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CN3132

SEPARATION PROCESSES
CN3132 is a core chemical engineering module to introduce design concepts of
industrially relevant separation processes
Prerequisite: CN 1111, CN2125

S Farooq
Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering
Office: E5-02-26
Phone: 6516 6545
Email: chesf@nus.edu.sg

•In  the  class. You must view  the videos before coming to the class.  Detailed  lectures will be uploaded as online videos.Flipped classroom •We  will  adopt  flipped  classroom  approach.  •You will be required to actively participate. Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-2 .   •More  time  will  be  spent  on  illustrations  through  solving  problems.  the  focus  will  be  more  on  key  concepts  and  design issues.

Topics covered here Compulsory reading: Chapter 1 from the text book  Why study separation?  About the module  Learning objectives  Expected outcomes  Course content and mode of delivery  Text book and supporting materials  Schedules  Mechanism of mass transfer  Equilibrium design method Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-3 .

Importance of separation  50‐90% of the capital invested in a chemical plant goes to separation equipment  • A typical chemical plant • Undesirable impurities removed from the raw material before reaction • Separation of product from unreacted feed for recycling • Further purification of product(s) to meet the customer specification Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-4 .

Process flow diagram of formaldehyde manufacture from methanol   DISTILLATION Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-5 .

Production of petroleum/petrochemical products from crude oil in a refinery Watch the video at the following location to know more about various products from a refinery distillation column: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=c2XV0Qk7PEU  Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-6 .

Penicillin production (Biotechnology) Environmental protection (H2S Removal)  • Can you identify the separators? • What are the most common separators? Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-7 .

Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-8 .

 Use  Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-9 .Maturities of Separation Processes: Technical vs.

Learning objectives  Pre-requisites: Equilibrium and mass balance concepts introduced in CN 1111 and CN2125 • The students will learn the design and operation of standard equilibrium‐stage  separation processes used in the chemical industries Expected Outcomes  At the end of the course the students are expected to • Explain equilibrium concepts in separation. • Design. Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-10 . analyze. troubleshoot and improve standard separation processes used in chemical industries. • Describe the effects of various operating variables on the separation output. • Make informed choices among alternatives in the design and operation of separation processes.

Adsorption Processes Date  90‐minute lecture (Monday) 10 August  13 August  15 August  Holiday      17 August  Multicomponent Flash/ Binary Multi‐stage  distillation    Binary Multi‐stage  Distillation    Absorption    Extraction (immiscible  system)    Extraction (miscible system)    Multicomponent distillation   20 August  24 August  27 August  31 August  3 Sept  7 Sept  10 Sept  14 Sept  17 Sept  28 Sept  1 Oct  45‐minute lecture (Thursday) Binary Flash Distillation    Watch uploaded video  lecture before the face  to face lecture  Online lecture 1    Comment   Make‐up for the lecture  lost on August 10   Venue: LT5  Time: 11 am to 1 pm  Topic: Binary Flash  Distillation  Online lecture 2 Binary Multi‐stage Distillation Absorption  Online lecture 3    Absorption Online lecture 4 Extraction   Extraction (miscible system) Mid‐term test     Step by step illustration  Watch after attending lecture  Time: 8:45 am to 9:45 am Venue to be announced  later  NOTE: Lecture time has not been assigned for the topic “Column design”.    Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-11 .Course content Dr Dan Zhao will take over after October 1 and cover the following topics Rate Based Design of Continuous Contact Processes. Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer. Recorded lecture will be uploaded to cover this topic.

E.C.  Online lecture / Video Clips Uploaded and links provided in the lecture notes Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-12 . P. “Mass-Transfer Operations”. R.Course materials  Text book and supporting books (No. Prentice Hall. 1 is the prescribed text): 1. Treybal.  Course Notes Every student must have a text book and read the relevant chapters. “Separation Process Engineering”.. Wankat.. Course notes should only be used as complimentary materials . 3nd Edition (2012) 2nd Edition 3rd Edition 2. McGraw-Hill.not a substitute for the text book. International Edition (1980).

5 hours  Compulsory questions Test overall learning of the expected outcomes Final mark = 20% CA (S. Zhao’s part) + 60% Final examination Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-13 .Assessment Home work every week   Home work problems will be discussed in the tutorials Objective is to help develop skill for solving design problems Homework problems will not be graded Continual assessment (CA) (Open book: Text book and lecture notes)   Objective is to test the basic concepts Formative: Short questions on topics covered in previous lecture(s) for self-assessment Summative: 1 term test after the term break (schedule on the next page) :20% Final examination (Open book: Text book and lecture notes)  2. Farooq’s part) + 20% CA (Dr.

 tutorials.Schedules for lectures. 2015 Topics to be covered All the topics Venue: TBA Time: 8:45 am to 9:30 am Consultation Wednesdays from 5 pm – 7 pm in my office (E5-02-26) – no appointment necessary By email By appointment on other days Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-14 . consultation and class tests Lectures Venues: LT6: Monday: 9 am – 10:45 am Thursday: 9 am – 9:45 am 20 lectures over 7 weeks 3 lectures per week Test Test date Tutorials 1 tutorial per group per week Oct 1.

Mixing/ Convection Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-15 . Map the concepts to the modules  Thermodynamics 1/ 2/ 3/ 4/ 5 / 6  Heat and mass transfer  Fluid mechanics 1. show the effect of water height increase. it is at the molecular scale • Inter-phase mass transfer affected by concepts taught in various modules.Test your prior knowledge: Mechanism of diffusional mass transfer  (Assumption: Solubility of air in water is negligible compared to CO2) Air + CO2 Water Air + CO2 Air + depleted CO2 Water Air + depleted CO2 Air + CO2 Air + depleted CO2 Glass bead Air bubble • These are  Steady state processes  Unsteady state process • Which arrangement will give the lowest CO2 fraction in exit air?  1 / 2/ 3 • Compare plots of CO2 fraction at exit versus time for the three options. Molecular diffusion 6. Interfacial area available for phase contact 5. • What changes when water height is increased?  Bubble size  Interfacial area  Contact time • How many phases?  1 / 2/ 3/ 4 • Where does the separation take place?  In the bulk phases  At the interface • Can you see mass transfer taking place?  Yes (it involves bulk movement)  No. Phase equilibrium 2. Driving Force 4. • On the plots. Rate of mass transfer 3.

Tray Tower Packed Tower Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-16 .Contacting of phases   Direct contact vs.example is tray tower  Continuous contact – example is packed tower See the videos to visualize mixing patterns and different types of trays at the link below: http://courses. Adsorption  Staged contact . Phases Separated by a Membrane  Direct contact is most common Phase combination Vapor-Liquid Gas – Liquid Gas – Solid Liquid – Liquid Liquid – Solid Example Distillation Absorption Adsorption Extraction Leaching.sg/course/chesf/cn2113/UO/UO_SeparationProcess/  Membrane separations are rapidly gaining importance.nus.edu.

Floor loading. If there is no overriding consideration. Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-17 . Cleaning. floor loadings should be designed for accidental complete filling of the tower with liquid. it is best to remove the solids first. Frequent cleaning is easier with tray towers. Cooling coils are more readily built into tray towers. 11. 8. 13. Neither type of tower is very satisfactory. graphite) tend to be crushed. Packed towers haves substantially smaller liquid holdup. 3. Liquid cooling. than from packed towers. Solids present. Agitated vessels and venturi scrubbers are best but provide only a single stage. Minimum diameter. Packed towers have less bubbling of gas through the liquid and are more suitable for foaming liquid. Liquid/gas ratio. 9. Very low values of this ratio are best handled in tray towers. Foaming systems. These are more readily removed from tray towers. Tray or metal packing is satisfactory.6 m. Large temperature fluctuations. Packed towers for difficult corrosion problems are likely to be less costly. 12. cost is the major factor to be taken into account. 5. Tray tower has a minimum diameter limit of 0. Liquid holdup. 10. If multistage countercurrent action is required. 4. Gas-pressure drop. Plastic packed towers are lighter in weight than tray towers which in turn are lighter than ceramic or metal packed towers. 2. 6. Low pressure drop is Important for vacuum distillation. In any event. Tray Tower vs. and liquid can more readily be removed from trays. to be passed through coolers and returned. This is important where liquid deterioration occurs with high temperatures and short holding times are essential. It is also important for sharp separations in batch distillation. High values are best handled in packed towers. Packed Tower 1. Fragile packing (ceramic. Side streams. Pressure drop is less in packed towers. Corrosion. Cost. 7.

Dan Zhao)  Equilibrium stage concept applies to both tray and packed towers  We illustrate the concept with a tray tower for a clear physical understanding   Each tray is a stage – IDEAL STAGE Streams leaving from each ideal stage are in equilibrium Liquid flow Lin Vout IDEAL STAGE Perforated tray Rising vapor/gas Lout Vin The main feature of the equilibrium design concept is Lout and Vout are in equilibrium Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-18 .Equilibrium design method There are two main design concepts for mass transfer processes:  Equilibrium stage  Rate based (To be covered by Dr.

of IDEAL STAGES STAGE EFFICIENCY  Empirical plots are available for stage efficiency calculations. Farooq/CN3132/Introduction-19 . Complete equilibrium is not achieved in a real operation  STAGE/TRAY EFFICIENCY used to account for not achieving complete equilibrium  Actual number of trays required = No.4 goes beyond this module. Design companies use in-house data  Column height is related to the actual number of trays  Column diameter depends on required processing rate and maximum allowable velocity  Material balances determine the quantity of the different streams required  There are maximum allowable velocity limits based on hydrodynamic considerations Problem-solving methods: Usefulness of the discussion in section 1.