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# M.

Vable

Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8

Stress Transformation
• Transforming stress components from one coordinate system to
another at a given point.
• Relating stresses on different planes that pass through a point.

σxx

T

T

P

P

τθx

σxx

τxθ

Cast Iron

Aluminum

Learning Objectives
• Learn the equations and procedures of relating stresses (on different
planes) in different coordinate system at a point.

• Develop the ability to visualize planes passing through a point on
which stresses are given or are being found, particularly the planes of
maximum normal stress and maximum shear stress.

August 2014

8-1

M. Vable

Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8

Wedge Method
• The fixed reference coordinate system in which the entire problem is
described is called the global coordinate system.
• A coordinate system that can be fixed at any point on the body and has
an orientation that is defined with respect to the global coordinate system is called the local coordinate system.
t

Vertical plane

y
y

t

in

cl

In
ed

n

pl
e

z

n

x

an

Outward normal to
inclined plane

Horizontal plane
x
z

(a)

(b)

• Plane stress problem: We will consider only those inclined planes that
can be obtained by rotation about the z-axis.

August 2014

8-2

me. (a) σ y (b) y τ A A A 300 A 600 x Class Problem 8. compression or can’t be determined by inspection. Choose the correct answers for normal and shear stress on the incline AA by inspection. Similarly we could say that the shear stress on the incline AA is positive.edu/~mavable/MoM2nd. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 C8. Assume coordinate z is perpendicular to this page and towards you.M.mtu. negative or can’t be determined by inspection.1 y τ (c) (d) A Printed from: http://www.1 In the following problems one could say that the normal stress on the incline AA is in tension.htm A 300 August 2014 A x 8-3 A x .

The diagram so constructed will be called a stress wedge.M. The wedge with the forces drawn will be referred to as the force wedge. is constructed.htm Step 5: Check the answer intuitively. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 General Procedure for Wedge Method Step 1: A stress cube with the plane on which stresses are to be found. and • the specified inclined plane on which we either seek stresses or the stresses are given.mtu.edu/~mavable/MoM2nd. Printed from: http://www.me. August 2014 8-4 . to obtain forces acting on that plane. Step 4: Balance forces in any two directions to determine the unknown stresses. • a horizontal plane that has an outward normal in the y-direction. Step 3: Multiply the stress components by the area of the planes on which the stress components are acting. All the known and the unknown stresses are shown on the wedge. Establish a local n-t-z coordinate system using the outward normal of the inclined plane as the n-direction. Step 2: A wedge made from the following three planes is constructed: • a vertical plane that has an outward normal in the x-direction. or are given.

M.me.edu/~mavable/MoM2nd.htm 10 ksi August 2014 8-5 . Vable C8.2 Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 Determine the normal and shear stress on plane AA. A 300 8 ksi A Printed from: http://www.mtu.

M.mtu.htm σyy (Δt sinθ Δz) 2 2 σ nn = σ xx cos θ + σ yy sin θ + 2τ xy sin θ cos θ 2 2 τ nt = – σ xx cos θ sin θ + σ yy sin θ cos θ + τ xy ( cos θ – sin θ ) Trigonometric identities August 2014 8-6 x . Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 Stress Transformation By Method of Equations Stress Cube Stress Wedge σyy y τyx B t τxy τxy σxx Δy σxx C O τyx θ x A τxy Δt Δx τyx σyy Force Wedge σnn θ θ σxx τnt n σyy Force Transformation y τnt (Δt Δz) σnn(Δt Δz) θ t θ n Fy θ sθ co Fx θ Fx θ Fy τxy (Δt cosθ Δz) θ s co sin Fx σxx (Δt cosθ Δz) Fy sin τyx (Δt sinθ Δz) Printed from: http://www.edu/~mavable/MoM2nd.me.

M. 2 = ---------------------------.sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ 2 Maximum normal stress 2τ xy ⎛ dσ nn ⎞ = 0⎟ ⇒ tan 2θ p = --------------------------⎜ d θ ( σ – σ ⎝ ⎠ xx yy ) θ = θp −τxy -(σxx − σyy)/2 2θp τxy R 2θp (σxx − σyy)/2 θ1 = θp θ2 =90 + θp Printed from: http://www. Counterclockwise rotation from the x axis is defined as positive. • The angles the principal axis makes with the global coordinate system are called the principal angles.mtu. August 2014 8-7 . 2 = 0 ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 • Planes on which the shear stresses are zero are called the principal planes.+ -------------------------.cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ 2 2 ( σ xx – σ yy ) τ nt = – ---------------------------. • The normal direction to the principal planes is referred to as the principal direction or the principal axis. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 2 cos θ = ( 1 + cos 2θ ) ⁄ 2 2 2 cos θ – sin θ = cos 2θ 2 sin θ = ( 1 – cos 2θ ) ⁄ 2 cos θ sin θ = ( sin 2θ ) ⁄ 2 ( σ xx + σ yy ) ( σ xx – σ yy ) σ nn = ---------------------------. • Only θ defining principal axis one is reported in describing the principal coordinate system in two-dimensional problems.edu/~mavable/MoM2nd. • Normal stress on a principal plane is called the principal stress. • The greatest principal stress is called principal stress one.me.htm R σ xx – σ yy 2 ( σ xx + σ yy ) ⎛ 2 σ 1.± -----------------------⎞ + τ xy τ 1.

me. ⎧0 σ 3 = σ zz = ⎨ ⎩ ν ( σ xx + σ yy ) = ν ( σ 1 + σ 2 ) Plane Stress Plane Strain In-Plane Maximum Shear Stress Vertical plane y t in cl In ed n pl n ␪ x e an ␪ Outward normal to inclined plane Horizontal plane x z • The maximum shear stress on a plane that can be obtained by rotating about the z axis is called the in-plane maximum shear stress.M.mtu. August 2014 8-8 . each of which are 45o away from the principal planes. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 σ nn + σ tt = σ xx + σ yy = σ 1 + σ 2 • The sum of the normal stresses is invariant with the coordinate transformation.edu/~mavable/MoM2nd. Maximum Shear Stress • The maximum shear stress at a point is the absolute maximum shear stress that acts on any plane passing through the point.htm ( σ xx – σ yy ) τ nt = – ---------------------------.sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ 2 – ( σ xx – σ yy )⎞ ⎛ dτ nt ⎞ ⎛ σ1 – σ2 = 0⎟ ⇒ ⎜ tan 2θ s = -------------------------------⎟ τ p = -----------------⎜ 2τ xy 2 ⎝dθ θ = θ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ s • maximum in-plane shear stress exists on two planes. Printed from: http://www.

M. -----------------.edu/~mavable/MoM2nd.mtu. August 2014 8-9 .me. -----------------⎝ ⎠ 2 2 2 Plane Stress ⎧0 σ 3 = σ zz = ⎨ Plane Strain ⎩ ν ( σ xx + σ yy ) = ν ( σ 1 + σ 2 ) • The maximum shear stress value may be different in plane stress and in plane strain.htm σ1 – σ2 τ 21 = – τ 12 = -----------------2 p3 p3 σ1 – σ2 σ2 – σ3 σ3 – σ1 ⎞ τ max = max ⎛ -----------------. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 Planes of Maximum Shear Stress p2 p2 rotation about principal axis 1 p1 p1 σ2 – σ3 τ 23 = – τ 32 = -----------------2 p3 p2 p3 p2 rotation about principal axis 2 p1 p1 σ3 – σ1 τ 31 = – τ 13 = -----------------2 p3 p3 p2 p2 rotation about principal axis 3 (In-plane) p1 p1 Printed from: http://www..

htm 10 ksi August 2014 8-10 . Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 C8. A 300 8 ksi A Printed from: http://www.me.mtu.M.3 Determine the normal and shear stress on plane AA using the method of equations (resolving problem C8.2).edu/~mavable/MoM2nd.

1 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ nn ⎠ 2 2 • Each point on the Mohr’s circle represents a unique plane that passes through the point at which the stresses are specified.+ -------------------------.M. • The coordinates of the point on Mohr’s Circle are the normal and shear stress on the plane represented by the point.htm σ xx – σ yy 2 σ xx + σ yy 2 ⎛ ⎛ σ – ----------------------⎞ 2 2 .mtu.sin 2θ + τ xy cos 2θ 2 Printed from: http://www. August 2014 8-11 . • On Mohr’s circle. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 Stress Transformation By Mohr’s Circle ( σ xx + σ yy ) ( σ xx – σ yy ) σ nn = ---------------------------.cos 2θ + τ xy sin 2θ 2 2 ( σ xx – σ yy ) τ nt = – ---------------------------.edu/~mavable/MoM2nd.+ τ nt = -----------------------⎞ + τ xy 8.me. plane are separated by twice the actual angle between the planes.

M. Step 5. August 2014 8-12 . Step 4. Draw the vertical axis with clockwise direction of shear stress up and counterclockwise direction of rotation down. and τxy on a stress cube and label the vertical plane as V and the horizontal plane as H.htm Step 3. With C as center and CV or CH as radius draw the Mohr’s circle.edu/~mavable/MoM2nd. y σyy τyx τxy H σxx V τxy V σxx τ H τyx R E σyy (C) x H τyx (CW) σxx C D R τxy σ (T) V σyy (CCW) σ xx + σ yy σ xx – σ yy -------------------------. τyx ) The rotation arrow next to the shear stresses corresponds to the rotation of the cube caused by the set of shear stress on planes V and H. Step 2. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 Construction of Mohr’s Circle Step 1.me. Show the stresses σxx. Locate points V and H and join the points by drawing a line. Draw the horizontal axis with the tensile normal stress to the right and the compressive normal stress to the left. τxy )and H (σyy .-------------------------2 2 Printed from: http://www.mtu. Label the point at which the line VH intersects the horizontal axis as C. Write the coordinates of points V and H as V (σxx . σyy.

htm τ23 (C) τ32 τ12 P3 σ (T) P1 P2 τ21 (CCW) August 2014 τ13 8-13 τ31 . Depending upon the Mohr circle θ1 may be equal to θp or equal to (θp+ 90o).edu/~mavable/MoM2nd. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 Principal Stresses & Maximum In-Plane Shear Stress from Mohr’s Circle τ (CW) S1 H τ12 R P3 σ3 (C) P2 E 2θp C 2θp D τ21 V σ1 (CCW) (T) τxy R σ2 σ P1 σ xx + σ yy -------------------------2 S2 σ xx – σ yy -------------------------2 • The principal angle one θ1 is the angle between line CV and CP1.me. Maximum Shear Stress τ (CW) Printed from: http://www.M.mtu.

me.edu/~mavable/MoM2nd.M. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 Stresses on an Inclined Plane σyy y τyx H σxx V A V β H θA A τxy τyx (CW) τxy σxx τ (C) A H 2θA 2βA F D C E x V σyy σA (CCW) Sign of shear stress on incline: Coordinates of point A: ( σ .mtu.htm H August 2014 H 8-14 t τA (T) σ . τ ) A A t V A n τA A V n τA Printed from: http://www.

me.edu/~mavable/MoM2nd.mtu. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 Principal Stress Element τ (CW) S1 H (C) C E y τ12 R P2 2θ1 D R σ2 σ P1 p1 P1 S2 S1 P1 P2 (T) H τ21 V V σ1 P2 p2 V θ1 H S2 x (CCW) y P1 σ1 τ21 y σav τ21 σav S1 P2 σ2 x Printed from: http://www.htm P2 H x Cast Iron P1 σxx S1 S2 August 2014 P1 θ1 P σxx S2 P2 σ2 θ1 P σ1 σ xx τ max = -------2 V P1 σ 1 = σ xx S2 P1 P2 Aluminum S2 8-15 .M.

me.4 In a thin body (plane stress) the stresses in the x-y plane are as shown on each stress element.htm Fig.mtu. (d) Determine the normal and shear stresses on plane A.edu/~mavable/MoM2nd.4 August 2014 8-16 10 ksi . (b) Determine the maximum shear stress at the point. (c) Draw the principal element. 20 ksi 30 ksi A 42o Printed from: http://www. (a) Determine the principal stresses at the point.M. C8. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 C8.

Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 Class Problem 8.edu/~mavable/MoM2nd.me.mtu.htm Determine the two possible values of principal angle one (θ1) in each question. y 1 August 2014 24o 24o V H V H H V 2 x V 8-17 H .M. 40 ksi 40ksi 8 ksi 40 ksi cube 1 8 ksi cube 2 cube 3 8 ksi circle B circle A circle C circle D Class Problem 8.2 Associate the stress cubes with the appropriate Mohr’s circle for stress.3 Printed from: http://www.

mtu.4 Explain the failure surfaces in cast iron and aluminum due to torsion by drawing the principal stress element T T τθx τxθ Cast Iron Printed from: http://www.me.edu/~mavable/MoM2nd.htm Aluminum August 2014 8-18 . Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 Class Problem 8.M.

me.M.edu/~mavable/MoM2nd. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 C8.5 A broken 2 in x 6 in wooden bar was glued together as shown. F = 12 kips F 6 in Printed from: http://www.htm 60o August 2014 8-19 . Determine the normal and shear stress in the glue.mtu.

edu/~mavable/MoM2nd.4 m Printed from: http://www.htm 0. determine the principal stresses and maximum shear stress at points A.8 kN.mtu. B.6 If the applied force P = 1.M.4 m August 2014 8-20 30 mm 6 mm 6 mm .me. P A B C 30 mm 15 mm 0. Vable Mechanics of Materials: Chapter 8 C8. and C which are on the surface of the beam.