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Prepared by

A. F. Grandt, Jr.

Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Purdue University

W. Lafayette, IN 47907

June 2001

1

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**

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**

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914-279-6200 ASME Professional Development, the Vice President of Professional

800-628-5981 Development, and other contacts at the ASME Website:

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.org

2

Objective

**• Overview nature/consequences of the
**

fatigue failure mechanism

• Determine number of cycles required to

– develop a fatigue crack

– propagate a fatigue crack

• Discuss implications of fatigue on

design and maintenance operations

3

Structural Failure Modes

Force

• Excessive Deformation

displacement

– Elastic

– Plastic

Force

• Buckling Yield

• Fracture Permanent

displacement

• Creep Displacement

• Corrosion

• Fatigue

4

Fatigue Failure Mechanism

• Caused by repeated (cyclic) loading

• Involves crack formation, growth, and final

fracture

Fracture

Crack Length (a)

Stress

**Crack Crack Nucleation
**

a Crack Growth

Time

Elapsed Cycles N

**• Fatigue life depends on initial quality, load, . . .
**

5

Paper Clip Experiment

• Bend wire repeatedly until fracture

• Note:

– life (number of applied load cycles)

depends on:

• applied stress amplitude

• component “quality” (notches, scratches, etc.)

– heat emitted >> plastic deformation

6

Characteristics of Fatigue

• “Brittle” fracture surface appearance

• Cracks often form at free surface

• Macro/micro “beach marks”/ “striations”

Beach marks Striations

20 µ m

0.3 in

7

Fatigue is problem for many

types of structures

8

Exercise

Describe fatigue failures from your

personal experience

– What was cause of fatigue failure?

– What was nature of cyclic load?

– Was initial quality an issue?

– How was failure detected?

– How was problem solved?

9

Exercise

Estimate the fatigue lifetime needed for:

– Automobile axle

– Railroad rail

– Commercial aircraft components

• landing gear

• lower wing skin

– Highway drawbridge mechanism

– Space shuttle solid propellant rocket motor

cases

10

Exercise

• Give an example of a High Cycle

Fatigue (HCF) application.

– What is the required lifetime?

– What are consequences of failure?

• Given an example of a Low Cycle

Fatigue (LCF) application.

– What is the required lifetime?

– What are consequences of failure?

11

Fatigue Crack Formation

12

Fatigue Crack Formation

Objective

– Characterize resistance to fatigue crack formation

– Predict number of cycles to “initiate” small* fatigue crack

in component

*crack size ~ 0.03 inch

= “committee” crack

Crack Length (a)

Fracture

Approach

Crack Formation

– Stress-life concepts

Crack Growth

(S-N curves)

– Strain-life concepts Elapsed Cycles N

13

Stress-life (S-N) Approach

Concept: Stress range controls fatigue life

S ∆S/2

S

∆S

time

S

Log cycles N

Note:

• Life increases as load amplitude decreases

• Considerable scatter in data

• “Run-outs” suggest “infinite life” possible

• Life N usually total cycles to failure

14

Model Stress-life (S-N) Curve

Log ∆S/2

• Se = endurance limit ∆S/2 = σf ’ (2N)b

for steels

– Se ~ 0.5 ultimate stress Sult Se

– Se ~ 100 ksi if Sult 〈 200 ksi

Log reversals 2N

• σf ’ = fatigue strength coefficient

• b = fatigue strength exponent

typically -0.12 < b < -0.05

**Note: Measure life in terms of reversals 2N
**

(1 cycle = 2 reversals)

15

S-N Curve: Mean Stress

S Smax

Mean stress effects life

stress ratio R = Smin / Smax ∆S = 2Sa

Smean = 0.5(Smin + Smax)

Sa = 0.5(Smax - Smin) = ∆S/2 time

Smin

Mean stress models

“Haigh” constant life diagram

Sa/Se + Sm /Sult = 1 Stress Amplitude N = 103

∆S/2 = (σf ’ - Smean) (2N)b N = 106

Mean Stress

16

S-N Curve: Other Factors

• S-N curves are very sensitive to

– surface finish, coatings, notches

– prior loading, residual stresses

– specimen size effects, etc.

• Many empirical “knock-down” factors

• S-N approach best suited for HCF (High

Cycle Fatigue) applications

– limited by local plastic deformation

– strain-life approach better for LCF (Low

17

Cycle Fatigue)

Strain-life (ε - N) Approach

Concept: Strain range ∆ε controls life

Experiment ∆σ

ε

• Control ∆ε

∆ε

• Measure ∆ε

– “Reversals” (2Nf) time

to failure (1 cycle

σ

= 2 reversals)

– Stable stress range ∆σ ∆σ

needed to maintain ∆ε

Note: “stable” ∆σ usually occurs

time

18

by mid-life (2Nf /2)

Cyclic Stress-Strain Curve

Relate stable cyclic stress and strain ranges

∆σ ∆ε

σ

ε σ

∆ε ∆σ

∆ε

time time

∆σ

ε

“Hystersis” loop

Cyclic stress-strain curve

∆σ/2

E = elastic modulus

∆ε/2 = ∆σ/2E + (∆σ/2K ’)1/n’ K’ = cyclic strength coefficient

n’ = strain hardening exponent

19 ∆ε/2

Plastic Strain-Life Curve

Relate “plastic” strain amplitude ∆εp/2

with reversals to failure 2Nf

Compute ∆εp/2 = ∆ε/2 - ∆σ/2E = total - “elastic” strain amplitudes

∆εp/2 = εf ’ (2Nf)c

Log ∆εp/2

**εf ’ = fatigue ductility coefficient
**

c = fatigue ductility exponent

typically -0.7 < c < -0.5

Log 2Nf

20

Total Strain-Life Curve

Plot total strain amplitudes versus life 2Nf

∆εtotal /2 = ∆ε/2 = 0.5 ∆εelastic +0.5 ∆εplastic = ∆σ/2E + 0.5 ∆εplastic

∆ε/2 = {(σf ’ - Smean)/E} (2N)b + εf ’ (2Nf)c

Log strain amplitude

∆εp /2 = εf ’ (2Nf)c

∆σ/2E = {(σ f ’ - Smean)/E} (2N f)b

**2Nt = “transition” life Log 2Nf
**

21

Total Strain-Life

Log strain amplitude

∆ε/2 = {(σf ’ - Smean )/E} (2N)b + εf ’ (2Nf)c

∆εp =εf ’(2Nf)c

HCF

LCF

∆σ/2E = {(σ f ’ - Smean)/E} (2N f)b

2N t = “transition” life Log 2N f

Note:

– Plastic strain dominates for LCF

– Elastic strain dominates for HCF

– Transition life 2Nt separates LCF/HCF

22

Variable Amplitude Loading

• Load amplitude varies in many applications

• Use of constant amplitude S - N or ε - N

data requires “damage model”

• Miner’s rule* 2S ai

S

Σ(Ni/Nf) = 1 Ni

time

*Use with caution!

Ni = number of applied cycles of stress amplitude Sai

Nf = fatigue life for Sai cycling only

23

Example Problem

Assume:

– σf’ = 220 ksi, b = - 0.1

– stress history shown (1 block of loading)

Find: number of blocks to failure

+ 100 ksi

S S + 80 ksi

2N = 1000

time

- 80 ksi 2N = 1000

S 2N = 100

- 100 ksi

24

Solution

Σ(Ni/Nf) = 1 2Nf = {(∆S/2) / (σf ’ - Smean)}1/b

**∆S/2 Smean 2Nf 2Ni Ni/Nf
**

(ksi) (ksi)

Σ(Ni/Nf) = 1

**80 0 24,735 100 0.0040 When:
**

1/0.0089

50 +50 206,437 1000 0.0048 = 112.5

6 -6

50 -50 21 E 1000 4.74 E Answer

0.0089 112 blocks

25

Load Sequence Effects

• Hi-lo strain ε sequence

ε results in compressive

mean stress σ when

last large ε peak is

tension

t • → increases life

σ σ • If last ε peak had been

ε t compression, would

result in tensile mean

stress

Mean stress

• → decreases life

Load sequence important!

26

Notch Fatigue

• Notches can reduce life

• Define Fatigue Notch Factor

Kf

Kf = Smooth/notch fatigue

∆S/2 strength at 106 cycles

Smooth 106 = ∆Ss /∆Sn

Notch 1 < Kf < Kt

∆Ss /2

(Kt = elastic stress

∆Sn /2

concentration factor)

Log cycles N Kf = 1 → no notch effect

Kf = Kt → full notch effect

27

Neuber’s Rule

Kf 2∆s∆e = ∆σ∆ε Kf = fatigue notch concentration factor

(∆s,∆e) = nominal stress/strain ranges

(away from notch)

(∆σ,∆ε) = notch stress/strain ranges

(∆s,∆e) Neuber’s rule relates notch and

nominal stress/strain behavior

(∆σ,∆ε) Solve with:

∆ε/2 = ∆σ/2E + (∆σ/2K ’)1/n’

**∆ε/2 = {(σf ‘ - Smean)}(2Nf)b + εf ‘ (2Nf)c
**

28

Summary “Initiation” Methods

• Total strain-life approach combines:

– original S-N curve (best suited for HCF) and

– plastic strain-life method developed for LCF

problems

• S-N and strain-life often viewed as crack

“initiation” approaches

– actually deal with life to form “small” crack

– crack size implicit in specimen/test procedure

– typically assume “committee crack” ~ 0.03 in.

29

Initiation Summary Cont’

• Notches increase local stress/strain and

often are source for crack formation

– complex problem leads to local plasticity

– characterize by fatigue notch concentration

factor Kf,, Neuber’s rule

• Load interaction effects result in local

mean stress

– can increase/decrease life

– invalidate Miner’s rule

30

Fatigue Crack Growth

31

Crack Growth Approach

• Assumes entire life

Crack Length (a)

Fracture

fatigue crack growth Initial crack

– ignores “initiation” Crack Growth

**– assumes component Elapsed Cycles N
**

cracked before cycling begins

• Used with “damage tolerant design”

– protects from pre-existent (or service) damage

– based on linear elastic fracture mechanics

32

Damage Tolerance

The ability of a structure to resist prior

damage for a specified period of time

Initial damage

Desired Life

– material

Crack size

– manufacturing

– service induced

– size based on

inspection capability,

time

experience, . . .

33

Fatigue Crack Growth

Objective

– Characterize material resistance to fatigue crack growth

– Predict catastrophic fracture and “subcritical” crack

growth

Approach

Crack Length (a)

Fracture

– Assume crack growth

Initial crack

controlled by stress

Crack Growth

intensity factor K

• fracture Elapsed Cycles N

• growth rate da/dN

34

Stress Intensity Factor K I

KI is key linear elastic fracture mechanics

parameter that relates:

– applied stress: σ σ

– crack length: a

– component geometry: β(a) Crack

a

(β(a) is dimensionless)

KI = σ πa β σ

β = 1.12

Note units: stress-length1/2

35

Stress Intensity Factors

1 K = σ π aβ a

πa W

K = σ π a Sec

2

** W β a = 112 − 0.231 a + 10. 55 a − 21.73 a + 30.39 a
**

2 3 4

** W . W W W W
**

σ = Remote Stress

a h

For ≤ 0.6 and ≥ 1.0

2a W W

≤ 0.95

W σ σ

W

Many KI W

solutions h

2a a

available

σ σ

36

Crack tip Stress Fields

Theory of elasticity gives elastic stresses near crack tip in

terms of stress intensity factor KI

**All crack configurations have same singular stress field at tip
**

(are similar results for other modes of loading, i.e., modes II and III)

σy KI θ θ 3θ

σx = cos 1 − sin sin

σxy 2πr 2 2 2

y KI θ θ 3θ

σx σy = cos 1 + sin sin

2πr 2 2 2

KI θ θ 3θ

σ xy = sin cos cos

r 2πr 2 2 2

σ xz = σ yz = 0

θ

x plane stress → σ z = 0

plane strain → σ z = ν (σ x + σ y )

Crack

37

Kc Fracture Criterion

σ

• Fracture occurs when

K > constant = Kc

• Kc = material property 2a

= fracture toughness

• Criterion relates: σult σ

– crack size: a K c = σ πa β ( a )

Fracture Stress σ

– stress: σ

– geometry: β(a)

– material: Kc

• Plasticity limits small

crack applications Crack Size a

38

Fracture Toughness Kc

Typical Kc values (thick plate)

Ματεριαλ 2024−Τ351 7075−Τ651 Τι − 6 Αλ−4ς 300 Μ στεελ 18 Νιχκελ

(τηιχκ πλατε ) Αλυµ ινυµ Αλυµ ινυµ Τιτανιυµ (235 κσι ψιελδ) (200 κσι ψιε λδ)

Κχ 31 26 112 47 100

(κσι−ιν 1/2 )

Note Kc depends on:

– specimen thickness -- Kc decreases as

thickness increases until reaching minimum -

KIc = plane strain toughness

– crack direction (material anisotropy)

39

Fracture Example

5 ksi

σ=?

**Member A fractures when
**

crack length a = 2.0 inch

4.0 in 8 in

and remote stress = 5 ksi

5 in

What stress will fracture 2.0 in

**member B (assume same
**

material)?

σ=?

5 ksi

A B

40

Fracture Example Solution

5 ksi

Edge crack

4.0 in

K = σ(πa)1/2 β(a) = Kc at fracture

2 3 4

a a a a a

β = 1.12 − 0 . 231 + 10. 55 − 21 . 73 + 30 . 39

2.0 in

W W W W W

a/w = 2/4 σ=5 a=2 → β = 2.83

5 ksi

**Kc = 35.5 ksi-in1/2 = constant
**

σ=?

Center Crack

K = σ (π a)1/2β(a) β(a) = [Sec (π a/W)]1/2

8 in

a = 2.5 W=8 → β = 1.34

5 in

K = Kc at fracture = 35.5

41 σ=?

→ σf = 9.5 ksi

Fatigue Crack Growth

Goal: show cyclic stress intensity factor ∆K

controls crack growth rate da/dN

∆σ

Same material ∆P

Different loadings

2a

2a

**Crack Face Load
**

Remote Load

σ P

∆σ = constant ∆P = constant

time time

42

Measure Crack Growth

∆σ

∆ K = ∆σ√π a ∆P

2a

∆K = ∆P 2a

**B√πa Crack Face Load
**

Remote Load

da

Crack Length (a)

Crack Length (a)

dN

a*

da

dN

**Number of Cycles (N) Number of Cycles (N)
**

43

Correlate Rate da/dN vs ∆K

2a

∆K = ∆σ π a

Crack Length (a)

a*

da

Log da/dN

dN

Number of Cycles (N)

da

dN

Crack Length (a)

∆ Kth Kc

2a ∆P

∆K =

Number of Cycles (N) B πa

Log ∆ K

44

da/dN Vs ∆K

Note:

• ∆K correlates fatigue

crack growth rate da/dN

• ∆K accounts for crack

geometry

Log da/dN

• No crack growth for

da/dN < ∆Kth

Kc

• Fractures when Kmax ∆Kth

in the ∆K range à Kc

• da/dN - ∆K curve is

Log ∆K

material property

45

Sample Crack Growth Data

• da/dN - ∆K data for

7075-T6 aluminum

• Note effect of stress

ratio R = min/max

stress (da/dN ↑as R↑)

• Reference: Military

Handbook-5

• Other handbook data

are available

46

Model da/dN - ∆K Curve

Fit test data with numerical

models such as:

da da

= F (K) Paris = C∆K m

dN dN

Log da/dN

da C ∆K m

Forman =

dN (1 − R ) K c − ∆K

Kc Here C, m, Kc are

∆Kth

empirical constants

R = min/max stress

Log ∆K (are many other models)

47

Compute Fatigue Life Nf

da da

Nf = ∫

af

= F (K)

dN ao F ( K)

σ

**∆σ ao, af = initial, final crack sizes
**

∆σ time F(K) = function of:

– cyclic stress: ∆σ, R, . . .

– crack geometry: β(a)

2a – crack length: a

– material

48

Example Life Calculation

Given: edge crack in wide plate

σ Kc= 63 ksi-in1/2

initial crack ai = 0.5 inch

Crack cyclic stress ∆σ = 10 ksi, R = 0

a (∆σ = σmax = 10 ksi)

da/dN = 10-9∆K4

**Find: a) cyclic life Nf
**

σ b) life if initial crack size

decreased to ai = 0.1 inch

σ Note: at fracture

K = Kc = 63 = 1.12σmax (πa)1/2

∆σ = constant

**time → final crack af = 10 inch
**

49

Solution

da

K = σ πa 112

. = C∆K m

dN

af da af da

Nf =∫ =∫

C ∆K

[ ]

m m

. ∆σ π a

ao ao

C 112

Nf =

1

[ af

1− .5m

− ao

1 − .5 m

]

( ) ( )

m

. ∆σ π

C 112 1−.5m

a) Nf = 12,234 cycles (ai = 0.5)

b) Nf = 63,747 cycles (ai = 0.1)

Note: big influence of initial crack length!

50

Fatigue Crack Retardation

Without Overload

Applied Stress (σ)

Overload

Crack Length (a)

With Overload

“Retardation”

Time

Elapsed Cycle (N)

**Note “load interaction effect”
**

• Tensile overload can “retard” crack growth (increase life)

• Life increase due to crack tip plasticity

• Depends on magnitude/sequence of overload, material, …

• Are empirical retardation models

51

Cycle-by-Cycle Calculation

σn

Applied Stress (σ)

Variable amplitude

loading prevents

σn+1 simple life integration

Time (t)

**Compute cycle-by-cycle growth in crack length a
**

– acurrent = aprior + da/dNcurrent

– da/dNcurrent = F(Kcurrent) * “Retardation” term

– Sum for all cycles in spectrum

Powerful technique for computer programming

52

Crack Growth Summary

• Fracture mechanics approach assumes

entire fatigue life is crack growth

• Stress intensity factor K controls fracture

and growth rate da/dN

– K = σ[πa]1/2 β(a)

– Fracture: K = Kc

– Fatigue: da/dN = F(∆K)

– Integrate da/dN for life

• Are load interaction and other effects (see

53

references)

Fatigue Design/Repair

Concepts

54

Design Philosophies

σ

Fatigue Design Criteria

Stress

Crack

• Infinite Life a

• Safe-Life

• Damage Tolerant σ Time

– Fail-safe

– Slow crack growth Crack Length (a) Fracture

• Retirement-for-cause Crack Formation

Pre-Crack

Crack Growth

Elapsed Cycles N

55

Infinite Life Criterion

Design Goal: prevent fatigue damage from ever

developing (i.e. infinite life)

• Usually based on endurance limit

• Could also employ threshold K concepts

• Leads to small design stresses/heavy members

• Limited to simple components/loading

• Often impractical/not achievable in practice

– Weight critical structure

– Complex loads

56

Safe-Life Criterion

Design goal: component is to remain crack free for

finite service life

• Assumes initial crack-free structure

• Establish “mean life” by test/analysis

• Safety factors account for “scatter”

Problems: Desired life = mean/S.F.

Occurrence

• large safety factor predicted

mean

Failure

• no protection from

initial damage

1 2 3 4 Design Life

57

Fail-Safe Criterion

Design goal: contain single component failure

without losing entire structure

• Assumes crack is present

• Provide alternate load paths, redundant structure, crack

stoppers, etc.

• Requires detection of 1st failure

Crack size

Crack arrest 2nd member

1st member

58 Time

Slow Crack Growth Criterion

Design goal: prevent initial crack from growing to

fracture during life of structure

• Pre-existent crack size specified by inspection

limits, experience

Desired Life Fracture

Crack size

• Crack growth life

> service life x S.F.

• Based on fatigue

crack growth

resistance time

**• Emphasizes nondestructive inspection
**

59

Retirement-for-Cause

Design goal: Use periodic inspection/repair

to achieve desired fatigue lives

Limited by repeated maintenance economics

Failure size

Crack Length

inspect/repair

60 Time

Life Extension Concepts

Component

Inspection

**No Cracks Found Cracks Found
**

(assume small cracks)

**Introduce Beneficial Reduce Stress Reduce Operating Repair Cracked
**

Residual Stresses via Reinforcement Loads Structure

**Shot peen HCF damping materials Weight limits Replace component
**

Hole coldwork Flight restrictions Stop drill cracks

Interference fasteners etc. Welding

Overstress, etc.

Doublers

Patches

**Metal Mechanical Fasten Metal
**

Composite Bond Composite Mechanical Fasten

Bond

61

Summary

• Fatigue is complex problem that

involves many disciplines

• Fatigue affects design and operation of

many types of structures

• Fatigue may be treated by several

methods/philosophies

– Assume component cracked

– Assume component uncracked

– Probabilistic methods

62

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