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Prepared by: Faezah bt.
Guided by: Cikgu Hawa
bt. Salleh

A Word of Gratitude






Extrema of FUNCTION
Pierre De Fermat


Fermat’s Theorem



Mathematical Optimization
Global & Local Extrema
Methods to Find Extrema
1st Derivative test
2nd Derivative Test

 En Shah’s Sheep Pen
 Reza’s Box
 The Mall
 Linear Programming
 Application in real life
How it started?




I want to say thank you to my beloved parents as they provided me with everything I need to complete this project such as money.A Word of Gratitude I would like to say thank you to Allah for guiding me and giving me strength. Salleh for guiding me in completing this project. Thank you to those who involved directly or indirectly in making this project. ideas and patience to complete this additional mathematics project. I would like to thank all the teachers and friends for helping me in completing this project. energy. Cikgu Hawa bt. this project could not be completed. Without His blessings and guidance. Firstly. I would like to thank my Additional Mathematics teacher. books and others. They also shared their ideas and experience in order to make this project successful. She has given me many advices and guidance throughout this project. [2] . Next. Lastly.

Realise that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real life problems and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics. Train themselves not only to be independent learners but also to collaborate. and to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely. [3] . to cooperate. Realise the importance and the beauty of mathematics. Experience classroom environments that stimulate and enhance effective learning. Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing. Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through problemsolving in ways that increases interest and confidence.Objective Every form 5 student taking additional mathematics is required to carry out a project work. Prepare students for the demands of their future undertakings and in workplace. interesting and meaningful hence improve their thinking skills. Experience classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real-life problems. Upon completion of the project. Experience classroom environments which are challenging. Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively. it is hoped that students will gain some valuable experiences and able to:              Apply and adapt a variety of problem solving strategies to solve routine and non-routine problems. reasoning and communication are highly encouraged and expected. Train themselves to appreciate the intrinsic values of mathematics and to become more creative and innovative. and to share knowledge in engaging and healthy environment. Experience classroom environments where expressing ones mathematical thinking.

ordered so that the first element is the input (or tuple of inputs. called the graph of the function. this ordered pair can be viewed as the Cartesian coordinates of a point on the graph of the function.) The input variable(s) are sometimes referred to as the argument(s) of the function. functions are sometimes defined by a table that gives the outputs for selected inputs. There are many ways to describe or represent a function. but each input gives only one output. and the second is the output. Likewise. In this example. if the function takes more than one input). f(x) = x2. and we may write f(3) = 9. 9). if the input is 3. then the output is 9. Functions of various kinds are "the central objects of investigation" in most fields of modern mathematics. for example as the inverse to another function or as a solution of a differential equation. The output of a function f corresponding to an input x is denoted by f(x) (read "f of x"). a function is a relation between a set of inputs and a set of permissible outputs with the property that each input is related to exactly one output. if the input is −3. In science. In the example above. Some functions may be defined by a formula or algorithm that tells how to compute the output for a given input. and we may write f(−3) = 9. If both input and output are real numbers.What is FUNCTION? In mathematics. A function could be described implicitly. The input and output of a function can be expressed as an ordered pair. An example is the function that relates each real number x to its square x2. Others are given by a picture. then the output is also 9. (The same output may be produced by more than one input. we have the ordered pair (−3. [4] .

as members. a set containing the set of outputs. and possibly additional elements. and the set of all input-output pairs. called the domain. Sometimes the codomain is called the function's "range". The image of this function is the set of non-negative real numbers. and functional analysis. where the output from one function becomes the input to another function. and that the graph consists of all pairs of real numbers (x. called its codomain. called its graph. In analogy with arithmetic. in those cases where the output is a number. it is possible to define addition. the properties of which are studied in such mathematical disciplines as real analysis. multiplication. and division of functions. subtraction. we could define a function using the rule f(x) = x2 by saying that the domain and codomain are the real numbers. a function is defined by its set of inputs. Another important operation defined on functions is function composition. specifically the set of outputs (this is also called the image of the function).What is FUNCTION? In modern mathematics. complex analysis. For example. instead. but more commonly the word "range" is used to mean. [5] . Collections of functions with the same domain and the same codomain are called function spaces. x2).

The interval A = [3. The part of the (vertical) y-axis shown in blue.5] consists of three [6] . 2.88]. thus it is shown as part of the x-axis (green). 4. It is obtained by projecting to the yaxis (along the blue arrows) the intersection of the graph with the light green area consisting of all points whose x-coordinate is between 3.5 and 4.08. −1.5.25] is a subset of the domain. The image of A is (approximately) the interval [−3.25. The preimage of B = [1.What is FUNCTION? The GRAPH of the function f(x) = x3 − 9x2 + 23x − 15.

intervals. They are obtained by projecting the intersection of the light red area with the graph to the x-axis. Type of FUNCTIONS [7] .

Extrema of FUNCTION [8] .

the maximum and minimum of a set the greatest and least elements in the set. for finding the maxima and minima of functions As defined in set theory. such as the set of real numbers. have no minimum or maximum. Extrema of FUNCTION [9] . are the largest and smallest value of the function. the maxima and minima (the plural of maximum and minimum) of a function. either within a given range (the local or relative extrema) or on the entire domain of a function (the global or absolute extrema). ADEQUALITY.In mathematical analysis. known collectively as EXTREMA (the plural of extremum). Unbounded infinite sets. Pierre de Fermat was one of the first mathematicians to propose a general technique.

±3π. The function x3 has no global minima or maxima.6. From the sign of the second derivative we can see that −1 is a local maximum and +1 is a local minimum. The function x3/3 − x has first derivative x2 − 1 and second derivative 2x. The function x3 + 3x2 − 2x + 1 defined over the closed interval (segment) [−4. Note that this function has no global maximum or minimum. FERMAT'S THEOREM. a local maximum near x = 0. ±2π. Setting the rst derivative to 0 and solving for x gives stationary points at −1 and +1.2] has a local maximum at x = −1−√15⁄3. The function |x| has a global minimum at x = 0 that cannot be found by taking derivatives. The function cos(3πx)/x with 0. …. Although the first derivative (3x2) is 0 at x = 0. and a local minimum near x = 1.The function x2 has a unique global minimum at x = 0. Pierre De Fermat [10] . because the derivative does not exist at x = 0. and infinitely many global minima at ±π. The function cos(x) has infinitely many global maxima at 0.3.1 has a global maximum at x = 0. but no global maximum or minimum. this is an ininflection point. a local minimum at x = −1+√15⁄3. a global minimum near x = 0. ±4π. The function x-x has a unique global maximum over the positive real numbers at x = 1/e.0. ….1 ≤ x ≤ 1.1 (a boundary). a global maximum at x = 2 and a global minimum at x = −4. The function 2 cos(x) − x has infinitely many local maxima and minima.

tangents to curves. He is best known for Fermat's Last Theorem. According to André Weil. least action. area. then unknown. [11] . center of mass. probability.PIERRE DE FERMAT . he is recognized for his discovery of an original method of nding the greatest and the smallest ordinates of curved lines. He made notable contributions to analytic geometry. and other problems in mathematical analysis. and a mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to innitesimal calculus. France. 17 August 1601 – 12 January 1665) was a French lawyer at the Parlement of Toulouse. which is analogous to that of the dierential calculus. and optics. which he described in a note at the margin of a copy of Diophantus' Arithmetica Fermat’s Theorem PIERRE DE FERMAT developed the technique of adequality (adaequalitas) to calculate maxima and minima of functions. and his research into number theory. including his technique of adequality. In particular.

and then adapted it to find tangent lines to curves. and then discard any remaining terms involving e. Fermat used adequality first to find maxima of functions. Claude Gaspard Bachet de Méziriac translated Diophantus's Greek word into Latin as adaequalitas.11 shows. etc. and this is indeed how Fermat explains the word in one of his later writings. [12] . To illustrate the method by Fermat's own example.Fermat "introduces the technical term adaequalitas.. As Diophantus V. consider the problem of finding the maximum of p(x)=bx-x^2. it means an approximate equality. adaequare. which he says he has borrowed from Diophantus." (Weil 1973). Fermat adequated bx-x^2 with b(x+e)-(x+e)^2=bx-x^2+be-2ex-e^2. To find the maximum of a term p(x). Fermat equated (or more precisely adequated) p(x) and p(x+e) and after doing algebra he could cancel out a factor of e.[citation needed] Paul Tannery's French translation of Fermat’s Latin treatises on maxima and minima used the words adéquation and adégaler. Diophantus coined the word παριστης (parisotēs) to refer to an approximate equality.

PART ONE [13] .

operations research. an optimization problem consists of maximizing or minimizing a real function by systematically choosing input values from within an allowed set and computing the value of the function. In the simplest case. More generally. mathematical optimization (alternatively. including a variety of different types of objective functions and different types of domains. [14] . The generalization of optimization theory and techniques to other formulations comprises a large area of applied mathematics. computer science. optimization or mathematical programming) is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criteria) from some set of available alternatives. optimization includes finding "best available" values of some objective function given a defined domain (or a set of constraints).Mathematical Optimization In mathematics.

and similarly for minimum points. since the definition just given can be rephrased in terms of neighbourhoods.Global & Local Extrema A real-valued function f defined on a domain X has a global maximum point at x if f(x*) _ f(x) for all x in X. If the domain X is a metric space then f is said to have a local ( relative) maximum point at the point x if there exists some _ > 0 such that f(x*) _ f(x) for all x in X within distance _ of x*. and x is a strict local maximum point if there exists some _ > 0 such that. for all x in X with x* _ x. In both the global and local cases. Note that a point is a strict global maximum point if and only if it is the unique global maximum point. Similarly. x is a strict global maximum point if. for all x in X within distance _ of x with x* _ x. An important example is a function whose domain is a closed (and bounded) interval of real numbers [15] . A continuous real-valued function with a compact domain always has a maximum point and a minimum point. Similarly. The value of the function at a maximum point is called the maximum value of the function and the value of the function at a minimum point is called the minimum value of the function. For example. Note that a global maximum point is always a local maximum point. the function has a global (absolute) minimum point at x if f(x*) _ f(x) for all x in X. and similarly for minimum points. A similar definition can be used when X is a topological space. we have f(x*) > f(x). the concept of a strict extremum can be defined. we have f(x*) > f(x). the function has a local minimum point at x if f(x*) _ f(x) for all x in X within distance _ of x*.

Methods to Find Extrema Methods to find Extrema 2nd Derivative test [16] 1st Derivative test .

the first derivative tells us how whether a function is increasing or decreasing. To put this in non-graphical terms. and we do not know anything new about the behaviour of f’(x) at x = p. then x = p is called a critical point of f’(x). as x increases. then f’(x) is an increasing function at x = p. then f’(x) is a decreasing function at x = p. and by how much it is increasing or decreasing. [17] . Writing this information in terms of derivatives. Positive slope tells us that. we see that: • • • if df/dx (p) > 0. if df/dx (p) < 0. decreasing. This information is reflected in the graph of a function by the slope of the tangent line to a point on the graph. f(x) also increases. which we write as f’(x) or as df/dx is the slope of the tangent line to the function at the point x. as x increases. Negative slope tells us that. which is sometimes describe as the slope of the 1 Derivative test The first derivative of the function f(x). if df/dx (p) = 0. f(x) decreases. Zero slope does not tell us anything in particular: the function may be increasing. or at a local maximum or a local minimum at that point.

Part Two! 2 Derivative Test nd In calculus. the second derivative test is a criterion for determining whether a given critical point of a real function of one variable is a local maximum or a local minimum using the value of the second derivative at the point. then: If f’’ (x) < 0 then \ f has a local maximum at \ x. I-think Map [18] . The test states: if the function f is twice differentiable at a critical point x (i. f'(x) = 0). If f’’ (x) > 0 then \ f has a local minimum at \ x.e. If f’’ (x) = 0 the test is inconclusive.

PART TWO [19] .

En Shah’s Sheep Pen [20] .

Reza’s Box [21] .

The Mall [22] .

At 7. t=10 π t 6 ¿+1800 p (t )=−1800 cos ¿ ¿−1800 cos ( π6 10)+ 1800 The time when the number of people reaches 2570 is at 1.30 pm which is 6 hours after the mall opens.844 [23] .The Mall Based on the graph. the mall reaches its PEAK HOUR at 3.20 pm P (t )=2570 π 6 P (t )=−1800 cos ⁡¿ t) + 1800 π 2570=−1800 cos ⁡( t) +1800 6 π 770=−1800 cos ⁡( t) 6 t=3.30 pm which is 10 hours after the mall opens. The number of people in the mall at that time is 3600. the number of people would be 900.

A linear programming algorithm finds a point in the polyhedron where this function has the smallest (or largest) value if such a point exists. subject to linear equality and linear inequality constraints.Linear Programming Linear programming (LP. also called linear optimization) is a method to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a mathematical model whose requirements are represented by linear relationships. each of which is defined by a linear inequality. More formally. Linear programming is a special case of mathematical programming (mathematical optimization). which is a set defined as the intersection of infinitely many half spaces. Its objective function is a real-valued affine function defined on this polyhedron. [24] . linear programming is a technique for the optimization of a linear objective function. Its feasible region is a convex polytope.

Application in real life Crew Scheduling An airline has to assign crews to its flights. • Minimize costs. • Make sure that each flight is covered. • Meet regulations. Portfolio Optimization Many investment companies are now using optimization and linear programming extensively to decide how to allocate assets. eg: accommodation for crews staying overnight out of town. They also use linear programming for yield management. The airlines run on small profit margins. so saving a few percent through good scheduling can make an enormous difference in terms of profitability. crews deadheading. [25] . The increase in the speed of computers has enabled the solution of far larger problems. taking some of the guesswork out of the allocation of assets. • Would like a robust schedule. eg: each pilot can only fly a certain amount each day.

who in 1827 published a method for solving them. Neumann immediately conjectured the theory of duality by realizing that the problem he had been working in game theory was equivalent. When Dantzig arranged meeting with John von Neumann to discuss his Simplex method. Hitchcock had died in 1957 and the Nobel prize is not awarded posthumously. He developed it during World War II as a way to plan expenditures and returns so as to reduce costs to the army and increase losses incurred by the enemy. The first linear programming formulation of a problem that is equivalent to the general linear programming problem was given by Leonid Kantorovich in 1939. About the same time as Kantorovich. Dantzig independently developed general linear programming formulation to use for planning problems in US Air Force. the Dutch-American economist T. In 1941. and after whom the method of Fourier–Motzkin elimination is named. who also proposed a method for solving it. Kantorovich and Koopmans later shared the 1975 Nobel prize in economics. Frank Lauren Hitchcock also formulated transportation problems as linear programs and gave a solution very similar to the later Simplex method. George B. In 1947. Dantzig provided formal proof in an unpublished report "A Theorem on Linear Inequalities" on [26] .How it started? LEONID KANTOROVICH The problem of solving a system of linear inequalities dates back at least as far as Fourier. During 1946-1947. Koopmans formulated classical economic problems as linear programs. C. Dantzig also invented the simplex method that for the first time efficiently tackled the linear programming problem in most cases.

Dantzig's original example was to find the best assignment of 70 people to 70 jobs. The theory behind linear programming drastically reduces the number of possible solutions that must be checked. the number of possible configurations exceeds the number of particles in the observable universe. We should not give up easily when we cannot find the solution for the question. This project has also helped in building my confidence level. Maths project. I would like to express my feelings towards this project with a self made poem: In the year twenty fifteen. Handed over an Add. We should not give up easily when we cannot find the solution for the question. However. it takes only a moment to find the optimum solution by posing the problem as a linear program and applying the simplex algorithm. this project has taught me to be responsible and punctual as I need to complete this project in a week. and also tests the students’ understanding in Additional Mathematics. We are all seventeen. Reflection I’ve found a lot of information while conducting this Additional Mathematics project. The linear-programming problem was first shown to be solvable in polynomial time by Leonid Khachiyan in 1979.January 5. Apart from that. This project has also helped in building my confidence level. The computing power required to test all the permutations to select the best assignment is vast. I’ve learnt the uses of function in our daily life. but a larger theoretical and practical breakthrough in the field came in 1984 when Narendra Karmarkar introduced a new interior-point method for solving linearprogramming problems. Lastly. Postwar. many industries found its use in their daily planning. This project has taught me to be responsible and punctual as I need to complete this project in a week. 1948. this project encourages students to work together and share their knowledge. I’ve learnt some moral values that can be applied in our daily life. [27] . Besides that. improve their thinking skills and promote effective mathematical communication. This has helped to prepare me for the challenges to come in the future. Then. This project also encourages students to gather information from the internet. This project taught me a lot of moral values.

My rhymes are great. [28] . With heavy souls and heavy hearts. Never add meth. And of course I leave it up to fate. I really hope you appreciate. Maybe also. perhaps go out and dine? Do Add. Now it’s our time to shine. Nah just kidding.Something we couldn’t reject. You’re my flower. Maths. Cikgu Hawa. We worked hard to create this masterpiece of art. Give me an A for that certificate. This poem to you. is hella dope. drink some wine. Put them on a plate. To projects. I always say nope. But this one project. I dedicate. be considerate. Please Cikgu Hawa. A few last words to you.