You are on page 1of 2

Journal of Nepal Association for Medical Laboratory Sciences P.

11-12

Serum Urea and Creatinine in Diabetic
and non-diabetic Subjects
Sugam Shrestha1, Prajwal Gyawali2, Rojeet Shrestha2, Bibek Poudel2, Manoj Sigdel2,
Prashant Regmi2, Manoranjan Shrestha2, Binod Kumar yadav2*
1

2

National College for Advanced Learning, Lainchour, Kathmandu
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medicine, TU Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu

ABSTRACT
Introduction: Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major causes of chronic renal failure. After many years of
diabetes the delicate filtering system in the kidney becomes gradually destroyed, initially becoming leaky
to larger blood proteins such as albumin which are then lost in the urine. Both serum urea and creatinine
are widely used to assess the function of kidney. This study was conducted to establish relationship of
blood sugar level with urea and creatinine levels, in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from 2064-4-4 to 2064-7-1 in pathology department
of Bharosa diagnostic and research centre.103 diabetic samples and 49 control samples were analyzed
for serum urea, creatinine and sugar.
Results: 18 out of 103 diabetes samples have high urea level whereas 11 out of 103 had increased
creatinine level. In control only one sample had high urea value and two had high creatinine level. There
was statistical significant increased in urea level with increased in blood sugar level (p<0.05, 95%CI)
Conclusion: Strong relationship of blood urea level was found with blood sugar level. To monitor the
diabetes patients, estimation of blood urea level along with blood sugar level could be important.
Keywords: Blood glucose, Creatinine, Diabetes mellitus, Urea

Introduction
Diabetic mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorder
of carbohydrate metabolism in which glucose is
underused, producing hyperglycemia. Different
statistics have led to diabetes being described as
one of the main threat to human health in the 21st
century.1 DM is the major cause of renal morbidity
and mortality, and diabetic nephropathy is one of
chronic kidney failure.2
The most common lesions involve the glomeruli
and are associated clinically with three glomerular
syndromes, including non nephritic protienuria,
nephrotic syndrome and chronic renal failure.3
Diabetes nephropathy is the kidney disease that
occurs as a result of diabetes. After many years of
diabetes the delicate filtering system in the kidney
becomes destroyed, initially becoming leaky to larger
blood proteins such as albumin which are then lost in
urine. This is more likely to occur if the blood sugar is
poorly controlled.4

*

Corresponding author: Binod Kumar Yadav, Assistant Professor,
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medicine, TU Teaching Hospital, Maharajgunj, E-mail:-binod3aug@gmail.com

Measurement of the plasma urea and creatinine is
widely regarded as a test of renal function.
The aim of our study is to measure serum urea
and creatinine levels in diabetes and non-diabetic
samples and to establish relationship of blood sugar
level with urea and creatinine levels.

Materials and Methods
This study was conducted from 2064-4-4 to 20647-1 in Pathology Department of Barosha Diagnostic
and Research Centre. 103 diabetic samples were
analyzed within three month period. 49 normal
controls were taken. The main variables under study
were urea, creatinine and blood glucose levels.
Estimation of serum glucose was done by glucose
oxidase and peroxidase method5. Similarly serum urea
was estimated by Berthelot’s method 6 while creatinine
was estimated by alkaline Jaffe’s Picrate method 7.

Results
Out of 49 control samples taken, 47 samples had
normal urea level and 48 samples had normal
creatinine level. On the other hand 18 out of 103
diabetes samples had high urea level and 11 out of

JNAMLS I VOL 9 I NO. 1 I December, 2008 11

: Report Chem.95 ± 0. High serum creatinine level was seen in males than females. In our finding sex was not the determining factor for the diabetes. Todur SP. mean urea and mean creatinine level in control and cases Serum Sample N Urea Blood Sugar Creatinine Control 49 30. 6.27 and in cases it was found to be 0. while p value of blood sugar and creatinine comparison was not found to be significant. Biochem J 1954. 9. The mean (± S. and diabetic nephropathy is one of chronic kidney failure.59 ± 59. Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology 2004. 3. Research conducted by Anjaneyulu et al 2004 had found that increase urea and serum creatinine in diabetic rats indicates progressive renal damage. an anti-oxidant bioflavonoid. Establishment of reference intervals in Indians population. Zimmet P.48 0. Good control of blood glucose level is absolute requirement to prevent progressive renal impairment. 103 had increase creatinine level. 2008 . 1 I December. 2. Alvaro Molina.58:426. 2005. Shaw J.04 whereas in cases it was found to be 38 ± 14. Berthelot M. Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase with an alternative oxygen acceptor. (Table 1) Table 1 : comparison of urea and creatinine levels in controls and cases Urea level High Controls Cases Creatinine Level Normal High Normal 2 47 1 48 18 85 11 92 The mean (± S. 8.76 ± 0. This corroborates with the findings of Bauza.87 ± 9.6. Increment of blood urea level with the increment of blood sugar level clearly indicates that the increase blood sugar level causes damage to the kidney. Global and societal implications of the diabetes. CP. Mosquera A (2003) that hyperglycemia is one of the major causes of progressive renal damage.49.Aplique 1859. Disease of the Kidney. Whereas when creatinine was compared with blood sugar p value was not found to be significant (p= 0. 8 7.414:782-7. which could be because of storage of creatinine as a waste product in muscle mass and the presence of high muscle mass in males9. Ind J of Clin Biochem. Edren Juny 2006. The determination of creatinine in plasma or serum and in urine: A critica1examination. Gottschalk CW.5. which is not less than 0.04 83. Muragundla. Kanwaljit quercetin. Discussion The p value of urea and sugar was found to be 0. (5th ed. Olimpia Ortega. Conclusion DM is the major cause of renal morbidity and mortality.4.D) blood sugar in control was found to be 83 ± 11.20:110-8.065). 0.05. Owen A. 6:24-7. These findings revel that there is strong relationship of blood sugar level with urea level. Ashavaid TF. References 1.29 ± 11. Boston. Trinder P. Anjaneyulu. (Table 2) Table 2: mean blood sugar. Scandrett FJ.27 Cases 103 38. attenuates diabetic nephropathy in rats. Alberti KG.18 ± 14. Brown. little. In order to monitor the control of blood glucose level along with blood sugar blood urea can also be important parameter as we found that there is strong correlation of blood sugar and urea level.) urea level in control group was found to be 31± 9. Stewart.31:244-8. 1993.022 (p< 0. 12 JNAMLS I VOL 9 I NO.). 5. Ann Clin Biochem 1969. Blood urea and creatinine is widely accepted to assess the renal functions. As there is increase in blood sugar level an increase in urea level has been detected.05).D.73-4. Dherai AJ. Schrier RW. Saweirs Walaa.76 ± 0.43 However male showed slightly higher creatinine level than the females but the p value was not significant.55 178.Sugam Shrestha et al. The mean (±S. cardiovascular morbidity/ mortality 2005. 1:284. There was not relationship between sex and the blood sugar levels like wise significant relation between sex and urea level was also not observed. 4.95 ± 0.) creatinine levels in controls was found to be 0. Isabel Rodriguez. Ana Hernandez. 2153-89. This result is supported by various researchers who showed that sex wise variation occurs only in serum creatinine level but not in blood sugar level and urea level.D. Diabetic nephropathy. Nature 2001. An increase in urea level is seen when there is damage to the kidney or the kidney is not functioning properly. Iggo B.05). 25. whereas in cases it was found to be 179 ± 59. Chronic renal failure – complications.49 When this mean value of urea was compared with mean value of the sugar the p value was found to be significant (p< 0. Chopra.