x 1 800 x 1200 = 1500 x 12AO = 1000 x 2000 B. socket out let. 5 Amp. socket out let The switch board fitted to the apposite wall consists I tr. = Metre Board D. Another switch board near the bed consits two No. Another consisting one two-way switch.Verandah 2000 All Walls are x 2AO 1200 wtDE thick ELECTRICAL. of switch to control the lamp. socket out-let. of two-way switches to control fan and tube light from another board where bed is provided. one No. socket outlet to the power circult on one board. I tube light I fan and one (Chapter-6) 5 Amp. Grill Window M.WIRING LAYO UT Bellpush All dimensions are in mm.Livil Engineering Drawing-l 3.vo-way switch tpcontrol the light in the bathroom. socket out-lets.S. 1 No. out let socket.way switch 5 Amp. two lamps. B. one near the door and another to the Electrical wiring lay out in a single bed roomed housc opposite wall(wallbetween Hall & Bath). of two-way switches to control the fan and tube light and one No. 2 No. I larnp in the passage ancJ one No. L F = Lamp = Flurescent Lamp . 5 Amp. The switch board near the door consists. One No. 2500 In Kitchen and Dining : Three switch boards are provided in which one is provided with 4 switches to control. socket out . one switch to control the light and exhaust fan.' One switch board near the door consists. socket out let l5 Amp. In lhe Hall : Two switch boards are provided. and 5 Amp.let is also provided. one tube light and one fan. Symbols used : BED 3300 x 3000 Lamp point Fan with outlet point 3600 x Tube light 3200 GD VER.S. Three switches to control I larnp. In Bath and Toilet : One l5 Amp. Second swtich board conists one switch to control exhaust fan and one 5 Amp. One way switch Two . = Distribution Tank M. of 5 Arnp. socket out let. Third switch board is fitted with l5 Amp. of 5 Amp. In the Bed room.

135 R. \V .= CO 1) a o Q .C.)-(f a o a =0) (o () .1m Height Floor to Floor 3.- Fl rv od ) t 39 (t Ec) d= H (-P !A dt- a')() aa E(. (+-( .- 0. q.C Blocks for Fixing Spring iiii Lift Car 2.d (a-. Wall 150 mm Thick Counter Weight R.C.l 50 t. .3m ciJ Machine Room k---15m+ SECTIONAL ELEVATION OF LIFT SHAFT 3 15Ol ' 'r ) J I I .2 H t- .- '.to) v/ ' *.o.9 L\J F.k 'L< -.g q< 4. . Collapsible Gate 2.+.Om O )' c c.9\ n (o (o I L.) = .)A - l- H \.C Slab 2O0mm rhck I I I I .'{J \r+-r t< r{-i .) OCd {-..25m k- 1 iai Top Floor 2. q) +J o U a a Ff J Z rd F T ^r q T Minimum lf I t I Height 2. (o(.1rm l 1 50 mm Thick c= tri? A: Trap Door Roof Slab 3a -J PLAN OF LIFT SHAFT Entrance le760 I 1300 x 1100 Lift Car lnside -tl-1'oo+l*ll r.: a a)6 v) \J o.- .od iE .C..C.u iab (-C.) ^J -lL..)€ . F. ' .i-l 4 lvA lf --) R.:(o F (f) co.

so i.ea ofthe plot. rud .8 Whrt is me..'Grouping" in r building plarnirg ? Give atr exrmpl€.4 whrt is mo.l Drawing-l such that one is at lower level than the oth€r and not opposite to each other provides cross is Q.i X l I ! I I I t fi f I I I I I ..2 Ans: What is merDt by . rect ngular or squ. a bedroom.nt by irtenal priv.r is prcrenbte . FAR or o t' ventilation.l3 Ans: What is FAR ? Whrt is the purpose of liring { vslue for FAR ? Floor ares mtio is shoftly called FAR.6 Area ofa rcom is being srme which shape i.e..lJ*.ffort'e surrounaii srouna 'nd surface Ansi Length to width ratio should be between l'2:l td l5:1 How much ahrll be rre. residential builditrg ? Aranging doors and wirdows id such a way in external walls ofa residential building thal residenls ofthe building enjoy natural wind." =-:4Nos.. Ans: The area ofwindows shall be offloor area ofthe room ADs: FAR for a residential building ofq/pe-4 conshuction is 1. Ansi Arrificial ventilation is rccommended when the numhr of persons occupying a room is more than 50 or wherc space for occupant is less than 3m3' . An example locating adiningroom close to a kitchen is Srouping Wbet is meant by 'rAspect" i!! planning of.5 rhe intemar privacy means.e wh. : oo* =f. Considedng relaliotship between spaces in a building is called "Crouping". bctween a drirwing room rrd dirirg room ? next above it is called "height in r residentiar building ? Atrs: Q.. e.A.yil: ff.rtio berwcer tensrh ond rvidth or ! room ? ^*' ll.TfiT'"ltJJ 150 !q. .e.66 Civil Engineering Ans: shaDe ia Dref..l7 What is the FAR for a rosidential buildirg of typM coNtructiotr ? I to I .R = 2 = Plot ar€a Q.:) . Number floors = Giiir.height of roomn.height of storey.ff*L$i":ST..n square room.7 Wbe0 do you recommend artilicirl ventiletion ? 600. Maximum height ofbuilding csnnot be moft than 4 storeys. ? II Q'12 what is cross-vertiuiion t Ans: Ananging windows in opposite valls ffiSHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS Q.6F. Q..{ - _ -_ Total floot area in all floors Ads: A double shutter door at comer of long wall of the room provides more privacy. cfwisdews in a room ? fee is lalowfi s dle room hcidrr Q. ' The vertical distance measured fiom the finished floor surface to the finished ceilinp surAns: There will be flexibility in usage space Q. l0 15 Whcre do you locate I I i | 11 I Ii I { j 1 .. screenins interior or one room rrom other rooms or parb building.:illll. Q.D..16 Mrke out the difference bctw€eo '. e.3 An!: west or south-west or north-west aspect is good fo.ttl . 600m.=qlot is the quotienl obtained bydividingrhetoral area (plinth area) st all the floors by the a. Ans: Rectangular room is preferable th. sunshine and scenery.'..nt by "Elegrnce" ! whrt il meant by rrPlintb'r ? How much is dinimun pllnth height ? ^ Q'15 Ans: The eftbct produced by elevation is k4own as eregance. = Tolal covered area ofall also clvered floors r door to achieve dore privacy in a room I I I ! I | FAR restrrcts the height of building and number of storeys The eenerel of FA R ''nse r€sidential building is I to 2' - for I I | :1.. Ansr F.0. What should be lhe 'Aipoct" of r bedroom ? Q. Total floor ar€a in all floors = 2 x plotarea erable for ihe room ? = 2 x 15 x 20 = 600m'z.ljfi:lY:l :"T:.:"ff Hil:i::'..

balconies.2m.20m in height from the finished floor level.30 What is street line Ans: Street line is the line defining the side limits of a street. If Ans: 4 x 150 . rnay lawfully extend.600 sq. closets and conidors. Loff in a habitable room shall not \-4'4- 67 As per NBC rvhat is "covered arer" ? Ground ar€a covered by building immediately above plinth level is called covered area.(25 + 6) " (30 + 6) :3lm I looking. extension of a street or a street that may come up in future.5 times the widlh of road abutting plus Ans: The minimum clear head rcom in any stair casg shall b€ 2. ? Q.ride of plot x 36rn Then FAR : 600x3 1800 But FAR is restricted to 1.20 Wh. what is the minimum size of plot required as per NBC 1983 ? FAR applicable is 1.22 What Ans: Q. Unstoreyed porch and portico Uncovered stair cases Weii ar"i w'e ll structures Guiley pit are some of the spaces not included under covered area.27 In rn rre. I Ans: What is set back ? ? Set back may be defined as frontage margin or open space in front of the abutting street or line ? waterbeyond wiich nothing can be constructed towards the plot boundaries. FAR is rot applicable.m Add 25% for stair case and access _ 150 sq.7 50sq. verandahs etc.33 What are the minimum width of a stair for rbsidential building and public building ? The minimum width of stair for a residential building is 900mm. For row housing schemes the minimum frontage may be 5. Q. Plinth area of building at ground floor Area of Mezzanine floor is restricted to . Ars: Any flight should have a minimum of3 stePs and a maximum of 15 steps.t shrll be maximum beight of t building ? Q.t should be the clerr hesd room in r strir crse ? Ans: Maximum height of the building shall not exceed 1.m Asslming a clearance of 3m in front.2l what is mernt by a building line ? Ans: A building is defined as the line upto which the plinth ofa building. cover Q. Q. Ans: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) ? -1200sq. The minimum width of stair for a public building is l000mm width of landing shpuld never be less than width of stair.2rn.z6 wtrat is meant oy te-tesenren in r night ? What should be th€ minimum ond mrximum llumbcr of steps Q. It is also referred to as a "building line".2m. side and OurO.25 What is set-b. The maximum height of Mezzanine floor is 2. Q. balconies. verandahs Whst is'rloft'r Ans: Loft is an int€rior floor b€tween two ? What rre the limitations i[ providing r loft ? Q.5 as per local bye-law Size of the plot: Mention any four spaces which are not considered while determining covered area. the loft can cover 100 percent. e. Lofls shall have a minimum head room of 2.29 Q. you are required to select a plot for a three storeyed residential building having four flats of 150 sq.23 Ans: Parapets and hand-rails provided on the edges of roof terraces. front open space' Q.32 What are the r-estric-tions in providing frontage ? Ans: Each site shall have a minimum frontage of 6m on any street. shall not be less than 1.l9 Ad: The lower storey ofa building below or partly below the ground level.05m and not more than 1. should be the maximum and minimum height of parapets/hand rails on the edges of roof terraces. lo such a crse rvh.24 Ans: floors.m Total Assume a plot size 25m x 30 area _ 600 + 150 - iSO sq.Short Answer Ouostions Q. Ans: 600x3 of the area of floor on which it is hanging or over Q..m . q. adjoining ! sreet or an Q'28 whrt ere the lirnitttions in providing r "Mt?ztin€ floor" ? loft shall be !j5m on bath rooms.m in each floors.m.3 .