You are on page 1of 54

EXPERIMENT NO.

1
Object: - Study of general requirement of machine tool design.
Introduction: - Any machine should satisfy the following requirements.
1. High productivity
2. Ability to provide the required accuracy of shape and size and also necessary surface
finish
3. Simplicity of design
4. Safety and convenience of control
5. Good appearance
6. Low cost of manufacturing and operation

1. Productivity: - Productivity of a metal cutting machine tool is given by the expression
Q= (1/tc+tn0).n
tc = machine time
tn0 = non-productivity time that include job handling time.
a. Cutting down machining time: - This is possible if high cutting speeds and feed rates
are available on the machine tool in accordance with the latest development in cutting
tool material and design.
b. Machining with more than one tool simultaneously: - This principle employed in
multiple-spindle lathes, drilling machine etc.
c. Improving the reliability of the machine tool to avoid break down and adopt proper
maintenance policy to prevent unscheduled stoppages and delays.

2. Accuracy: - The accuracy of a machine tool depends upon its geometrical and kinematic
accuracy and its ability to retain this accuracy during operation. Accordingly the ability of a
machine tool to consistency machine parts with a specified accuracy with in permissible
tolerance limits can be improved by the following method.
a. Improving the geometrical accuracy of the machine tool: This is mainly determined by
the accuracy of guideways, power screw etc.
b. Improving the kinematic accuracy of the machine tool: This is determined the
relationship between velocities of two or more forming motion and it depends upon the length
of kinematic accuracy of machine tool can be improved.
c. Increasing the static and dynamic stiffness of machine tool structure. The greater in the static
stiffness of the machine tool structure the smaller will be its deformation due to cutting forces
and will be the accuracy of machining.
d. Providing accurate devices for measuring distance of travel.
e. Arranging the machine tools units in such a manner that the thermal deformation during the
machining operation result in the least possible change in the relative position between the tool
and the workpiece.

Department of Mechanical Engineering,RTU

2

3. Simplicity of design: - Simplicity of design of machine tool determines the ease of its
manufacture and operation. The design of machine tool can be simplified by using standard
parts and sub assembly as far as possible. The complexity of design of a machine tool depends
to a large extend upon the degree of its university. Thus a general purpose machine tool is a
rule more complex than a special purpose machine tool design doing similar operation.

4. Safety and convenience of control: - A machine tool cannot be deemed fit for use
unless it machine tools the requirement of safety and convenience of operation.
a. Shielding the rotating and moving parts of the machine tool with hoods.
b. Protecting the worker from chips, abrasive dust and coolant by means of screws shield etc.
c. Providing reliable clamping for the tool and workpiece.
d. Providing reliable earthing of the machine, providing device for safe handling of heavy
workpiece.

5. Appearance:- Good appearance of the machine tool influence the mood of the worker
favourably and thus facilities better operations it is generally conceded that a machine tool that
is simple in design and safe in operation and also good in appearance although factors, such as
external finish colour.
Nowadays, painting of machines in different colours according to the production purpose is
becoming popular.

6. Cost of manufacturing and operation: - The cost of manufacturing a machine tool
is determined by the complexity of its design. Therefore factors that help in simplifying the
machine tool design also contribute towards lowering its manufacturing cost.
The cost can also be brought down by reducing the amount of metal required in manufacturing
the machine tool. This is achieved by using stronger materials and more precise design
calculation pertaining to the strength and rigidly of parts to keep the safety margins as low as
possible.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, RTU

3

EXPERIMENT NO.2
Object: - Study of working and auxiliary motion of machine tool.
Introduction: - Obtaining the required shape on the workpiece, it is necessary that the
cutting edge of the cutting tool should move in a particular manner with respect to the
workpiece the relative movement between the workpiece and cutting edge can be obtained
either by the motion of the workpiece the cutting tool or by a combination of the motion of the
workpiece and cutting tool.
These motion which are essential are working to impart the required shape to the workpiece
are known as working motion. Working motions are further classified into two categories:
1. Drive motion or primary cutting motion
2. Feed motion
Working motion in machine tools generally of two types:
1. Rotary
2. Translatory

Fig: lathe

Fig: shaping

fig: drilling

fig: grinding

1 .For lathes and boring machines
Drive motion: Rotary motion of workpiece
Feed motion: Translatory motion of cutting tool in the axial or radial direction
2 .For drilling machines
Drive motion: Rotary motion of workpiece
Department of Mechanical Engineering, RTU

4

Feed motion: Translatory motion of drill
3 .For milling machines
Drive motion: Rotary motion of the cutter
Drive motion: Translatory motion of workpiece
4 .For shaping, planning and slotting machines
Drive motion: Reciprocating motion of cutting tool
Feed motion: Intermitted translatory motion of the workpiece
5 .For grinding machines
Drive motion: Rotary motion of grinding wheel
Feed motion: Rotary as well as translatory of the workpiece
Besides the working motion a machine tool also has provision for auxiliary motions. In
machine tool, the working motions are powered by sources of energy. The auxiliary motion
may be carried out manually or may also be power operated depending upon the degree of
automation of the machine tool. In general purpose machine tools, most of the auxiliary
motions are executed manually.

Parameters defining working motions of a machine tool
The working motions of the machine tool are numerically defined by their velocity, the velocity
of the primary cutting motion or drive motion is known as cutting speed while the velocity of
feed motion is known feed.
The cutting speed is denoted by ‘v’ and measured in the units m/min. Feed is denoted by‘s’
and measured in the following units.
1. mm/rev. in machine tool with rotary drive motion e.g. lathes, boring machine etc.
2. mm/tooth, in machine tool using multiple-tooth cutters e.g. milling machines.
3. mm/stroke, in machine tools with reciprocating drive motion e.g. shaping and planning
machine.
4. mm/min, in machine tools which have a separate power source for feed machines.
In machine tools with rotary primary cutting motion, the cutting speed is determined by the
relationship 𝜋𝑑𝑛

v = 1000 m/min
d= diameter of workpiece or cutter
n= revolution per minute (rpm) of the workpiece or cutter
In machine tools with reciprocating primary cutting motion, the cutting speed is determined by 𝐿

u = 1000Tc m/min
L= length of stroke mm
Department of Mechanical Engineering, RTU

5

Tc = time of cutting stroke min
If the time of the idle stroke in minutes is denoted by Ti, the number of strokes per minute can
be determined as
1

n = Tc +Ti
Generally, the time of idle stroke Ti, is less than the time of cutting stroke, if the ratio Tc/Ti is
denoted by K, the expression for number of strokes per minute may be written as
n=

1 𝑇𝑖 𝑇𝑐

(1+ ) 𝑇𝑐 𝐾

= 𝑇𝑐(1+𝐾)

Now combining equations the relationship between cutting speed and number of strokes per
minute may be written as follows
v= 𝑛𝐿

(𝐾+1)
1000𝐾

The feed per revolution and feed per stroke are related to the feed per minute by the relationship
Sm = s.n
Where, Sm = feed per minute
s = feed per revolution
n = number of revolution
The feed per tooth in multiple tooth cutter is related to the feed per revolutions as follows:
S = Sz.z
Where, S = feed per revolution
Sz = feed per tooth of cutter
z = number of tooth on the cutter
The matching time of any operation can be determined from the following basic expression 𝑙

Tm = Sm min
Where, Tm = matching time, min
l = length of machined surface, mm
Sm = feed per minute

Department of Mechanical Engineering, RTU

These elements are discussed in detail in the following section. Example: bed and base. and  The design of housing. Introduction:- Machine tool consists of machine tool structure. carriages. bed. FUNCTIONS OF MACHINE TOOL STRUCTURE: Machine tool structure consists of bed. carriage. RTU . spindle head. Objectives is to understand  Functions of machine tool structure and the design criteria for selection of material for sideways. knee. carriage. Static & dynamic stiffness. columns. etc. (d) The selection of material and high static and dynamic stiffness are the fundamental requirement to fulfill above-mentioned requirement. tables etc. tailstock etc. are mounted. Machine tool structure must satisfy the following requirement : (a) The initial geometrical accuracy of the structure should be maintained for the whole life of the machine tool. spindle. etc.  The design of column. Category 3 Elements consist of parts that are used for supporting and moving the workpiece and cutting tool fall under this category.6 Experiment No. Example: Table. (b) All mating surfaces of the structure should be machined with a high degree of accuracy to provide the desired geometrical accuracy. These are the base of machine tool on which the guideways.  The design of bed. column. (c) The shape and size of structure should not only provide safe operation and maintenance of the machine tool but also ensure that working stresses and deformation should not exceed specific limits. Example: Speed box housing. Category 2 Elements consist of box type housings in which individual parts are assembled fall under this category. upon which various subassemblies are mounted. overarms. housings. Department of Mechanical Engineering. The structures are divided into three categories according to their functions : Category 1 An element.-3 Objective: Design criterion for machine tool structure. falls under this category. These elements must able to withstand at higher permissible load. base. box type housings.

RTU . The maximum normal stress acting on the beam is given by Figure 3.1 depicts a simply supported beam. In = Moment of inertia of the beam section about the neutral axis=bh3/12 On substituting these values in Eq.1 : Simply Supported Beam where Bmax = Maximum bending moment = FL/4 . Point load F acts at its center. σnmax changes to The permissible normal stress under tension for the beam material is given by Or minimum volume of material (Vmin) required to make sure that beam has sufficient strength is given by The maximum deflection of simply supported beam is given by the following expression : Department of Mechanical Engineering. Figure 3.7 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR MACHINE TOOL STRUCTURE: The simple machine tool bed with two-side wall is represented as a simply supported beam.

then Where Vmin = minimum volume of metal required to make sure that deflection of the beam under load does not exceed the permissible value. Machining allowances Department of Mechanical Engineering. (b) The material of the structure i. Manufacturing Problems Welded structures of steel have much thinner wall thickness as compared to cast structure. The condition of optimum design is given by Hence Eq. c) Steel has higher strength under static and dynamic loading. Walls of different thickness can be welded more easily than casting it. Welded steel also shows good damping properties. E and σper. RTU . b) Cast iron has better sliding properties.e. dper. Earlier cast iron structures were widely used but due to advances in welding technology. The selection of material for machine tool structure depends upon following factors: Material properties a) Cast iron has higher damping properties than steel.e. indicates that for every structure. welded steels are widely used now days. If the deflection of the beam dper is not to exceed a permissible value. torsional and bending loads is higher than cast iron. Materials for Machine Tool Structure The commonly used material for machine tool structures are cast iron and steel.8 Where E is young modulus of beam material. d) The unit rigidity of steel under tensile. there exists an optimum ratio l/h and the ratio l/h depends upon : (a) Operation constraint i.

the ‘machining interface’. the spindle holding the workpiece or the tool.9 for cast structures are generally greater than for weld steel structures. the cast iron and steel may be used for following application: a) Cast iron should be used for complex structure subjected to normal loading which are to be produced in large number. On considering above factors. the main function of a machine tool is to accurately and repeatedly control the contact point between the cutting tool and the uncut material . optimized and controlled. etc. RTU . The weight of steel is lesser and but actual metal consumption is higher than that of cast iron. the chuck/collet. Economy The selection of material for structure will also depend upon its cost. the slideways and stages used to move the tool and/or the workpiece. etc. Cost of patterns. Holes are obtained with the help of core in the casting structure but holes are made in welded steel structure by machining. b) Steel should be used for simple and heavy loaded structures which are to be produced in small number. Loop Stiffness within the Machine-tool-work piece System: Stiffness: stiffness normally can be defined as the capability of the structure to resist deformation or to hold a position under the applied loads. They may create unpleasant noises and sounds on the shopfloor because of the chatter and vibrations. They may cause accelerated tool wear and breakage. If the machine tool is Department of Mechanical Engineering. c) Combined welded steel and cast iron should be used where steel structure is economically suitable. These will not only increase the material cost but also increases labour cost. Example: Cast bearing housings that are welded into the feed box. Static loads in machine tools normally come from gravity and cutting force etc. the tool holder. apart from the static loads. They may lead to chatter and unstable cutting conditions. and fixtures. Machine Dynamics: The machining and machine dynamics within the machine system should be well understood. Static stiffness in machine tools refers to the performance of structures under the static or quasi-static loads. because they have the following direct effects:      They may degrade machining accuracy and the machined surface texture and integrity. The machine-tool-work piece loop is a sophisticated system which includes the cutting tool. Figure 3. Machining allowance is necessary in casting to remove defects such as inclusions. Welded structure can be easily repaired as compared to cast structure. Hence in such cases the cost increases. welding fixtures.2shows a typical machine tool-work piece loop. scales. which is termed dynamic stiffness Machine-tool-workpiece Loop Concept From the machining point of view. They may result in accelerated machine tool wear and damage to the machine and part. machine tools are subjected to constantly changing dynamic forces and the machine tool structure will deform according to the amplitude and frequency of the dynamic excitation loads. and cost of machining are considered while selecting material for structure.

it is the loop stiffness in the machine-tool system that determines machining performance and dimensional and forming accuracy of the surface being machined. so that the static loop stiffness can be derived based on the stiffness of each individual element: Department of Mechanical Engineering.. and machining processes should be also integrated into this loop as shown in Figure 3. the relative position between the workpiece and the cutting tool directly contributes to the precision of a machine tool and correspondingly leads to the machining errors.3.3. the internal and external vibrations.e.2 A typical machine tool loop Fig. Stiffness can normally be defined as the capability of the structure to resist deformation or hold position under the applied loads.10 being taken as a dynamic loop. 3. i. Fig. Whilst the stiffness of individual components such as spindle and slideway is important.3 The machine-tool-workpiece loop taking account of machining processes and dynamic effects Static Loop Stiffness Static loop stiffness in machine tools refers to the performance of the whole machine-tool loop under the static or quasi-static loads which normally come from gravity and cutting forces in machine tools. A simplified analogous approach to obtaining the static loop stiffness is to regard the machine tool individual elements as a number of springs connected to each other in series or in parallel. RTU .

11 Typically. machine tools are subjected to constantly changing dynamic forces and the machine tool structure will deform according to the amplitude and frequency of the dynamic excitation loads. Dynamic stiffness of the system can be measured using an excitation load with a frequency equal to the damped natural frequency of the structure. a continuous process because of the increasing demands from the various applications. and Q is the amplification factor which can be calculated from: where M and c is the mass and damping: Therefore. Static loop stiffness can be predicted at the early design stage by analytical or numerical methods and thus design optimization and improvement are essential. Department of Mechanical Engineering. While a loop stiffness of about 10N/µm seems not rigid enough. which is termed dynamic stiffness. also. a figure of 500 N/µm is well desired for heavy cutting machine tools in particular. it is quite common in precision machines. Following Equations provide a rough approximation of dynamic stiffness kdyn and deformation xdyn: where F is the dynamic load applied to the machine tool. kstatic is the static stiffness of the machine tool. Dynamic Loop Stiffness and Deformation Apart from the static loads. RTU . a well-designed machine-tool-workpiece system may have a static loop stiffness of around 50N/µm.

12 In order to accurately predict and calculate dynamic loop stiffness or the behaviour of a whole machine-tool system. Department of Mechanical Engineering. RTU . a dynamic model including all elements in the machine-tool loop needs to be developed. The finite element method has been widely used to establish the machine tool dynamics model and provide the solution with reasonable accuracy.

in lathes.  The spindle unit must have high dynamic stiffness and damping.13 Experiment No: 4 Objective: . e.  The spindle unit must have a fixture which provides quick and reliable cantering and clamping of the cutting tool or workpiece. and 3. quills(in drilling machine) etc.  The deformation of the spindle due to heat transmitted to it by the bearings. Functions: The spindle unit of machine tool performas the following functions:. etc. particularly the one located at the front end. The rotational accuracy is influenced maximum by the stiffness and accuracy of spindle bearings.. RTU .  The spindle unit must have a high static stiffness. Department of Mechanical Engineering. The accuracy of rotation is determined by the radial and axial runout of the spindle nose. 2. such as journals. Machining accuracy is influenced by bending axial as well as torsional stiffness. boring machines. as the case may be. Clamping the workpiece or cutting tool. These surfaces.g. workpiece.. or the cutting tool as in drilling and milling machines. Poor dynamic stability of the spindle unit adversely affects the dynamic behaviour of the machine tool as a whole. turrets. etc.Function & important requirements of spindle unit.  The mating surfaces that are liable to wear restrict the life of the spindle unit. must be hardened to improve their wear resistance. resulting in poor surface finish and loss of productivity due to restriction on the limiting unreformed width of cut.. The spindle bearing must also be selected or designed to retain the initial accuracy during the service life of the machine tool. Centering the workpiece. Important design requirements of spindle units are listed below:  The spindle should rotate with a high degree of accuracy. 1. and these must not exceed certain permissible values which are specified depending upon the required machining accuracy. The centering is achieved by means of an external or internal taper at the front end of the spindle. The operational capabilities of a machine tool in terms of productivity as well as accuracy and finish of machined parts largely depends upon the extent to which these functions are qualitatively satisfied. The stiffness of the unit is made up of the stiffness of the spindle unit proper and the spindle bearings. Imparting rotary motion( in lathes) or rotary cum translatory motion (drilling machines) to the cutting tool or workpiece. should not be large as this has an advers effect on the machining accuracy. cutting tool. such that the workpiece or cutting tool is reliably held in position during the machining operations.

1 shows schematic diagram of spindle.14 Table: Spindle Ends DESIGN OF SPINDLE Figure 4. RTU m . and (b) Cantilever of length ‘m’ acted upon by external force F1. A spindle represents a shaft with (a) length ‘a’ which is acted upon by driving force F2. d max ≤d per F2 F1 a Department of Mechanical Engineering.

F2 F1 k b M (a) Mr F2 F1 (b) Mr (c) d1 Figure 4. it may be represented as a simply supported beam. d 2 and d3 of the center or cutting tool due to compliance of the tapered joint. the supported journal is analyzed as a beam on an elastic foundation. the total deflection of the center or cutting tool consists of deflections d1.2 (a). one must establish a proper design diagram. M where M = bending moment at the support. (a) If the spindle is supported on a single anti-friction bearing at each end. RTU . and (b) If the spindle is supported in a sleeve bearing. and C = constant = 0 for small loads and 0.3 to 0. Deflection of Spindle Axis due to Bending To calculate the deflection of the spindle nose due to bending. Figure 4.2 (b) depicts the design diagram of the spindle and figure 4.35 for heavy load.1: Principle of Working of Spindle The total deflection of spindle nose consists of deflection d1 of the spindle axis due to bending forces F1 and F2 and deflection d2 of the spindle axis due to compliance of the spindle supports. Consider the spindle shown in Figure 4. The reactive moment is given as : Mr = C .2 (a) shows schematic diagram of spindle. When the spindle has tapered hole in which a center or cutting tool is mounted. By replacing the rear ball bearing by a hinge and the Department of Mechanical Engineering.2 : Effect of Various Force on Spindle Figure 4. for the purpose of the design diagram the sleeve bearing is replaced by a simple hinged support and a reactive moment Mr acting at the middle of the sleeve bearing.2 (c) illustrates deflected axis of the spindle.15 Figure 4. The following guidelines may be used in this regard.

Rolled stock in the case of spindles having diameter < 150 mm.low alloy steel 40Cr1Mn60Si27Ni25 induction hardened to Rc= 50-56. Materials of Spindles The blank for a machine tool spindle may be: 1. Ia is average moment of inertia of the spindle section. hardened and tempered to RC =30.2 (c). it may be concluded that no particular benefits accrues from using costly alloyed steels for making spindles. For spindles of precision machine tools. The deflection at the free end of the beam (spindle nose) can be determined by Macaulay’s method and is found out to be Where E is Young’s modulus of the spindle material. RTU .2 (b). Since stiffness is primarily determined by the modulus of elasticity of the material. the spindle can be reduced to the design diagram as shown in Figure 4. and 2. 3. we found that modulus of elasticity is more or less equal. 2. particularly those with Department of Mechanical Engineering. For above normal accuracy spindles. Casting in case of spindles having diameter >150 mm. The deflection of the beam is shown in Figure 4. If we compare the mechanical properties of various steels. For normal accuracy spindles. Recommendations for selecting spindle materials: 1. although the strength of alloy steels can be considerably greater than that of mild steel. In machine tool spindle design the critical design parameter is not strength but stiffness. plain carban steels C45 and C59.16 front sleeve bearing by a hinge and reactive moment Mr.

17 Experiment No. RTU . 5 Objective: Importance of machine tool compliance with respect to machine tool. Department of Mechanical Engineering.

18 Consider a uniform shaft being machined between centres on a lathe (Fig. Let KA be the stiffness of centre A and Kg that of centre B. RTU . 5.1). centre A will be displaced by a distance YA = PA /KA and centre B by YB= PB/KB Department of Mechanical Engineering. Due to radial component Py of the cutting force.

.e. Moment of Forces about Point B = 0.1 Schematic diagram of a simple turning operation Here PA and PB are the forces of reaction at ends A and B. 5. PAl= Py (l— x) Substituting the values of yA and yB from Eqs. They can be determined from the following equations of static equilibrium: 1. respectively. And yields If it is assumed that KA/KB = α. Eq.19 Fig. Department of Mechanical Engineering. RTU . i.

herringbone gears do not produce an additional axial load.4 Object: Draw a neat schematic diagram of herring bone gear and explain Introduction A herringbone gear. From the top. they have the advantage of transferring power smoothly because more than two teeth will be in mesh at any moment in time.20 EXPERIMENT NO. and many together form a herring bone pattern (resembling the bones of a fish such as a herring). RTU . a specific type of double helical gear. is a special type of gear that is a side to side (not face to face) combination of two helical gears of opposite hands. Unlike helical gears. Their advantage over the helical gears is that the side-thrust of one half is balanced by that of the other half. Because Department of Mechanical Engineering. each helical groove of this gear looks like the letter V. This means that herringbone gears can be used in torque gearboxes without requiring a substantial thrust bearing. Like helical gears.

Sykes Co. Precision herringbone gears are more difficult to manufacture than equivalent spur or helical gears and consequently are more expensive. so that tooth tip meets tooth trough. cutting the gears with a central groove to provide clearance. Where the oppositely angled teeth meet in the middle of a herringbone gear. E. This was necessary to permit the shaving tool to run out of the groove. RTU . Sunderland. also produced a herringbone cutting machine.21 of this herringbone gears were an important step in the introduction of the steam turbine to marine propulsion. like the Sykes gear shaper. herringbone gears had a central channel separating the two oppositely-angled courses of teeth. This is also a benefit with machinery that needs very straight movement. This machine. Solutions to this have included assembling small gears by stacking two helical gears together. also in England. The Sykes uses cylindrical guides and round cutters. The development of the Sykes gear shaper made it possible to have continuous teeth with no central gap. Manufacture A disadvantage of the herringbone gear is that it cannot be cut by simple gear hobbing machines. Sykes design called the HDS1600-300. The W. a herringbone planetary gear system. or the alignment may be staggered. as the cutter would run into the other half of the gear. Since then it has been common practice to obtain an older machine and rebuild it if necessary to create this unique type of gear. E. With the older method of fabrication. dissolved in 1983–84. Benefits Since a herringbone gear is non-linear in the teeth the gears won't slip out from grabbing one another if the axle or another force moves the gears up and down. Recently. because a herringbone gear is designed to 'self center' and is much less likely to skip a tooth or fall out of place. They are used in heavy machinery. an axle can be lost and the gear will stay in place. the Sunderland uses straight guides and rack-type cutters. the alignment may be such that tooth tip meets tooth tip. and (particularly in the early days) by casting the gears to an accurate pattern and without further machining. named after its inventor. With some gears sets that use herringbone gears. the Bourn and Koch Company has developed a CNC-controlled derivation of the W. has the ability to generate a true Department of Mechanical Engineering. The latter alignment is the unique defining characteristic of a Wuest type herringbone gear.

5 Object – Study of different mechanism used for transforming rotary motion into translator Slider crank mechanism 1. the rpm of the drives shapes is determined as 𝑛2 = 𝑛1 . RTU . EXPERIMENT NO. In a gear transmission. accuracy and strength may be 3D printed. The Important elementary transmissions that are used in machine tools for transforming rotary motion into translatory motion are: Department of Mechanical Engineering. 𝑧1 𝑧2 Where 𝑛1 =rpm of the driven shaft 𝑛2 =rpm of the driving shaft 𝑧1 =no. Nut and screw mechanism Theory – These elementary transmissions are employed in feed mechanism of most of the machine tools and also in the drives of machine tools have a reciprocating primary cutting motion. Cam mechanism 2.22 apex without the need for a clearance groove cut around the gear. The herring bone gear is essentially a pair of helical gear in which the helix angel is oppositely direct. as well as power transmission. of teeth of the driven gear The ratio 𝑧1 / 𝑧2 is known as the transmission ratio of the gear driven and is constant for a particular gear pair. of teeth of the drawing gear 𝑧2 =no. This allows the gears to be used in positive displacement pumping applications. Rack and pinion mechanism 3. Helical gears with low weight.

g. The ratio of angle 𝛼 ⁄𝛽 decrease and the speed of cutting and reverse stroke tend to become equal preferred in machine tool with large stroke (up to 1000 mm) where it can be effectively employed e. It is desirable from the point of view of productivity to have a higher speed of the other stroke. The forward and reverse stroke each take place during a revolution of crank therefore the need speed of forward and reverse speed in slider crank mechanism since metal removal occur during one stroke. Slider crank mechanism – Fig: Slider crank mechanism The machine consists of a crank. The ideal stroke completes transfer than the cutting stroke. in drive of the primary cutting motion of shaping and slotting machine. in the driving of primary cutting motion of gear shaping machine the length of stroke may be change by adjusting the crank radius and is equal to L = 2R. RTU .g. Length of stoke can be calculated.23 1. The forward cutting stroke takes place during the clockwise rotation of the crank through angle ‘𝛼’ and the reverse stroke during rotation of the crank through angle ‘𝛽’ since “𝛼 > 𝛽” and the crank rotation with uniform speed. where R is the crank radius 2. Due to this property of slider crank mechanism is used only in an appreciable increase of productivity e. connecting rod and slider. The length of stroke can be varied by adjusting the crank radius with a decrease in crank radius. Crank and Rocker mechanism – The crank and rocker mechanism consist of a rotating crank which makes the rocker arm oscillate by means of a block sliding along the groove in the rocker arm the clockwise rotation. 𝐿 L = 2(𝑒) R mm L = length of rocker e = offset distance R = radius of crank Department of Mechanical Engineering.

360. ℎ 𝜋. m/min n = rpm of the cam R1. h = rise during the working stroke b = length of the working stroke D = diameter of the drum in mm s = rpm of drum 4 . The main advantage of cam mechanical is that the velocity of the operative element is independent of the design of driving mechanism and is controlled by the cam profile. On the face of a disc-face type cam mechanism.𝑛 𝑏 1000 v= . On the periphery of a disc-disc type mechanism. On a cylindrical surface-drum type cam mechanism. v= 𝑅2−𝑅1 𝑛 𝛼 1000 .24 3. CAM Mechanism – The cam mechanism consists of a cam and a follower the cam mechanism provides the desired translatory motion is a suitable profile is selected. The profile development of drum cam segment a deplict the steep rise of follower corresponding to the rapid advanced segment deplict the slow rise corresponding to the steep full corresponding to the rapid withdraw of cutting tool. c. the velocity of the follower can be determined from the expression. b. a.Nut and Screw transmission – Department of Mechanical Engineering. The profile may be provided. RTU m/min .𝐷.R2 = radius mm In face or drum type cam mechanism the speed of the follower depends upon the steepness of the grove consider for instance. In a disc type cam if the radius change from R1 to R2 along an spiral while the cam rotate through angle 𝛼.

n mm/min t = pitch of thread k = number of thread n = rpm of the screw 5. The speed of operating member can be found from relationship Sm = t. The direction movement can reverse by reversing rotation of the screw.25 Schematic diagram of anti-friction nut and screw transmission A nut and screw mechanism is schematically depicted the screw and nut have a trapezoidal thread. The nut and screw transmission is compact but has a high load carrying case capacity its other advantage are simplicity case of manufacturing the possibility of achieving slow and uniform movement of the operating member.k. RTU . Rack and pinion transmission Fig: rack and pinion transmission Department of Mechanical Engineering.

EXPERIMENT NO. The direction of motion can be reversed by reversing the rotation of the pinion. 1.z. 4. the centre of the gear moves in straight line on the other hand if the gear axis is stationary then the rack executes translatory motion. RTU . Ratchet gear mechanisms Geneva mechanism Reversing mechanism Differential mechanism Introduction – Devices for intermittent motion – Department of Mechanical Engineering.n mm/min Sm = feed per minute of the operative member m = module of the pinion z = number of teeth of the pinion n = rpm of the pinion Rack and pinion transmission is the simplest and cheapest among all types of transmission used in reversible driven.26 When the rotating gear meshes with a stationary rack. 2. 3. Sm = 𝜋.6 Objective: Draw the diagram of following mechanism. It also has high efficiency and provides a large transmission ratio which makes it possible to use it in the feed as well as main drive mode.

Ratchet gear mechanism – The Ratchet gear mechanism is generally consists of a pawl mounted on an oscillating pin. 2. a .g. the pawl turns the ratchet wheel through a particular angle. Therefore the periodic rotation of the ratchet wheel is transformed into the intermittent translator motion of the table for a particular nut and screw pair of some constant transmission ratio. RTU . During the clockwise oscillating in the opposite direction. the pawl simply slides over the ratchet teeth and the latter remain stationary.machine tools with reciprocating feed motion. The ratchet wheel is linked to the machine tool table through a nut and screw transmission.27 In some machine tools. The rotation of the ratchet wheel in one stroke of the pawl should not exceed 45’. The feed of the table during each oscillation depends upon the swing of the oscillating pawl. shaping machine in which the workpiece must be intermittently upon completion of one full stroke of the cutting tool. it is required that the relative position between the cutting tool and workpiece should change periodically. b .Machine tools with a reciprocating primary cutting motion e. The ratchet gear mechanism is most suitable in case when the periodic displacement must be completed in a short time. 1. During each oscillation in the anticlockwise direction. Geneva mechanism - Fig: Geneva mechanism Department of Mechanical Engineering.

Differential mechanism – Department of Mechanical Engineering. Application – (i) (ii) (iii) Mainly used in torrents. While the idle gear and gears on the driven shaft are mounted freely. Single spindle automatic machine for indexing cutting tools. The arc on the driving disc and wheel provide a locking effect against rotation of the slotted wheel e. A quadrant with constantly meshing gear B and C can be swivelling about the axis of the driven shaft. In this arrangement the gear on the driving shaft are mounted rigidly. As the disc continuous to rotate. the gears on the driving shaft are again rigidly mounted and the idle gear is free.g. point A of the disc comes out of contact with the arc and immediately thereafter pin ‘p’ mounted at the end of the driving arm enters the radial slot. By swivelling the quadrant with the help of a lever transmission to the driven shaft may be achieved through (A/C). RTU . In the second arrangement. position of the wheel cannot rotate. In the Geneva mechanism the angle of rotation of the wheel cannot varied. The jaw clutch is mounted on a key. The wheel now begins to rotate when it has turned an angle 90° the pin comes out of the radial slot and immediately thereafter point ‘B’ comes in contact with the next arc of the wheel preventing its further rotation. Multi spindle automatic machines for indexing spindle through a constant angle. On the driven shaft a double cluster gear is mounted on a spline. Reversing mechanism – These mechanisms are used for changing the direction of motion of the operative member. (B/C) or through gear pair D/E. (C/D) or through (A/B) (B/C)(C/D). By sliding the cluster gear transmission to the driven shaft may again be achieved either through gear (A/B). 4. Reversing is accomplished generally through spur and helical gears. A few reversing arrangements using spur and helical gear. In the third arrangement gear A on the driving shaft and gear D on the driven shaft are both rigidly mounted. rotation may be transmitted to the driven shaft either through gear (A/B). (B/C) or through D/E depending upon whether the jaw clutch is shifted to the left to mesh with gear C or to the right to mesh with gear E.28 Geneva mechanism consists of a driving disc which rotates continuously and a wheel a wheel with four radial slots. 3.

nB. zB’/zD The mechanism consist of bevel gears A and D and planetary level gears B and C. The mechanism consists of gear A. respectively. 2. suppose gear A makes nA and arm C. respectively.zA/zB . 1. nC are the rpm’s of gear A. By means of a ring gear – this differential is used in automobiles.zB/zA Where zA and zB are the number of teeth of gear A and B.B and D make nA. then the transmission ratio of the kinematic train between gear A and D can be written as nA – nB/nD – nB = . Planetary gear can be rotated about the common axes of gear A and D. respectively then the transmission ratio of the kinematic train between gear A and D may be expressed as nD – nC/nA – nC = zA/zB . They are generally employed in thread and gear cutting machines where the machined surface is obtained as a result of the summation of two or more forming motions. zB/zD Where zA. zB. planetary gear B and arm C. A simple differential mechanism using spur or helical gears is shown. The mechanism is essentially a planetary gear mechanism consisting of sun gear A. Department of Mechanical Engineering. arm C and gear D.shaped shaft – this differential is used in machine tools. By means of a T. The planetary gear is mounted on the arm which can rotate about axis of gear A. The transmission ratio of the mechanism may be written as nA – nC/nB – nC =. The relative motion between the elements of the mechanism will remain unaffected if the whole mechanism is rotated in the anticlockwise direction with nC revolution per minute. zD are the number of teeth of gears A. RTU . nB. cluster gear block B-B’ mounted on arm C and gear D. nB = nC(1+zA/zB) – nA(zA/zB) Differential mechanisms are using a double cluster planetary gear. nD revolutions per minute. if gear A. If nA. nC revolutions per minute in the clockwise direction. 3. The above expression may be written as follows. B and D respectively.29 Differential mechanisms are used for summing two motions in machine tools in which operative member gets input from two separate kinematics trains.

Justify the insure with process reason. RTU .7 Object: Which Speed Series are used in machine tool gear box. -Structural Formula & Structural diagrams.30 EXPERIMENT NO. Gear boxes -Ap & Gp for steeping speeds of gears. Gear boxes Machine tool characterized by their large number of spindle speeds and feeds of cape with the requirements of machine parts of different materials and dimension using different types Department of Mechanical Engineering.

the lowest speed 𝑣1 is not constant. it decrees with increasing dia.𝑛𝑛 be arranged according to arithmetic progression. RTU . Thus the speed are not evenly distribution and more concentrated and closely stepped . The main disadvantage of such an arrangement is that the percentage drop from step to step decrees as the speed increase. for an economical cutting Speed 𝑣0 . Therefore .𝑛2 .. Accordingly.31 of cutting tool materials and geometries. Speed Range for different Machine Tools Machine Range Numerically Controlled lathes 250 Boring 100 Milling 50 Drilling 10 Surface Finish 4 Stepping of Speed According to Arithmetic Progression (AP)Let 𝑛1 .……. the arithmetic progression does not permit economical machine at large diameter ranges. Then 𝑛1 -𝑛2 = 𝑛3 -𝑛2 = Constant The saw tooth diagram in such a case is show in fig. The cutting speed is determined on the bases of the cutting ability of the tool used.. in the small diameter range than in the large one. Speed stepping according to arithmetic progression Stepping of Speed According to Geometric Progression (GP)Department of Mechanical Engineering. Surfaces finish required and economical consideration. Stepping speeds according to arithmetic progression are used in Norton gear box with a sliding key when the number of shaft is only two.

.32 As show in Figure. the percentage drop from one step to the other is constant. According to the geometric progression 𝑛2 𝑛2 = =∅ 𝑛1 𝑛1 Where Ø is the progression ratio. The relative loss of cutting speed ∆𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 /𝑉0 is also constant Geometric progression. Therefore. where 𝑉0 is the economical cutting speed and 𝑉𝑢 is the allowable minimum cutting speed. RTU 𝑛2 = 𝑛1 𝑧−1 √𝑅𝑛 log 𝑅𝑛 +1 log ∅ . The spindle speed can be expressed in term of the minimal speed n1 and progression ratio Ø n1 n2 n3 n4 nz n1 n1 Ø n1 Ø2 n1 Ø3 n1 Øz-1 Hence. therefore ∅= 𝑧−1 √ 𝑧= ISO Standard values of progression ratio Ø Department of Mechanical Engineering..…….𝑛2 . Now suppose that 𝑛1 .𝑛𝑧 are the spindle speeds. and the absolute loss of economically expedient cutting speed ∆v is constant all over the whole diagram range. the maximum spindle speed nz is given by 𝑛𝑧 = 𝑛1 ∅ 𝑧−1 Where z is the number of spindle speed. allow machining to take place between limits 𝑉0 and 𝑉𝑢 independent of the WP diagram.

06. RTU . Clutch-type gearboxes require small axial displacement needed for speed changing.8 Object: Design Procedure of machine tool gear box design Gear Box Machine tools are characterized by their large number of spindle speeds and feeds to cope with the requirements of machining parts of different materials and dimensions using different types of cutting tool materials and geometries.26. imax =1/4. 1. 1. The extreme spindle speeds of a machine tool main gearbox nmax and nmin can be determined by 𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1000 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝜋𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑛𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 1000𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝜋𝑑𝑚𝑎𝑥 where Vmax = maximum cutting speed (m/min) used for machining the most soft and machinable material with a cutting tool of the best cutting property Vmin = minimum cutting speed (m/min) used for machining the hardest material using a cutting tool of the lowest cutting Department of Mechanical Engineering.12. Minimum total shaft size The torque transmitted by a shaft is given by 𝑇∝ 1 𝑁 1/3 𝑑 𝑁 From the strength consideration: ( 1⁄𝑑 ) = ( 2⁄𝑁 ) 1 2 3. the frequency of speed change. and economical considerations. and therefore can employ helical gears. The advantage of a sliding gear transmission is that it is capable of transmitting higher torque and is small in radial dimensions. less engagement force compared with sliding gear mechanisms. No of gears on last shaft should be minimum. Among the disadvantages of these gearboxes is the impossibility of changing speeds during running. ig = imax/ imin=8 2. 2. A wide variety of gearboxes utilize sliding gears or friction or jaw coupling. 5. For last radial dimensions of gear box imax* imin = 1 4. and the duration of the working movement. The cutting speed is determined on the bases of the cutting ability of the tool used. 1.78. 1.6.4. The selection of a particular mechanism depends on the purpose of the machine tool. No of gears on any shaft should be limited to 3 EXPERIMENT NO.33 (1. 1.0) Justify ensuring with reason 1. Transmission ratio imax =2. surface finish required.

Select types of speed reduction or gear box based on the power transmission requirements. 6. Determine the progression ratio which is ratio maximum speed and minimum speed of output shaft of the gear box the nearest progression ratio should be a standard one and it taken either from R20 or R40 series. Determine the centre distance between the driven and driver shaft based on the surface compressive stress. = 𝑅𝑣 𝑅𝑑 𝑛𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑉𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝑚𝑖𝑛 Rv = cutting speed range Rd = diameter range In case of machine tools having rectilinear main motion (planers and shapers). the speed range Rn is dependent only on Rv. Generally. Determine the maximum and minimum speed of the output shaft. Higher reduction stages require more space because of more number of gears and shafts requirements. when selecting a machine tool. Then calculate the number of steps or speeds reduction stages for this range. Determine the module of gear by beam strength as well as fix the number of teeth required. and position of axis space available for speed reducer. the speed range Rn is increased by 25% for future developments in the cutting tool materials. rpm of each shaft. Department of Mechanical Engineering. 2. gear ratio. Rn is a function of Rv and Rd. This depends on the application as well as space optimization. Normally cast iron is chosen for housing and cast steel or other all can be selected as per the load requirements. Also make sure that for low gear ratio requires single speed reduction. large cutting speeds and diameter ranges are required. Note down the maximum power output in horse power (H. Draw the structural diagram and kinematic arrangement indicating various arrangement possibilities during speed reduction or increment.34 property or the necessary speed for thread cutting dmax. Select worm gear for silent operation and level gear for interesting axis. 5. For other machine tools.P) or transmission power and revolution per minute of shaft i. Select materials for gears so that gear should sustain the operating condition and operating load. 8.e. RTU . 7. 4. 3. Design procedure for gear box 1. dmin = maximum and minimum diameters (mm) of WP to be machined The speed range Rn becomes 𝑅𝑛 = 𝑛𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑑𝑚𝑎𝑥 = .

this will lead to failure of gear and shaft due to over heating or due to friction failure. Select bearing types or the loading and operating conditions. Select appropriate fit and tolerance for matting parts like shaft and gear. Calculate the key size. One can also perform finite element analysis of the complete gear box after it completely designed.35 9. Complete the design of casing in drawing by providing fires if necessary to have increased heat transfer by convection and conduction. Also make sure to include consideration of maximum speed and expected life of gear and gear box. Make the shaft stepped or provide collar to prevent axial displacement of bearing and gear. Draw neat a clean working drawing in suitable software like auto cad. 10. Calculate the diameter of the shaft by torque requirements and bending moment consideration. if not out. 14. indicating required details during manufacturing or assembly. shape or type of transmission key for each gears. Provide suitable clearance between gear and walls of the housing of gear box and based on this considerations design the casing/housing of gear box. 17. Put inspection hole/man hole as well as drain hole to drain lubricating oil. 13. 16. 11. Also provide oil level indicator to have proper amount of oil during operation. 15. Department of Mechanical Engineering. pro engineer etc. RTU . 12.

The drive system however. When the drive is started. continues and the spring is loaded again etc. The load start sliding and the friction coefficient decreases from its static value to its dynamic value. RTU .e. At this moment. During M’s movements. The attached picture shows symbolically an example of stick-slip. Stick-slip Friction Stick-slip can be described as surface alternate between sticking to each other and sliding over each other with a corresponding change in the force of friction coefficient between two surfaces is larger than the reduction of the friction to the kinetic friction can cause a sudden jump in the velocity of the movements.36 EXPERIMENT NO. the spring can give more power and accelerate M. lying on floor and is being pushed horizontally. Department of Mechanical Engineering.9 Object: Description of stick-slip and sliding friction in machine tool design. until it is insufficient to the overcome the dynamic friction. V is the drive system. the spring R is loaded and its pushing force against load M increases until the static friction coefficient between load M and floor is not able to hold the load anymore. R is the elasticity in the system and M is the load i. the force of the spring decreases. From this point M de-accelerate to a stop.

Sliding may occur between two objects of arbitrary shape. In engg sliding friction occur in numerous types of sliding components such as journal bearing. and pistons in cylinders. Friction may damage or wear the surface in contact.37 Fig.. Static friction is the friction required to move two surfaces that are not in relative motion.Stick-Slip Phenomenon Sliding (motion) Friction Sliding is a type of friction motion between two surfaces in contact. lubrication. cams. and wear is known as tribology. whereas rolling friction is the friction force associated with the rotational movement of a somewhat dislike or other circular object along the surface. The science and technology of friction. This can be constructed to rolling friction. linkage. Department of Mechanical Engineering. RTU . However. it can be reduced by lubrication. Both types of motion may occur in bearing.

tapered work.38 EXPERIMENT NO. and crankshafts. Drilled holes. Machinists and maintenance shop personnel must be thoroughly familiar with the lathe and its operations to accomplish the repair and fabrication of needed parts. Department of Mechanical Engineering. The typical lathe provides a variety of rotating speeds and a means to manually and automatically move the cutting tool into the workpiece.10 Object: Free body diagram of following machines: (1) Lathe (2) Drilling (3) Shaping (4) Milling Introduction Lathe The lathe is a machine tool used principally for shaping articles of metal (and sometimes wood or other materials) by causing the workpiece to be held and rotated by the lathe while a tool bit is advanced into the work causing the cutting action. RTU . knurled surfaces. The basic lathe that was designed to cut cylindrical metal stock has been developed further to produce screw threads.

and tapping large or small holes. and work holding devices to get the job done safely without causing damage to the equipment. counter boring. turret lathes. counter-boring. such as counter sinking. or someone nearby. reaming. They can perform operations other than drilling. This chapter will cover procedures for servicing. are lightweight. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Because the drilling machines can perform all of these operations. A drilling machine. this chapter will also cover the types of drill bits. and tapping. Drilling machines may be used to perform other operations. and shop formulas for setting up each operation. Field and maintenance shops generally use a lathe that can be adapted to many operations and that is not too large to be moved from one work site to another. and setting up the work. boring. and can be transported in wheeled vehicles easily. set speed and feed. the distance between the spindle and column. reaming. RTU . The size or capacity of the drilling machine is usually determined by the largest piece of stock that can be center-drilled. a 15inch drilling machine cans center-drill a 30-inch-diameter piece of stock. took. and the vertical distance between the worktable and spindle. Turret lathes and special purpose lathes are usually used in production or job shops for mass production or specialized parts. The engine lathe is ideally suited for this purpose. For instance. A trained operator can accomplish more machining jobs with the engine lathe than with any other machine tool. This cutting tool is held in the drill press by a chuck or Morse taper and is rotated and fed into the work at variable speeds. The larger lathes are floor mounted and may require special transportation if they must be moved. or other materials. Drill press operators must know how to set up the work. While basic engine lathes are usually used for any type of lathe work. Other ways to determine the size of the drill press are by the largest hole that can be drilled. maintaining. Small lathes can be bench mounted.39 Types of lathe Lathes can be divided into three types for easy identification: engine lathes. Further reference to lathes in this chapter will be about the various engine lathes. and provide for coolant to get an acceptable finished product. wood. They can perform countersinking. from small hand-held power drills to bench mounted and finally floor-mounted models. called a drill press. Safety plays a critical part in any operation involving power equipment. yourself. spot facing. is used to cut holes into or through metal. Drilling machines use a drilling tool that has cutting edges at its point. Drilling Machine A drilling machine comes in many shapes and sizes. and special purpose lathes. proper methods of selecting tools.

the cutting tool is fed into the work: and when it is moved upward. 6. 2. electric motor. The column of most drill presses is circular and built rugged and solid. worktable. The worktable can be adjusted vertically to accommodate different heights of work. It may be tilted up to 90° in either direction. the cutting tool is withdrawn from the work. The top of the base is similar to a worktable and maybe equipped with T-slots for mounting work too large for the table. 5. Feed pressure applied to the sleeve by hand or power causes the revolving drill to cut its way into the work a few thousandths of an inch per revolution. 4. 1. The head is bolted to the column. Department of Mechanical Engineering.40 All drilling machines have the following construction characteristics: a spindle. the spindle is vertical and the work is supported on a horizontal table. and feed mechanism. The worktable is supported on an arm mounted to the column. spindle. or it may be swung completely out of the way. 3. to allow for long pieces to be end or angled drilled. The sleeve or quill assembly does not revolve but may slide in its bearing in a direction parallel to its axis. The head of the drill press is composed of the sleeve. When the sleeve carrying the spindle with a cutting tool is lowered. 7. column. head. The column supports the head and the sleeve or quill assembly. provides for vibration-free operation and best machining accuracy. RTU . In most drilling machines. The base of the drilling machine supports the entire machine and when bolted to the floor. and base. The spindle holds the drill or cutting tools and revolves in a fixed position in a sleeve. sleeve or quill.

41 FBD of Drilling Machine Shaping Machine The main functions of shaping machines are to produce flat surfaces in different planes. The cutting motion provided by the linear forward motion of the reciprocating tool and the intermittent feed motion provided by the slow transverse motion of the job along with the bed result in producing a flat surface by gradual removal of excess material layer by layer in the form of chips. RTU . The vertical infeed is given either by descending the tool holder or raising the Department of Mechanical Engineering.

ram-type. curved. manufacturing or bed type.42 bed or both. variable spindle speeds. and power-operated table feeds. and a reciprocating adjustable worktable. These machines are also classified as kneetype. which mounts and revolves the milling cutter. and planer-type. coolant systems. which mounts and feeds the workpiece. Most milling machines have selfcontained electric drive motors. Straight grooves of various curved sections are also made in shaping machines by using specific form tools. or irregular surfaces by feeding the workpiece against a rotating cutter containing a number of cutting edges. The single point straight or form tool is clamped in the vertical slide which is mounted at the front face of the reciprocating ram whereas the workpiece is directly or indirectly through a vice is mounted on the bed. Free body diagram of the milling machine shown in figure below Department of Mechanical Engineering. Shapping Machine Milling Machine Milling is the process of machining flat. Fig. Milling machines are basically classified as vertical or horizontal. The milling machine consists basically of a motor driven spindle. RTU .

Milling Machine Department of Mechanical Engineering. RTU .43 Fig.

These guideways are also called as slideways. The slideways are further classified according to the lubrication at the interface of contacting surfaces. Dry friction is rarely occurred in machine tools. (f) There should be minimum possible variation of coefficient of friction. (g) Guideways should have good damping properties. while it is straight line for lathe. When the lubrication is absent in between contacting surfaces. semi-liquid. and liquid. RTU . The friction between the sliding surfaces may be dry. Department of Mechanical Engineering. the sliding body tends to rise or float due to hydrodynamic action of the lubricant film. etc. (b) The surface of guideways must have greater accuracy and surface finish.44 EXPERIMENT NO. (e) The frictional forces acting on the guideway surface must be low to avoid wear. boring machines. it is called as dry friction. The machine tool operative element carries workpiece along with it. Requirements of guideways are: (a) Guideway should have high rigidity.11 Object: Application of slideways profiles and their combinations FUNCTIONS OF GUIDEWAYS The Guideway is one of the important elements of machine tool. The durability depends upon the ability of guideways to retain the initial accuracy of manufacturing and travel. vertical lathe. The main function of the guideway is to make sure that the cutting tool or machine tool operative element moves along predetermined path. (d) Guideways should be durable. Guideways can be classified as: (a) Guideways with sliding friction (b) Guideways with rolling friction Guideways with Sliding Friction The friction between the sliding surfaces is called as guideways with sliding friction. The principle of slider is shown in Figure 1. (c) Guideways should have high accuracy of travel. It is possible only when the deviation of the actual path of travel of the operative element from the predetermined normal path is minimum. The motion is generally circular for boring mills. etc. drilling. When two bodies slide with respect to each other having lubrication between them.

it is clear that the hydrodynamic force increases with increase in sliding velocity. Principle of a Slider The hydrodynamic force. The slideways in which the sliding surfaces are separated by the permanent lubricant layer are known as hydrodynamic slideways. A permanent lubricant layer between the sliding surfaces can be obtained by pumping the liquid into the interface under pressure at low sliding speed. (1). Department of Mechanical Engineering. The sliding body rests on the stationary body when hydrodynamic force is less than the weight of the sliding body. 𝐹ℎ = 𝐶 ∗ 𝑣𝑠 (1) Where C is constant and depends upon wedge angle θ. The resultant normal force acting on sliding body. viscosity of the lubricant and parameter of lubricant film. vs is sliding velocity. This permanent lubrication layer is due to hydrodynamic action. RTU . The sliding surfaces are completely separated by the lubricant film and liquid friction occurs at their interface. The resultant normal force on sliding body starts to act upwards and the body floats as hydrodynamic force is greater than the sliding weight of the body. Such slideways are called as hydrostatic slideways. there are semi-liquid type friction conditions and under these conditions the two bodies are partially separated by the lubricant film and partially have metal to metal contact. The sliding body is lifted by this permanent lubricant layer. R = Fh – W From Eq.45 Figure1. W is weight of the sliding body. Here. the geometry of sliding surfaces.

The combination of V and flat slideways is commonly used in lathe machines. RTU . Sometimes. It is seen during the subsequent analysis that slideway designed for maximum pressure is quite complicated. (b) pmp and pap to be known. and pmp = permissible value of the maximum pressure. the design of slideways for wear resistance requires that. The anti friction slideways may be classified according to the shape of the rolling element as: (a) Roller type anti friction ways using cylindrical rollers. (2) and (3). This condition may be given as pmax ≤ pmp (2) where pm = maximum pressure acting on the mating surface. For determining pm and pa. (a) pm and pa to be known. and (c) The values of pmp and pap are given for different operating conditions of slideways on the basis of experience. (b) Ball type anti friction ways using spherical balls. The schematic diagram of slideways and the forces acting on the system for the case of orthogonal cutting are illustrated in Figure 2. Hence from Eqs. and Pap = permissible value of the average pressure. Forces acting on the mating surfaces in combination of V and flat slideways. this design is replaced by a simple procedure based upon the average pressure acting on the mating surfaces. DESIGN OF SLIDEWAYS Slideways are designed for wear resistance and stiffness. Design of Slideways for Wear Resistance The wear resistance of slideways is mainly dependent upon maximum pressure acting on the mating surfaces. The condition is that: Pa ≤ Pap (3) Where Pa = average pressure acting on the mating surface. the first and foremost task is to determine the forces acting on the mating surfaces.46 Guideways with Rolling Friction These are also called as anti friction ways. Department of Mechanical Engineering. 1.

F2 and F3 acting on the mating surfaces. (b) Weight of carriage W. and (c) Unknown forces F1. The unknown forces are calculated from following equilibrium conditions: Sum of components of forces acting along Y-axis = 0 Substituting value of F3 in Eq.47 Fig 2 Forces Acting on Combination of V and Flat Sideways The forces acting on V and flat slideways are : (a) Cutting force component Fz (in the direction of the velocity vector) and Fy (radial). we get Department of Mechanical Engineering. RTU ..

Department of Mechanical Engineering. i. (d) Frictional forces μF1.. represents the forces acting on the mating surfaces in combination of two flat sideways. W. radial Fy. and Fz in the direction of velocity vector. and assume that present angle γ may change to γ = 90 – λ. the solution of simultaneous algebraic Eqs. F2 and F3 acting on the mating surfaces. (c) Unknown forces F1. where μ is the coefficient of friction between the sliding surfaces. gives : Substituting the values of F1 and F2 in Eq. axial Fx. Fig.e. The schematic diagram of the slideways and the forces acting on the system under orthogonal cutting conditions are shown in Figure (3). (b) Weight of carriage. 3 Forces Acting on Combination of Two Flat Slideways The forces acting on combination of two flat slideways are : (a) Cutting force components. we get. Above eq.48 If the apex angle of the V is 90o . μF3. RTU . μF2.

F2 and F3 are calculated from following equilibrium conditions : From above eq. RTU .49 The unknown forces F1. On substituting the value of F3 in Eq. Department of Mechanical Engineering.

50 Slideway Profile and Combinatio n for Bads Sketch Application Open V + Open V Planning Machines Closed V + Closed V Precision lathes and turret lathes Open flat + Open V Surface-grinding machines Closed flat + Closed V Genral-purpose lathes & heavy duty boring machine For vertical columns Closed flat + Closed flat Most Commonly used for all types of vertical columne Closed flat + Closed flat Knee types milling machine small vertical drilling machine and traverses of radial drilling machine Department of Mechanical Engineering. RTU .

51 Closed flat + heavy-closed dovetail Same us above For cross slides and compound rests Closed devotail Cross slides & compound rests Closed flat + Closed flat Cross slides of heavy duty machine tools For Rotary Blades Flat Surface-grinding machine and small hobbing machine W Precission gearhobby machine Department of Mechanical Engineering. RTU .

12 Object: Functions and types of Guide ways Shapes of slideways (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Slideways profiles: (a) Flat. (c) Asymmetrical V. (d) dovetail (e) Cylindrical Department of Mechanical Engineering.52 EXPERIMENT NO. (b) Symmetrical V. RTU .

) without stiffening. used in plan milling.) Beds on logs or sheas a. used in large sized lathes & turret with stiffing wall.) without stiffening diagonal wall has 3040% height stiffness than arrangement (a). turrets.53 EXPERIMENT NO. clothing & boring machines.) Covered top closed profile bed. b. Wall Arrangement Applications 1. also used in large-sized laths. RTU . used in multiple tool and height production lathes. etc.) with stiffening wall and provision of chip disposal through opening in rear wall. (d) With stiffening wall also used in large size lathe and turret (c) (d) 2.13 Object: Commonly used bed section and wall arrangement and their applications. (a) (b) c. used in lathe. diagonal wall. Department of Mechanical Engineering.

RTU . used when the bed is also require.54 3. Department of Mechanical Engineering.) Open top closed profile bed. commonly employed in grinding machine.