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# College Algebra Lecture Notes

Section 1.5

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Big Idea: Quadratic equations can be solved under any circumstance if we allow complexvalued solutions.
Big Skill: You should be able to solve any quadratic equation by factoring and using the zero
product property, completing the square and using the square root property of equality, and by
A. Solve Quadratic equations Using the Zero Product Property
 A quadratic equation is an equation in the variable x with constants a, b, and c
(sometimes called parameters) that can be written in the form ax 2  bx  c  0 .
 The standard form for a quadratic equation is as above, where all non-zero terms are on
the left hand side, and those terms are written in descending powers of the variable.
A quadratic equation can be written in the form ax 2  bx  c  0 with a, b, c  ¡ and a  0 .
Zero Product Property
If A and B represent real numbers or real-valued expressions,
and A B 0 ,
then A  0 or B  0 .

To solve a quadratic equation using the zero product property:
o Get all terms on one side of the equation (which means zero will be on the other
side)
o Factor the non-zero side
o Set each factor equal to zero (justified by the zero product property)
o Solve each mini “factor equation.”

Practice:
1. Solve: 2 x 2  7 x

Solve: 5 x  2 x 2  3 3.  To solve a quadratic equation using the square root property of equality: o Manipulate the equation until the left hand side is a perfect square. Solve: 8 x 2  24 x  18 B.5 Page 2 of 10 2. o Apply the square root property of equality. and X 2  k . and there is a single number on the right hand side. then X  k or X   k which is also written as X   k . Solve Quadratic equations Using the Square Root Property of Equality Square Root Property of Equality If X represents an algebraic expression.College Algebra Lecture Notes Section 1. .

Solve: 4 x 2  12  100 5.5 Page 3 of 10 . Solve:  x  7   5  25 2 Section 1.College Algebra Lecture Notes Practice: 4. Solve: x 2  12  4 6.

.e.. if x 2  bx  c  0 .e. 2 1    1 i. Solve Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square To Solve a Quadratic Equation by Completing the Square: (i. then write the equation as x 2  bx  c  Make sure the coefficient of the square term is 1. 2  1   1 i..  Identify the coefficient of the linear term.5 Page 4 of 10 C.College Algebra Lecture Notes Section 1.e.e.e. x  bx   b  c   b  2  2 2 2  Write the resulting perfect square trinomial as the square of the binomial .  1  b  2 2 i. i.. multiply it by ½ and square the result. n 2  10n  6  0 . writing a quadratic trinomial as a perfect square trinomial plus a constant)  Get the constant term on the right hand side of the equation. Practice: 7.  x  b  c   b 2   2  2 Use the square root property to solve the equation. Find the number b in x 2  bx  c and compute   Add that number to both sides of the equation.

5 Page 5 of 10 . x 2  16 x  7  0 9. z 2  7 z  1  0 10.College Algebra Lecture Notes 8. 3 x 2  6 x  5  0 Section 1.

Solve Quadratic Equations Using the Quadratic Equation The Quadratic Formula The solution(s) to the quadratic formula ax 2  bx  c  0 (for a  0) are given by the quadratic formula: x b  b 2  4ac 2a Proof: The quadratic formula is derived by completing the square on the standard from of a quadratic equation:  Get the constant term on the right hand side of the equation.5 Page 6 of 10 D. multiply it by ½ and square the result. b c x2  x   a a 2 b b c b2 2 x  x 2   2 a 4a a 4a 2 b b b2 c x2  x  2  2  a 4a 4a a .College Algebra Lecture Notes Section 1. 2  b2  1 b     4a 2  2 a Add that number to both sides of the equation. ax 2  bx  c ax 2  bx c  a a b c x2  x   a a Identify the coefficient of the linear term. ax 2  bx  c  0   ax 2  bx  c Make sure the coefficient of the square term is 1.

College Algebra Lecture Notes  Page 7 of 10 Write the resulting perfect square trinomial as the square of the binomial .5 2 b b 2  4ac  x   2a 4a 2   x b b 2  4ac  2a 2a b b 2  4ac x  2a 2a x b  b 2  4ac 2a .   Section 1. b b2 b2 c 2 x  x 2  2  a 4a 4a a 2   x  b b 2 4ac    2a 4a 2 4a 2 2 b b 2  4ac x     2a 4a 2  Use the square root property to solve the equation.

This case can also be solved by factoring. and unequal. If b2 – 4ac is positive but not a perfect square. you can also solve the quadratic equation by factoring. Examples of the Nature of the Roots of a Quadratic Equation with Rational Coefficients: 1. Example: 1.5 x 2  7 x  3  0 3. The discriminant is important because it determines the nature of the solutions (roots) of the quadratic equation. and unequal. rational. Example: 2 x 2  5 x  1. Example: 9 x 2  24 x  16  0 . In this case. If b2 – 4ac = 0.College Algebra Lecture Notes Section 1. If b2 – 4ac is positive and a perfect square. then there are two solutions that are real. then there are two solutions that are real. irrational. Use the Discriminant to Identify Solutions  b2 – 4ac is called the discriminant.125  0 2. then there is just one solution (a repeated root) that is real and rational (or we can say that the two solutions are equal).5 Page 8 of 10 E.

Solve for k: 16k  9  24 k F.5 Page 9 of 10 4.College Algebra Lecture Notes Section 1. what are its dimensions? . then there are two solutions that are complex and unequal. Solve Applications of Quadratic Equations Practice: 6.8 m more than its width. The length of a tennis court is 12. If the area of a tennis court is 262 m2. Example: 4 x 2  2 x  9  0 Practice: 5. If b2 – 4ac is negative.

the remaining rectangle has sides that also are in proportion to the golden ratio. . The golden ratio is the ratio of the length to the width of a rectangle such that when you remove a square that has side equal to the width of the rectangle.College Algebra Lecture Notes Section 1. Calculate the golden ratio.5 Page 10 of 10 7. The golden ratio is important in architecture and design because it is the foundation for the most pleasing looking rectangles and linear proportions.