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Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide

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Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide

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21 Sep, 1998
24 Sep, 1998

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JRy

1.0.0

23 Oct, 1998

JRy

The first draft
Modifications: The whole document restructured,
Chapter 2.3: PC and DTX gains, Chapter 7.2: RXQual
distribution, Table 9: Ho Threshold Interference.
Added: Figure 5-13, Figure 5-14, Figure 7-3, Figure 7-4,
Figure 7-8, Table 10, Table 11, Table 12.
Added: History , Chapter 2.1.6, Chapter 3.6, Chapter
3.9.1, Chapter 3.9.6, Chapter 3.9.7, Chapter 3.9.8,
Chapter 5.1, Chapter 5.2, Chapter 5.6.2, Chapter 6.3,
Chapter 7.1, Chapter 7.2, Chapter 7.9.
The first accepted version

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Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide

CONTENTS
1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
2.

INTRODUCTION...........................................................................................................................5
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF FREQUENCY HOPPING ...........................................................................5
FREQUENCY HOPPING MODES ........................................................................................................6
CELL ALLOCATION ........................................................................................................................8
MOBILE ALLOCATION ....................................................................................................................9
HOPPING SEQUENCE NUMBER ........................................................................................................9
MOBILE ALLOCATION INDEX OFFSET .............................................................................................9
MAIO STEP .................................................................................................................................10
THEORETICAL PERFORMANCE OF FREQUENCY HOPPING.........................................11

2.1
FREQUENCY DIVERSITY ...............................................................................................................11
2.1.1
Coherence Bandwidth..........................................................................................................11
2.1.2
Effect of Interleaving ...........................................................................................................13
2.1.3
Cyclic vs. Random Hopping Sequences................................................................................14
2.1.4
Simulated Frequency Diversity Gains..................................................................................14
2.1.5
Effect in Cell Coverage Area ...............................................................................................16
2.1.6
Effect of Mobile Speed.........................................................................................................16
2.2
INTERFERENCE DIVERSITY ...........................................................................................................16
2.3
EFFECT OF POWER CONTROL AND DTX........................................................................................18
3.

NOKIA’S SUPPORT FOR FREQUENCY HOPPING IN GSM................................................20

3.1
BSS LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION .....................................................................................................20
3.2
THE 2ND GENERATION BASE STATION ..........................................................................................20
3.3
TALK FAMILY BASE STATION .......................................................................................................21
3.4
PRIMESITE ...................................................................................................................................22
3.5
BASE STATION CONTROLLER........................................................................................................23
3.6
NPS/X.........................................................................................................................................23
3.7
MAXIMUM CONFIGURATIONS .......................................................................................................23
3.8
RADIO NETWORK FAULT MANAGEMENT ......................................................................................24
3.8.1
The 2nd Generation Base Station.........................................................................................25
3.8.2
Talk Family Base Stations and PrimeSite ............................................................................25
3.9
RESTRICTIONS ON THE USAGE OF FH............................................................................................25
3.9.1
DL Power Control with BB FH............................................................................................25
3.9.2
Downlink DTX.....................................................................................................................26
3.9.3
Extended Range Cell (DE34/DF34/DG35) ..........................................................................26
3.9.4
MS Speed Detection.............................................................................................................26
3.9.5
Half Rate .............................................................................................................................26
3.9.6
Frequency Sharing ..............................................................................................................26
3.9.7
RTC Combiner ....................................................................................................................26
3.9.8
NPS/X..................................................................................................................................26
4.

SELECTING THE RIGHT HOPPING STRATEGY .................................................................27

5.

FREQUENCY PLANNING OF FREQUENCY HOPPING NETWORKS ...............................29

5.1

NETWORK PLANNING PROCEDURE ................................................................................................29

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Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide
5.2
FREQUENCY PLANNING PROCEDURE WITH NPS/X ........................................................................30
5.3
FREQUENCY REUSE ON FREQUENCY HOPPING NETWORK ..............................................................33
5.3.1
Effective Reuse ....................................................................................................................34
5.3.2
Frequency Allocation Reuse (RF FH only) ..........................................................................34
5.4
LOAD ON NETWORKS UTILISING FRACTIONAL LOADING (RF FH ONLY)........................................35
5.4.1
Frequency Load...................................................................................................................35
5.4.2
Hard Blocking Load ............................................................................................................36
5.4.3
Fractional Load...................................................................................................................37
5.5
TRUNKING EFFECT AND EFFECTIVE REUSE ...................................................................................38
5.6
FREQUENCY ALLOCATION STRATEGIES ........................................................................................40
5.6.1
BCCH Allocation.................................................................................................................40
5.6.2
Selecting the Effective Reuse (BB FH) .................................................................................43
5.6.3
Selecting the Frequency Allocation Reuse and the Frequency Load (RF FH).......................44
5.6.4
Frequency Sharing by Using MAIO Management (RF FH only) ..........................................46
5.6.5
Frequency Sharing in the Single MA-list Scheme (RF FH only)...........................................50
6.

RADIO NETWORK PARAMETERS .........................................................................................52

6.1
PARAMETERS FOR MA-LIST DEFINITIONS IN BSC .........................................................................52
6.2
BTS LEVEL FH RELATED PARAMETERS .......................................................................................54
6.3
POWER CONTROL .........................................................................................................................56
6.4
HANDOVER ..................................................................................................................................58
6.5
DTX............................................................................................................................................59
6.5.1
Uplink DTX .........................................................................................................................59
6.5.2
Downlink DTX.....................................................................................................................59
7.

OPTIMISATION ..........................................................................................................................60

7.1
TOOLS FOR NETWORK MONITORING .............................................................................................60
7.2
KPIS FOR HOPPING NETWORK ......................................................................................................60
7.3
RXQUAL IN FH NETWORKS .......................................................................................................61
7.4
IDLE CHANNEL INTERFERENCE MEASUREMENT ............................................................................65
7.5
CYCLIC AND RANDOM HOPPING SEQUENCES ................................................................................66
7.6
INTRACELL HANDOVER ................................................................................................................69
7.7
POWER CONTROL .........................................................................................................................69
7.7.1
Downlink Power Control with BB Hopping .........................................................................70
7.8
HANDOVER CONTROL ..................................................................................................................70
7.9
HSN PLANNING WITH RANDOM HOPPING .....................................................................................70
8.

PLANNING CASES .....................................................................................................................71

8.1
PLANNING CASE 1: SINGLE MA-LIST ............................................................................................71
8.1.1
Frequency Planning ............................................................................................................71
8.1.2
MAIO Planning ...................................................................................................................72
8.2
PLANNING CASE 2: RF FH WITH FRACTIONAL LOADING (FAR 3 – 5) ...........................................75
8.2.1
Defining the Frequency Band and the Number of Frequencies Needed in Each Cell............75
8.2.2
Frequency Allocation and Analysis......................................................................................77
8.3
PLANNING CASE 3: RF FH WITH FREQUENCY SHARING ................................................................78
8.3.1
Frequency Planning ............................................................................................................78
8.3.2
MAIO Planning ...................................................................................................................79
8.3.3
Analysis...............................................................................................................................80

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1998 Page 5/80 . one carrier frequency is divided into eight time slots. frequency allocation procedure. Version 1.1 General Description of Frequency Hopping Frequency hopping can be briefly defined as a sequential change of carrier frequency on the radio link between the mobile and the base station. which can be assigned to one link between a mobile and a base station. how to analyse the quality of the network and the optimisation process. Frequency hopping can co-exist with most of the other capacity enhancement features and in many cases it significantly boosts the effect of those features. Frequency hopping is one of the standardised capacity enhancement features in GSM system. When frequency hopping is used. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this document is to explain the theory behind the frequency hopping (FH). parameters related to FH. how to choose the right frequency hopping strategy. because more than one bit is transmitted using the same frequency. Downtilting Micro-Cell Pico-Cell / Indoor Cell Size PC DTX FH Smart Antennas IUO IFH Reuse-Factor (C/I) Effective Network Planning CAPACITY GAIN Figure 1-1. Also some practical planning examples are presented.0. Each time slot provides one physical channel. It offers a significant capacity gain without any costly infrastructure requirements. the carrier frequency may be changed between each consecutive TDMA frame. Half-Rate Networks Channel-Bandwidth Dual-Band-/ Dual-ModeNetworks Spectrum Antennas Down Ant. 1. All these factors make frequency hopping a very tempting capacity enhancement solution. It is also compatible with all the existing GSM mobile phones. how the frequency hopping is implemented in Nokia’s network elements. In GSM. In Fast Frequency Hopping (FFH). since the frequency hopping support has been required by the GSM specifications from the beginning.0 Date Oct 23.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 1. but this is not implemented in GSM. The communication between the mobile and the base station occurs in bursts inside the assigned time slot. This means that for each connection the change of the frequency may happen between every burst. Each burst lasts about 577 µs. the carrier frequency is allowed to change more than once during a bit duration. This is called Slow Frequency Hopping (SFH). Solutions to enhance network capacity.

the frequency hopping was used in military applications in order to improve the secrecy and to make the system more robust against jamming. Frequency Call is transmitted through several frequencies in order to • average the interference (interference diversity) • minimise the impact of fading (frequency diversity) F1 F2 F3 Time Figure 1-2. The third group includes time slots one through seven from every TRX. In the baseband frequency hopping the TRXs operate at fixed frequencies. Version 1. 1998 Page 6/80 . The second group consists of the first time slots of the non-BCCH TRXs.0 Date Oct 23. 1. The first group doesn’t hop and it includes only the BCCH time slot.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide At first. it must be excluded from the hopping sequence. Basic functionality of frequency hopping. This leads to three different hopping groups. Frequency hopping is generated by switching consecutive bursts in each time slot through different TRXs according to the assigned hopping sequence. The number of frequencies to hop over is determined by the number of TRXs. In cellular network.2 Frequency Hopping Modes The requirement that the BCCH TRX must transmit continuously in all the time slots sets strict limitations on how the frequency hopping can be realised in a cell. This is illustrated in Figure 1-3. the frequency hopping also provides some additional benefits such as frequency diversity and interference diversity. The basic principle of frequency hopping is presented in Figure 1-2. The current solutions are Baseband Frequency Hopping (BB FH) and Synthesised Frequency Hopping (RF FH).0. Because the first time slot of the BCCH TRX is not allowed to hop.

f4). In synthesised hopping the number of the hopping frequencies can be anything between the number of hopping TRXs and 63. TRX does not hop. The number of frequencies to hop over is limited to 63. f3.4.f2. .f3. f3. TRX-2 f2 Time slots 1. Version 1. .fn) attached to the cell. Thus the BCCH TRX doesn’t hop.-3. TRX-3 f3 TRX-4 f4 HSN2 HSN1 Time slot 0 of TRX-2. It does not hop.0 Date Oct 23. The differences between BB and RF hopping are further illustrated in Figure 1-5. fn TRX-2 Non-BCCH TRXs are hopping over the MA-list (f1. HSN1 Figure 1-4.f3. Synthesised hopping (RF FH)..0.. The biggest limitation in baseband hopping is that the number of the hopping frequencies is the same as the number of TRXs. fn B = BCCH timeslot.. TRX-1 B f1. Figure 1-3.f3. Synthesised hopping is illustrated in Figure 1-4. Baseband hopping (BB FH).-4 hop over f2. f1. . f2.. f2. In the synthesised frequency hopping all the TRXs except the BCCH TRX change their frequency for every TDMA frame according to the hopping sequence.f2..Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide RTSL 0 TRX-1 B 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 f1 B = BCCH timeslot.. However in synthesised hopping the BCCH TRX is left completely out of the hopping sequence.f4. . which is the maximum number of frequencies in the Mobile Allocation (MA) list covered in Section 1. 1998 Page 7/80 .7 of all TRXs hop over (f1.

1998 Page 8/80 . but five other methods can be used [DCS 04. The only signaling method allowed in the GSM 900 systems to transmit the CA list is the “bit map 0” method presented in Table 1. In GSM 900 the CA list may include all the 124 available frequencies [GSM 04. These signaling methods together with their limitations are presented in Table 2. RF BB-FH is feasible with large configurations RF-FH is viable with smaller configurations Figure 1-5. MSC MS does not see any difference Frequency F3 F1 F2 F3 RF BSC TCSM Time RF-FH TRX-1 F1. F3 TRX-2 BCCH Dig. F2. because the MA-list can only point to 64 frequencies. In GSM 1800 and GSM 1900 systems the frequency band is so large that the CA list cannot include all the frequencies available in a system. 1. However. In these systems the “bit map 0” method is not available. Version 1. Table 1. The signalling method for transmitting the CA list in GSM 900 system. The difference between BB and RF FH. CA signaling Lowest method ARFCN 0 bit map 0 Max. The CA list is always automatically generated and it includes the BCCH frequency and the frequencies that are defined for the MA-list.0 Date Oct 23. In Nokia implementation the variable bit map and the 512 range signaling methods are available. the practical limit is 64. The cell allocation may be different for each cell.0.08]. The CA is transmitted regularly on the BCCH. since the MA-list can only point to 64 frequencies that are included in the CA list as presented in the next section. ARFCN range Max.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide BB-FH F1(+ BCCH) TRX-1 F2 TRX-3 Dig. Usually it is also included in the signaling messages that command the mobile to start using a frequency hopping logical channel. number of frequencies in the CA list 124 124* * Practical limit is 64.08] [J-STD 7]. Each of these methods has different limitations that limit the maximum frequency range and the maximum number of frequencies.3 Cell Allocation The Cell Allocation (CA) is a list of all the frequencies allocated to a cell.

The HSNs 1 . All the time slots in RF hopping cell follow the HSN1 as presented in Figure 1-4. The HSN is a cell specific parameter. so the practical maximum number of frequencies in the MA-list is 63. number of range frequencies in the CA list 1024 16 (17 if ARFCN 0 is included in the CA list) 512 18 256 22 128 29 variable bit map selectable 112 112* * Practical limit is 64. The zero time slots in a BB hopping cell use the HSN1 and the rest of the time slots follow the HSN2 as presented in Figure 1-3.6 Mobile Allocation Index Offset When there is more than one TRX in the BTS using the same MA-list the Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO) is used to ensure that each TRX uses always an unique frequency.0 Date Oct 23. The MAIOs for the other hopping TRXs are automatically allocated according to the MAIOstep -parameter introduced in the following section. the BCCH frequency is also included in the CA list.5 Hopping Sequence Number The Hopping Sequence Number (HSN) indicates which hopping sequence of the 64 available is selected. MAIO is added to MAI when the frequency to be used is determined from the MA-list. The hopping sequence determines the order in which the frequencies in the MA-list are to be used.4 Mobile Allocation The MA is a list of hopping frequencies transmitted to a mobile every time it is assigned to a hopping physical channel. In Nokia solution the MAIOoffset is a cell specific parameter defining the MAIOTRX for the first hopping TRX in a cell. because the MA-list can only point to 64 frequencies. 1. 1. The MA-list is a subset of the CA list. Example of the hopping sequence generation is presented in Figure 1-6. CA signaling method 1024 range 512 range 256 range 128 range Lowest ARFCN 0 selectable selectable selectable Max. However. 1. The MA-list is automatically generated if the baseband hopping is used.63 are pseudo random sequences used in the random hopping while the HSN 0 is reserved for a sequential sequence used in the cyclic hopping. The MA-list is able to point to 64 of the frequencies defined in the CA list. The frequencies in the MA-list are required to be in increasing order because of the type of signaling used to transfer the MA-list.0. If the network utilises the RF hopping. 1998 Page 9/80 . For the baseband hopping two HSNs exists.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Table 2. Each hopping TRX is allocated a different MAIO. Different signalling methods for transmitting the CA list in GSM 1800/1900. ARFCN Max. Version 1. The hopping sequence algorithm takes HSN and FN as an input and the output of the hopping sequence generation is a Mobile Allocation Index (MAI) which is a number ranging from 0 to the number of frequencies in the MA-list subtracted by one. MAIO and HSN are transmitted to a mobile together with the MA-list. the MA-lists have to be generated for each cell by the network planner.

. Version 1. 1998 Page 10/80 .1) An example of the MAIO assignment is presented in Figure 1-7. More examples can be found in Section 5. 1. Example of the use of the MAIO related parameters. MAIO stepMAIOoffsetl MAIO Non-hopping BCCH TRX 7 2 0 0 2 4 Non-hopping BCCH TRX 7 2 6 6 8 10 Non-hopping BCCH TRX 7 2 12 12 14 16 Sector TRX # HSN 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 +MAIO step MAIO step indicates the difference between the MAIOs of successive TRXs in a cell.0 Date Oct 23.N-1) = MA INDEX (MAI) MA 1 1 + MAIOTRX TRX-1 TRX-2 TRX-3 0 1 2 3 N-2 N-1 f1 f2 f3 f4 fN-1 fN MAIOTRX 0 1 2 MAIOOFFSET .6. Example of the hopping sequence generation. MAIOTRX ( n ) = MAIOoffset + MAIOstep ⋅ (n − 1) (1.7 MAIO Step The MAIOstep is a Nokia specific parameter used in the MAIO allocation to the TRXs.0. MAIOs for the other hopping TRXs are assigned by adding the MAIOstep to the MAIO of the previous hopping TRX as presented in Equation (1.1).4.. The MAIO for the first hopping TRXs in each cell is defined by the cell specific MAIOoffset parameter. User definable These parameters are set automatically TRX-1 TRX-2 TRX-3 Figure 1-6. Figure 1-7.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide For this TDMA frame the output from the algorithm is 1 FN & HSN GSM Hopping algorithm MAI(0.

Because of the multipath scattering. The parameters as defined in [Lee82] are ∞ d m = ∫ tE (t )dt (2. Thus the frequency diversity gain for the fast moving mobiles is not significant. If the separation between these frequencies is sufficient. 2. The quality gain achieved by employing frequency hopping can be traded for capacity gain by tightening the frequency reuse in the network.1 Frequency Diversity The fast fading is a significant problem especially in the downlink direction since the mobiles do not employ antenna diversity. The coherence bandwidth depends strongly on the mean delay spread of the environment. which is commonly used in base stations. Fluctuations of the received signal strength are especially harmful for the slow moving mobiles because they tend to stay in a fading dip much longer than the faster moving mobiles.0. 2 2 (2. the consecutive bursts have different fading characteristics even without frequency hopping. Frequency hopping causes the consecutive bursts to be transmitted on different frequencies.1 Coherence Bandwidth Coherence bandwidth represents a bandwidth that is required between two frequencies in order to ensure that their fading characteristics are different enough to provide properly uncorrelated amplitudes and phases.1) 0 ∞ ∆ = ∫ t 2 E (t )dt − d m . the fading characteristics of these frequencies are different. 1998 Page 11/80 .Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 2. the transmitted impulse signal spreads in time domain before it is received.1. For the fast moving mobiles. A typical signal delay envelope of a transmitted impulse is presented in Figure 2-1.2) 0 where: • dm = mean excess delay time • t = excess delay time • E( ) = signal power density • ∆ = delay spread Version 1. 2.0 Date Oct 23. because the spatial movement between the consecutive bursts is significant and the locations of the fading dips are relatively constant in most environments. THEORETICAL PERFORMANCE OF FREQUENCY HOPPING Frequency hopping is a powerful countermeasure in order to overcome the harmful effects introduced by the propagation channel and interference.

If the propagation environment is also time dependent.5) = Version 1.4 ) Date Oct 23. can be derived from Equation (2.5. Mean delay spreads Type of environment Open area Suburban area Urban area Delay spread ∆. 1 + ( ∆ω ) 2 ∆2 ( 2. ∆f = frequency spacing Adequate coherence bandwidth. 1998 Page 12/80 . Typical delay envelope. where signal autocorrelation coefficient between bursts equals to 0.5 3 The coherence bandwidth is often defined as the frequency separation that yields an autocorrelation coefficient value of 0. The autocorrelation coefficient based on the frequency and time separation can be written as follows [Lee82] ρ r ( ∆ω . 2π ⋅ ∆ ( 2.0 1 . The measurements indicate that the delay spread is highly dependent on the environment.5 or less [Pen95]. The delay spread is thus defined as the standard deviation of the mean delay time.0.2 0. Typical values are presented in Table 3 [Lee89]. λ = signal wavelength • v = velocity of the mobile • τ = time separation • ∆ = delay spread of the environment • ∆ω = 2π*∆f.3) assuming τ = 0 as BWC ( ρ = 0.3 ) where • J0 ( ) = Bessel function of 0th order • β = 2π/λ . τ ) = J 02 ( βvτ ) . Table 3. the time separation of signals has to be taken into account.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Delay spread 0 dB ∆ Power density E(t) 0 d Mean delay time t Delay time Figure 2-1. µs < 0.

4) can be fully applied only in an ideal case.4 0. 2. It can be seen that in the urban environment even the adjacent channel having separation of 200 kHz appears to be adequately uncorrelated and in the suburban environment the channel separation of 400 kHz is adequate. The fast fading causes bursty bit errors that degrade the efficiency of the convolutional coding.1. Therefore.2 0.1.2 0. Frequency hopping causes consecutive bursts to be transmitted on different frequencies. The interleaving is designed to spread these errors over longer time.0 frequency spacing (kHz) Figure 2-2.5 1 0. The frequency diversity gain for the signalling channels is thus smaller. and it is therefore only a theoretical model.0 0. Version 1. However. In Figure 2-2 the autocorrelation coefficient has been plotted for several different values of delay spread (∆) assuming τ = 0.1 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0. the interleaving length is 19.6 0.7 delay spread (µs) 0.1. the frequency diversity gain of cyclic hopping doesn’t significantly improve if more than eight frequencies are used in a hopping sequence. Since the interleaving depth is eight.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Equation (2. 1998 Page 13/80 .5 2 3 0. the fading of successive bursts is uncorrelated due to spatial movement. The autocorrelation coefficient as a function of carrier spacing. If these frequencies have sufficient separation the fading of successive bursts is uncorrelated as presented in Section 2. the decoding performance is not significantly improved if consecutive bursts are exposed to the similar radio channel. it gives an idea about how the coherence bandwidth differs in different types of environments. the gain for data calls compared to speech calls might be bigger when more than 8 frequencies are used in a hopping sequence. If the mobile moves fast enough. The signalling channels have an interleaving depth of four. However.9 0.8 autocorrelation coefficient 0.0 Date Oct 23.2 Effect of Interleaving In GSM the speech frame is transmitted over eight consecutive bursts. In data calls. 1.3 0.0. In open environments the channel separation should be at least 800 kHz corresponding to four GSM carriers.

1.1. Thus. Frequency diversity gain of frequency hopping link against thermal noise compared to a non-hopping link. • In the cyclic mode the frequencies are changed sequentially from the lowest frequency to the highest as defined in the MA-list. This means that the same frequency may be used for a couple of consecutive bursts and the frequencies are not used evenly in a short time scale.4 Simulated Frequency Diversity Gains 10 9 8 7 FLAT 3 FER = 3% ∆ Eb/N0 (dB) 6 TU3 FER = 3% 5 FLAT3 RBER Cl 1b = 0. As the number of frequencies becomes larger the difference between the cyclic and the random mode becomes small. 2.3 Cyclic vs. 1998 Page 14/80 .0. • In random mode the frequency to be used for each burst is selected from the MA-list by a predefined pseudo random sequence. Version 1.3% 4 TU3 RBER Cl 1b = 0. Random Hopping Sequences Both cyclic and random hopping modes are available in GSM.3% 3 2 1 0 No hop 2 3 4 5 6 8 Infinite Number of carriers Figure 2-3.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 2.0 Date Oct 23. the optimum frequency diversity gain is possible to achieve only if the cyclic hopping is used.

The simulations show a very significant gain for FLAT3 channel compared to the TU3 channel. whereas in the FH mode they perform equal. Version 1. The results of this simulation represent a best possible case. 1998 Page 15/80 . The frequency diversity gain of the SACCH / SDCCH against TCH for the cases of non hopping and ideal FH as a function of C/I. the presented gains are not achievable in uplink direction if a proper diversity reception (about 4 dB gain) method is already in use at base stations.0 Date Oct 23.2% 3 2 1 0 No hop 2 3 4 5 6 8 Infinite Number of carriers Figure 2-4. because the fading on the used frequency channels is assumed uncorrelated and the cyclic hopping mode is used.2% TU3 FER = 3% 4 TU3 RBER Cl 1b = 0.0. This happens because the TU3 channel includes several propagation paths having statistically independent fading conditions and it is thus providing path diversity that helps to achieve the performance targets even in the non-hopping case. Also.5dB 8dB In the non hopping mode. the frequencies are not necessarily uncorrelated as explained in Section 2.1 and the random hopping is used to maximise the interference diversity gain. with 2%FER. No FH FH TCH/FS 15dB 8dB SACCH 11. the SACCH is more robust than the TCH/FS. In real life.05 test conditions and TU3) are presented in the following: Table 4. Frequency diversity gain of frequency hopping link against co-channel interference compared to a non-hopping link.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 9 8 ∆ C/Ic (dB) 7 6 FLAT 3 FER = 3% 5 FLAT3 RBER Cl 1b = 0.1. the performance of the SACCH / SDCCH and TCH for the cases of non hopping and ideal FH as a function of C/I (according to 05. According to the simulations.

2.0.6 Effect of Mobile Speed As mentioned earlier. the interference tends to be continuous. see Table 4. Thus. the probability of several consecutive corrupted bursts and erased frames decreases. the increased coverage area is relevant only for the ongoing calls that have been successfully established and are allocated a hopping TCH. the frequency diversity gain should be considered as a quality gain in the cell border area rather than the gain increasing the cell service area. Thus. the interference tends to get averaged over all the calls in the network. Because of this. but by considering the performance of the BCCH time slot. the cell coverage area could be increased. Another advantage of random frequency hopping is that the severely interfered bursts occur randomly. the PC cannot follow anymore the slow fading dips so efficiently. The error correction measures used in GSM can not usually tolerate several corrupted bursts in a speech frame and thus these frames are likely to be erased causing significant deterioration in speech quality. 2. the frequency diversity gain for the fast moving mobiles is not significant. but since the BCCH time slot doesn’t hop. The movement as itself causes the same gain which is lost from the frequency diversity gain. This effect is illustrated in Figure 2-5. Severe interference can be avoided by a handover. Version 1. Therefore. the fast moving mobiles might loose in PC gain.2 Interference Diversity In a conventional non-hopping network. each call is transmitted on a single fixed frequency. Therefore. In GSM. Some calls may experience very little interference and the other calls may be interfered severely. the interference sources vary from burst to burst. According to the simulations. the fast moving mobiles get the same gain than the slow moving ones. but not according to the full FH gain.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 2. In random hopping network. In a non-hopping network. the speed of Power Control (PC) is slow. As a consequence. the whole BCCH carrier is non-hopping. This means that the interference situation in a network is also quite stable. the gain just comes more or less from the moving as itself. 1998 Page 16/80 . the non-hopping signalling channel (BCCH / SDCCH) has a better performance than a non-hopping TCH but a worse performance than a hopping TCH channel.0 Date Oct 23.1. the interference affecting each call in the network has a lower standard deviation around its mean value. If this interference is strong enough it may lead to a corruption of several consecutive bursts. but the probability of finding an interference free channel decreases as the network load increases. In RF FH case. so that the same interference source affects several consecutive bursts. Therefore.5 Effect in Cell Coverage Area In coverage limited cells the frequency hopping may increase the cell coverage area because of the frequency diversity gain.1. Also the Handover (HO) performance may be degraded with high speed. When moving fast.

the surrounding environment and the network topology. Interference averaging between users in a random frequency hopping network. This means that the interference margin used in the frequency planning can be reduced allowing the usage of tighter frequency reuse as illustrated in Figure 2-6. In order to use the available frequency spectrum efficiently. The sufficient distance between the cells using the same frequency depends on the minimum C/I ratio tolerated by the system. In practice the minimum reuse for a non-hopping macro cells is about 12. This means that the same frequency may be used in every 12th cell. Version 1. 1998 Page 17/80 . a large interference margin has to be included to guarantee sufficient quality for each user in the network. How big is the interference diversity gain is a subject for a further study. Because the interference levels for each user vary considerably. When the random frequency hopping is employed the deviation of interference level is decreased as illustrated in Figure 2-5. Field strenght Serving carrier worst interference interference margin average strongest interference average weakest interference no FH FH with improved quality FH with tighter frequency reuse Figure 2-6.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide No FH 30 25 f2 15 f3 10 Average C/I (dB) Average C/I (dB) 25 20 FH 30 f1 f2 f1 20 f3 f2 f1 15 f3 10 f2 f1 f3 Ave 5 5 0 0 Call 1 Call 2 Call 3 Call 1 Call 2 Call 3 Figure 2-5.0 Date Oct 23.0. the frequencies are reused in a network. The gain of frequency hopping.

Also. The simulated gain for power control and DTX with different mobile speeds can be seen in the following Figure 2-7.4 dB 2. This means that. Version 1. DTX prevents unnecessary transmissions when there is no need to transfer information.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 2.0 dB 2. In a non-hopping network these features provide some quality gain for some users.5. DTX effectively cuts the network load in half when it is used. which are designed to minimise the interfering transmission when possible. if one interferer increases its power. the effect on the quality of the connection is not seriously affected. 1998 Page 18/80 . but this gain cannot be transferred effectively to increased capacity. Thus. DTX on Reuse 3/9. Power control is used to optimise the transmitted signal strength so that the signal strength at the receiver is still adequate.3 Effect of Power Control and DTX Both the power control and the DTX are standard GSM features. Operators have been widely using both features in UL direction mainly in order to maximise the battery life in mobiles. Also the power control mechanism doesn’t function optimally because the interference sources are stable causing chain effects where the increase of transmission power of one transmitter causes worse quality in the interfered receiver.0 Date Oct 23. The simulated gain of PC and DTX with FH.5 dB C/I improvement Figure 2-7. In a soft blocking limited network this means that the DTX can theoretically provide up to 100% capacity increase. Reuse 3/9. DTX on GAIN: 1. The both features can be individually activated for uplink and downlink.3 dB 3. but it is up to the network operator to decide whether to use them or not. Thus.7 dB PC on DTX on PC on. the system is more stable and chaining effects mentioned earlier do not occur frequently. In a random hopping network the quality gain provided by both features can be efficiently exploited to capacity gain because the gain is more equally distributed among the users. TU 50km/h GAIN: 1. one mobile located in a coverage limited area may severely limit the possibility of several other transmitters to reduce their power. They are both mandatory features in the mobile terminals. since the maximum interference experienced by each user is likely to remain the same. the power control works more efficiently because each user has many interference sources.0. it is probable that some other interferers are decreasing their powers at the same time. Since the typical speech activity factor (also called DTX factor) is less than 0. In fact. which in turn causes the power increase in another transmitter and so on. TU 3km/h PC on DTX on PC on. for example.3 dB 3.

1 and 3. since in that kind of networks the interference situation may be very different from burst to burst.00 % 10. Version 1. so that only 100 bursts are actually transmitted and received. A couple of severely interfered bursts may cause very bad quality for the sub quality sample when they happen to occur in the set of 12 bursts over which the sub quality is determined. When DTX is in use and there is no speech activity.00 % Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Figure 2-8. The differences between full and sub quality distributions can be seen in Figure 2-8.00 % 15. four of these TDMA frames are used for measurements. the BER is estimated over just the bursts carrying the silence descriptor frame and the SACCH.00 % 30. The full quality sample of the same time period has probably only moderate quality deterioration because of the better averaging of BER over 100 bursts. meaning that more good and bad quality samples are experienced. 1/1 reuse 15 freqs 40. The proportions of full and sub samples depend on the speech activity factor also known as the DTX factor.00 % 35. The limitations in the usage of DL PC and DTX can be seen in Chapters 3.0 Date Oct 23. The differences between full and sub quality distributions are largest in frequency hopping networks utilising low frequency allocation reuse. Normally the BER is averaged over the duration of one SACCH frame lasting 0. This means that the BER gets averaged much more effectively when DTX is not used yielding to a quality distribution where the proportion of moderate quality values is enhanced. The distribution of normal RXQual and subRXQual values in a frequency hopping network.2. These differences should be taken into account when the RXQUAL distributions of networks utilising and not utilising DTX are compared. However. This includes only 12 bursts over which the BER is averaged (sub quality).9. 1998 Page 19/80 . In a real network utilising DTX the quality distribution is a mixture of full and sub quality samples.00 % 0.00 % 25.48 seconds and consisting of 104 TDMA frames. The sub quality distribution is wider than the full quality distribution.9. The differences in the BER averaging processes cause significant differences in the RXQUAL distributions. When there are periods of no speech activity. only the bursts transmitting the silence descriptor frame (SID-frame) and the SACCH are transmitted.00 % 5.00 % RxQ full RxQ sub 20.0.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide DTX has some effect on the RXQual distribution.

In this chapter the frequency hopping support of different base station generations and the BSC are described.2 The 2nd Generation Base Station The second generation base station supports only baseband hopping. 3. The primary network elements in GSM are presented in Figure 3-1. NOKIA’S SUPPORT FOR FREQUENCY HOPPING IN GSM The support for frequency hopping is a standard feature of Nokia Base Station Sub-System (BSS). The primary network elements in GSM. Each carrier unit contains a transmitter and two receivers. the Frequency Hopping Unit (FQHU) and the Carrier Units (CU) [Nok96]. The main functional blocks in the second generation BTS considering frequency hopping are the Frame Units (FU). Version 1. The number of frame units and carrier units corresponds to the number of installed TRXs in the BTS. The fault management in the OMC of a frequency hopping network is identical to that of a non-hopping network.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 3. The Operation and Maintenance Centre (OMC) is involved in managing the FH related parameters. BSS NSS BSC MS BTS Abis interface MSC A interface BTS OMC Figure 3-1. The Network SubSystem (NSS) including the Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) is not involved in it. The receiver is responsible for the down conversion from the RF frequency band to baseband followed by A/D conversion and serialising I and Q signals and sending them to the demodulation part in the corresponding frame unit [Nok95].0. The frame unit performs all the control and the baseband functions for frames of up to 8 full rate or 16 half rate logical channels. but their management in the OMC doesn’t differ from any other cell level parameter. The main function of the transmitter is to convert the digital data from the frame unit into a modulated carrier signal. 3.0 Date Oct 23. 1998 Page 20/80 . Also the current and upcoming frequency hopping support of Nokia’s radio network planning tool NPS/X is presented.1 BSS Level Implementation In GSM only the BSS is responsible of the implementation of frequency hopping.

When diversity reception is used. This is sufficient as in three sector configuration the number of hopping groups used is nine (including the non-hopping zero time slots on the BCCH carriers).and bit-synchronised enabling the use of synchronous handovers. The block level operations deal with blocks of information. such as ciphering/deciphering.3 Talk Family Base Station The Talk family base stations are capable of both baseband hopping and RF hopping. all the sectors of a BTS use the same FQHU. The hopping unit is common for the BTS. such as a speech block or a signaling block.0 Date Oct 23. the other FQHU is used for carrying the signal from the diversity receiver. the hopping sequences are synchronised as well. Both random and cyclic hopping modes are supported but not simultaneously. The FQHU can be duplicated for reliability or because of diversity reception. The combiners used in the 2nd generation BTSs limit the minimum channel spacing to 600 kHz! 3. Functional units for frequency hopping in 2nd generation BTS. Baseband hopping implementation is slightly different compared to the implementation on the 2nd generation base station. Consequently. The multiplexing is done according to the hopping sequence. These operations include interleaving/deinterleaving. equalisation.0. The baseband hopping interface resides between this logical division. 1998 Page 21/80 .Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide The frequency hopping connects the frame units and the carrier units as illustrated in Figure 3-2. The FQHU is capable of supporting a maximum of 12 hopping groups at a time. the other FQHU acts as a hot redundancy. If the diversity is not used. which means that it is automatically taken into operation if the other FQHU fails. diversity combining etc. The timing of sectors is derived from a common clock unit. The burst level operations cover all the operations done for a single burst. FU1 FU2 FU3 CU1 F Q H U FU12 CU2 CU3 CU12 Figure 3-2. Functionality inside one TRX is divided between burst level operations (EQDSP) and block level operations (CHDSP). Version 1. bit detection. With random hopping the hopping sequence numbers (1-63) can be selected freely for each hopping group. The hopping function is realised by multiplexing baseband digital bit streams between the frame units and the carrier units. block coding/decoding etc. which is calculated in FQHU. so the different sectors are frame. meaning that all the sectors under the same BTS must use either cyclic or random hopping sequences.

This means that all the sectors under the same Base Station Control Function (BCF) must use the same hopping method. The used combiner type may also restrict the possibility of utilising RF hopping. the RF hopping cannot be used. RF hopping and BB hopping cannot be used simultaneously. CHDSP TRX1. Delivery of channel numbers from FBUS to synthesisers is done by hardware. but the connections are always made one-to-one.0 Date Oct 23. some sectors may be hopping while others remain non-hopping. If Remote Tuned Combiners (RTC) are used. CHDSP TRX3. However. In baseband hopping the FHDSP controls the information transfer between the EQDSP and the CHDSP realising the frequency hopping as illustrated in Figure 3-3. Version 1. Baseband hopping implementation in the Talk family base stations. AFE supports both BB and RF hopping and there are no minimum channel spacing requirements.0. EQDSP Figure 3-3. Two synthesiser banks are used. EQDSP F B U S TRX12.4 PrimeSite PrimeSite is a small highly integrated base station based on the Talk family technology. EQDSP TRX3. This is because the RTC is based on tuneable cavities. while one is in use the other is being tuned to the frequency used in the next time slot. 3. if any. For example. the EQDSP of TRX1 is always connected to the CHDSP of TRX1.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide FHDSP is a digital signal processor dedicated to controlling the frequency hopping operation. CHDSP TRX2. which cannot be retuned dynamically according to the used hopping sequence. 1998 Page 22/80 . CHDSP TRX2. The other combiner option for the Talk family base stations is the wide band Antenna Filter Equipment (AFE). The minimum channel spacing when RTC is used is 600 kHz. With RF hopping the FBUS is also used. The FBUS is a two-way parallel bus dedicated for this purpose and dimensioned to support a maximum of 12 TRXs. It contains only one TRX and the hardware is reduced. FHDSP TRX1. The FBUS is then used for sending the RF channel number from the FHDSP to be used on the next time slot. EQDSP TRX12. so that the FBUS have been removed and the functions of FHDSP have been integrated to the CHDSP.

IMMEDIATE_ASSIGNMENT (Air). 3. The BB hopping is also possible to arrange with the PrimeSites by using properties of RF hopping. See more details of the FH support and the planning and frequency allocation process in Chapters 5. This pseudo-BB hopping appears outwards similar to the pure BB-hopping. The main principle is that the BSC is handling logical channels on the cells under its control. whereas the other connected PrimeSites are hopping according to the hopping sequence.2. maintained by the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) software. Maximum BTS configurations in different BSS software releases.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide The RF hopping can be implemented by connecting two or more PrimeSites together as a multiTRX configuration. The logical channels may then be assigned on the frequency hopping physical channels. The other TRXs use the HSN1 for the RTSL 0s and HSN2 for the RTSLs 1-7 as described in Section 1.0 Date Oct 23. ASSIGNMENT_COMMAND (Air) and HANDOVER_COMMAND (Air) messages. It allocates the logical channels as usual. 3. In Abis and Air interface radio resource management signaling the frequency hopping is affecting the CHANNEL_ACTIVATION (Abis). 1998 Page 23/80 . The frequency hopping management in the BSC is quite simple. Table 5.5 Base Station Controller The BSC functionality related to frequency hopping is implemented by software. Version 1. The PrimeSite is able to transmit the first time slot (RTSL 0) by using a different frequency than the other time slots.2. The parameters defining a frequency hopping channel are then attached to Abis and Air interface signaling messages. There are no hardware dependencies. but they are provided by the base stations. MAIO and HSN) needed to define a hopping logical channel. 3. The hopping related parameters are attached later by the Abis interface program block.0. which reads the needed hopping related parameters from the database.1 and 5. The number of frequencies in the pseudo-BB hopping equals the number of connected PrimeSites for RTSLs 1-7 and one less for the RTSL 0. A dummy signal is sent on the BCCH frequency in the non-active TCH time slots. The radio resource management doesn’t know about frequency hopping. The basic requirement for the BSC is to handle the additional parameters (MA.7 Maximum Configurations Maximum BTS configurations are presented in Table 5. The pseudo-BB hopping is realised by transmitting the RTSL 0 on the BCCH TRX on one fixed frequency and the other time slots by using a frequency determined according to the hopping sequence. In this case the first PrimeSite provides the BCCH carrier and is thus in a nonhopping mode. Pseudo-BB hopping is possible when two or more PrimeSites have been connected for a multi-TRX configuration. The parameters are stored in the BSS Radio Network Configuration Database (BSDATA) in the BSC.6 NPS/X NPS/X is an integrated software package for the cellular network planning developed by Nokia.

Version 1.8 Radio Network Fault Management The radio network configuration management in the BSC determines the recovery actions in abnormal situations in the BSS radio network. such as the carrier unit. the tranceiver.0 Date Oct 23. In addition to this. Only rule is that n*y must be less than or equal to 16. The recovery actions are determined based on the type of the faulty functional block and they are based on the radio facilities configured to the faulty block. the frame unit. even each TRX can be a sector of its own. functional blocks common to the whole cell or the functional blocks common to the whole BTS site. The recovery actions are executed if errors occur in the functional blocks of the BTS.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide BSS 6 BTS type 2nd generation omni sectorised Talk family omni sectorised Prime Site sectorised BSS 7 2nd generation omni sectorised Talk family omni sectorised Prime Site sectorised Combiner type RTC (BB FH) 10 TRXs 4+4+4 TRXs RTC (BB FH) 6 TRXs 6+6+6 TRXs Standard (BB & RF FH) n*y TRXs 1) Antennas/cell (polarisation BCFs diversity used) Combiner type RTC (BB FH) 10 TRXs 4+4+4 TRXs RTC (BB FH) 6 TRXs 6+6+6 TRXs Standard (BB & RF FH) n*y TRXs 1) 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 Antennas/cell (polarisation BCFs diversity used) AFE (BB & RF FH) 4 TRXs 4+4+4 TRXs 1 1 1 1 AFE (BB & RF FH) 12 TRXs 12+12+12 TRXs 1 3 3 3 BSS 8 2nd generation omni sectorised Talk family omni sectorised Prime Site RTC (BB FH) 10 TRXs 1 1 4+4+4 TRXs 1 1 RTC (BB FH) AFE (BB & RF FH) 12 TRXs 1 1 12 TRXs 1 3 12+12+12 TRXs 2 1 12+12+12 TRXs 3 3 Standard (BB & RF FH) sectorised n*y TRXs 1) 1 1 1) The amount of sectors is not limited. 16 TRXs per BCF are allowed. 1998 Page 24/80 . such as faults. They can be freely divided into sectors of different sizes.0. the recovery options are executed if the Dchannel of the Abis interface fails or if there are failures detected by the call control of the BSC in the connection with the radio channel allocation procedure. fault cancels and initialisations. Max. 3.

The BSC calculates new hopping parameters including a new MA-list in which the frequency of the faulty CU is removed. In this case the procedure is as follows: 1. The BSC clears all the calls that are allocated to those Abis circuits corresponding to the faulty TRX.8. When the PC is used in the other than BCCH carrier. for example. The BSC blocks all the TRXs of the cell for a while. 3. The mobiles on the cell can still hop over all the frequencies originally allocated to that cell.0. The procedure is as follows: 1. 5. The BCCH carrier is always sent in the downlink direction with the maximum power defined for the cell.0 Date Oct 23.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 3. one of the frequencies in the hopping sequence cannot be transmitted and/or received properly.1 DL Power Control with BB FH In BB FH the BCCH carrier is involved in the hopping sequence.9.1 The 2nd Generation Base Station A frame unit fault may be either internal or external. by a FU hardware malfunction and the external fault could happen. because of a lost LAPD-link to the TRX. Therefore. for example.2 Talk Family Base Stations and PrimeSite In a case of BB hopping the procedure is similar to the carrier unit fault in the 2nd generation BTS as described in the previous section. 2. The BSC unblocks the TRXs that have functioning CUs and the new hopping parameters are transferred to the BTS. The BTS alarms the BSC. 2. In both cases the recovery procedure is similar. Version 1. 1998 Page 25/80 . Thus. The internal fault could be caused. This causes clearing of all the ongoing calls on that cell. The BTS alarms the BSC or the BSC detects a non-functional LAPD-link. The calls on the other TRXs can proceed normally and the hopping parameters can be left untouched. 3. Calls on the other TRXs proceed normally. 4. because all the carrier units are still functioning. it is recommended to restrict the PC range in DL direction to 10-15 dB with BB FH.9 Restrictions on the Usage of FH 3. The BSC blocks the faulty frame unit in order not to allow new traffic for the Abis circuits corresponding to it.8. In case of a carrier unit fault one tranceiver doesn’t work properly. 3. the recovery procedure is similar to the frame unit fault in the 2nd generation BTS as described in the previous section. The BSC allows new traffic for the functioning TRXs. If the BTS is RF hopping. 3. there is a big difference in the sent / received power between the carriers. The gain control of some mobiles cannot follow so big and sudden changes in the received power.

3. 3.8 NPS/X NPS/X 3.9.2 and the older versions don’t support frequency allocation for a fractional loaded network (= more frequencies than TRXs).3 Extended Range Cell (DE34/DF34/DG35) Only RF hopping is supported.9. 3.0. the performance of frequency hopping may be reduced. 3. The solution is to use a special training sequence code in the dummy burst but it does not guarantee that all mobile station models of different manufacturers are working error free.5 Half Rate The interleaving depth of the TCH/HS is four instead of eight as it is in TCH/FS. the usage of cyclic hopping with even number of frequencies means that one half rate connection uses only half of the frequencies.6 Frequency Sharing The basic requirement in frequency sharing (1/1 reuse.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 3.3 can make the channel allocation for a fractional loaded network.7 RTC Combiner In the 2nd generation and Talk Family base stations. 3.0 Date Oct 23.9. The use of cyclic hopping with even number of hopping frequencies should be avoided in networks utilising half rate. and only for the TRXs serving the normal coverage area. 3.2 can estimate the quality of the fractional loaded frequency plan. 3/3 reuse) is that the cells at one site have to be controlled by the same BCF.9. In a case of frequency hopping the speed information in the Measurement Result message from BTS to BSC is set to value 'non-valid' indicating that speed information is not available from that particular cell. Because the interleaving has a significant effect on the successful error correction of the speech frame.9. ETSI has approved a solution to solve the problem and it is implemented in Nokia BSS. The TRXs serving the extended coverage area cannot hop. Since the half rate channel is transmitted on every other TDMA frame.9. the RTC combiners have the limitation of the minimum channel spacing of 600 kHz.2 Downlink DTX Baseband hopping combined with downlink DTX causes problems in the mobile stations. so that they are frame synchronised.9. because in the silent phase the dummy frames are sent on the BCCH frequency causing malfunction in the mobile stations. NPS/X 3.4 MS Speed Detection The speed detection algorithm in the BTS works only for non-hopping channels. especially on the frequency hopping networks utilising low frequency allocation reuse and fractional loading. With the current Nokia equipment this requirement limits the maximum TRX configuration to 12 TRXs per site. NPS/X 3. Version 1. 1998 Page 26/80 . This problem doesn’t occur if random hopping sequences are used.

With AFE combiner. the application of a single MA-list may be the only sensible way to implement FH. If the frequency band is extremely limited. The mobile receivers cannot tolerate quick changes of field strength resulting to poor DL quality. This limitation is likely to reduce the achievable gain from DL PC. the frequency allocation is not possible for fractionally loaded networks if the frequency allocation tool doesn’t support fractional loading. In this scheme all the cells of one site share the same MA-list in a controlled manner so that interference between the cells of the same site can be avoided. Equally important is that a good frequency plan minimising the interference can be produced. SELECTING THE RIGHT HOPPING STRATEGY The goal in the selection of the hopping strategy is to maximise the effectiveness of frequency hopping in order to achieve a maximum capacity and/or quality gain.0. In many cases this scheme may not provide the best possible gains. Usually the best results can be achieved with a help of a frequency allocation tool. however. In this single MA-list scheme all the frequencies are allocated to every cell so that the frequency allocation reuse is 1. The maximum TRX configurations which can be used with different hopping modes (combiners) and hopping schemes (maximum TRX amounts under the same BCF) can easily become also restricting factors. However. Second generation base stations are only capable of BB hopping.3. but only if wide band combiners (AFE) are used. For NPS/X this support is available in version 3. about three times more antennas are required than with RTC combiner. The amount of antennas and antenna feeder cables can be a limiting factor. Thus. Version 1. There is. Another possibility is to utilise frequency sharing arrangement. the successful implementation of RF hopping with fractional loading requires a good frequency plan that minimises the interference in the network. The BTS hardware may severely restrict the possibilities. Frequency sharing makes it possible to have enough hopping frequencies in every cell without a need to utilise fractional loading. In BB hopping the DL PC causes dramatic changes in DL field strength as some of the bursts are transmitted by the full power BCCH TRX and the rest of the bursts by low power TRXs. the frequency planning is possible with tools that don’t support fractional loading.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 4.0 Date Oct 23. The basic requirement for the maximum FH gain is to make sure that each cell has a sufficient number of frequencies in the hopping sequence. The main factors affecting the decision of the frequency hopping strategy are presented in Figure 4-1. because it always provides the maximum number of frequencies to hop over in every cell. 1998 Page 27/80 . The Talk family (3rd gen) base stations support also RF hopping. but the gain compared to a non-hopping network is still significant as verified in a trial that was conducted in a real network. one special case of RF hopping with fractional loading that doesn’t require any frequency planning at all. The utilisation of RF hopping is preferable if downlink power control is used. As in conventional network. To avoid this problem the maximum power reduction for DL PC in conjunction with BB hopping should be limited to 10 – 15 dB.

Flow chart for hopping strategy decision. 1998 Page 28/80 . BTS generation 3rd gen.0 Date Oct 23. Version 1.0. only Combiner type / Amount of antennas BB FH used on the cells having more than 2 TRXs RTC max 6 TRX / cell with RTC or 12 TRX with AFE AFE No Easy planning preferred over maximum capacity 3 TRX/cell or more No Min TRX configuration Maximum gain from DL PC required Yes No RF FH with frequency allocation reuse 1 (=single MA list scheme) max 12 TRX / site! (under the same BCF) 2 TRX/cell Yes <=12 TRXs/site configurations Yes Planning tool supports FH and fractional loading No Yes RF FH with frequency sharing (no fractional loading) max 12 TRX / site! (under the same BCF) Yes RF FH with frequency allocation reuse 3 ~ 5 max 12 TRX / cell Figure 4-1.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 2nd gen.

Available propagation models include Okumura-Hata. Version 1. see Chapter 5. FREQUENCY PLANNING OF FREQUENCY HOPPING NETWORKS Frequency hopping requires some new considerations in the frequency planning process.1 Network Planning Procedure The network planning and monitoring process for a baseband frequency hopping network is basically the same than for a non-hopping network.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 5. The frequency planning of fractionally loaded networks requires special attention to the load control. In frequency planning point of view. lower C/I ratios and therefore smaller frequency reuse distances can be allowed in the baseband hopping network compared to a non-hopping network. The propagation modeling is based on digital maps presenting both the terrain type information and the height data of the target area. Walfish-Ikegami and a ray-tracing model. It provides the basic tools for coverage prediction. NPS/X is an integrated software package for the cellular network planning developed by Nokia. The planning of an RF hopping network can be a little more complex.0.2 and 3. because of the interference and frequency diversity gains. The BCCH frequencies have a high frequency reuse in order to guarantee a successful signaling and a fast decoding of the base station identification code. frequency allocation and interference analysis.2. The main difference is that the fractional loading is not possible when the baseband hopping is used. NPS/X versions before version 3.2 don’t include any frequency hopping specific support. However. Juul-Nyholm. The ray-tracing model is specifically for microcell planning and it is available in NPS/X version 3. if the maximum capacity is wanted to get out from the network.0 Date Oct 23. It is beneficial to have this interference free BCCH frequency included in the hopping sequence. When FH is used the RXQual distribution is not anymore comparable to the non-hopping network. the planning of a baseband hopping network differs less than the planning of a RF hopping network from the planning of a conventional non-hopping network. because it is likely to improve the quality of reception on the hopping logical channels. Large TRX configurations make baseband hopping feasible. On the other hand. This is especially important if the RF hopping with fractional loading is used. In order to achieve a proper frequency hopping gain.3 have some new functionalities to make the frequency planning and the quality analysis an easier task. 5. a minimum of three TRXs in a cell should be used with the baseband hopping [Tun97]. 1998 Page 29/80 . it is possible to use the conventional frequency planning tools when planning the baseband hopping network. If a tight frequency allocation scheme has been chosen then the estimation of the subjective speech quality can become a more challenging task compared to a non-hopping network. New versions called NPS/X 3. The suitable frequency allocation scheme have to be selected and the frequency load must be equalized to guarantee an equal quality distribution. the RF hopping allows some new planning concepts like frequency sharing and the control over frequency allocation reuse while the effective reuse in the network remains the same. The benefit of the baseband hopping is that the TCHs located on the BCCH TRX are included in the frequency hopping sequence.2. Because of this.

see Chapter 2. a statistics window is also implemented. These values can be displayed in the digital map using different colours for particular RXQUAL levels. since the frequency hopping doesn’t affect the propagation. The quality prediction tool in NPS/X 3.2 estimates the downlink RXQUAL for every pixel in the work area.3 Frequency FrequencyPlanning Planning Parameter ParameterPlanning Planning 5. 1998 Page 30/80 . To make the comparison between different plans easier. From the map overlay the areas potentially suffering from interference can be easily identified. Due to the frequency diversity and interference diversity gains the hopping allows somewhat worse C/I ratios compared to a non-hopping network. This can be taken into account when setting parameters for the frequency allocation tool leading to a tighter frequency plan. However. For this reason. Frequency hopping specific planning tool support is needed when RF hopping with fractional loading is used. Since the BCCH time slot doesn’t hop.3 3. Capacity CapacityPlanning Planning NPSX NPSX Netdim Netdim NDW NDW Monitoring Monitoring NDW NDW NMS/2000 NMS/2000 PlanEdit PlanEdit CDW CDW NPS/X NPS/X3. When analysing the resulting plan. the frequency diversity gain should be considered as a quality gain in the cell border area rather than a gain increasing the cell service area. This window presents the distribution of predicted RXQUAL values in the work area.0 Date Oct 23.5.2 don’t include any frequency hopping specific support.1. the coverage planning phase is not different when planning frequency hopping networks compared to non-hopping networks. the increased coverage area must be dimensioned according to the performance of BCCH time slot instead of hopping TCHs. For the planning of baseband hopping networks the traditional frequency allocation and interference analysis tools are also sufficient. Version 1.0. Network planning and monitoring process.2 Frequency Planning Procedure with NPS/X NPS/X versions before version 3. In coverage limited cells the frequency hopping increases the cell coverage area because of the frequency diversity gain. higher interference levels can be tolerated. Fractional loading means that a cell is allocated with more frequencies than there are TRXs.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Figure 5-1.

that the frequency allocation for a fractional loaded network is not supported in NPS/X 3. Both base band and RF hopping modes are supported.2. Note. the DTX factor and the blocking probability for each cell.0. Example output from the RXQUAL prediction tool. When the BER for the pixel is calculated it is converted to RXQUAL value according to the mapping specified in GSM specifications [GSM 05.0 Date Oct 23. The input parameters needed for the calculation are the frequencies allocated for the cells.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide The prediction is based on the C/I ratio that is calculated by using the field strengths of the serving carrier and the interfering carriers. 1998 Page 31/80 . The corresponding Bit Error Ratio (BER) is determined from the calculated C/I ratio.08]. Version 1. The calculations take the DTX factor and the load factor into account where appropriate. Figure 5-2.

In high interfered areas longer MA list lengths can be tried to average the interference. Also the network simulator of NPS/X 3. RXQUAL statistics window. Version 1.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Figure 5-3. The MA list lengths can be defined manually in cell basis.3 includes a support for FH.3 will include a new frequency allocation tool. Also the MAIO Management can be taken into a use. or NPS/X can define them automatically by a certain criteria. which is capable of allocating frequencies utilising low frequency reuse and fractional loading.0 Date Oct 23. NPS/X 3. 1998 Page 32/80 .0. After the MA list length has been chosen the allocation algorithm tries to produce an optimal allocation.

They are presented in the following sections. somewhat lower reuse distances are allowed before the quality reaches the minimum acceptable limit. 1998 Page 33/80 . The BB hopping network has this same limit. there are more frequencies available for each cell. Version 1. As the reuse distance becomes smaller. Frequency allocation procedure. cell cellbasis basis Frequency Frequency requirements requirements Spectrum Spectrum and andHW HW constraints constraints Planning Planning concept concept decision decision NetDim / NPS/X Estimation Estimationof of needed needednumber number of offrequencies frequencies OMC / CDW / NDW Quality QualityAnalysis Analysis Automatic Automatic Parameter Parametertuning tuning NPS/X 3.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Capacity Capacity estimation.3 Frequency Reuse on Frequency Hopping Network Since the frequency band is always limited. However. when the reuse distance becomes small enough. For a conventional non-hopping network this is the practical frequency reuse limit. For a fractionally loaded RF hopping network. These are effective reuse and frequency allocation reuse. but because of frequency hopping gain. The advantage of RF hopping is that the frequency reuse distance can be set as low as wanted.4.0 Date Oct 23.0. This means that the used frequencies are only fractionally loaded as presented in Section 5.3. two reuse figures have to be defined. 5. estimation. as there are more frequencies available for each cell. all the frequencies available for the cell cannot be utilised because of too severe interference in the cell border areas. Because each TRX in a cell requires a unique frequency. the capacity potential of a cell is increased.3 Automatic Automaticinterferer interferer generation generationfor forIUO IUO Coverage Coveragedata data Interference Interference Calibration CalibrationTool Tool Neighbour Neighbourcell cell measurements measurementswith with GPA GPAtool tool Interference Interferencematrix matrix generation generation Planning Planningof ofother other parameters parameters Frequency Frequency Allocation Allocation Figure 5-4. because a RF hopping cell can use more frequencies than there are TRXs installed. This can be done. the frequencies have to be reused in the network.

It is calculated as FAR = N freqsTOT N freqs / MA . it can be also used as a capacity index.1 ) where: • Reff = effective reuse • NfreqsTOT = total number of used frequencies • NTRXave = average number of TRXs in a cell Since the effective reuse takes the actual number of frequencies together with the number of TRXs into account.2 Frequency Allocation Reuse (RF FH only) Frequency allocation reuse indicates how closely the frequencies are actually reused in a network. ( 5.3. 5. Example of the reuse calculations for the fractionally loaded RF hopping network is presented in Figure 5-5. the higher the capacity in terms of the number of TCHs provided by one frequency in the network. it indicates the severity of a worst case C/I in the cell border.2.2 ) where: • FAR = frequency allocation reuse • NfreqsTOT = total number of used frequencies • Nfreqs/MA = average number of frequencies in MA-lists If the network doesn’t utilise fractional loading. ( 5. the frequency allocation reuse is the same as the effective reuse.4.1 Effective Reuse The effective reuse is essentially the same as the conventional frequency reuse distance.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 5.3. Version 1.0 Date Oct 23. The smaller the effective reuse. provided that the TRXs can be loaded at least to the hard blocking limit as presented in Section 5. It is calculated as Reff = N freqsTOT N TRXave . Thus.0. 1998 Page 34/80 .

2. In order to guarantee an adequate quality.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Frequency Allocation Reuse ≠ Effective Reuse Example: Total # of freqs = 30 3 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 2 10 frequencies / cell 4 TRX¨s / cell 1/3 FAR = 30/10 = 3 Eff. The frequency load describes the probability that a frequency channel is used for transmission at one cell at one time. and the fractional load that is presented in Section 5.4 Load on Networks Utilising Fractional Loading (RF FH only) One of the most essential parameters of the fractionally loaded RF hopping network is the load. the more infrequent the collisions must be in order to maintain a proper quality. the interference sources are very close. The closer the interferers. the collision probability has to be made low.1 Frequency Load When designing a network with low frequency allocation reuse.reuse = 30/4 =7. 1998 Page 35/80 . which should in most cases be equal to the hard blocking load that is presented in Section 5. 5.3.4. Example of reuse calculations. The frequency load is a product of two other loads: the average busy hour TCH occupancy. The frequency load can be written as L freq = LHW ⋅ L frac .4. The load on the frequencies is the most important one since it determines the probability of collisions. Even a neighboring cell may be an interferer by sharing at least some of the frequencies.5 Effective Reuse = Total # of frequencies/ Number of TRXs per cell Frequency Allocation Reuse = Total # of frequencies / # of frequencies in MAL Figure 5-5. ( 5. The collision probability depends on the load of the hopping frequencies called a frequency load. 5.3 ) where: • Lfreq = frequency load • LHW = the busy hour average hard blocking load • Lfrac = fractional load Version 1.0. In that kind of situations the C/I is very low when the collisions occur.4.0 Date Oct 23. Collision means that the serving cell and an interfering cell are transmitting at the same frequency at the same time so that the potential interference becomes reality.

The hard blocking load is calculated as LHW = ThopTCH N hopTCH . That’s because the BCCH TRX is nonhopping in RF hopping cell and the calculation of the loads is only relevant in soft blocking limited network. ( 5.2 Hard Blocking Load Hard blocking means that all the available traffic channels in the cell are in use and all the new call attempts fail because of the lack of available traffic channels.5 ) where: • LHW = hard blocking load • ThopTCH = average number of used TCHs in the busy hour • NhopTCH = total number of TCHs in the hopping TRXs Version 1.4 ) where: • B = hard blocking probability • T = offered traffic (Erl) • NTCH = number of TCHs in the cell In order not to exceed the predefined hard blocking probability. only the non-BCCH TRXs should be considered as illustrated in Figure 5-6. the average busy hour TCH occupancy may not exceed the threshold defined by the offered traffic at the desired blocking probability and the number of TCHs. If it is assumed that the call attempts occur randomly. thus requiring a different maximum allowed frequency load in order to keep the collision probability low enough.4. Currently soft blocking limited BB hopping networks should not be designed because of the lack of the gatekeeper algorithm. When determining the hard blocking load.0.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Each frequency allocation reuse corresponds to a different C/I at the cell border. T ∑ n=0 n! ( 5. 1998 Page 36/80 . then the hard blocking probability (that is also known as the grade of service) can be calculated by using the Erlang B formula T N TCH N ! B = N TCHTCH n .0 Date Oct 23. which prohibits the initialisation of new calls if the load in the network is about to exceed the load threshold at the soft blocking limit. then the number of call attempts in a time interval is Poisson distributed. 5. If the call attempts are Poisson distributed and the length of the calls is exponentially distributed.

as defined in Equation (5. By utilising fractional loading.f2.6 ) where: • Lfrac = fractional load • NTRX = number of TRXs in a cell • Nfreqs/cell = number of frequencies allocated to a cell (MA-list length) Version 1.5).f3.4. N freqs / cell ( 5. This is only possible for RF hopping TRXs. However this happens randomly and since the LHW limit is an average there is about an equal time in which the load is less than the LHW. Hard blocking load of 75% on RF hopping TRXs.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 75 % TRX-1 BCCH TRX-2 TCH TCH TRX-3 TCH TRX-4 TCH 25 % Load on the BCCH TRX not considered. The fractional loading is very useful when the number of TRXs is low. In reality.f4. since the BCCH frequencies are planned separately TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH f1 TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH f2. The average busy hour TCH load.0.f2 TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH f4.3 Fractional Load Fractional loading means that the cell has been allocated more frequencies than there are TRXs as illustrated in Figure 5-7.f3 SDCCH SDCCH Active slots Empty slots Figure 5-6. If the offered traffic is Poisson distributed. a higher figure should be used.f4 TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH f3. it is possible to provide enough frequencies to hop over (to get FH gain) to even a cell with just one hopping TRX. 5. In an environment where the offered traffic is known not to be randomly generated. 1998 Page 37/80 . Fractional load can be calculated as L frac = N TRX . there are times when the TCH occupancy is over the busy hour average LHW. the frequency allocation can be quite safely dimensioned by using the LHW as the maximum TCH occupancy. can be used as the maximum TCH occupancy.0 Date Oct 23.

Version 1. it is characteristic that the hard blocking load providing the same blocking probability increases as the number of traffic channels increases as presented in Figure 5-8. load = 3/5 = 0. This is called trunking effect. The effective reuse doesn’t take the trunking efficiency into account.0. f5. f6 Active slots Empty slots Frac.0 Date Oct 23. f4. f5. f3. Fractional load of 0. For a hard blocking limited network this is a real gain since the network is able to serve more traffic with the same grade of service and the same effective reuse. f3. f4. Decreasing the fractional load is done by adding more frequencies than TRXs to the cells.6 Figure 5-7.7) shows the fixed relation between the effective and frequency allocation reuses and the fractional load. f6 TRX-4 f2.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide TRX-1 BCCH f1 TRX-2 f2.6. f5. The required increase in the effective reuse in a soft blocking limited network as the trunking efficiency increases is presented in Figure 5-9. The effective reuse can be rewritten as Reff = N freqsTOT N TRX = N freqsTOT N freqs / MA FAR ⋅ = . This has a direct effect on the effective reuse. f3. for a soft blocking limited network utilising fractional loading the trunking effect doesn’t provide any gain.5 Trunking Effect and Effective Reuse For Poisson distributed call attempts. 5. f6 TRX-3 f2. However. N freqs / MA N TRX L frac ( 5. the number of frequencies required to handle a certain amount of traffic stays constant. the fractional load must be decreased in order to keep the frequency load and thus the collision probability acceptable. It should be noted that although the effective reuse increases. f4. As the hard blocking load increases. In a soft blocking limited network the fractional load is used to tune the frequency load down to a desired level. 1998 Page 38/80 .7 ) Equation (5. which is determined by the used frequency allocation reuse.

Increase of required effective reuse on a soft blocking limited network due to the better trunking efficiency on bigger cell configurations.load 7. 1998 Page 39/80 .0 % TCH occupancy at the hard blocking limit 80.65 (2% Blocking.load 30% (simulated)) 6 5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 TRX's/cell Figure 5-9. 5% 50.5% (trialed)) FAR 3. 1% 40.65 (1% Blocking.load 30% (trialed)) FAR 3 (2% Blocking. Freq. Version 1.0 % 30.0 % Hard blocking prob. Average busy hour TCH occupancy at the hard blocking limit.5% (trialed)) FAR 1 (1% Blocking.0.0 % Number of TCH's Figure 5-8. Freq. Freq.0 % 10.0 % Hard blocking prob. 12 11 effective reuse 10 9 8 7 FAR 1 (2% Blocking.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 100.0 Date Oct 23. 2% Hard blocking prob.0 % 60.load 30% (trialed)) FAR 3. Freq.load 7. Freq.0 % 20.load 30% (simulated)) FAR 3 (1% Blocking.0 % 97 100 94 91 88 85 82 79 76 73 70 67 64 61 58 55 52 49 46 43 40 37 34 31 28 25 22 19 16 13 7 10 4 1 0.0 % 70. Freq.0 % 90.

5.4 MHz. 1998 Page 40/80 .Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 5. The uplink performance as a function of served traffic is presented in Figure 5-10. The slow fading was assumed to be constant over the averaging period. Power control and DTX were used in the both directions. The improvement is 1-2 dB.0.6 Frequency Allocation Strategies When preparing for a frequency allocation. The cells had 3. all the frequencies in the hopping sequence have been used several times. Also. the BCCH frequencies were first allocated by using a reuse of 27. It can be seen that the common band strategy performs better. so the results are easily comparable. some decisions have to be made concerning the wanted frequency allocation reuse and the corresponding frequency load. which were allocated by using a slow Adaptive Channel Allocation (ACA) algorithm presented in [Alm96]. the average reuse is the same in both strategies.6.48 seconds. This is unnecessary in uplink direction since the load is about the same on the BCCH and TCH TRXs. In this simulation. the signal powers were averaged over a period of 0. Version 1. The mobiles were randomly generated and static. the used frequency band was 27 frequencies corresponding to 5. In both cases three different TRX configurations were simulated. the co-channel and the adjacent channel interference were considered. the fast fading can be assumed to have been removed by averaging. However. In every case. For the dedicated band strategy 12 frequencies were dedicated to the BCCH TRXs and the remaining 15 frequencies were used as TCH frequencies. the uplink is not usually the limiting link in interference limited networks. Frequency diversity effect was not considered. The system performance was measured by determining the 10 percent Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) value of the C/I ratio.0 Date Oct 23. In the common band case. 4 or 5 TCH TRXs depending on the case. The common band strategy is better when the uplink is considered. it must be decided whether to use a separate frequency band for the BCCH carriers or use a common band for both the BCCH and the normal TCH TRXs. The ACA algorithm was then used to select the TCH frequencies for each cell. There are two basic approaches in the BCCH allocation. The BCCH frequencies were not changed during this procedure. The load measure was defined as the number of served users per cell using the time slot one. During this period.1 BCCH Allocation The BCCH carriers are special in a sense that the transmission to the downlink direction is constant and always active on them. The simulated hopping mode was random BB hopping. The more uniform reuse provided by the common band strategy is more effective. The used interference limited network consisted of 108 cells in three sectorised configuration having a radius of 1 km. since antenna diversity is normally utilised at base stations. Both approaches have been simulated for frequency hopping network in [Kro97]. because the continuous transmission on the BCCH TRXs is only employed in downlink direction. The BCCH reuse of 12 forces the reuse on the TCH TRXs to be very tight. The BCCH frequencies may be allocated from a separate dedicated frequency band or the frequencies for the BCCH TRXs and the TCH TRXs (TRXs not carrying the BCCH) may be allocated from one common band. Thus. In the simulation. Both.

This happens. The downlink performance on the BCCH TRXs is important. because the call initialisation always starts on the BCCH frequency and the BCCH frequencies have to be clean enough to guarantee successful decoding of the cell identification for handover purposes. The common band strategy performs clearly better when the load is small. It was also shown in additional simulations that the performance gain from the power control and the DTX in the common band systems were smaller than in corresponding dedicated band systems. In the dedicated band case the C/I of the BCCH frequencies in the downlink direction is exclusively determined by the used frequency reuse on the BCCH TRXs. This indicates that the BCCH transmitters are the main interference source. which are the dominating interference source. The improvement is on the order of 1-5 dB depending on the traffic load. Version 1. The degradation of the C/I ratio is quite slow as the traffic load increases in common bands case. Because of the stable and easily predictable behavior on the BCCH frequencies in the downlink direction.0. As the load increases on the interfering TCH TRXs. The downlink performance on the BCCH TRXs as a function of served traffic is presented in Figure 5-12. Figure 5-10. The dedicated bands strategy provides a very stable behavior as the traffic load doesn’t have any effect on the performance. the dedicated bands strategy is preferable. because the BCCH frequencies.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide The downlink performance on the TCH TRXs as a function of served traffic is presented in Figure 5-11.0 Date Oct 23. For a downlink direction the dedicated bands strategy is superior. the performance degrades rapidly. cannot utilise the PC or the DTX. 1998 Page 41/80 . UL C/I at the 10 % level.

Figure 5-12. 1998 Page 42/80 . On the other hand. adjacent channel interference is avoided between BCCH frequencies. but the interference might not be too significant. not common used method is to use separate but not continuous band for the BCCH frequencies. Thus.0 Date Oct 23. TCH band causes adjacent channel interference for the BCCH frequencies and vice versa. For example. Still one.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Figure 5-11. DL C/I at the 10 % level. every 4th frequency is allocated for BCCH. DL C/I at the 10 % level on the BCCH frequency. Version 1.0.

Since frequency and interference diversity gains significantly depend on the number of hopping frequencies. Before making the actual frequency plan by using the frequency allocation tool like NPS/X.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide BCCH Dedicated band TCH Common band BCCH + TCH Dedicated mixed band TCH BCCH Figure 5-13. which always have one hopping frequency less than the other TCHs. The bigger is the TRX configuration. Thus.6. RF FH or IUO might offer a better solution to increase the capacity. after implementing BB FH with 4 TRX average configuration per cell. In that case. 1998 Page 43/80 .2 Selecting the Effective Reuse (BB FH) With BB hopping. since the reuse is dependent on the number of hopping frequencies (=TRXs with BB FH). it is recommended to have at least three hopping frequencies as a minimum configuration.0 Date Oct 23. in a BB hopping network the frequency allocation reuse always equals the effective reuse in the network.0. BB FH is not recommended to be used. 5. if we have in the non-hopping network reuse 15. the smaller reuse we can use. the fractional loading cannot be utilised and the number of hopping frequencies is always the same as the number of TRXs in a cell. Different BCCH allocation strategies. The following Figure 5-14 gives an estimation of an applicable reuse compared to the situation before implementing BB FH. except for TCHs on the zero time slots. For example. for example in tendering phase. an estimation of the minimum effective reuse might be needed. If the cell TRX configurations are smaller than that. we end up to reuse 9. Version 1.

The relationship between the frequency allocation reuse distance and the corresponding maximum frequency load is illustrated in Figure 5-15. the frequency allocation reuse has a great impact on the required fractional load and thus. If the cell TRX configurations are small.4.3 Selecting the Frequency Allocation Reuse and the Frequency Load (RF FH) If the RF hopping is used. the fractional loading cannot be utilised and the number of hopping frequencies is always the same as the number of TRXs in a cell.0 Date Oct 23. 5. it is important to ensure that each cell has enough hopping frequencies. Version 1. Since frequency and interference diversity gains significantly depend on the number of hopping frequencies. in a BB hopping network the frequency allocation reuse always equals the effective reuse in the network.6. thus reducing the probability that interference will occur. Thus. The average channel utilisation is also known as frequency load as explained in Section 5. which always have one hopping frequency less than the other TCHs.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide New reuse MIN Effective Reuses with different TRX configurations in BB FH case 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 No FH 3 TRX 4 TRX 5 TRX 6 TRX 3 6 9 12 15 18 Original reuse Figure 5-14. 1998 Page 44/80 . With BB hopping. Fractional loading reduces the average channel utilisation in the network.1.0. except for TCHs on the zero time slots. RF hopping with fractional loading makes it possible to still provide sufficient number of hopping frequencies to the cells even with small TRX configurations. on the number of frequencies allocated to each cell. Effective reuse after implementing BB FH. making it possible to significantly decrease the frequency reuse distance.

A good approach is first to determine the number of frequencies to hop over in each cell. The recommended approach is to start with a low frequency load and then increase it gradually until the quality threshold is reached. in these cases somewhat higher frequency load may be possible. it might be necessary to restrict the maximum frequency load in order to keep interference acceptable. the frequency allocation reuse must be tightened to maintain the same effective reuse. This is likely to require fractional loading.3). since in that case the worst interferers are the closest neighbors. If the frequency load across the network is kept relatively constant then the interference will be distributed more evenly in the network. Because of this. In that case.0. Fractional loading means that the frequencies are not continuously used. 1998 Page 45/80 . in dense propagation environments such as microcells. Generally. Relationship between frequency allocation reuse and maximum allowed frequency load in the network. This doesn’t necessarily apply to frequency allocation reuse of 1. Highly irregular network layout makes it very difficult to find a good frequency allocation that minimises interference in all parts of the network. which allows the reuse of the same frequency closer. it is not possible to obtain significant gain from increased path loss slope and it might not be possible to increase the frequency load. it is recommended to use at least four frequencies in MA-lists. fractional load and the frequency allocation reuse is presented in Equation (5.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 1 1 1 1 FAR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 2 1 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 3 1 1 2 3 4 2 4 3 2 2 1 3 1 4 2 4 4 3 2 1 4 3 1 5 3 3 6 7 2 1 7 2 1 5 4 7 3 7 Worsening C/I at the cell border Increasing collision probability Max. Version 1. Thus. To maximise the frequency and interference diversity gains. The relation between the effective reuse. as the fractional load decreases. This naturally reduces interference as the distant interferers are attenuated more. However. In practice.0 Date Oct 23. the network layout and the surrounding environment have a significant effect on the highest possible frequency load. frequency load 8% 30% 40?% 70?% Figure 5-15. On the cell border the interference coming from the neighboring cell attenuates just as much as the signal from the serving cell regardless of the path loss slope. Thus. it is beneficial to avoid big differences in the frequency loads caused by each cell. especially if the TRX configurations in the cells are small. the path loss slope is steeper.

4 13.5 3 7. Thus.A.or adjacent channel collisions. 1998 TDMA frame n+1 Page 46/80 .4 Frequency Sharing by Using MAIO Management (RF FH only) The MAIO management makes it possible to share the same MA-list between the cells of the same RF hopping site without co. This can be done by utilising the user definable MAIOoffset and MAIOstep parameters presented in Sections 1. Since less frequencies are needed per site. They might be too optimistic for some environments! Example: 21 frequencies F.5 8 2.6.7. reuses 2-5.5 6 3.8 16. Freq.1 TCHs 21 25 25 25 25 23 22 21 20 Table 6.5 2 10.5 8. Limits for the effective reuse and the frequency load values with different frequency allocation reuses. the frequency allocation reuse distance can be bigger. the best capacity is got with the F. The remaining TRXs are given MAIOs according to the Equation (3. The minimum effective reuse and maximum frequency load values are still under further consideration.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Important is also to ensure that the effective reuse is not too low to ensure a good quality. the site can be allocated three times less frequencies and still the number of frequencies to hop over in a cell remains the same.3 13 Max. MAIOSTEP avoids the interference inside the cell.A.4 16.1). reuse MA list length Min. In Nokia implementation the default MAIOstep is 1.6 12 9 2. load 8% 20% 30% 40% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% Traffic (Erl) 13. whereas.0 8.7 13.2 7. The cell level MAIOoffset parameter defines the MAIOs for the first TRXs in each cell. The bigger reuse distance leads to less interference.A. Eff.5 7 3. The following Table contains an example of choosing the right F. As can be seen.0.5 7.8 16. reuse 1 21. The frequency sharing makes it possible for a cell to hop over all the frequencies allocated to that site as presented in Figure 5-16.3 6.5 5 4. reuse scheme to give the best capacity gain. in a case of a three sectorised site.0 7 4 5. MA-list: 3 6 9 6 9 3 3 1 3 9 TDMA frame n-1 3 1 2 Version 1. but it will be adjustable after the BSC software release S7.8 16.0 10. 5. All the cells on a site share the same MA-list.0 3 6 1 2 9 2 6 3 TDMA frame n Date Oct 23.8 15. MAIOOFFSET helps to avoid the interference between the cells inside the site. so the fractional loading is not necessarily needed.6 and 1.4 14.

the basic requirement is that the cells at one site have to be controlled by the same BCF. The principle of frequency sharing. In a normal frequency sharing arrangement. (5. the goal is to minimise the number of frequencies needed per site.0 Date Oct 23. then co. Version 1. First of all.8) where: • min Nfreqs/site = minimum number of frequencies needed for a site • NTRX/site = total number of TRXs on a site • MAIOstep = the value of the MAIOstep parameter In Equation (5. For this reason. Example of this is presented in Figure 5-18. Otherwise. This should be taken into account in the frequency planning process. there are some requirements that have to be fulfilled. co-channel interference between the cells will occur. However. An example of a correct parameter assignment for frequency sharing is illustrated in Figure 5-17. the list may not contain adjacent channels if the MAIOstep is 1. so that they are frame synchronised. In that case.9) i =1 where: • MAIOoffset n = MAIOoffset for the n th cell in a site • MAIOstep = the value of the MAIOstep parameter • NTRX/cell i = number of TRXs in i th cell If the number of frequencies is less than min. so that the frequency allocation reuse distance can be kept high. because an intracell adjacent channel interference should not be allowed. The cells at one site have to use the same HSN. With the current Nokia equipment this requirement limits the maximum TRX configuration to 12 TRXs per site. the MAIOoffset parameters are allocated as follows n −1 MAIOcelln = MAIOstep ⋅ ∑ N TRX / celli .8) it is assumed that the MAIO separation between the cells is equal to the used MAIOstep. Nfreqs. The requirement can be formulated as follows min N freqs / site = N TRX / site ⋅ MAIOstep . 1998 Page 47/80 . the MAIOstep should be normally 1. (5.or adjacent channel interference might occur. However. even more frequencies are needed.0. Since the frequencies have to be in the increasing order in the MA-list. The number of frequencies (MA-list length) have to be at least equal (equal if fractional loading is not to be used) to the total number of TRXs in the site. the HSNs should be different in interfering sites in order to ensure the interference diversity.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Figure 5-16. If the MAIOstep parameter is more than one.

In this simulation. The reuse on the BCCH carriers was 4/12 in both cases. Power control was utilised in DL direction. The simulated network consisted of 48 3-sectorised sites.0.2 or older by utilising power dividers so that the site has only one cell having as many TRXs as there are non-BCCH TRXs in all the sectors of the actual site.. 4 20 4 8 1 8 bcch frequency 2 . Downlink FER statistics reported by each mobile every 0.. Example of frequency sharing when MAIOstep is 1. 10 4 10 bcch frequency 3 . Mobile speeds of 3 km/h and 50 km/h were simulated. 4 4 4 8 8 8 bcch frequency 2 .0 Date Oct 23. 15 15 15 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 15 3 1 5 4 2 6 5 3 7 6 3 8 7 4 9 8 0 10 9 2 10 3 11 11 0 12 12 1 13 13 1 14 14 1 15 15 4 16 16 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 4 8 8 10 10 15 10 15 15 1 1 4 8 10 10 15 1 4 4 8 4 8 4 8 15 1 15 1 10 15 1 1 4 8 15 1 8 10 10 10 4 4 15 1 4 1 4 8 4 8 10 4 8 10 8 10 15 10 15 1 1 4 8 4 8 10 10 15 1 15 1 4 15 1 4 15 1 4 8 10 15 8 10 15 Figure 5-18. Since each cell has its own BCCH. Version 1.. INDEX NO: MA_LIST1: TDMA MAI SECTOR MA-LIST HSN MAIO 1 1 3 0 1 2 1 3 2 3 1 3 3 4 5 TRX 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 4 0 1 1 4 0 1 2 8 1 1 3 10 2 1 TDMA-FRAMES -> 0 1 2 bcch frequency 1.. To avoid interference. all the hopping frequencies are transmitted in every cell on the same site. In frequency allocation phase one common interference probability is determined for the entire site and the site is then allocated one common set of frequencies that form the MA-list. The cell is distributed to multiple antennas forming multiple sectors by using power dividers. 15 8 15 20 10 20 1 15 1 TRX 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 4 4 15 5 20 4 2 6 7 5 3 8 6 1 9 7 2 10 8 0 9 2 11 10 3 12 11 4 13 12 5 14 13 1 15 14 5 16 15 2 16 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 4 8 8 10 10 15 4 8 8 10 1 4 8 10 10 15 15 20 20 1 4 8 20 1 8 10 15 20 10 15 20 10 15 8 15 20 1 4 10 4 15 1 15 20 1 20 1 4 1 4 8 15 20 1 20 1 4 10 15 20 20 1 4 1 4 8 4 8 10 8 10 15 15 20 1 8 10 15 20 1 4 4 8 10 Figure 5-17. Special care has to be taken to compensate the losses of power divider.. Simulation results of the performance of a network utilising frequency sharing have been presented in [Nie98].Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide INDEX NO: MA_LIST1: 0 1 TDMA MAI SECTOR MA-LIST HSN MAIO 1 1 3 0 1 2 1 3 2 3 1 3 3 4 5 1 4 0 1 2 8 1 5 3 10 2 1 3 1 TDMA-FRAMES -> 0 1 2 bcch frequency 1. 1998 Page 48/80 . This can be modeled in NPS/X 3. the network utilising frequency sharing at a nominal reuse of 3/9 was compared to the RF hopping network using 1/3 frequency allocation reuse at 33 % frequency load. but the DTX was not activated.48 seconds from the non-BCCH carriers were collected for analysis. Since the cells on the same site share the same frequencies. the BCCH allocation has to be done separately without the power divider arrangement... The served traffic was also the same in both cases... 10 10 10 bcch frequency 3 .. the minimum channel separation has to be at least 1... This has to be taken into account when the frequency planning is done. Example of frequency sharing when the site is allocated with too few frequencies and co-channel interference between sectors exists.

2 0. TCH reuse = 3/9 by using MAIO-management CDF 0. However. TCH reuse 1/3 BCCH reuse = 4/12. 1 BCCH reuse 4/12.8 0.01 0.001 0 0.3 0.7 0.1 0.1 % and 1.5 0.7 0.9 1 FER Figure 5-20. The difference in favor of frequency sharing is clear.1 0.5%.6 0. although not dramatic.4 0. 1 BCCH reuse 4/12. CDF of DL FER for a mobile speed of 3 km/h. The higher speed also means that the changes caused by slow fading are faster and the ability of power control to compensate the fluctuations of signal strength is reduced. the mobile speed doesn’t have significant effect on the relative performance of the network utilising frequency sharing.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide The resulting cumulative density functions of DL FER have been presented in Figure 5-19 and Figure 5-20. This increases the proportion of low FER.2 0. As the speed increases to 50 km/h. the difference gets bigger. the corresponding values are about 1. For the mobile speed of 50 km/h. This along with the relatively slow handover algorithm causes the proportion of high FER to increase at the higher mobile speeds.8 0. In both mobile speeds.5 0.3 0. For the mobile speed of 3 km/h the percentage of FER samples indicating FER above 15 % is 2 % for the frequency sharing case and 3 % for the 1/3 reuse case.9 1 FER Figure 5-19. Version 1. The effect of the mobile speed on the FER distribution can be clearly seen. CDF of DL FER for a mobile speed of 50 km/h.1 0. The higher mobile speed provides better performance against fast fading.4 0.0 Date Oct 23.01 0. TCH reuse 1/3 BCCH reuse = 4/12. the share of both the low FER percentages and the high FER percentages increases. TCH reuse = 3/9 by using MAIO-management CDF 0. However. the performance of the two simulated arrangements is very similar until the FER gets close to 10 %.6 0. 1998 Page 49/80 .1 0. as higher FER percentages are studied. It may be concluded according to this simulation that the frequency sharing provides better quality compared to the 1/3 reuse case.001 0 0.0.

. occasional co-channel collisions will happen between the cells of one site. the number of needed frequencies is reduced. 8 10 14 11 13 2 14 1 5 4 5 3 2 5 6 4 2 6 7 5 11 7 8 6 4 8 9 7 0 9 10 8 8 10 11 9 9 10 3 11 12 11 12 12 13 12 8 13 14 13 8 14 15 14 10 15 15 6 16 16 8 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 3 6 3 6 12 15 5 8 1 4 9 12 10 13 4 7 13 1 9 12 9 12 11 14 7 10 9 12 8 8 2 10 6 14 15 9 3 14 14 1 12 14 10 13 1 10 13 1 4 7 10 12 15 3 8 11 14 1 4 7 2 5 8 11 14 2 5 8 11 1 4 7 1 4 7 3 6 9 14 2 5 1 4 7 Figure 5-21. 1998 Page 50/80 . However. Preferably. it should be checked that the requirement presented in Equation (5. When the single MA-list scheme is employed. (5.6. In this example..0 Date Oct 23.5 Frequency Sharing in the Single MA-list Scheme (RF FH only) Frequency sharing can also be used to realise the usage of only one MA-list in the networks utilising sectorised base station configurations. Version 1. An example of a good MAIO plan is presented in Figure 5-21. In order to avoid intracell adjacent channel interference.. which is 3 in this case. If the cells in one site use the same MA-lists without the frequency sharing functionality.10) is still fulfilled.8) can be rewritten in more general form as follows min N freqs / site = ( N TRX / site − N cell / site ) ⋅ MAIOstep + N cell / site ⋅ S . a continuous frequency band is usually allocated to the cells. INDEX NO: MA_LIST1: TDMA MAI SECTOR MA-LIST HSN MAIO 1 1 2 0 3 2 1 2 5 3 1 2 7 10 13 TRX 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 4 0 1 1 2 0 0 2 3 1 2 3 4 2 6 TDMA-FRAMES -> 0 1 2 bcch frequency 1. especially if uplink power control is not in use..10) where: • min Nfreqs/site = minimum number of frequencies needed for a site • NTRX/site = total number of TRXs on a site • MAIOstep = the value of the MAIOstep parameter • Ncell/site = total number of cells in the site • S = MAIO separation between cells A good approach is to set the MAIOstep as high as possible. Example of frequency sharing when MA-list consists of consecutive frequencies and MAIOstep is set to 3. a smaller channel separation can be used between the cells of the same site. even bigger step should be used. constant adjacent channel interference would have occurred between the second TRX of sector one and the fourth TRX of sector three as shown in Figure 5-22. 1 3 7 4 6 10 bcch frequency 2 .Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 5.or adjacent channel collisions will occur provided that the cells on the same site use the same HSN. the MAIOstep should be set to at least 2. When this possibility is taken into account. In the single MA-list scheme all the cells use the same set of frequencies. When frequency sharing is used. it can be ensured that no unnecessary co...0. Because interference between the cells of the same site is much less likely to occur than intracell interference. If a MAIOstep of 4 would have been used instead. Consequently. the MAIO separation between cells is 2 and the MAIOstep is set to its maximum value. the Equation (5. 6 8 12 bcch frequency 3 .

. it is possible to achieve higher intracell frequency separations.... In this example. Example of customised MAIO allocation. 5 7 11 bcch frequency 3 .. the Equations (7.... 7 9 13 bcch frequency 3 .Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide INDEX NO: MA_LIST1: 0 1 TDMA MAI SECTOR MA-LIST HSN MAIO 1 1 2 0 4 2 1 2 6 3 1 2 8 12 16 TRX 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 4 1 2 0 0 2 3 1 2 3 4 2 6 TDMA-FRAMES -> 0 1 2 bcch frequency 1. If this approach is used. by using bigger MAIOstep and by not defining the MAIOoffset parameters in increasing order. 9 11 15 13 15 4 2 4 8 4 5 3 2 5 6 4 2 6 7 5 11 7 8 6 4 8 9 7 0 9 10 8 8 10 11 9 9 10 3 11 12 11 12 12 13 12 8 13 14 13 8 14 15 14 10 15 15 6 16 16 8 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 3 7 3 7 12 1 5 9 1 5 9 13 10 14 4 8 13 2 9 13 9 13 11 15 7 11 9 13 9 9 3 11 7 15 1 10 4 15 15 2 13 15 11 15 4 11 15 4 5 9 13 13 2 6 9 13 2 2 6 10 3 7 11 12 1 5 6 10 14 2 6 10 2 6 10 4 8 12 15 4 8 2 6 10 Figure 5-22.10) are not valid anymore. a bigger MAIOstep can now be used while the number of required frequencies is still the same... Instead. Compared to the example in Figure 5-21. each configuration should be evaluated case by case. Version 1.0 Date Oct 23. the used MAIOstep is 6 and the required MAIO separation between cells is 2.8) .. An example of this approach is presented in Figure 5-23.0.. Often. 1 3 7 7 9 13 13 15 4 4 5 3 2 5 6 4 2 6 7 5 11 7 8 6 4 8 9 7 0 9 10 8 8 10 11 9 9 10 3 11 12 11 12 12 13 12 8 13 14 13 8 14 15 14 10 15 15 6 16 16 8 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 5 11 5 11 14 5 7 13 3 9 11 2 12 3 6 12 15 6 11 2 11 2 13 4 9 15 11 2 7 7 1 9 5 13 14 8 2 13 13 15 11 13 3 9 15 3 9 15 12 3 9 5 11 2 1 7 13 9 15 6 10 1 7 4 10 1 13 4 10 9 15 6 9 15 6 11 2 8 7 13 4 9 15 6 Figure 5-23. 1 3 7 5 7 11 bcch frequency 2 . Example of too few frequencies compared to the size of the MAIOstep. 1998 Page 51/80 .(7. INDEX NO: MA_LIST1: TDMA MAI SECTOR MA-LIST HSN MAIO 1 1 2 2 8 2 1 2 4 3 1 2 0 6 12 TRX 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 4 0 1 1 2 0 0 2 3 1 2 3 4 2 6 TDMA-FRAMES -> 0 1 2 bcch frequency 1. 3 5 9 9 11 15 bcch frequency 2 .

Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide

6. RADIO NETWORK PARAMETERS
The BSS radio network parameters related to frequency hopping are presented in Table 7.
Table 7. FH related BSS radio network parameters.
Object

Parameter

Description

MA

Frequency

MA
MA
BTS
BTS

Identification of MA-list
Type of MA-list
BTS is hopping (HOP)
Hopping
sequence
number 1 (HSN1)

BTS
BTS

Hopping
sequence
number 2 (HSN2)
MAIO offset

BTS

MAIO step

BTS

Identification of MA-list

TRX

Frequency (FREQ)

MA-list. Used with RF FH BTS, max. 63 frequencies per list.
BCCH frequency must not be included in the list.
MA-list identification number in a BSC (1 - 128).
Frequency band of the MA-list (GSM900, GSM1800, GSM1900).
The hopping mode of the BTS (BB, RF or N).
Hopping sequence number of the hopping group 1. In BB FH for
the 0 time slots except the BCCH time slot and in RF FH all the
time slots of hopping TRXs (0 - 63).
Hopping sequence number of the hopping group 2. For the time
slots 1-7. BB FH only (0 - 63).
Defines the MAIO for the first TRX in the cell (0 - 62). Allows the
sharing of the same MA-list between multiple sectors of one BTS
without intrasite collisions. Sectors must be under the same BCF.
Relevant in RF FH only.
Defines the step size that is used when the MAIO is calculated for
the TRXs in the cell. Relevant in RF FH only. (Available in BSS7)
MA-list id number identifying the MA-list that is allocated to that
BTS. Relevant in RF FH only.
Assign a frequency to a TRX (GSM900 1 - 124, 975 - 1023;
GSM1800 512 - 885; GSM1900 313 - 810)

To define a BB-hopping cell the following parameters have to be set:
• BTS hopping mode (HOP) = BB
• Hopping sequence number 1 (HSN1) = 0..63 (0 for cyclic hopping and 1..63 for random
sequences)
• Hopping sequence number 2 (HSN2) = 0..63 (0 for cyclic hopping and 1..63 for random
sequences) (in most cases HSN1 may equal HSN2)
• Fixed frequencies for each TRX (FREQ)
To define a RF-hopping cell the following parameters have to be set:
• MA-list, MA-list ID and MA-list type must be defined in BSC (max. 63 frequencies)
• BTS hopping mode (HOP) = RF
• Hopping sequence number 1 (HSN1) = 0..63 (0 for cyclic hopping and 1..63 for random
sequences)
• MAIO offset = 0..62
• MAIO step = 0..62 (available in BSS7)
• MA-list ID used by the BTS = 0..128
Examples of MAIO offset and MAIO step definitions are presented in Chapter 8.
6.1 Parameters for MA-list Definitions in BSC
MA-list
Description:

Version
1.0.0

Mobile Allocation Frequency List, used with RF hopping BTS,

Date
Oct 23, 1998

Page
52/80

Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide

NMS GUI dialog name:
NMS DB name:
NMS DB range:
NMS DB mapping:

max. 63 frequencies.
Mobile Allocation Frequency List (MA)
GSM 04.08 10.5.2.12,GSM 05.02 6.2.2
before S4
When BTS is locked, if used in a RF hopping BTS
BCCH frequency must not be included in the list.
frequency
1..124 and 975..1023 (GSM)
512..885
(DCS)
512..810
(DCS19)
EBE,EBT,EBI
Frequencies
1..124 and 975..1023 (GSM)
512..885
(DCS)
512..810
(DCS19)
MAL Parameter Window
frequency
0..1023
1:1

MA-list ID
Description:
Object class:
GSM reference:
Option:
Release:
Modification:
Restriction:
MML name:
MML range:
MML default:
MML command:
NMS GUI name:
NMS GUI range:
NMS GUI dialog name:
NMS DB name:
NMS DB range:
NMS DB mapping:

Identification of a Mobile Allocation Frequency List in a BSC.
Mobile Allocation Frequency List (MA)
GSM 04.08 10.5.2.12,GSM 05.02 6.2.2
before S4
Read only
Identification of mobile allocation frequency list
1..128
EBE,EBR,EBT,EBI,EQA
MAL ID
1..128
MAL Parameter Window
object_instance
String up to 10 characters
1:1

Object class:
GSM reference:
Option:
Release:
Modification:
Restriction:
MML name:
MML range:

MML default:
MML command:
NMS GUI name:
NMS GUI range:

Type of MA-list
Description:
Object class:
GSM reference:
Option:
Release:
Modification:
Restriction:
MML name:
MML range:
MML default:
MML command:
NMS GUI name:
NMS GUI range:
NMS GUI dialog name:
NMS DB name:
NMS DB range:

Version
1.0.0

Frequency band of the list. The band is either GSM, DCS or
DCS19 band.
Mobile Allocation Frequency List (MA)
GSM 04.08 10.5.2.12,GSM 05.02 6.2.2
before S4
Read only
type of the mobile allocation frequency list
GSM, DCS, DCS19
EBE,EBI
Frequency Band in Use
GSM, DCS 1800, PCS 1900
MAL Parameter Window
freq_band_in_use
0..3

Date
Oct 23, 1998

Page
53/80

Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide
NMS DB mapping:

GSM (0), DCS 1800 (1), PCS 1900 (2)

6.2 BTS Level FH Related Parameters
BTS hopping mode
Description:
Object class:
GSM reference:
Option:
Release:
Modification:

Restriction:
MML name:
MML range:

MML default:
MML command:
NMS GUI name:
NMS GUI range:
NMS GUI dialog name:
NMS DB name:
NMS DB range:
NMS DB mapping:

The hopping mode of the BTS. RF and BB hopping cannot be
active simultaneously at the same site (BCF).
BTS
GSM 04.08 10.5.2.5
before S4
BTS site types DE21/DF12 and DE45/DF45:
when BTS is locked
BTS site type DE34/DF34:
when BCF and BTS are locked
BTS site type DE21/DF12 does not support RF hopping.
BTS hopping mode (HOP)
BB
baseband hopping is used
RF
radio frequency hopping is used
N
hopping is not used
EQC,EQE,EQO
Hopping Mode
Non-hopping, Baseband, RF
BTS Parameter Window
hopping_mode
0..2
Non-hopping (0), Baseband (1), RF (2)

Hopping sequence number 1
Description:
HSN1 is used in the frequency hopping sequence generation
algorithm and it is located in the Frequency Hopping System
1 (time slots 0 except BCCH time slot).
Object class:
BTS
GSM reference:
GSM 04.08 10.5.2.5,GSM 05.02 6.2.2
Option:
Release:
before S4
Modification:
When BTS is locked
Restriction:
Check that either cyclic or random hopping is used in the
nd
whole site (2 gen BTS). Parameter is only used with BB and RF hopping.
See parameter BTS hopping mode.
MML name:
hopping sequence number 1 (HSN1)
MML range:
0
cyclic hopping
1..63 random hopping
MML default:
0
MML command:
EQC,EQE,EQO
NMS GUI name:
HSN-1
NMS GUI range:
0..63
NMS GUI dialog name:
BTS Parameter Window
NMS DB name:
hsn
NMS DB range:
0..63
NMS DB mapping:
1:1
Hopping sequence number 2
Description:
HSN2 is used in the frequency hopping sequence generation
algorithm and it is located in the Frequency Hopping System
2 (time slots 1-7).
Object class:
BTS

Version
1.0.0

Date
Oct 23, 1998

Page
54/80

Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide
GSM reference:
Option:
Release:
Modification:
Restriction:

MML name:
MML range:
MML default:
MML command:
NMS GUI name:
NMS GUI range:
NMS GUI dialog name:
NMS DB name:
NMS DB range:
NMS DB mapping:
MAIO offset
Description:

GSM 04.08 10.5.2.5,GSM 05.02 6.2.2
before S4
When BTS is locked
Check that either cyclic or random hopping is used in the
nd
whole site (2 gen BTS). Parameter is used only with BB hopping. See
parameter BTS hopping mode.
hopping sequence number 2 (HSN2)
0
cyclic hopping
1..63 random hopping
0
EQC,EQE,EQO
HSN-2
0..63
BTS Parameter Window
hsn
0..63
1:1

Restriction:
MML name:
MML range:
MML default:
MML command:
NMS GUI name:
NMS GUI range:
NMS GUI dialog name:
NMS DB name:
NMS DB range:
NMS DB mapping:

The parameter sets the MAIO offset which is the lowest MAIO
in the cell. With MAIO offset it is possible to use the same
MA frequency list for two or more sectors of the site
without collisions.
BTS
No ref.
S6
The parameter can be modified only when the BTS is
locked or not RF hopping.
MAIO offset (MO)
0..62
0
EQA,EQO,EFO
MAIO Offset
0..62
BTS Parameter Window
maio_offset
0..62
1:1

MAIO step
Description:
Object class:
GSM Reference:
Option:
Release:
Modification:
Restriction:
MML name:
MML range:
MML default:
MML command:
NMS GUI name:
NMS GUI range:
NMS GUI dialog name:
NMS DB name:
NMS DB range:

The parameter sets the MAIO step.
BTS
No ref.
S7
On-Line
MAIO step (MS)
1..62
1
EQA,EQO,EFO
MAIO Step
1..62
BTS Parameter Window
maio_step
0..62

Object class:
GSM reference:
Option:
Release:
Modification:

Version
1.0.0

Date
Oct 23, 1998

Page
55/80

1998 Page 56/80 . before S4 If BTS is RF hopping..EQO Used Mobile Allocation Not Assigned.128).0 Date Oct 23. Assigned ID(1. BTS No ref. See chapter Mobile Allocation Frequency List.. Example PC parameters for RF FH network. Version 1..128) BTS Parameter Window used_mobile_alloc_list_id 0. Not Assigned (0) 6.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide NMS DB mapping: Note: MA-list used by BTS Description: Object class: GSM reference: Option: Release: Modification: Restriction: MML name: MML range: MML default: MML command: NMS GUI name: NMS GUI range: NMS GUI dialog name: NMS DB name: NMS DB range: NMS DB mapping: 1:1 OPTIONAL (Flexible MAIO management) The parameter defines the mobile allocation frequency list to which the BTS will be attached. then BTS must be locked mobile allocation frequency list (MAL) 0..128 (the value 0 detaches the BTS from any mobile allocation frequency list) No MA-list attached EQA.0.128 Assigned ID (1.3 Power Control Table 8. Relevant when RF hopping is used.

. 32 1 nx 1 ... -47 px 1 . 3 pcAveragingLevUL 1 . 38 dB 20 0 ........ 7 4 px 1 . 3 pcAveragingQualDL 1 . 32 -110 .. -47 px 1 ...... 32 1 pcUpperThresholdsQualUL 0 .. -47 px 1 .2 % .. 3 pcLowerThresholdsLevDL 1 1 SACCH 1 1 SACCH 1 1 SACCH 1 1 -110 . 32 SACCH weighting 1 ...Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide GROUP General optional optional BTS power range Averaging windows Thresholds EXPLANATION Q3 NAME Enable BTS power control powerCtrlEnabled Min time interval between PC's powerControlInterval Power increase step size powerIncrStepsize Power decrease step size powerRedStepsize BS tx max pwr preattenuation rfMaxPowerReduction ave UL signal quality (BER)< 0.... 32 weighting 1 . 32 1 pcUpperThresholdsQualDL 0 ....4 or 6 2 or 4 sec 1 dB 2 dB 2 ... 7 4 px 1 . 32 nx 1 ..... 30 dB 30 Min attenuation bsTxPwrMax 0 .......... 38 dB 8 0 -110 / . 32 weighting 1 ...... 32 1 pcLowerThresholdsLevUL pcUpperThresholdsLevDL pcUpperThresholdsLevUL Version 1.. 12 dB 0 0 . 30 dB 0 pcAveragingLevDL 1 ... 32 1 nx 1 . 7 1 px 1 ....0 RANGE Date Oct 23...4 % pwrDecrLimitBand2 MS Power optimisation after HO pwrDecrQualFactor msPwrOptLev UNIT Yes / No 0 .0..4 % pwrDecrLimitBand1 ave UL signal quality (BER) > 0. 38 dB 38 0 .... 32 nx 1 .2 % pwrDecrLimitBand0 ave UL signal quality (BER) 0..... 1998 dBm -101 1 1 dBm -101 1 1 dBm -47 1 1 dBm Page 57/80 -47 1 . 32 1 pcLowerThresholdsQualUL 0 .. 32 -110 . 1 -47/ N dBm 1 -79 0 Max attenuation bsTxPwrMin 0 . -47 px 1 . 31 Setting Yes 2.0.... 32 nx 1 .... 3 pcAveragingQualUL 1 . 32 1 nx 1 . 32 nx 1 . 32 weighting 1 .. 32 1 pcLowerThresholdsQualDL 0 ... 32 1 nx 1 . 32 -110 ...... 7 1 px 1 ....

..4 Handover Table 9. 32 nx 1 . 32 hoThresholdsLevUL -110 . 63 SACCH 6 5 enableIntraHoInterfUL Yes / No Yes enableIntraHoInterfDL Yes / No Yes enablePwrBudgetHandover Yes / No Yes enableUmbrellaHandover Yes / No No enableMSDistanceProcess Yes / No No enableSDCCHHandover Yes / No Yes enableHoMarginLevQual Yes / No hoMarginPBGT -24 . 32 hoThresholdsInterferenceUL Version 1. 32 3 nx 1 .. 7 5 px 1 ..... 32 nx 1 . 30 sec 3 hoPeriodPBGT 0 . -47 px 1 . -47 1 4 dBm -85 1 1 dBm -85 Page 58/80 ..Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 6.... 1 hoAveragingLevUL 1 .....0. 24 dB Yes 0 Averaging windows hoAveragingLevDL 1 ......... 32 SACCH Thresholds hoThresholdsLevDL 3 3 3 -110 ...0 3 Date Oct 23.. 32 SACCH 8 cells Number of zero results allowed numberOfZeroResults 0 ... Example HO parameters for FH network utilising aggressive power control... 32 3 nx 1 .......... -47 dBm 10 4 -95 1 1 dBm -95 px 1 . 32 SACCH msSpeedAveraging 1 .. 32 SACCH 6 and weighting values weighting 1 . 32 1 hoThresholdsQualDL 0 .. 7 7 Adj cells averaging: 6 best or 32 allAdjacentCellsAveraged Yes / No No enaFastAveCallSetup Yes / No No enaFastAveHo Yes / No No enaFastAvePC Yes / No Yes Averaging Method Minimum Intervals Periodic Handovers HO types allowed Margins Enable HO margin for Lev and Qual RANGE UNIT Setting minIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt 0 .. 32 SACCH 1 weighting 1 . 1 msDistanceAveragingParam 1 .. 24 dB 3 hoMarginQual -24 .. 30 sec minIntBetweenHoReq 0 . 1 hoAveragingQualDL 1 . 7 5 px 1 .. 32 nx 1 .. 32 4 hoThresholdsQualUL 0 ...... 1998 -110 .......... 63 dB 4 hoMarginLev -24 .... 32 hoThresholdsInterferenceDL -110 ..... 1 hoAveragingQualUL 1 . 32 SACCH 6 weighting 1 .. GROUP EXPLANATION Q3 NAME Averaging adjacent Averaging window size for adj cells averagingWindowSizeAdjCell 1 . -47 px 1 .. 32 SACCH 1 weighting 1 .. 63 SACCH 6 HoPeriodUmbrella 0 .

.. 63 px 1 . the usage of the DTX function is recommendable. 32 1 nx 1 . The default for the parameter is 1. The mode of the MS for using the discontinuous transmission (DTX) can be selected in DTX parameter as following: 0 1 2 ...5.0 Date Oct 23.. If the activation of the downlink DTX doesn’t cause any special harm for the functioning of the network. 32 1 1 TA 63 6. 6..MS may use DTX . where the default setting of the mobile chooses the uplink DTX mode. 1998 Page 59/80 . 32 1 msDistanceHoThresholdParam 0 ..0. The current default value for the parameter is OFF... meaning that the mobile have to use DTX. 32 nx 1 . Here is one example of BTS parameters in MSC including DTX function: DX 220 DX2x0-LAB 1990-11-1 BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION BTS3 10:28:56 NUMBER 00456 IS CREATED BSC NAME : LA NAME :LAREA3 CELL IDENTITY BTS ADMINISTRATIVE STATE NUMBER LAC (CI) ::00004 :00003 :LOCKED ROUTING ZONE TARIFF AREA DOWNLINK DTX DISABLED BY MSC (RZ) (TA) (DTX) ::000 :OFF .MS shall not use DTX.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide px 1 .MS shall use DTX .5 DTX 6.1 Uplink DTX The status of the uplink DTX can be defined in miscellaneous BTS parameters in BSC.5. etc… Version 1.2 Downlink DTX The status of the downlink DTX can be defined in BTS parameters of MSC.. This DTX parameter can receive one of the following values: ON – Downlink DTX enabled by MSC OFF – Downlink DTX disabled by MSC. Only a few operators in the world use the value 0.

1998 Page 60/80 . Version 1. It uses the database of NMS/2000. since with FH the drop call rate tends to stay low eventhough the subjective speech quality were not anymore acceptable. 98% Table 11. OPTIMISATION 7.0 Date Oct 23. • NDW can be used for Quality / traffic monitoring. the normal BSS and NSS level KPIs are presented. In the following Table. 95% 0…5.1 Tools for Network Monitoring The following tools for example can be used for monitoring the quality and the traffic of the network: • Cell Doctor version 1. These KPIs are more informational than Nokia’s official values! With FH. 95% Long term criteria 0…5. KPIs for the uplink and the downlink RXQUAL distribution.41 or later in NMS/2000.2 KPIs for Hopping Network The KPIs to analyse the performance and the quality of the network are basically the same than in the non-hopping network. Drop call rate doesn’t neither correlate directly to the quality. BSS and NSS related KPIs. the criteria for the cumulative uplink and downlink quality distribution could be the following: Table 10. a laptop with FMON and postprocessing SW • Ericsson TEMS monitoring tool can be used for the normal drive tests and DL FER monitoring 7. BSS related indicators Uplink quality distribution Downlink quality distribution Short term criteria 0…5. The tool extracts data in text format from the database.0. 98% 0…5.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 7. Worse RXQUAL can be tolerated when FH is used. New quality measures are under development and in testing phase to measure the subjective speech quality more accurately.18. consisting of a Nokia 8110i with SW. • TIM / TOM monitoring SW can be used for indoor / outdoor drive tests • A special DL FER monitoring tool can be used internally. Only the RXQUAL and Drop Call Rate measures differ from the nonhopping case.

3 RXQUAL in FH Networks Frequency hopping causes some changes in the RXQUAL distribution. The Frame Erasure Ratio (FER) is a ratio of discarded speech frames compared to all the received speech frames.1 0.1 0. TCH 95 97 24h Call Setup Success Rate [%]. NSS Related Indicators Intra MSC HO Success Ratio [%] MSC HO Success Ratio Inter [%] Paging Success Ratio [%] Technically Successful Calls [%] CGR Availability [%] MSC PSTN CGR Availability [%] CGR Availability [%] A-if VMS CGR Availability [%] MSC CGR Blocking [%]. cell TCH 5 2 BH HO Blocking [%]. BH CGR Blocking [%].5 0. transmission Number of transmission alarms per node Customer complaints of NW problems complaints of Customer billing Short criteria term Long criteria term 91 85 TBD TBD 100 100 100 100 1 1 1 1 97 97 96 90 97 TBD 96 94 TBD TBD 100 100 100 100 0. BH PSTN CGR Blocking [%]. 95 97 24h Success Ratio [%]. 24h 95 99* SDCCH Success Ratio [%]. 0… 0… 24h % TBD % TBD Average Interference Band. cell 0. 98 Cumulative DL Quality distribution.2 BH Call Blocking [%].0.1 0. 1998 Page 61/80 .0 Date Oct 23. 95 0… 4. BH A-if VMS CGR Blocking [%]. 98 24h % 4. Also.1 99 99 98 95 99 TBD TBD TBD Criteria Eki Eki < 1/1000 subscriber/day < 1/1000 subscriber/year 7. A speech frame is generally discarded if after the decoding and error correction process any of the category 1a bits is found to be changed based on the three parity bits following them in a speech frame. Ratio 24h Success Rate. exc. there are some differences in a way the RXQUAL distribution should be interpreted. 0… 4. SMS 95 98 *Note. 24h Controlled Outgoing HO Success [%]. cell TCH TBD TBD BH Access Grant Blocking [%]. TCH 5 3 24h Cumulative UL Quality distribution. Intra 96 99 24h of BTSs Exceeding 5% Blocking in BH [%]. cell 0 0 BH Drop Ratio [%]. 90 95 24h SDCCH Blocking [%]. BH VLR LU Success Ratio for Home Subscriber Intra [%] VLR LU Success Ratio for Roaming Subscriber Intra [%] VLR LU Success Ratio for Home Subscriber Inter [%] VLR LU Success Ratio for Roaming Subscriber Inter [%] Periodic LU Success Ratio [%] Home Subscriber LU Success ratio when visiting PLMN different Home Subscriber LU Success ratio when coming from different PLMN Home General Number of alarmsStatistics per Network Element. Version 1. 95 % 4. 24h objects which are Locked by User are counted as non available and will reduce the availability value.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide BSS Related Indicators Short criteria term Long criteria term TCH Availability [%]. MSC 90 95 24h Cell HO Success [%]. BSC 93 97 24h Controlled Outgoing HO Success [%] .

it may be concluded that in the frequency hopping networks significant quality deterioration starts at RXQUAL class 6 while in non-hopping network this happens at RXQUAL class 5. Because of these effects. RXQUAL vs.0. Subjective quality. Thus. The following table gives an idea of the correlation between RXQUAL and FER and between subjective speech quality and different FER classes.35% >35% good slightly degraded degraded useless The relation of downlink FER and RXQUAL was measured during a FH trial. while in a non-hopping network it is probable that interference or low field strength will affect several consecutive bursts making it harder for the error correction to actually correct errors.15% 15 . laboratory tests Steady quality/FER value (fast mobile or frequency hopping) RXqual 0-4 5 6 7 good slightly degraded degraded useless FER 0 . The relation is clearly different in the hopping case compared to the non-hopping case. 1998 Page 62/80 . the interference or low signal strength tend to occur randomly. Version 1. Table 12. The successful error correction leads to less erased frames and thus improves the FER. The distributions of FER in each RXQUAL class are presented in Figure 7-1 and Figure 7-2. The RXQUAL doesn’t indicate how the bit errors were distributed in a speech frame.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide he FER is a measure of how successfully the speech frame was received after the error correction process and it is thus a better indication of the subjective speech quality compared to the RXQUAL which gives an estimate of the link quality in terms of BER. One clear observation can be made. The bit error distribution affects the ability of the channel decoding to correct the errors. FER comparison according to the laboratory tests. in the non-hopping case there are significant amount of samples indicating deteriorated quality (FER>10%) in RXQUAL class 5 while in the hopping case the significant quality deterioration (FER>10%) happens in RXQUAL class 6. This difference is a consequence of interference and frequency diversities that affect the frequency hopping network.0 Date Oct 23.4% 4 .

00 % 70. 1998 Page 63/80 .0 Date Oct 23.00 % 70.00 % Q2 10.00 % Q1 0.00 % Q5 40.00 % 80.00 % Q6 50. DL FER / RXQUAL (ave 3. Measured relation of FER and RXQUAL in a non-hopping case.00 % Q7 60.00 % "0-1" Q0 "1-5" "5-10" FER % "1015" "15100" Figure 7-1.00 % RXQUAL Q2 10.00 % 90.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide DL FER / RXQUAL (No hopping) 100.00 % Q4 30.0.00 % RXQUAL Q3 20.00 % Q6 50.6 hopping carriers / cell) 100.00 % "0-1" Q0 "1-5" FER % "5-10" "1015" "15100" Figure 7-2. Version 1.00 % 90.00 % Q3 20.00 % 80.00 % Q1 0.00 % Q5 40.00 % Q4 30. Measured relation of FER and RXQUAL in frequency hopping case.00 % Q7 60.

but the improvement is more visible in the call success ratio.00 Percentage (%) 70.00 0. There’s bigger difference in downlink than in uplink direction. The improved tolerance against interference and low field strength in FH network means that it is less likely that the decoding of SACCH frames fails causing increment in the radio link timeout counter. the calls generating high RXQUAL samples tend to stay on. RXQUAL thresholds are used in the handover and power control decisions. DL RXQUAL distribution of a trial with different frequency allocation reuse patterns (no FH. In the Figure 7-3.0 Date Oct 23.00 20. the less samples fall in quality class 0 and more samples fall in quality classes 1-6.00 80.00 1/3 pure 50. As can be seen from the figures. even if no other changes have been made. the RXQUAL thresholds affecting handover and power control decisions should be set higher in a network using frequency hopping network. at the same time the call success rate is significantly improved.00 90. 1998 Page 64/80 . in most cases the quality is actually improved. This may seem to be surprising since it is expected that frequency hopping improves the network quality.00 No FH 60.0. Instead. In a frequency hopping network RXQUAL classes 0-5 are indicating good quality. 1/3 fixed.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide This improvement of FER means that the higher RXQUAL values may be allowed in a frequency hopping network. the share of the RXQUAL classes 6 and 7 may increase after FH is switched on. Typically. there are presented some trial results of a DL RXQUAL distribution with different frequency allocation reuse patterns. it is less likely that a call is dropped because of the radio link timeout.00 10. However. Thus. 1/3 heuristic allocation) Version 1.00 1/3 heuristic 40. DL RXQUAL Distribution 100.00 1/1 30. 1/1. Because of the improvement in the relative reception performance on the RXQUAL classes 4-6. the tighter the reuse becomes. This may lead to increase in the share of RXQUAL 6-7. However.00 q0 q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 q7 Quality Classes Figure 7-3.

0 Date Oct 23. it may happen that after FH is switched on the quality of the calls suffers.00 0.00 q0 q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 q7 Quality Classes Figure 7-4. This is likely to lead to worse quality outside the busy hours. 1998 Page 65/80 .00 60. This means that the interfered frequencies are always used as much as the interference free frequencies. while in the FH case the effect of interference is always present. 7.00 1/3 heuristic 1/1 40. 1/3 fixed. It is thus important to compare only busy hour statistics and to keep in mind that the interference problems may not show up outside the busy hours in the non-hopping case.00 10. If some of those frequencies are more interfered than others. Version 1. During the busy hours in a non-hopping case.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide UL RXQUAL Distribution 100.4 Idle Channel Interference Measurement When a new call is established or a handover is performed. the BSC selects the TRX and the time slot for the traffic channel based on the idle channel interference measurements. because interference free TRXs may be full.00 80. Especially outside the busy hours.00 20. The frequency hopping has a significant effect on the idle channel interference measurement results. so in the frequency hopping case all the calls experience average quality instead of some very high quality calls and some very low quality calls. Note! In BB FH and RF FH case the frequency specific RXQUAL cannot be measured anymore. The frequency hopping tends to average the quality.00 90. it is probable that time slots are always available on the TRXs having interference free carriers. Frequency hopping forces all the calls to use all the frequencies in the hopping sequence. 1/1.00 Percentage (%) 70. UL RXQUAL distribution of a trial with different frequency allocation reuse patterns (no FH. These calls are likely to experience significantly worse quality. When FH is not used.0. some of the calls have to be allocated to a TRX using interfered frequency. the calls tend to be allocated to the TRXs using interference free carriers (the TRX and the time slot are selected based on the UL idle channel interference measurement).00 No FH 1/3 pure 50.00 30. The quality is averaged over the hopping sequence. 1/3 heuristic allocation) Frequency hopping forces each call to use all the frequencies in the hopping sequence.

1998 Page 66/80 . the interference caused by a mobile is not necessarily spread evenly on all the hopping TRXs as can be seen in Figure 7-6. the frequency of a hopping logical channel is changed about 217 times in a second. If the random hopping sequences are used.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide When the frequency hopping is used. interference is always evenly spread on all the TRXs using the same MA-list as presented in Figure 7-7.0. Idle channel interference in a case of the random RF hopping. Version 1. f2. Idle channel interference level RTSL 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Low TRX 1 TRX 2 f1. The distribution of interference presented in this section is the same for both uplink and downlink directions. If the cyclic hopping sequence is used. However. In this case. this means that the measured idle channel interference is likely to be the same for all the TRXs that use the same MA-list. f3 High TRX 3 Interfering mobiles using the same frequencies: Path loss to the interfered BTS f1. f2. If the interference is averaged over more than one SACCH frame. In a case of the random hopping. normally the interferers are mobiles located in interfering cells.0 Date Oct 23. This happens. f3 Timeslot # Figure 7-5. This is illustrated in Figure 7-5. 7. the averaging effect is even stronger.5 Cyclic and Random Hopping Sequences If the cyclic hopping mode is used. because the interfering mobiles are only transmitting during the time slot that has been allocated to them. there are probably differences in the measured idle channel interferences between different time slots in the cell. The frequency of the idle time slots changes according to the same sequence. there might occur differences on the measured idle channel interference levels between the TRXs on the same time slot as explained in the following section.

0 Date Oct 23.0. Version 1. Interference distribution when random hopping sequences are used. Base station TDMA frames TRX 1 5 2 1 4 1 6 1 4 3 4 2 5 5 4 3 4 1 2 1 6 3 2 2 6 TRX 2 6 3 2 5 2 1 2 5 4 5 3 6 6 5 4 5 2 3 2 1 4 3 3 1 TRX 3 1 4 3 6 3 2 3 6 5 6 4 1 1 6 5 6 3 4 3 2 5 4 4 2 TRX 4 2 5 4 1 4 3 4 1 6 1 5 2 2 1 6 1 4 5 4 3 6 5 5 3 TRX 5 3 6 5 2 5 4 5 2 1 2 6 3 3 2 1 2 5 6 5 4 1 6 6 4 TRX 6 4 1 6 3 6 5 6 3 2 3 1 4 4 3 2 3 6 1 6 5 2 1 1 5 2 3 3 1 6 2 2 5 3 5 5 interference Mobile 3 6 frequencies 5 1 1 2 1 4 2 6 3 3 4 1 6 frequencies Figure 7-7. This limits the number of interferers and compromises the interference diversity.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Base station 6 frequencies TDMA frames TRX 1 1 4 7 11 15 18 1 4 7 11 15 18 1 4 7 11 15 18 TRX 2 4 7 11 15 18 1 4 7 11 15 18 1 4 7 11 15 18 1 TRX 3 7 11 15 18 1 4 7 11 15 18 1 4 7 11 15 18 1 4 TRX 4 11 15 18 1 4 7 11 15 18 1 4 7 11 15 18 1 4 7 TRX 5 15 18 1 4 7 11 15 18 1 4 7 11 15 18 1 4 7 11 TRX 6 18 1 4 7 11 15 18 1 4 7 11 15 18 1 4 7 11 15 1 8 15 1 8 15 interference Mobile 1 8 15 1 8 15 1 8 15 3 frequencies 1 8 15 Figure 7-6. it is recommended that cyclic hopping sequences are not used in the areas where the network is interference limited. The drawback of the cyclic hopping is that the interference coming from one interferer may affect only some of the TRXs as seen in Figure 7-6. 1998 Page 67/80 . For this reason. Example of interference distribution in one cyclic hopping case.

0 Date Oct 23. However.0. are not usually synchronised. This means that the time slots may be partially overlapping each other as presented in Figure 7-9. the interference from one interfering cell may consist two interference sources (mobiles) in uplink direction or two different power levels in downlink direction if downlink power control is used. which was presented in Section 2. the base stations that are located on different sites. Time division used in the GSM systems limits the interference diversity. Guide to choose between cyclic and random hopping sequences. the interference diversity is only possible among the mobiles that share the same time instant for transmission. Because of the TDMA principle.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Cyclic: • In the areas where the interference is NOT a problem (low traffic areas) Random: • In the areas where the interference is a problem (high traffic areas) Figure 7-8. Thus. This enhances interference diversity. The result of this is a beneficial effect called interference diversity. RTSL 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 Serving cell Interfering cell 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RTSL Figure 7-9. 1998 Page 68/80 . Version 1.6. Frequency hopping makes it possible to change the interference sources for each TDMA frame.1. the better interference is averaged and the better the interference diversity gain. The degree of overlapping in non-synchronised network is random but constant between any non-synchronised cell pair and it may be anything between 50 % and 100 % as presented in Figure 7-10. Interference from non-synchronised cell. The more different interferers the link has.

Version 1. the measurement averaging in BTS should be disabled and aggressive power control parameters should be used.0.6 Intracell Handover The lack of synchronisation has a positive effect on the interference diversity.0 Date Oct 23. Thus. it is likely that there are no significantly better time slots available. it is recommended to be used in both UL and DL directions. the intracell handover to another time slot changes the interference sources and is feasible if the overall interference situation in the target time slot is better. During busy hours when the traffic in the network is at the maximum. Because of this. In order to make the PC as fast as possible. Normally the intracell handover is triggered by poor RXQUAL. significant gain can not be accomplished by intracell handover to another time slot. However.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Serving cell 50% 50% 100% Interfering cell Figure 7-10. interference is still averaged only between the mobiles sharing the same time instant for transmission. In order to avoid unnecessary intracell handovers. a fast and mainly RXQUAL driven power control is recommended. the RXQUAL threshold for intracell handover should be set so high that the handover is not attempted before the quality of the call is seriously threatened.7 Power Control Power control has been found to improve the quality in FH networks and thus. 7. 1998 Page 69/80 . Example HO parameters are presented in Table 9. The two extreme cases: 50 % and 100 % overlapping of bursts. Example PC parameters are presented in Table 8. To achieve this. Power control is the most effective when the used TX power level is kept as low as possible while still maintaining an acceptable link quality. 7.

to ensure that the PC will become triggered before HO. The GSM specifications require that the BCCH TRX must transmit continuously and always at the full power. 7. This means that occasionally some bursts are transmitted by the BCCH TRX using the time slots from 1 to 7. Neighboring sites should use different HSNs. if a common MA list is shared inside the site. The HSN value 0 means cyclic hopping and the values from 1 to 63 mean different random hopping sequences. Version 1.1 Downlink Power Control with BB Hopping In the baseband hopping the BCCH TRX is included in the hopping sequence. which use common frequencies. Also the HO speed should be fast enough but still slower than the PC speed. 1998 Page 70/80 . This may cause serious problems in the mobile receiver if the mobile is located close to the cell site. the RXQUAL thresholds triggering handovers have to be adjusted accordingly.15 dB when downlink power control is used together with baseband hopping. Normally. the same HSNs should be used in different cells inside the site. It ensures the collisions to happen randomly between the sites. Thus. because the BCCH frequencies are used in the downlink level measurements of the neighboring cells by the mobiles. This is required.0.8 Handover Control Since FH and an aggressive power control cause significant changes in the RXQUAL distribution. To avoid such problems. the maximum base station power decrease (bsTxPowerMin) should be limited to 10 . 7. the RXQUAL thresholds have to be increased by 1 or 2 classes (RXQUAL 4 -> RXQUAL 5). Consequently. the downlink signal level may fluctuate dramatically since the BCCH TRX is not using the power control.7. An example of HO parameters for FH networks utilising aggressive power control are presented in Table 9.9 HSN Planning with Random Hopping The HSN defines the used FH sequence. if the downlink power control is used.0 Date Oct 23.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 7. In random hopping case. especially those sites. the frequency collisions can be avoided.

The BCCH frequency plan is made separately and it is not considered here.1 Planning Case 1: Single MA-list In this example a single MA-list implementation is planned for a small network consisting of 7 sites and 16 sectorised cells. it must be checked that the used frequency band is sufficient to provide acceptable quality.0 Date Oct 23. Network layout and TRX configurations. The number of TRXs can be maximum 12 TRXs per site. In order to avoid interference between the cells of the same site. PLANNING CASES 8. On the average there are 2. Also in some cases the differences in cell level traffic distributions may require that some frequencies are reserved to be used only in the highly loaded cells.0. because each cell has the same MA-list containing all the allocated frequencies.1 Frequency Planning Although actual frequency plan is not needed. Since fractional loading is required. The effective reuse on the frequency hopping TRXs can be calculated by using Equation (5.1) as follows: Version 1.4 Figure 8-1. 1998 Page 71/80 .Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 8. S ite Ce ll TRX count Hopping TRX s A 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 1 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 B C D E F G Ave ra ge hopping TRX s/ce ll : 2. a MAIO plan is made for each site. only RF hopping can be used. The benefit in single MA-list implementation is that no frequency planning is required. 21 frequencies are to be allocated to the hopping TRXs. 8.1.4 hopping TRXs per cell in the example network.

By doing this.3 74. Version 1.2 MAIO Planning Since all the cells of a sectorised site are usually controlled by the same BCF.7 16.6 % 10.5).4 69.6 % 10.3 74.6 % 10.1 69. because it is only very slightly above the 8 % recommendation.9 % 6.1 74.7 9.7 23.8 % 9.6 % 6.6 %. This doesn’t exceed the average frequency load significantly.6 23.3 % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Ave ra ge fre que ncy loa d: 4.8 2.7 16.4 69. In order to keep the collision probability low enough.8 16.6 % 6.6 % 10.6 23.6 % 10.8 % 9.1 74.0 Date Oct 23. The average frequency load in the network is 8.6 23.6 16 24 32 32 32 24 24 32 16 24 32 32 24 32 32 24 Fra ctiona l Fre que ncy loa d HW loa d loa d 61.1 74.3 69. The maximum frequency load is 10. 4 Effective reuse of 8. 1998 Page 72/80 .6 % 10.3 % 9. Load calculations.4) and (5. the frequency load distribution in the network can be kept more even.0.1 % Figure 8-2. Since the hopping sequence is derived from the HSN and the TDMA frame number.6 % 6. If the maximum frequency load exceeded 13 % -14 %.3 % 9.5 % 14.6 23.3). Cells causing high frequency loads tend to deteriorate the quality in the neighboring cells. the synchronisation makes it possible avoid interference between the sectors of one site.6 16.6 % 2. This means that the TDMA frame number is always the same in the sectors of one site.7 16. 8.5 % 9.3 % 4.8 is reasonable for frequency hopping network and it can be expected that the network will have good quality.6 % 8.3 74.3 % 14. they are frame synchronised.1 %. also the BCCH TRX is included in the traffic estimations.3 % 14.3 % 9.8 16. Here.5 % 14.1 74.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Reff = 21 = 8.6 % 10.3 74.7 23. The load distribution in the network is calculated by using Equations (5.7 23.5 % 14.1 69.7 23. This is acceptable.1. S ite Ce ll A 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 B C D E F G Tra ffic a t Num be r of 2% blocking tim e slots 9.3 % 14. see Table 6. it might make sense to reserve some extra frequencies that would be used only on the highly loaded cells.9 % 6.5 % 2. it is recommended that the average frequency load caused by each cell in the network doesn’t exceed 8 %.5 % 14.1 69.6 % 10.6 % 6.3 % 14. (5.1 61.

The site to be investigated is the site with biggest TRX configurations that is in this case site C having 3 sectors and 8 hopping TRXs. The HSN parameter has to be defined for each site and MAIOoffset and MAIOstep for each cell. In this case the goal is to have a minimum channel separation of 2 between the sectors and 3 between the TRXs of the same cell. Example MAIO plans are presented in the following pictures. Version 1. These parameters and their functionality are presented in Section 1. Instead it defines the MAIO of the first hopping TRX of the cell. However. in order to avoid constant adjacent channel interference between the sectors of the same site.0.0 Date Oct 23.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide To prevent intra site and intra cell interference the following requirements have to be fulfilled: • • • All the sectors of one site have to controlled by the same BCF All the sectors of one site have to use the same HSN MAIO planning have to be properly made In order to guarantee interference diversity. especially if UL power control is not used. min N freqs / site = ( N TRX / site − N cell / site ) ⋅ MAIOstep + N cell / site ⋅ S  →(8 − 3) ⋅ 3 + 3 ⋅ 2 = 21 As a result. The MAIO plan is now made for the Site C by using MAIOstep 3 and by selecting the MAIOoffset parameters for the sectors so that the channel (=MAIO) separation of 2 is realised between the sectors. The minimum requirement for channel separation between sectors is 1. MAIO planning should be done for each site. To check if that is possible with the current frequency band of 21 carriers. it can be seen that the frequency band of 21 carriers is just enough to allow the implementation of wanted channel separations even in the site with the biggest TRX configurations. Equation (5. a separation of 2 is highly recommended.10) is used. MAIOoffset is used to control the channel separations between the sectors of the same site. MAIOstep defines the channel separation between the TRXs of the same cell. In order to avoid intra cell interference. At first it should be checked that proper channel separations are possible with allocated frequency band. a different HSN should be used in the different sites located in the same area. 1998 Page 73/80 . the channel separation between the TRXs of the same cell should be at least 2. Preferably the separation should be 3 or more. However. It is thus used to guarantee that intra cell interference doesn’t occur. MAIOoffseet doesn’t directly define the channel separation between the cells.

1998 Page 74/80 . Example MAIO plans. Version 1.or adjacent channel interference between sectors Figure 8-3.0.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide MAIO Offset determines the MAIO of the first hopping TRX in each sector MAI value for each TDMA frame is calculated by BTS and MS by using HSN and TDMA frame number Site C The sectors share the same HSN Transmitted frequencies for each TRX during each TDMA frame MAIOs for the rest of the hopping TRXs are determined by adding MAIO Step to the MAIO of the previous hopping TRX No co. Site D Site F Site G Figure 8-4.0 Date Oct 23. Example of MAIO planning.

8.1) as follows: Version 1. it should me made sure that the MAIO plan for that site is still valid. Failure to do so may lead to continuous co.0 Date Oct 23. Parameters for each cell in the example network. This makes it possible to avoid interference between the strongest interferers.or adjacent channel interference between the TRXs of the site. The frequency allocation can be done by utilising a frequency allocation tool that supports RF hopping with fractional loading. Also power control is to be used both in uplink and in downlink. meaning that the frequencies are repeated in every 3 to 5 cells. 8.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Table 13. The target frequency allocation reuse is between 3 and 5. Low effective frequency reuse is possible because each cell has enough frequencies in the hopping sequence to provide good frequency hopping gain and the usage of frequencies can be planned so that the worst potential interferers do not use the same frequency. The goal is to achieve the highest capacity by employing very tight frequency reuse.2. On the average there are 2. such as NPS/X 3.0. Site Cell A B C D E F G 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 TRX count 2 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 HSN 2 2 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 4 4 3 3 3 1 1 MAIOoffset MAIOstep 0 8 0 0 8 16 0 8 16 0 8 0 8 13 0 8 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 If more TRXs are later added.3.2 Planning Case 2: RF FH with Fractional Loading (FAR 3 – 5) The network in this case is the same as in the first planning case.4 hopping TRXs per cell in the example network. The effective reuse on the frequency hopping TRXs can be calculated by using Equation (5.1 Defining the Frequency Band and the Number of Frequencies Needed in Each Cell The BCCH frequency plan is made separately and it is not considered here. In order to end up with an effective reuse of 8. 1998 Page 75/80 . 19 frequencies are to be allocated to the hopping TRXs.

the MA-list lengths were selected so that the frequency load caused by each cell falls between 30 % and 40 %.7 16. The frequency allocation reuse can now be calculated by using Equation (5. the minimum length was 3 in order to guarantee sufficient FH gains. Also the BCCH TRX is included in the traffic calculation. The resulting average MA-list length is 4.2) as follows: Version 1.6 37.4 hopping TRXs per cell = 7.1 74.6 23.7 23. Site Ce ll TRX count Hopping TRX s A 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 1 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 B C D E F G Tra ffic a t Num be r of 2% blocking tim e slots 9.9 2.0 50.3 50.7 16.9 Ave ra ge fre que ncy loa d: Effective reuse = 19 frequencies / 2.6 37.1 20.0 50. In the following figure.3 50.0 50. However.0 50.6 34.0 50.0 20.3 74. For example.9 carriers per cell.1 69.1 69.4 69.1 % (max.6 37.1 % Average frequency load 34.0 33.6 23.4 69. the frequency load caused by each cell should range from 30 % to 50 % as the frequency allocation reuse ranges from 3 to 5.0 50.1 74. However. 37.6 23.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Reff = 19 = 7.8 16.9 is quite low.7 9.1 34.5 34.3 74.7 16.5 34.9 % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % OK Frequency allocation reuse = 19 frequencies / 4.0 50.7 23.1 37.3 69.8 16.6 % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % 4. see Table 6.9 OK 34.3 % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Ave ra ge M A list le ngth: 3 4 6 6 6 4 4 6 3 4 6 6 4 6 6 4 Fra ctiona l Fre que ncy loa d loa d 33.0 50.0 50. MA-list length definitions are made for the example network.1 34. This is used as a basis when the number of frequencies to be allocated in each cell is defined.6 16.0 50.0 50.1 37. if the antennas in the urban environment are located too high so that the isolation between the interfering cells provided by the surrounding environment is not exploited.6 16 24 32 32 32 24 24 32 16 24 32 32 24 32 32 24 M A list HW loa d le ngth 61.1 37. the minimum achievable reuse also depends very much on the environment and the network layout. 4 Effective reuse of 7.0 50.7 23.1 69.9 FH freqs per cell = 3. As a rule of thumb.6 37.0. a higher effective reuse may have to be used in order to maintain good quality. In this example. 1998 Page 76/80 .7 23.1 74.1 61.1 74.6 23.1 37.3 74.1 %) OK Figure 8-5. but it can be expected that with implementation of frequency allocation reuse of 3 to 5 the network will have acceptable quality provided that the network model in the frequency allocation tool is accurate. Load and reuse calculations.1 34.0 Date Oct 23.3 74.

The MAIOstep of 2 ensures that adjacent carriers are not used at the same time. Consecutive carriers allowed in the MA lists Fractional load in every sector is 50% or less (fractional load = MAL_length / Nb_TRX) MAIOstep is set to 2 No intra cell adjacent channel interference! Figure 8-6. The minimum channel separation between the frequencies in the MA-list should be at least one carrier in order to avoid intracell adjacent channel interference. it might even be possible to reduce the frequency band a little bit.9 The average frequency load is 34.0 Date Oct 23. Preferably the separation of two should be used unless that requirement significantly degrades the allocation result (=increases the resulting value of the cost function). This would match the rule of thumb perfectly.1 % and frequency allocation reuse 3. 8. An example of how intra cell adjacent channel interference is avoided is presented in the following figure. once the number of frequencies to be allocated for each cell is defined. Whether the quality will still be acceptable depends on the quality of the frequency plan as well as the network layout and surrounding environment. that it might make sense to deliberately force the fractional load to 50 % or less so that the intracell separation requirement can be removed. Actually.3. In most cases this should provide low enough collision probability for a network having a frequency allocation reuse 3. 1998 Page 77/80 .9 4. if the fractional load on a cell is 50 % or less. as we would now have a frequency load of 34. The removal of the intra cell channel separation requirement makes it possible for the allocation tool to find a better allocation that minimises the interference more effectively. then it is advantageous to allow consecutive frequencies in the MA-list and set the MAIOstep parameter to 2 in that cell.1. the allocation should be performed with help of an frequency allocation tool that supports fractional loading and is able to minimise the interference in the network such as NPS/X 3.2 Frequency Allocation and Analysis Now. The effective reuse with 17 carriers would be 7.9. Version 1.1 %.2.47. The difference can be so significant. The allocation parameters can be similar as in the normal non-hopping case. With 17 carriers the frequency allocation reuse would reduce to 3.0. Example of MAIO planning. However.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide FAR = 19 = 3. adjacent channel interference is prevented. Thus.47.

the better quality seem to be predicted even when it is likely that the quality in reality should be worse.0 Date Oct 23.0. Since this is RF hopping. In order to avoid intracell interference. Since fractional loading is not used. The frequency allocation can be now performed normally. Since frequency sharing is not used in this case. since it is usually possible to get a sufficient number of frequencies in the hopping sequence even without it. The RXQUAL analysis tool is suitable for comparing different frequency allocations and for finding the locations of possible interference spots where the quality is likely to be the worst. Each of these virtual cells should have as many TRXs as there are hopping TRXs in all the sectors of that site.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Adjacent channels may be allowed between the sectors of the same site especially if all of them are not adjacent to each other.3 Planning Case 3: RF FH with Frequency Sharing The network in this case is the same as in the first planning case. It should also be noted that the indicated RXQUAL doesn’t necessarily correspond to the actual measured RXQUAL but is still gives an indication of the overall quality of the frequency plan and the locations of the probable interference areas. 8.2 and 3. However. each MA-list will have as many frequencies as there are hopping TRXs in all the sectors of each site. The benefit is that the frequency planning can be accomplished by using conventional frequency planning tools that don’t support fractional loading. The frequency sharing arrangement makes it possible to use FH with sufficient number frequencies in the hopping sequence even with small TRX configurations without need to utilise fractional loading that requires special planning tool support. The RXQUAL tool estimates the typical RXQUAL for every pixel on the digital map. It supports frequency hopping and fractional loading. the RXQUAL analysis tool is sensitive to the fractional loading! The lower the fractional load. The BCCH frequencies are planned normally.3.2 or older) by creating one virtual cell for each site and by transmitting this cell through multiple directional antennas for example by using power divider feature in the planning tool. Version 1. it is very difficult to analyze the frequency plan with conventional C/I analysis. 8. more advanced analysis tool such as the RXQUAL analysis tool available in NPS/X 3. it is now possible to create an interference matrix that describes how much the sites interfere each other. the tool is only suitable to analysing different frequency plans while the fractional loading (=MA-list lengths) remain the same. Fractional loading is not utilised. downlink power control can also be fully utilised. Since fractional loading is used. The interference diversity and fractional loading ensures that even if adjacent channel interference occurs. Because of this.1 Frequency Planning In this scheme all the sectors of the same site use a common MA-list. Instead. It should be made sure that no power dividing losses are included since in the reality there are no power splitters. it won’t be continuous and thus its effect on the quality is reduced. all the cells in one area using the same frequency band should have a different HSN in order to maximise interference diversity.3 should be used. As a result. This can be modeled in the planning tool (NPS/X 3. From the interference point of view the frequency sharing effectively combines all the sectors into one virtual cell that covers the combined coverage area of all the sectors in that site. 1998 Page 78/80 . resulting in one common MA-list for each site. the channel separation should be set to at least 2.

4 Effective Effectivereuse reuse==19 19frequencies frequencies/ /2.0 Date Oct 23. Network layout and the calculation of the needed MA-list lengths. Since the sectors of the same site use the same MA-list. MAIO planning is simple in this case. Version 1. 8.Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide 19 19frequencies frequenciesreserved reservedfor fornon-BCCH non-BCCHTRXs TRXs Network layout: A B 1 2 3 C 3 2 F 2 3 2 TRX count 1 2 1 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 4 4 4 3 3 4 2 3 4 4 3 4 4 3 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 1 2 3 3 2 3 3 2 1 E 2 1 Ce ll A B C 1 2 1 D S ite Hopping TRX s D 1 G 1 E F G Each Eachcell cellhas hasaasufficient sufficientnumber numberofofhopping hopping frequencies even without fractional frequencies even without fractionalloading loading The Thesame sameMA MAlist listisisshared sharedamong among all the sectors of one all the sectors of onesite site Ave ra ge hopping TRX s/ce ll : 2. MAIOStep should be set to 1 in every sector and MAIOOffset must be selected for each sector so that the MAIOs of the hopping TRXs in one site will be in consecutive order.0.4hopping hoppingTRXs TRXsper percell cell== 7.4 2. there will be co-channel interference between those sectors unless MAIO planning is properly done. To prevent intra site and intra cell interference the following requirements have to be fulfilled: • • • All the sectors of one site have to controlled by the same BCF All the sectors of one site have to use the same HSN MAIO planning have to be properly made In order to guarantee interference diversity. a different HSN should be used in the different sites located in the same area. 1998 Page 79/80 .9 OK OK MAIO MAIOplanning planningneeded needed Figure 8-7.3.2 MAIO Planning MAIO planning is needed in order to avoid mutual interference between the sectors of the same site.9 7.

Frequency Hopping Network Planning Guide Frequencies for the MA list are planned with help of frequency planning tool. Alternative option is to use the RXQUAL analysis tool of NPS/X 3.0 Date Oct 23. Example of MAIO planning. Version 1.0. Minimum separation is 2. MAIOStep is 1 The sectors share the same HSN MAIOoffset for each sector is set so that the MAIOs for TRXs are in consecutive order Figure 8-8. 1998 Page 80/80 . Since it is not possible to take the benefits of MAIO management into account (=no interference between the cells of the same site). 8. similar setup as in the C/I analysis has to be used. the same virtual cell with power dividers –setup that was used in the frequency allocation phase must be used in the analysis.3 Analysis Since fractional loading is not used. However.3.2. conventional C/I analysis is possible.