This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Fatigue for Engineers
Prepared by
A. F. Grandt, Jr.
Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Purdue University
W. Lafayette, IN 47907
June 2001
2
Eastern Regional Office Southern Regional Office
8996 Burke Lake Road  Suite L102 1950 Stemmons Freeway  Suite 5068
Burke, VA 220151607 Dallas, TX 752073109
7039785000 2148004900
8002215536 8004452388
7039781157 (FAX) 2148004902 (FAX)
Midwest Regional Office Western Regional Office
1117 S. Milwaukee Avenue, Bldg. B, Suite 13 119C Paul Drive
Libertyville, IL 600485258 San Rafael, CA 949032022
8476805493 4154991148
8006286237 8006249002
8476806012 (FAX) 4154991338 (FAX)
Northeast Regional Office International Regional Office
362 Clock Tower Commons 1800THEASME
Route 22
Brewster, NY 105099241 You can also find information on these courses and all of ASME, including
9142796200 ASME Professional Development, the Vice President of Professional
8006285981 Development, and other contacts at the ASME Website:
9142797765 http://www. http://www.asme asme.org .org
3
Objective
• Overview nature/consequences of the
fatigue failure mechanism
• Determine number of cycles required to
– develop a fatigue crack
– propagate a fatigue crack
• Discuss implications of fatigue on
design and maintenance operations
4
Structural Failure Modes
• Excessive Deformation
– Elastic
– Plastic
• Buckling
• Fracture
• Creep
• Corrosion
• Fatigue
F
o
r
c
e
Displacement
Yield
Permanent
displacement
displacement
Force
5
Fatigue Failure Mechanism
• Caused by repeated (cyclic) loading
• Involves crack formation, growth, and final
fracture
• Fatigue life depends on initial quality, load, . . .
S
t
r
e
s
s
Time
Crack Nucleation
Fracture
Crack Growth
Elapsed Cycles N
C
r
a
c
k
L
e
n
g
t
h
(
a
)
a
Crack
6
Paper Clip Experiment
• Bend wire repeatedly until fracture
• Note:
– life (number of applied load cycles)
depends on:
• applied stress amplitude
• component “quality” (notches, scratches, etc.)
– heat emitted >> plastic deformation
7
Characteristics of Fatigue
• “Brittle” fracture surface appearance
• Cracks often form at free surface
• Macro/micro “beach marks”/ “striations”
0.3 in
Beach marks
20 µ m
Striations
8
Fatigue is problem for many
types of structures
9
Exercise
Describe fatigue failures from your
personal experience
– What was cause of fatigue failure?
– What was nature of cyclic load?
– Was initial quality an issue?
– How was failure detected?
– How was problem solved?
10
Exercise
Estimate the fatigue lifetime needed for:
– Automobile axle
– Railroad rail
– Commercial aircraft components
• landing gear
• lower wing skin
– Highway drawbridge mechanism
– Space shuttle solid propellant rocket motor
cases
11
Exercise
• Give an example of a High Cycle
Fatigue (HCF) application.
– What is the required lifetime?
– What are consequences of failure?
• Given an example of a Low Cycle
Fatigue (LCF) application.
– What is the required lifetime?
– What are consequences of failure?
12
Fatigue Crack Formation
13
Crack Formation
Fracture
Crack Growth
Elapsed Cycles N
C
r
a
c
k
L
e
n
g
t
h
(
a
)
Fatigue Crack Formation
Objective
– Characterize resistance to fatigue crack formation
– Predict number of cycles to “initiate” small* fatigue crack
in component
*crack size ~ 0.03 inch
= “committee” crack
Approach
– Stresslife concepts
(SN curves)
– Strainlife concepts
14
Stresslife (SN) Approach
Concept: Stress range controls fatigue life
S
S
Log cycles N
∆S/2
Note:
• Life increases as load amplitude decreases
• Considerable scatter in data
• “Runouts” suggest “infinite life” possible
• Life N usually total cycles to failure
S
time
∆S
15
Model Stresslife (SN) Curve
• S
e
= endurance limit
for steels
– S
e
~ 0.5 ultimate stress S
ult
– S
e
~ 100 ksi if S
ult
〈 200 ksi
Log reversals 2N
L
o
g
∆
S
/
2
S
e
∆S/2 = σ
f ’
(2N)
b
• σ
f ’
= fatigue strength coefficient
• b = fatigue strength exponent
typically 0.12 < b < 0.05
Note: Measure life in terms of reversals 2N
(1 cycle = 2 reversals)
16
SN Curve: Mean Stress
Mean stress effects life
stress ratio R = S
min
/ S
max
S
mean
= 0.5(S
min
+ S
max
)
S
a
= 0.5(S
max
 S
min
) = ∆S/2
Mean stress models
S
a
/S
e
+ S
m
/S
ult
= 1
∆S/2 = (σ
f ’
 S
mean
) (2N)
b
Mean Stress
S
t
r
e
s
s
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
N = 10
6
N = 10
3
“Haigh” constant life diagram
S
time
S
min
S
max
∆S = 2S
a
17
SN Curve: Other Factors
• SN curves are very sensitive to
– surface finish, coatings, notches
– prior loading, residual stresses
– specimen size effects, etc.
• Many empirical “knockdown” factors
• SN approach best suited for HCF (High
Cycle Fatigue) applications
– limited by local plastic deformation
– strainlife approach better for LCF (Low
Cycle Fatigue)
18
Strainlife (ε  N) Approach
Concept: Strain range ∆ε controls life
Experiment
• Control ∆ε
• Measure
– “Reversals” (2N
f
)
to failure (1 cycle
= 2 reversals)
– Stable stress range ∆σ
needed to maintain ∆ε
Note: “stable” ∆σ usually occurs
by midlife (2N
f
/2)
∆σ
∆ε
time
ε
∆ε
∆σ
time
σ
19
Cyclic StressStrain Curve
Relate stable cyclic stress and strain ranges
∆σ
time
σ
time
ε
∆ε
∆σ
∆ε
∆ε
σ
ε
∆σ
“Hystersis” loop
∆ε/2
∆σ/2
∆ε/2 = ∆σ/2E + (∆σ/2K
’)1/n’
Cyclic stressstrain curve
E = elastic modulus
K’ = cyclic strength coefficient
n’ = strain hardening exponent
20
Plastic StrainLife Curve
Relate “plastic” strain amplitude ∆ε
p
/2
with reversals to failure 2N
f
Compute ∆ε
p
/2 = ∆ε/2  ∆σ/2E = total  “elastic” strain amplitudes
L
o
g
∆
ε
p
/
2
Log 2N
f
∆ε
p
/2 = ε
f ’
(2N
f
)
c
ε
f ’
= fatigue ductility coefficient
c = fatigue ductility exponent
typically 0.7 < c < 0.5
21
Total StrainLife Curve
Plot total strain amplitudes versus life 2N
f
∆ε
total
/2 = ∆ε/2 = 0.5 ∆ε
elastic
+0.5 ∆ε
plastic
= ∆σ/2E + 0.5 ∆ε
plastic
∆ε/2 = {(σ
f ’
 S
mean
)/E} (2N)
b
+ ε
f ’
(2N
f
)
c
∆ε
p
/2 = ε
f ’
(2N
f
)
c
∆σ/2E = {(σ
f ’
 S
mean
)/E} (2N
f
)
b
Log 2N
f
L
o
g
s
t
r
a
i
n
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
2N
t
= “transition” life
22
Total StrainLife
Note:
– Plastic strain dominates for LCF
– Elastic strain dominates for HCF
– Transition life 2N
t
separates LCF/HCF
∆ε
p
=ε
f ’
(2N
f
)
c
∆ε
/2 = {(
σ
f ’
 S
mean
)/E} (2N)
b
+
ε
f ’
(2N
f
)
c
Log 2N
f
L
o
g
s
t
r
a
i
n
a
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
∆σ/2E = {(σ
f ’
 S
mean
)/E} (2N
f
)
b
2N
t
= “transition” life
LCF
HCF
23
Variable Amplitude Loading
• Load amplitude varies in many applications
• Use of constant amplitude S  N or ε  N
data requires “damage model”
• Miner’s rule*
Σ(N
i
/N
f
) = 1
N
i
= number of applied cycles of stress amplitude S
ai
N
f
= fatigue life for S
ai
cycling only
*Use with caution!
S
time
N
i
2S
ai
24
Example Problem
Assume:
– σ
f’
= 220 ksi, b =  0.1
– stress history shown (1 block of loading)
Find: number of blocks to failure
+ 80 ksi
S
time
 80 ksi
 100 ksi
+ 100 ksi
2N = 100
2N = 1000
2N = 1000
S
S
25
Solution
Σ(N
i
/N
f
) = 1
2N
f
= {(∆S/2) / (σ
f ’
 S
mean
)}
1/b
Σ(N
i
/N
f
) = 1
When:
1/0.0089
= 112.5
Answer
112 blocks
∆
S/2
(ksi)
S
mean
(ksi)
2N
f
2N
i
N
i
/N
f
80 0 24,735 100 0.0040
50 +50 206,437 1000 0.0048
50 50 21 E
6
1000 4.74 E
6
0.0089
26
Load Sequence Effects
• Hilo strain ε sequence
results in compressive
mean stress σ when
last large ε peak is
tension
• → increases life
• If last ε peak had been
compression, would
result in tensile mean
stress
• → decreases life
Load sequence important!
ε
σ
ε
σ
t
t
Mean stress
27
Notch Fatigue
• Notches can reduce life
• Define Fatigue Notch Factor
K
f
K
f
= Smooth/notch fatigue
strength at 10
6
cycles
= ∆S
s
/∆S
n
1 < K
f
< K
t
(K
t
= elastic stress
concentration factor)
K
f
= 1 →no notch effect
K
f
= K
t
→full notch effect
Smooth
Notch
∆S/2
Log cycles N
∆S
s
/2
∆S
n
/2
10
6
28
Neuber’s Rule
K
f
= fatigue notch concentration factor
(∆s,∆e) = nominal stress/strain ranges
(away from notch)
(∆σ,∆ε) = notch stress/strain ranges
Neuber’s rule relates notch and
nominal stress/strain behavior
Solve with:
K
f
2
∆s∆e = ∆σ∆ε
∆ε/2 = ∆σ/2E + (∆σ/2K
’)1/n’
∆ε/2 = {(σ
f ‘
 S
mean
)}(2N
f
)
b
+ ε
f ‘
(2N
f
)
c
(∆σ,∆ε)
(∆s,∆e)
29
Summary “Initiation” Methods
• Total strainlife approach combines:
– original SN curve (best suited for HCF) and
– plastic strainlife method developed for LCF
problems
• SN and strainlife often viewed as crack
“initiation” approaches
– actually deal with life to form “small” crack
– crack size implicit in specimen/test procedure
– typically assume “committee crack” ~ 0.03 in.
30
Initiation Summary Cont’
• Notches increase local stress/strain and
often are source for crack formation
– complex problem leads to local plasticity
– characterize by fatigue notch concentration
factor K
f,
, Neuber’s rule
• Load interaction effects result in local
mean stress
– can increase/decrease life
– invalidate Miner’s rule
31
Fatigue Crack Growth
32
Crack Growth Approach
• Assumes entire life
fatigue crack growth
– ignores “initiation”
– assumes component
cracked before cycling begins
• Used with “damage tolerant design”
– protects from preexistent (or service) damage
– based on linear elastic fracture mechanics
Elapsed Cycles N
Crack Growth
C
r
a
c
k
L
e
n
g
t
h
(
a
)
Fracture
Initial crack
33
Damage Tolerance
The ability of a structure to resist prior
damage for a specified period of time
Initial damage
– material
– manufacturing
– service induced
– size based on
inspection capability,
experience, . . .
time
C
r
a
c
k
s
i
z
e
Desired Life
34
Fatigue Crack Growth
Objective
– Characterize material resistance to fatigue crack growth
– Predict catastrophic fracture and “subcritical” crack
growth
Approach
– Assume crack growth
controlled by stress
intensity factor K
• fracture
• growth rate da/dN
Elapsed Cycles N
Crack Growth
C
r
a
c
k
L
e
n
g
t
h
(
a
)
Fracture
Initial crack
35
Stress Intensity Factor K
I
K
I
is key linear elastic fracture mechanics
parameter that relates:
– applied stress: σ
– crack length: a
– component geometry: β(a)
(β(a) is dimensionless)
a
Crack
σ
σ
β = 1.12
β π σ a K ·
I
Note units: stresslength
1/2
36
Stress Intensity Factors
2a
W
σ
σ
K a Sec
a
W
·

.
`
,
]
]
]
σ π
π
1
2
σ ·
Remote Stress
2
0 95
a
W
≤ .
W
a
σ
σ
h
a
W

.
`
,
≤
0 6 .
a
W

.
`
,
β
h
W

.
`
,
≥
10 .
K
a
a
W
a
W
·

.
`
,
· −

.
`
,
+
σ π
β
112 0 231 10. 55 . .
a
W
a
W
a
W

.
`
,
−

.
`
,
+

.
`
,
2173 3039
2 3 4
. .
For and
Many K
I
solutions
available
37
Crack tip Stress Fields
( )
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
+ · →
· →
· ·
·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
+ ·
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹
− ·
y x z
z
yz xz
I
xy
I
y
I
x
r
K
r
K
r
K
σ σ ν σ
σ
σ σ
θ θ θ
π
σ
θ θ θ
π
σ
θ θ θ
π
σ
strain plane
0 stress plane
0
2
3
cos
2
cos
2
sin
2
2
3
sin
2
sin 1
2
cos
2
2
3
sin
2
sin 1
2
cos
2
Theory of elasticity gives elastic stresses near crack tip in
terms of stress intensity factor K
I
All crack configurations have same singular stress field at tip
(are similar results for other modes of loading, i.e., modes II and III)
Crack
x
y
θ
r
σ
xy
σ
y
σ
x
38
K
c
Fracture Criterion
• Fracture occurs when
K > constant = K
c
• K
c
= material property
= fracture toughness
• Criterion relates:
– crack size: a
– stress: σ
– geometry: β(a)
– material: K
c
• Plasticity limits small
crack applications
σ
σ
2a
σ
ult
F
r
a
c
t
u
r
e
S
t
r
e
s
s
σ
Crack Size a
( ) K a a
c
· σ π β
39
Fracture Toughness K
c
Typical K
c
values (thick plate)
Note K
c
depends on:
– specimen thickness  K
c
decreases as
thickness increases until reaching minimum 
K
Ic
= plane strain toughness
– crack direction (material anisotropy)
Ματεριαλ
(τηιχκ πλατε )
2024−Τ351
Αλυµ ινυµ
7075−Τ651
Αλυµ ινυµ
Τι − 6 Αλ−4ς
Τιτανιυµ
300 Μ στεελ
(235 κσι ψιελδ)
18 Νιχκελ
(200 κσι ψιε λδ)
Κχ
(κσι−ιν
1/2
)
31 26 112 47 100
40
Fracture Example
Member A fractures when
crack length a = 2.0 inch
and remote stress = 5 ksi
What stress will fracture
member B (assume same
material)?
2.0 in
4.0 in
5 ksi
5 ksi
A
5 in
8 in
σ · ?
σ · ?
B
41
Fracture Example Solution
Edge crack
K = σ(πa)
1/2
β(a) = K
c
at fracture
a/w = 2/4 σ = 5 a = 2 → β = 2.83
K
c
= 35.5 ksiin
1/2
= constant
Center Crack
K = σ (π a)
1/2
β(a) β(a) = [Sec (π a/W)]
1/2
a = 2.5 W = 8 → β = 1.34
K = K
c
at fracture = 35.5
2.0 in
4.0 in
5 ksi
5 ksi
5 in
8 in
σ · ?
σ · ?
a
W
a
W

.
`
,
· −

.
`
,
+ β
1 12 0 231 10. 55 . .
a
W
a
W
a
W

.
`
,
−

.
`
,
+

.
`
,
21 73 30 39
2 3 4
. .
→ σ
f
= 9.5 ksi
42
Fatigue Crack Growth
Goal: show cyclic stress intensity factor ∆K
controls crack growth rate da/dN
∆P = constant
time
P
2a
∆P
Crack Face Load
2a
∆σ
Remote Load
∆σ = constant
time
σ
Same material
Different loadings
43
Measure Crack Growth
2a
∆σ
Remote Load
2a
∆P
Crack Face Load
da
dN
C
r
a
c
k
L
e
n
g
t
h
(
a
)
Number of Cycles (N)
· ∆
K
∆P
B
√π
a
∆
K
· ∆σ√πa
C
r
a
c
k
L
e
n
g
t
h
(
a
)
Number of Cycles (N)
da
dN
a*
44
Correlate Rate da/dN vs ∆K
C
r
a
c
k
L
e
n
g
t
h
(
a
)
Number of Cycles (N)
da
dN
2a
2a
C
r
a
c
k
L
e
n
g
t
h
(
a
)
Number of Cycles (N)
da
dN
a*
∆K
th
K
c
Log ∆ K
L
o
g
d
a
/
d
N
∆ ∆ K a · σ π
∆
∆
K
P
B a
·
π
45
da/dN Vs ∆K
∆K
th
K
c
Log ∆K
L
o
g
d
a
/
d
N
Note:
• ∆K correlates fatigue
crack growth rate da/dN
• ∆K accounts for crack
geometry
• No crack growth for
da/dN < ∆K
th
• Fractures when K
max
in the ∆K range àK
c
• da/dN  ∆K curve is
material property
46
Sample Crack Growth Data
• da/dN  ∆K data for
7075T6 aluminum
• Note effect of stress
ratio R = min/max
stress (da/dN ↑as R↑)
• Reference: Military
Handbook5
• Other handbook data
are available
47
Model da/dN  ∆K Curve
Fit test data with numerical
models such as:
∆K
th
K
c
Log ∆K
L
o
g
d
a
/
d
N
da
dN
F K · ( )
da
dN
C K
m
· ∆
da
dN
C K
R K K
m
c
·
− −
∆
∆ ( ) 1
Here C, m, K
c
are
empirical constants
R = min/max stress
(are many other models)
Paris
Forman
48
Compute Fatigue Life N
f
a
o
, a
f
= initial, final crack sizes
F(K) = function of:
– cyclic stress: ∆σ, R, . . .
– crack geometry: β(a)
– crack length: a
– material
N
da
F K
f
a
a
o
f
·
∫
( )
da
dN
F K · ( )
∆σ
time
σ
2a
∆σ
49
Example Life Calculation
a
Crack
σ
σ
∆σ = constant
time
σ
Given: edge crack in wide plate
K
c
= 63 ksiin
1/2
initial crack a
i
= 0.5 inch
cyclic stress ∆σ = 10 ksi, R = 0
(∆σ = σ
max
= 10 ksi)
da/dN = 10
9
∆K
4
Find: a) cyclic life N
f
b) life if initial crack size
decreased to a
i
= 0.1 inch
Note: at fracture
K = K
c
= 63 = 1.12σ
max
(πa)
1/2
→final crack a
f
= 10 inch
50
Solution
[ ]
· ·
∫ ∫
da
C K
da
C a
m m
a
a
a
a
o
f
o
f
∆
∆ 112 . σ π
N
f
( )
( )
[ ]
N
C m
a a
f
m
f
m
o
m
·
−
−
− −
1
112 1 5
1 5 1 5
. .
. .
∆σ π
K a · σ π 112 .
da
dN
C K
m
· ∆
a) N
f
= 12,234 cycles (a
i
= 0.5)
b) N
f
= 63,747 cycles (a
i
= 0.1)
Note: big influence of initial crack length!
51
Fatigue Crack Retardation
Time
A
p
p
l
i
e
d
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
σ
)
Overload
Without Overload
With Overload
“Retardation”
C
r
a
c
k
L
e
n
g
t
h
(
a
)
Elapsed Cycle (N)
Note “load interaction effect”
• Tensile overload can “retard” crack growth (increase life)
• Life increase due to crack tip plasticity
• Depends on magnitude/sequence of overload, material, …
• Are empirical retardation models
52
CyclebyCycle Calculation
Compute cyclebycycle growth in crack length a
– a
current
= a
prior
+ da/dN
current
– da/dN
current
= F(K
current
) * “Retardation” term
– Sum for all cycles in spectrum
Powerful technique for computer programming
σ
n
σ
n+1
A
p
p
l
i
e
d
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
σ
)
Time (t)
Variable amplitude
loading prevents
simple life integration
53
Crack Growth Summary
• Fracture mechanics approach assumes
entire fatigue life is crack growth
• Stress intensity factor K controls fracture
and growth rate da/dN
– K = σ[πa]
1/2
β(a)
– Fracture: K = K
c
– Fatigue: da/dN = F(∆K)
– Integrate da/dN for life
• Are load interaction and other effects (see
references)
54
Fatigue Design/Repair
Concepts
55
Design Philosophies
Fatigue Design Criteria
• Infinite Life
• SafeLife
• Damage Tolerant
– Failsafe
– Slow crack growth
• Retirementforcause
a
σ
Crack
σ
S
t
r
e
s
s
Time
Crack Formation
Fracture
Crack Growth
Elapsed Cycles N
PreCrack
C
r
a
c
k
L
e
n
g
t
h
(
a
)
56
Infinite Life Criterion
Design Goal: prevent fatigue damage from ever
developing (i.e. infinite life)
• Usually based on endurance limit
• Could also employ threshold K concepts
• Leads to small design stresses/heavy members
• Limited to simple components/loading
• Often impractical/not achievable in practice
– Weight critical structure
– Complex loads
57
SafeLife Criterion
Design goal: component is to remain crack free for
finite service life
• Assumes initial crackfree structure
• Establish “mean life” by test/analysis
• Safety factors account for “scatter”
predicted
mean
Desired life = mean/ S.F.
Design Life
F
a
i
l
u
r
e
O
c
c
u
r
r
e
n
c
e
1 3 2 4
Problems:
• large safety factor
• no protection from
initial damage
58
FailSafe Criterion
Design goal: contain single component failure
without losing entire structure
• Assumes crack is present
• Provide alternate load paths, redundant structure, crack
stoppers, etc.
• Requires detection of 1st failure
Time
C
r
a
c
k
s
i
z
e
1st member
2nd member
Crack arrest
59
Slow Crack Growth Criterion
Design goal: prevent initial crack from growing to
fracture during life of structure
• Preexistent crack size specified by inspection
limits, experience
• Crack growth life
> service life x S.F.
• Based on fatigue
crack growth
resistance
• Emphasizes nondestructive inspection
C
r
a
c
k
s
i
z
e
Desired Life
time
Fracture
60
RetirementforCause
Failure size
C
r
a
c
k
L
e
n
g
t
h
Time
inspect/ repair
Design goal: Use periodic inspection/repair
to achieve desired fatigue lives
Limited by repeated maintenance economics
61
Life Extension Concepts
Shot peen
Hole coldwork
Interference fasteners
Overstress, etc.
Introduce Beneficial
Residual Stresses
Metal
Composite
Mechanical Fasten
Bond
Doublers
HCF damping materials
Reduce Stress
via Reinforcement
Weight limits
Flight restrictions
etc.
Reduce Operating
Loads
No Cracks Found
(assume small cracks)
Metal
Composite Mechanical Fasten
Bond
Patches
Replace component
Stop drill cracks
Welding
Repair Cracked
Structure
Cracks Found
Component
Inspection
62
Summary
• Fatigue is complex problem that
involves many disciplines
• Fatigue affects design and operation of
many types of structures
• Fatigue may be treated by several
methods/philosophies
– Assume component cracked
– Assume component uncracked
– Probabilistic methods
63
64
Your Path to Lifelong Learning
ASMEoffers you exciting, rewarding ways to sharpen your technical skills, enhance personal development and prepare for
advancement.
Short Courses – More than 200 short courses offered each you keep you up to speed in the technology fast lane—or, help you fill in
any gaps in your technical background.
Customized Training at your organization’s site – Do you have ten or more people at your site who could benefit from an ASME
course? Most of our courses can be offered in house and tailored to your latest engineering project. Bring course to your company
too.
Selfstudy materials meet the needs of individuals who demand substantive, practical information, yet require flexibility, quality
and convenience. Return to each program again and again, as a refresher or as an invaluable addition to your reference library.
FE Exam Review– A panel of seasoned educators outline a wide range of required topics to provide a thorough review to help
practicing engineers as well as engineering students prepare for this challenging examination. Videotape Review
PE Exam Review– A comprehensive review of all the major exam topics that demons trates the necessary math, logic and theory.
Videotape, Online, or Online Live Review available.
65
FOR MORE INFORMATION CALL 1800THEASME
__________________________________________________________________________
INFORMATION REQUEST FORM
Please mail to ASME at 22 Law Drive, P. O. Box 2900, Fairfield, NJ 070072900, or fax to 9738821717, call 1800THEASME, or
email infocentral@asme.org.
Send me information on the following:
____ Short Courses ____ InHouse Training ____ SelfStudy Programs
____ FE Exam Review ____ PE Exam Review (videotape) ____ PE Exam Review (Online)
____ PE Exam Review (Online Live)
Name: ______________________________________________
Title: _______________________________________________
Organization: _________________________________________
Business Address: _____________________________________
City: _________________ State: __ Zip Code: _____________
Business Phone: _________________ Fax: ________________
Email: ______________________________________________
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.