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# Basic hydraulic system (Excavator

)
Understanding hydraulic basic system

Jan., 24th,2007
Overseas P/S Team
Docu. No : DXT HB 07 06 - Rev03

1. Hydraulic principles

2. Basic hydraulic system

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Hydraulic principles

There are several advantages for using a liquid.
1. Liquids conforms to the shape of the container.
2. Liquids are practically incompressible.
3. Liquids apply pressure in all directions.

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Liquids will also flow in any direction through lines and hoses of various sizes and shapes.1. 4 . Hydraulic principles 1) Liquids comport to shaft Liquids will conform to the shape of any container.

When a substance is compressed. A liquid occupies the same amount of space or volume even when under pressure." 5 . The space or volume that any substance occupies is called "displacement.1. it takes up less space. Hydraulic principles 2) Practically incompressible 50Kg A liquid is practically incompressible.

6 . a liquid is best suited for the hydraulic system because it continually occupies the same volume or displacement. Hydraulic principles 2) Practically incompressible 50Kg Gas is compressible. When gas is compressed. it takes up less space and it’s displacement becomes less. The space previously occupied by the gas may be occupied by another object. Therefore.1.

f/cm² 3 Cm Radius 2 Cm Radius According to Pascal’s Law." Therefore. "Pressure exerted on a confined liquid is transmitted undiminished in all directions and acts with equal force on all equal areas. a 50 Kg force acting upon a piston with a 2 Cm. 7 . In the above example.f 50 Kg. The same 4Kg/Cm² acting upon a piston with a 3 Cm. Hydraulic principles 3) Hydraulics doing work 112 Kg.1. radius supports a 112Kg force weight.f 4Kg. a force exerted on any part of an enclosed hydraulic oil system transmits equal pressure in all directions throughout the system. radius creates a pressure of approximately 4 Kg per square centimeter in a confined liquid.

f 4Kg. Hydraulic principles 3) Hydraulics doing work Force (F) = Pressure (P) X Area (A) Pressure (P) = Force (F) / Area (A) Area (A) = Force (F) / Pressure (P) 112 Kg.f 50 Kg.1.f/cm² 3 Cm Radius 2 Cm Radius 8 .

When oil flows through an orifice.1. The gauge up stream of the orifice shows that a pressure of 30 bar is needed to send a flow of 1 LPM through the orifice. In right figure. There is no restriction to flow after the orifice. 9 . The gauge down stream of the orifice shows 0 pressure. there is an orifice in the pipe between the two gauges. pressure is produced on the upstream side of the orifice. Hydraulic principles 4) Orifice effect Flow Flow 1 LPM 1 LPM An orifice offers a restriction to the pump flow.

The pressure reaction is the same as Pascal’s Law which states that "pressure exerted on a confined liquid is transmitted undiminished in all directions and acts with equal force on all equal areas. 10 ." The two gauge readings are the same. oil flow to the tank is blocked. When the pipe is filled. The positive displacement pump continues pumping at 1 LPM and fills the pipe.1. the resistance to any additional flow into the pipe produces pressure. Hydraulic principles 4) Orifice effect From From Pump Pump When the end of either pipe is plugged.

series and parallel.1. In Figure. Hydraulic principles 4) Orifice effect Bar Bar Bar Bar Bar Flow Flow 1 LPM 1 LPM 30 bar Bar 30 bar 30 bar There are two basic types of circuits. a pressure of 90 bar is required to send 1 LPM through either circuit. The total resistance equals to the sum of each individual resistance. 11 . Orifices or relief valves in series in a hydraulic circuit offer a resistance that is similar to resistors in series in an electrical circuit in that the oil must flow through each resistance.

pump oil follows the path of least resistance. When the pump oil flow fills the passage to the left of the three valves. The pump oil pressure increases to 60 bar and opens the valve to circuit two. the pump oil pressure begins to increase. The pump oil pressure can not continue to increase until circuit two is filled. the pump supplies oil to three parallel circuits. The pump oil pressure opens the valve to circuit one and oil flows into the circuit. Circuit three has the lowest priority and circuit one has the highest priority. Hydraulic principles 4) Orifice effect 30 bar 60 bar 90 bar In a system with parallel circuits. When circuit one is filled.1. In figure . The pump oil pressure must exceed 90 bar to open the valve to circuit three. 12 . There must be a system relief valve in one of the circuits or at the pump to limit the maximum pressure in the system. pump oil pressure increases to 30 bar.

Hydraulic principles 4) Orifice effect Please write down system pressure on pressure gauge 13 .1.

adequate capacity and keep dirt out. Tanks must have sufficient strength.2. The tank also removes heat and air from the oil. Basic hydraulic system 1) Hydraulic tank The main function of the hydraulic oil tank is to store oil. 14 .

The supply line allows oil to flow from the tank to the system. the drain is used to remove old oil from the tank. The drain also allows for the removal of water and sediment from the oil. Return line Suction and Return Lines .2. Basic hydraulic system 1) Hydraulic tank Fill Cover Sight Glass Fill cover . Suction line Drain Drain .Located at the lowest point in the tank.Keeps contaminants out of the opening that's used to fill and add oil to the tank and seals pressurized tanks. The return line allows oil to flow from the system to the tank. 15 . The oil level is usually correct when the oil is in the middle of the sight glass. Sight Glass . The oil level should be checked when the oil is cold.Used to check the oil level.

Atmospheric pressure does not effect the pressure in the tank. It prevents a vacuum and limits the maximum pressure in the tank. The expanding oil compresses the air in the tank. However. The pressurized tank is completely sealed. The compressed air forces the oil out of the tank and into the system. it absorbs heat and expands.2. when the oil is sent through the system. 16 . Basic hydraulic system 1) Hydraulic tank Pressurized Tank Air breather The two main types of hydraulic tanks are pressurized and vented (un pressurized). The vacuum relief valve serves two purposes.

Basic hydraulic system 2) Hydraulic fluids The primary functions of hydraulic fluids are • Power transmission • Lubrication • Sealing • Cooling 17 .2.

Basic hydraulic system 2) Hydraulic fluids Power Transmission Because hydraulic fluids are virtually incompressible. The rotating or sliding components must be able to function without touching other surfaces.2. The hydraulic fluid must maintain a thin film between the two surfaces to prevent friction. Lubrication Hydraulic fluid must lubricate the moving parts of the hydraulic system. this does not mean that all hydraulic fluids are equal and will transmit power with the same efficiency. Choosing the correct hydraulic fluid depends on the application and the operating conditions. However. 18 . once the hydraulic system is filled with fluid it can instantly transmit power from one area to another. heat and wear.

heat flows from the warmer components to the cooler fluid. the ability to separate air. As the fluid moves throughout the system. The fluid gives up the heat to the reservoir or to coolers that are designed to maintain fluid temperatures within design limits. Other properties expected of the hydraulic fluid are the prevention of rust and corrosion on metal parts. The viscosity of the fluid helps to determine its ability to function as a seal.2. and the ability to maintain stability over a wide range of temperatures 19 . Basic hydraulic system 2) Hydraulic fluids Sealing Many hydraulic components are designed to use hydraulic fluid instead of mechanical seals within the component. water and other contaminates from the fluid. Cooling The hydraulic system develops heat as it transfers mechanical energy to hydraulic energy and hydraulic energy back to mechanical energy. the resistance to foaming and oxidation.

gallons per minute.e. liters per minute. Pressure is caused by the resistance to the flow. Pumps DO NOT produce or cause "pressure".e. motors. tank) and pushes it into a hydraulic system as flow. It is a device that takes energy from one source (i. 20 . Basic hydraulic system 3) Hydraulic pump The hydraulic pump transfers mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. orifices. or anything in the system that hinders free flow to the tank. The volume of the chamber decreases as the chamber approaches the outlet.) used in the hydraulic system. A vacuum is created at the pump inlet.e. etc. The pump takes oil from a storage container (i. All pumps produce oil flow in the same way. engine.) and transfers that energy into a hydraulic form.2. fittings. The higher atmospheric or tank pressure pushes the oil through the inlet passage and into the pump inlet chambers. cylinders. cubic centimeters per revolution. electric motor. The pump carry the oil to the pump outlet chamber. Pumps produce only the flow (i. etc. This decrease in chamber size pushes the oil out the outlet. Resistance can be caused by flow through hoses.

Basic hydraulic system 3) Hydraulic pump Engine PUMP Tank 21 .2.

Basic hydraulic system 3) Hydraulic pump Gear pump Axial propeller pump Vain pump Internal gear pump 22 .2.

2. Basic hydraulic system 3) Hydraulic pump (Making flow) Axial piston pump Vent axis piston pump 23 .

2. Basic hydraulic system 3) Hydraulic pump symbol 24 .

Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve The control valve (Hydraulic system) has three control features 1) Pressure control 2) Directional control 3) Flow control 25 .2.

Relief valve Closed condition Open condition Hydraulic systems are designed to operate within a certain pressure range. Exceeding this range can damage the system components or become dangerous to personnel. Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 1) Pressure control .2. The relief valve maintains the pressure within the designed limit by opening and allowing excessive oil to flow either to another circuit or back to the tank. 26 .

Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 1) Pressure control .Relief valve symbol Closed condition Open condition 27 .2.

Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 1) Pressure control – Mail relief valve 28 .2.

Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 1) Pressure control .Over load relief valve 29 .2.

Main relief valve C: Orifice D: Chamber E: Sleeve F: Poppet G: Drain hole Closed condition Open condition 30 . Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 1) Pressure control .2.

Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 1) Pressure control – Main relief valve (2 stage) Normal pressure (330 bar) Pressure up (350 bar) 31 .2.

Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 1) Pressure control – Overload relief valve Make up function? 32 .2.

but prevent (check) oil flow in the opposite direction. Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 1) Pressure control – Check valve Open condition Closed condition The purpose of a check valve is to readily permit oil flow in one direction. 33 . The check valve is sometimes called a "one way" check valve.2.

2. Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 1) Pressure control – Check valve symbol 34 .

2. Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 1) Pressure control – Load check valve 35 .

Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 1) Pressure control – Load check valve 36 .2.

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Basic hydraulic system

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Control valve
1) Pressure control – Pilot control check valve

The pilot operated check valve differs from the simple check valve in that the pilot operated check
valve allows oil flow through the valve in the reverse direction.

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Basic hydraulic system

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Control valve
1) Pressure control – Pilot control check valve

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Basic hydraulic system

4)

Control valve
1) Pressure control – Pilot control check valve ( Holding valve)

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looks similar to the check valve. The makeup valve is normally positioned in the circuit between the implement and the tank. the makeup valve will OPEN. The tank oil bypasses the pump and flows directly through the make-up valve to the cylinder.2. When the cylinder pressure is lower than the tank pressure. Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 1) Pressure control – Make up valve The make-up valve. the pump or cylinder oil fills the area behind the make-up valve. The make-up valve is used to prevent cavitations. During normal operations. 40 . The pressure in the cylinder keeps the valve CLOSED.

2. Basic hydraulic system Directional control valve 4) Control valve 2) Directional control .Directional control spool The directional control valve is use to direct he supply oil to the actuator in a hydraulic system. 41 .

2.Directional control spool 42 . Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 2) Directional control .

Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 2) Directional control .2.Directional control spool (symbol) 43 .

2.Directional control spool (symbol) 44 . Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 2) Directional control .

2. Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 2) Directional control .Directional control spool (symbol) 45 .

Directional control spool (symbol) Two position. Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 2) Directional control . 4-way pilot valve Three position. 4-way pilot valve 46 .2.

Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 2) Directional control Neutral position Switched position 47 .2.

Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 2) Directional control – Parallel line Tandem circuit Parallel circuit 48 .2.

Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 2) Directional control – Parallel line 49 .2.

Basic hydraulic system Flow control valve 4) Control valve 3) Flow control Orifice An orifice is a small opening in the oil flow path. The temperature of the oil.2. The pressure differential across the orifice. 3. 50 . 2. Flow through an orifice is affected by several factors. The size of the orifice. Three of the most common are: 1.

whether small or large. Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 3) Flow control • Temperature The oil viscosity changes with changes in temperature. meters a flow of water to the outside of the hose. A small pin hole will leak in the form of a drip or a fine spray. A larger hole will leak in the form of a stream. The amount of water metered depend on the size of the hole (orifice). The hole. Viscosity is a measurement of the oil's resistance to flow at a specific temperature. A common example is a hole in a garden hose. Hydraulic oil becomes thinner and flows more readily as the temperature increases. 51 .2. • Orifice Size The size of the orifice controls the flow rate through the orifice.

Orifice Fixed orifice Variable orifice 52 .2. Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 3) Flow control .

the pressure difference between the inside of the tube and the outside of the tube increases and a larger amount of toothpaste is forced out. Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 3) Flow control . the pressure difference between the inside of the tube and the outside of the tube is small. When the tube is squeezed with greater force as in B. 53 . When the tube of toothpaste is gently squeezed as in A.Orifice • Pressure Differential Flow through an orifice is affected by the pressure differential across the orifice. the greater the flow through the orifice. The greater the pressure differential across the orifice. pressure differential is illustrated using the two tubes of tooth paste. Therefore.2. Below figure. only a small amount of tooth paste is forced out.

2. Basic hydraulic system 4) Control valve 3) Flow control – Orifice symbol 54 .

2. Basic hydraulic system 5) Cylinder Cylinder Single acting cylinder Double acting cylinder 55 .

Basic hydraulic system 5) Cylinder Cylinder Effective area 56 .2.

2. Basic hydraulic system 5) Cylinder Cylinder (Cushion damping) Head side damping Rod side damping 57 .

Basic hydraulic system 5) Cylinder Cylinder symbol 58 .2.

2. Basic hydraulic system 6) Motor Axial piston motor Bent axis piston motor 59 .

motor 60 . motor Variable displacement HYD.2. Basic hydraulic system 6) Motor Fixed displacement HYD.

2. Basic hydraulic system 6) Motor 61 .

Basic hydraulic system 6) Motor (Swing motor) Rotating Stop 62 .2.

Basic hydraulic system 6) Motor (Travel motor) Rotating Stop 63 .2.

Basic hydraulic system 6) Motor (Travel motor.Wheel type) 64 .2.

2. Basic hydraulic system 7) Remote control valve 65 .

2. Basic hydraulic system 7) Remote control valve 66 .

2. Basic hydraulic system 8) Center joint Upper hydraulic power from hydraulic pump transmits to the lower hydraulic actuator without any hydraulic hose connection 67 .

Basic hydraulic system 9) Cooler • Transfer heat into air • Keep machine operating within a desired temperature range 68 .2.

Basic hydraulic system 10) Accumulator Spring loaded type Gas loaded type • Save Hydraulic energy. • Compensate system pressure • Absorption of hydraulic pick pressure on system line • Remove pump pulsating pressure 69 .2.

Basic hydraulic system 11) Solenoid valve 70 .2.

2. Basic hydraulic system 12) Proportional valve Out put The out put pressure is depend on current value (Variable out put pressure) 71 .

Basic hydraulic system 13) Filter Filter Strainer To remove contaminants from hydraulic fluid in system 72 .2.

Basic hydraulic system 14) Restriction valve Control valve tank line Swing motor make up port Remain return line pressure (Back pressure) for making up 73 .2.

2. Steering power by operator control is connected to steering cylinder. 74 . Basic hydraulic system 15) Steering unit One of control valve for steering.

2. Basic hydraulic system 16) Service brake valve Brake supply power is connected to break actuator. 75 .

76 . Basic hydraulic system 17) Shuttle valve One of special connector.2. S1 port is connected anytime if B1 or B2 pressure is high.