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Proceedings of ICFD 10

Tenth International Congress of Fluid Dynamics
December 16-19, 2010, Stella Di Mare Sea Club Hotel, Ain Soukhna, Red Sea, Egypt



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It has been very wisely said that Innovation is the key to
Development. Had it not been for innovation, the world would have been
reduced to a bunch of stagnating ideas and rigid concepts.
The engine that is presented here is a similar innovation and has been
named BUTTERFLY ENGINE, owing to its construction which resembles
the wings of a butterfly. It is a rotary type engine, i.e. it provides direct
rotating output from the combustive power of the fuel hence reducing the
mechanical losses involved in transfer of motion.
The most nagging problems in technological development today are
the fear of extinction of fossil fuels and the problem of pollution. So it is
logical that the foremost reason as to this engine was developed is to achieve
better fuel economy & efficiency.
The engine is also developed in a way so that it can be used for
versatile applications. It is compact, has higher power to weight ratio, and
can be run using different kinds of fuels owing to some of its inherent design


If we look back a century in time, we will be astonished to see the
advances that we have made in leaps & bounds in the field of engine
technology. From the very first engine (the one made by Karl Benz) to iVTEC, we have indeed come a long way. So much so that in place of the
box type, noisy, bulky structures that we called automobiles a century ago,
we now have the most swanky, swift, smart pieces of technology that bring
the bitumen to a boil and pump adrenaline into your veins like never before.
And most of us would agree to the fact that in this drastic transformation of
the face of automobiles, the development of engine has definitely played a
pivotal role.
A drastic innovation to one of the earliest engines gave rise to a rotary
type internal combustion engine called Wankel engine which is a remarkable
example in the field of innovation. It had a specialty of providing direct
rotary output, thus reducing the mechanical losses & hence increasing the
efficiency. It was initially incorporated in Mazda RX-7 & Rotary Genesis in
The correct conceptual & technical approach which is required in the
analysis of the engine is very essential. Hence a number of papers and thesis
were referred to have an insight of the various innovations across globe [11],
[12], [13], [14], [15], [16].
The engine that we present here has its basic components; a
cylindrical casing, snitch, main output shaft, wings and a sprag clutch or
ratchet and pawl mechanism. The flapping action of the wings is similar to
the movement of wings of a butterfly, and hence the name BUTTERFLY
The crude construction of the engine primarily consists of a
cylindrical casing, a pair of snitches comprising of two wings and a
cylindrical hub with sprag clutch or ratchet and pawl mechanism each. The
snitch is linked to the main shaft through the sprag clutch mechanism
(Ratchet and pawl Mechanism). Figure 1 is a labeled diagram of the engine,
in its front view, illustrating the basic parts. The dimensions of the engine
can be seen in figure 14. Figure 2 illustrates the two positions of working of
the engine, explained later.
Figures 3 and 4 show the component Casing. The casing as said
earlier is just a cylindrical hollow structure. It can be compared to the
Engine Block of a conventional engine as it encompasses all other
components inside it. The protrusions at 900 from the casing, towards
outside, are the nipples used for valves or port openings.

two snitches meshed together are shown in figures 8. The hollow center hub of the snitch encompasses the sprag clutch or the ratchet and pawl mechanism which itself is linked to the main output shaft running through the center. These protrusions act as pistons and seal against inside of the casing. 4 . Observing closely it may happen during practical application that the snitches may try to move in or out at different times during the suction or combustion process. It is to be noted that both the snitches move exactly in opposite directions all the time. which is then followed by a similar combustion process in the horizontal chambers. This causes the sprag or ratchet and pawl mechanism of each snitch to move in both the directions. The snitch is again a hollow cylindrical structure with diametrically opposite rectangle protrusions called wings. 9 and 11. Hence in the snitches a bevel gear meshing can be used between the pair so that each snitch forces the other to move in opposite direction to it. Referring to figures 7 and 8 arrangement of the bevel gear can be seen. However this motion is transferred to the main output shaft in only one direction. The wing is double the width of the hub of the snitch so that it meshes completely with the other snitch having similar structure. Please refer to figure 2. The working of the engine is henceforth explained. As the ratchet and pawl mechanism allows its inner shaft to rotate only in one direction with respect to the outer part (like in a bicycle free-wheel). The ratchet and pawl mechanism of both the snitches are aligned in same direction. hence the main shaft rotates with the wings in only one direction. In this way. Thus the chemical energy of the fuel is directly converted to the rotary motion of shaft. The power stroke is marked by the ignition of the charge in the vertical chambers. The bevel gears are supported by the snitch cylindrical hub and the main output shaft. The pinion gear can be supported using a small Tframe assembly as shown in figure 7. the wings are forced to move towards the horizontal position. The movement of the wings causes the ratchet and pawl mechanism to rotate at a certain angle back and forth. thus compressing the charge. A similar suction process then occurs at the horizontal chambers (A`) in stage 2. the wings move to-n-fro like the wings of a butterfly. The pinion gear causes the other snitch to move in opposite direction. As the charge enters the vertical chambers (A) in stage 1. Movement of any one snitch causes its bevel gear to move. which forces the wings back to the original vertical position. The bevel gear meshing is similar to the one used in a differential box of an automobile.Figures 5 and 6 depict the snitch.

A very clear picture of the engine can be obtained from the figures 9.09. The snitches and the wings can be seen making the four chambers for carrying out the combustion process. The design has been already been granted Provisional patent in India with application number 2241/DEL/2010 on 21. Figure 10 shows the top view where the main output shaft can be seen protruding out of the engine body. Figure 9 illustrates the engine in front view.2010. Figure 11 illustrates the engine in 3D view and is self explanatory in a way. 10 and 11. 5 .

Figures 12 & 13 depict the photographic views of the PVC prototype. overhead trolleys. hub etc which are not required for our purpose. The only option thus left is a bicycle free-wheel. voluminous and very costly. they have other components like O-rings. A PVC pipe as a casing and acrylic pipes are used for making hub for free-wheel and main output shaft. MODEL FABRICATION A plastic or PVC model fabrication was necessary so as to obtain the correct representation of the engine in its working form. The cogs on freewheel surface are removed to suit the application.3. This model can provide with the calculations for its performance evaluation. conveyer belts etc. The calculations in this paper are based on this model prepared with respect to its dimensions. Preparing a sprag clutch or a custom made sprag clutch could be used however there are two alternatives still remaining which provide a similar mechanism. The sprag clutches are used in a wide variety of applications like automobile starter motor. these sprag clutches are bulky. Moreover. However. The cogs can be grinded on a bench grinder and used for the purpose. Here the sprag clutch or the ratchet and pawl mechanism is taken as it is the only component of the engine which is most complicated in design. Other components are designed with respect to the ratchet and pawl mechanism finalized. 6 . The alternatives are ratchet screwdriver and bicycle-free-wheel. Lego parts are used for making supports. To prepare a model one component of the engine had to be taken as a reference. The wings are made of acrylic sheets. Ratchet screwdriver are very small and they come in sets hence they are again not feasible for our application.

at Stage 1 intake process occurs at the vertical chambers and they move to Stage 2 where similar process takes place in horizontal chambers.………………………………………(2) Where.790 The volume obtained. Hence The area between the wings in Stage 1... w= Width of casing.. A`= ((((180-2Ө) x πr2)/360) – (((180-2Ө) x πs2)/360)) – (A1)…….(1) Where.. A1= Cross section area of wing. Clearance Volume= A x w………. BASIC CALCULATIONS FOR THE ENGINE 4. s= outer radius of snitch.(6) As stated in assumption we consider compression ratio as 10 and using the dimensions as shown in the Auto CAD figure: Hence. i.(3) Total Volume= A` x w……………………………………. The angle between the centers of the wings is 2Ө (shown by 2”0”). A = (((2Өx π r2)/360) – ((2Өx π s2)/360)) – (A1)………………. Area between wings in Stage 2. 31 times the complete cycle operates in one chamber per second. here 6.5cm...e..………(4) Hence. will be opposite to that assumed. r= internal radius of casing.. the formula for “A” will give the volume of “A`”. by using the Ө found..70cc Hence the basic parameters of the engine can be tabulated as follows: 7 .. This angle becomes 180-2Ө (shown by 180-2”0”) at the stage 2.4. 10= A`/ A…………………………………………………………. i.1 FINDING BASIC PARAMETERS OF THE ENGINE Again referring to figure 2.e.(7) Which gives Ө= 20.. However it is not necessary as both the volumes are occurring simultaneously in consecutive chambers.. RPM of engine at 31CPS= 1430RPM (31Cycles per second.07cc Volume of upper chamber in stage 2 = 140. is assumed for the calculations) Volume of upper chamber in stage 1 = 14.. Compression ratio= Total Volume/ Clearance volume……………(5) r= A`/ A……………………………………….

02 0 Max.98 Min. Respective volumes and Maximum compression ratio possible are found out successively. This is given as 2 X (900-COS-1(Thickness of wings/ Inner Diameter))……………. Vertical Angle ( ) 6. Volume (cc) 0. (cm) 11.(8) Maximum horizontal angle possible is found by subtracting the above from 1800.27 The maximum vertical and maximum horizontal angles possible are found out using some basic geometry and depend on the thickness of the wings and radius of the snitch.50 Width of wings (cm) 0.22 Max. Ratio 10 Cycles per second 31 Air fuel ratio 15 Vol..70 RPM 1430 0 Max.07 Wider volume (cc) 140.95 Height of Wings (cm) 1. Maximum vertical angle will be decided when the wings are close enough to touch one another at the inner radius diameter position. (cm) 13.36 0 Vertical angle ( ) 20.43 Length (cm) 6.60 Comp. Basic Parameters of the engine Outer Dia. Comp.Table 1.97 Inner Dia.21 Upper volume (cc) 14. 8 . W/o wings (cc) 329. Horizontal Angle ( ) 173. Volume (cc) 154. Ratio 278.55 Max.79 0 Horizontal angle ( ) 159.

.............717 X (T3...(14) = mf X 43..V......(9) V2= V3= 14..V= m X Cv X (T3-T2)...e.... 31 times the complete Otto cycle operates in one chamber per second.... QH= ma X Cv X (T3-T2).................5MJ/kg and density (ρf) 760kg/m3......) of petrol is 43................5 X 103 KJ = ma X 0.................. (5) The value of gas constant (R) is 287 J/ (kg-K).70cc T1= 250C= 298K 1→ 2 (Adiabatic compression process) P1V1γ= P2V2 γ……………………………………………………........…………(11) But QH = mf X C.....717KJ/kg.748.12bar and T1V1(γ-1)= T2V2(γ-1)......K................... (8) As the engine is running on petrol the compression ratio is taken to be 10...... (4) The value of gamma (γ) is 1....................... (6) Calorific Value (C. [8]..17kg/m3 and specific heat at constant volume (Cv) as 0.......54K 2→ 3 (Isochoric heat addition process) P2/T2= P3/T3……………………………………………......V.... [7]..2 POWER CALCULATION [6].............. [10] Assumptions: (1) The cycle works under ideal Otto cycle.(15) But ma: mf = 15:1 9 ...(10) Hence T2= 748..07cc Hence P2=25.............5 X 103 KJ.............. (9) The engine operates at 31CPS (31 cycles per second).................. (2) No heat loss occurs during combustion process and volumetric efficiency is 100%...............4...4.... i. Referring to figure 15 which represents an the PV diagram of an ideal Otto cycle At state 1: P1= 1bar V1= V4 = 140.................. = mf X 43...54)......(12) QH= mf X C... (3) Engine performs at a constant stoichiometric air: fuel ratio of 15:1.....(13) Also........... (7) Density of air (ρa) is taken to be 1.

60 J Hence Work Output = ((P1V1) (rp-1) (r (γ -1)-1))/ (γ-1) ……………. directly opposite.……(18) Where rp= P4/P1= P3/P2= 5.92bar and T3V3(γ-1)= T4V4 (γ-1) ……………………………………………….64% 10 .03 X 298) = 1.16 X 10-5 X 43. with half occurring at one time and another half at other.(19) Hence Torque= Power/ Rotational speed= 194.…(16) Hence P4= 5..92 WORK OUTPUT= 235. ma= (P1V1)/ (RT1) = (101325 X 140. = 1.16 X 10-5 kg and QH = mf X C.12 hp…………. Hence for 1 cycle of vertical chambers power process will occur together in both and similar for horizontal chambers. four times the above energy will develop.85 X 2 X 2 X 31) ηthm = 46.60bar 3→ 4 (Adiabatic expansion process) P3V3γ= P4V4γ…………………………………………………….89 / (482.. will undergo similar process simultaneously and the other two..…(20) ηthm = 29171..23K and P3= 148.29J The two vertical chambers.74 X 10-4) / 15 = 1.17 KW = 39. Therefore for one complete cycle of all the chambers.5 X 106 = 504.. horizontal chambers.60 X 2 X 2 X 31= 29.91K Now. And at 31CPS = 504.77 Nm Indicated thermal efficiency (ηthm) ηthm =Total Output energy/ Energy developed by fuel….V.74 X 10-4 kg and mf = ma/15 = (1. will undergo similar processes simultaneously but with a lead (or lag) of one stroke.Hence T3 = 4428.(17) Hence T4= 1762.70 X10-6)/ (275..

i.e.e.210.840 (69.210 is 0. Hence rotary valves would prove to be very good alternative.9730 ≈ 900.840. Hence the rotor has to move 3600 when the main output shaft rotates 276. Both rotor and stator have one hole each. at vertical most position and ends at 159. i.210.5. The basic construction of a rotary valve is a rotor revolving inside a stator at a certain RPM with a small clearance to avoid contact and to prevent leakage through it. i. [3] The Butterfly engine uses a rotor valve as the use of poppet valve would make the structure extremely bulky and voluminous. The minor axis length of the ellipse is the same as the diameter of the hole but the major axis depends on the time for which the holes overlap. The eclipse movement of the rotor hole allows a bell shaped output flow of charge which is similar to poppet valve flow (as shown in figure 17). horizontal most position and ends at 20.e.210.0081sec.790)/2 = 69. Therefore. Using basic geometry and trial and error method the radius of the hole and rotor can be optimized to suit the flow area available during the overlapping of the rotor and stator holes.210 X 4) after start of one suction.790. When the hole of rotor matches with that of stator the air fuel mixture supplied to the rotor starts flowing out of the stator. Considering the fabrication process the valve hole in the rotor and stator is basically drilled on a cylindrical curved surface. the angle moved by the rotor during suction process is 1. which gives the speed ratio as 1. horizontal most position.790. Hence the hole is not exactly a circle but an ellipse (as shown in figure 16). Referring to figure 16 a basic construction of a rotor valve is shown. i.210-20. Moreover the cam mechanism used for opening and closing the poppet valve would be extremely complicated. ROTARY VALVE ANALYSIS [2]. As per the given RPM of 1430 the time required to move 69. For horizontal chambers suction process begins at 159. at vertical most position. The suction of the next cycle starts after 276. To find the radius of the hole: In the “SIMULATION OF THE ENGINE” we shall see that for the vertical chambers suction process begins at 20.30 X 69.210 = 89.30. For simplicity of calculation we have considered the radius of the rotor and stator to be same as distance between them extremely less. Hence the net angle moved by the main output shaft during the suction process is (159. The hole must cover ¼ of the rotor to provide the required amount of charge.e. A similar exercise has been done 11 .

D/2 = 10. D/2 = 7.(22) Diameter of Stator = (4 X d)/ (α X (π/180))…………………………….for exhaust process and results were obtained. d/2 = 4.95mm Some basic calculations for rotary valve are shown below Diameter of rotor hole = d mm Diameter of Stator = D mm Speed ratio of rotor and main shaft of engine = S Net angle moved by the rotor = α Hence if a certain diameter of rotor and net angle movement is decided Speed ratio = α/ (((180-2Ө)-2Ө)/ 2)……………………………………..(23) 12 .. d/2 = 3mm Rotor Radius..30mm Rotor Radius...64mm Exhaust Valve: Hole Radius. For the simulation process we have considered Intake Valve: Hole Radius.(21) RPM of rotor = RPM of Main Shaft of Engine X Speed Ratio………….

Engine performs at a constant stoichiometric air: fuel ratio of 15:1. 4. 8. Only zero-dimensional approach was used i.135317kJ/kg-K. The charge is homogenous. For exhaust gases gas constant is 290. 13 . compression. Temperature of the mixture is uniform throughout the chamber. [10] Here we have used a Zero-Dimensional model for the analysis which includes only thermodynamic concepts.V.17kg/m3 and specific heat at constant volume (Cv) as 0.K. iterations. The complete simulation was performed by considering certain fixed main shaft rotation. 6. For each and every position of main shaft the respective volume of a single chamber and the respective pressure and temperature were obtained. only heat transfer from walls to the chamber was considered. Leakage and discharge losses of gases are neglected. 10. This needs the heat transfer coefficient value which is extremely difficult to obtain. mass fraction burned during combustion etc. The charge and exhaust gases are considered to be ideal gases.25kg/m3 and has Cp of 1.6. SIMULATION OF THE ENGINE [1].65J/kg-K and Cp is 1.) of petrol is 43. [7]. 2.. [5]. 5. suction.4. [9]. The density of charge intake is 1. graphs plotting and display value for every parameter at each step. expansion and exhaust 18 divisions were made. 9. Assumptions: 1. Calorific Value (C.e. In this method. Density of air (ρa) is taken to be 1. [4]. The value of gamma (γ) is 1.03 J/kg-K. combustion. only the heat transfer from engine walls to the chamber or vice versa is considered. Though the model is very basic however assuming certain data and introducing some multiplying factors we can arrive at results very close to the actual data. 3.717KJ/kg. Some formulas used in simulation expression for heat transfer coefficient. i. The calculations were performed on computer which helped in calculations.5MJ/kg and density (ρf) 760kg/m3. are specific for a conventional ICE however modification with respect to this engine made them compatible for the calculations.e. For every process. 7. [6].0631354kJ/kg-K and gas constant 275.

790 (6. The value of volume inside one chamber was obtained.210-290 Combustion 290-20. Hence the mass coming inside the cylinder can be obtained by formula given by Heywood. As we are using a rotary valve the motion has to be clubbed with the main shaft. The initial pressure inside the chamber at starting of suction was taken to be 1atm and exhaust temperature was assumed to be 576K.790-290 Expansion 290-1480 Exhaust 1480-159.210 of wing angle. Combustion. Hence 18 divisions were made for 50 movement of rotor. 12.1) SUCTION The suction process occurs between 20.790-159.790 and 159. Based on the vertical most and horizontal most positions of the engine the main diameter was obtained. Engine Cycle PROCESS PERIOD OF OCCURANCE Suction 20. However in later iterations a consistent value of pressure and temperature was obtained. The exposed area during each interval was obtained and respective mass flow was obtained. These assumptions were made only for starting purpose. Table 2. Hence we could find after how much rotation of main shaft the rotary valve should complete its one rotation in order to carry out the next suction. i. viz. Compression.210-20.e. The complete engine cycle is divided in five parts. 31 times the complete Otto cycle operates in one chamber per second. The value obtained for rotor’s movement during shaft movement was found out. Assuming a certain value of valve’s holediameter the respective rotor suction was found to be 900.…(29) The heat transfer is given as 14 . Suction. The speed ratio obtained also helped in finding out the rotation of rotor of valve during which suction would occur. As the engine is running on petrol the compression ratio is taken to be 10. The engine operates at 31CPS (31 cycles per second). dm = AValve X P0 X dt X √[{(2 X γ)/(R X T X (γ -1))} X (P/P0)( γ -1)/ γ X {(P/P0)( γ -1)/ γ -1}] ….11. we assumed that the suction begins at vertical most position and ends at horizontal most position.210 Compression 159. Expansion and Exhaust.

53 (W/m2K)……………………(33) Wmv= [C1Cm+ C2 (VsT1/ PV1) (P-Pmotor)]………………………….(35) where.. expansion and exhaust.(31) The Tcorrected obtained helps in finding out the Pcorrected. The cc obtained was equated to a part of cylinder with radius and height equal.24 X 10-3. For compression process..2 X P0.(32) In this way for every step this analysis is carried out.8 X Wmv0. cc= (Ө/3600) X (π X x3)…………………………………………. The difference exists only in the heat transfer coefficients. The volume of the cc at any position was a part of a cylinder.28 & C2= 0. Cp = (Fresh charge in cylinder/Net Mass) X Cpcharge+ (Mass of Exhaust/Net Mass) X Cpexh…………………………………………………………….8 X (Tnew)-0. C1= 6.(34) For gas exchange process (suction and exhaust). The same procedure is followed for compression. 15 . h= 0. 101325 N/m2 Vd= Displaced Volume r= P4/P1 The ‘x’ in equation 33 is the characteristic dimension of a conventional engine. C1= 2.(36) Hence here x denotes the characteristic dimension of the chamber. C1= 2. combustion. The value of Cp is found out using the mass fraction of burned gases inside and the fresh charge entering.82 X x-0. We had to use a different characteristic dimension for our engine.28 & C2= 3. For combustion and expansion...Q= h X Asurface X (Twall-Tnew) X dt…………………………………(30) And the final temperature is given as Tcorrected = [(Qcond/ (mnew X Cp)] + Tnew…………………………….18 & C2= 0. Pa= atmospheric pressure. The heat transfer coefficient is followed using Woschini’s Fomula. and …………………………………………………….

(37) Where. First of all the mass fraction burned at every step of main shaft is found out using formula BӨ= 1.. The values of pressure and temperature are obtained based on the isentropic compression process.BӨ…………………………………………………………. In this stage there is sudden increase in temperature and pressure.(38) Consequently the mass burnt and unburned at every position is calculated and respective Cp and Cv values are found out for the mixture inside.(6. 2) It is assumed that no pre ignition takes place 3) The losses are assumed due to vaporization and convection heat loss due to radiation is neglected.2) COMPRESSION: Assumptions: 1) Compression is assumed between 159. 5) Wiebe’s Model for combustion is assumed.210 and 290.790 and back to 290. dB= BӨ+dӨ .e-a[(Ө-ӨS)/(∆Ө)]^(1+m)…………………………………………………. 16 . Assumptions: 1) The process of combustion is from 290 to 20.. (6. After suction the next step in a conventional internal combustion engine is the compression stroke where the mixture of fuel and air is compressed to approximately 1/10 of its initial volume. 2) The disassociation effects are neglected. However due to the heat loss to the walls the value of Cp for the mixture varies according to the temperature. For the analysis of compression stroke we started with the end values of suction analysis and started calculating pressures and temperatures using simple ideal gas equation for specified interval. 3) The process during the unburned zone is adiabatic.3) COMBUSTION: The process of combustion is initiated by the spark just before the completion of the compression stroke. 4) The charge gets completely burnt. Values at the end of compression were carried to the combustion. ‘a’ and ‘m’ are certain constants.

17 .e. i.5) EXHAUST: The process involves exit of burned mass from cylinder to the atmosphere and is carried from 1480 to 159. The value of Cp varies due to the presence of varied burned to unburned mass ratio as well temperature change which is taken into account during iteration. on left side of plus sign. The Cp value does not change in this process as complete chamber is comprised of same mixture and temperature is not much effective. The logic to create the simulation model is that the amount delivered at every shaft angle movement is equal to the maximum amount of mass which can pass through that particular valve curtain area or equal to the mass which will lower the chamber pressure to 1atm and NOT below.790. which is 1atm. and P is the cylinder pressure.The pressure rise in the chamber is a result of both the wings movement as well as combustion. cosine law etc. The value of ∆x comes from the combustion model assumed (Square Law. Wiebe’s Model.). (6. The heat transfer is still carried out between the wall and chamber depending on the wall temperature.4) EXPANSION: It is just the opposite of compression and allows a decrease in pressure as well as temperature in the chamber.210 and then to 20. The duration is from 290 to 1480. Here P0 represents the exhaust manifold pressure. The other term is due to the combustion effect. is due to the volume change which is positive before TDC (Top dead center or vertical most position) and negative after TDC.…(39) The first term. Here we will be using Wiebe’s Model for our purpose. (6. The formula for progressive combustion pressure rise is given by ∆P = [-Pγ (∆V/ V)] + [(P3 – P2) (VTDC/V) ∆x]…………………. The mass delivered is given as dm = AValve X P0 X dt X √[{(2 X γ)/(R X T X (γ -1))} X (P/P0)( γ -1)/ γ X {(P/P0)( γ -1)/ γ -1}] ……(39) The valve area at every interval was obtained by eclipse area method.

64% The charts shown in figures 18 and 19 show the P-V and P-θ curve obtained from the simulation of the engine. The comparison of the simulation is given as below. Conventional ICE configuration Bore Radius (cm) 3. The size of the engine was taken equivalent to one of the chamber of the butterfly engine and simulation was performed. The Butterfly engine results correspond to output of only one chamber and that of conventional engine correspond to only 1 cylinder.(6.70 The volume capacity is almost similar to one chamber of the Butterfly Engine used. The engine parameters were Table 4. (bar) 41.40 THERMAL η 41.423 Displaced Volume (cc) 126.89 WORK (kW) 12.423 Stroke (cm) 3. (K) 4428. Rod (cm) 17 RPM 3788 Volumetric Efficiency (%) 100 Clearance Vol. Simulation Results vs Ideal Otto Cycle Analysis for Butterfly Engine SIMULATION IDEAL OTTO CYCLE PEAK PRESS.10 IDEAL WORK (kW) 29.80 IDEAL TORQUE (Nm) 194.23 IDEAL WORK (hp) 39.12 TORQUE (Nm) 80.07 Total Volume (cc) 140. (cc) 14.6) RESULTS OF SIMULATION The results of simulation are as follows.36 IDEAL PEAK TEMP.60 PEAK TEMP. (bar) 148.23 WORK (W) 12102.94 IDEAL PEAK PRESS.00 Compression Ratio 10 Air Fuel Ratio 15 Conn. (K) 3137.08 IDEAL WORK (W) 29171. 18 .18% IDEAL THERMAL η 46.77 MEP (bar) 1. To compare the performance of Butterfly engine with a conventional IC engine a similar simulation model was created for it. Table 3.00 IDEAL MEP (bar) 2. The ideal parameters correspond to the ideal Otto cycle derived earlier with the same volumetric efficiency as that of actual simulation.17 WORK (hp) 16.

80 PEAK TEMP.94 PEAK TEMP. Engine Performance Butterfly Engine (single chamber) PEAK PRESSURE (bar) 41.18% Table 5b. 19 .00 THERMAL η 41.58% The work output from one chamber of the Butterfly Engine is less than that of the conventional engine however as the former have three other chambers similar to it hence the total work obtained from it is much higher.93 WORK (J) 167. (K) 3137.65 MEP (bar) 1.168 TORQUE (Nm) 0.60 WORK (kJ) 0.70 WORK (kJ) 0.98 TORQUE (Nm) 0.423 MEP (bar) 2.36 WORK (J) 97.Table 5a.14 THERMAL η 28. Engine Performance Conventional Engine (single cylinder) PEAK PRESSURE (bar) 109. (K) 2785.

The compression ratio as seen can be varied to a very large value hence the combustion properties can be enhanced very easily.e. More sophisticated models like phenomenological models can be applied to have more accurate results. the design can be used very efficiently. A pneumatic or hydraulic motor can also be obtained providing a steady and calculated flow into the chambers. It can also be changed as per the angles at which the opposite snitches move back. Any usage where rotation of a certain object is required. As the volume depends on the square of the radii larger volume of cylinder may be utilized compared to its size. The cranking or starting of the engine requires a quick and calculated clockwise and anti-clockwise movement of the main output shaft which may be achieved using several mechanisms and depends on the compression ratio required for burning of the fuel inside. using an efficient concept to provide a rotation to the main shaft. i. The simulation model generated is also a zerodimensional model which is very basic in nature. In another aspect. The performance deciding part of the engine is the ratchet and pawl mechanism. like in a pipe spinner or a roughneck. CONCLUSION As seen in the paper the design can be used as an efficient internal combustion engine with suitable fabrication. 1. A further more analysis has to be done in order to get more accurate results. which if designed properly can make the designing of rest of the parts very easy. 20 . This helps in better utilization of combustion power. Some of the many tasks that still need to be accomplished regarding the engine are listed below. the design can be used for pump/ compressor application just like the conventional engine designs are. the 2Ө angle shown in figure 2.7. The flame front available during the combustion is forcing itself on two sides and moving both the wings in opposite directions. The heat transfer coefficient values for the simulation are actually for a conventional IC engine. More types of fuels can be used in the engine as they can be compressed to a very large value. Hence the engine can prove to be a new revolution in coming days when we are going to face the crisis of the conventional energy resources and have to move towards new other forms. Better combustion results in better exhaust properties causing lesser unwanted emissions. The actual values applicable for this engine are still not known.

proper calculations. As the basic crude model is ready. thermal stability. Although an alternative of rotary valve is presented. Valve mechanisms have to be sorted out. 3.2. 5. The design presented here does not include the design for the seal however more work has to be done in order for it. The ratchet and pawl mechanism is the most critical part and needs to be designed with very high precision. stress analysis etc. The complete analysis would require a lot of experiments and computations regarding the material selections. sealing and theoretical aspects has to be carried out in detail. manufacturing processes. The seals need to control the pressure and allow smooth movement of the parts. The seals need to be designed for the wings along the inside of casing and for the snitches against each other. development of engine with precise machining. still being the key feature in performance of an engine it needs exhaustive study. 4. 21 .

Angle made between wings r.Specific Heat constant of a gas at constant volume R. NOMENCLATURE Φ.Density of fuel CV.Heat transfer Coefficient ma. A`.Internal radius of casing s.Gamma Value for a particular gas (Cp/Cv) Cp.Valve area exposed t.Mass ratio of burned d.Specific Heat constant of a gas at constant pressure Cv.Diameter of hole of the Rotor/ Stator α.Efficiency dm.Pressure V.8.Cross Section area of wings θ.Temperature of the wall of chamber B.Outer radius of snitch w.Temperature γ.Speed ratio of main output shaft and rotary valve 22 .Mass transferred through the valve AValve.Density of Charge ρf.time T.Mass of charge mf.Net angle moved by the rotor S.Surface area inside the chamber Twall.Area between wings A1.Calorific value of fuel η.Heat transferred h.Angle made by wings with vertical 2θ.Universal Gas constant Q.Diameter A.Mass of fuel ρa.Width of Casing P.Volume T.Diameter of hole of the rotary valve D.Temperature ASurface.

Channiwala. We extend our cordial & humble gratitude to Dr. SVNIT (Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology). Last but not the least. whose unwavering support in us made it possible for us to conclude the project successfully. Surat. and its esteemed faculty for their unwavering support in helping us to take this project to its successful completion. 23 . S. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We take this opportunity to express our gratitude and deep routed feelings for those who patronized the cause of our project on “Butterfly Engine” and paved our way to a better comprehension of the facts related to it in a different perspective. we would like to thank our parents & family members. We would be failing in our duties if we were not to thank SVNIT Surat. Department of Mechanical Engineering. whose effective guidance. our alma mater.A. valuable time and constant inspiration made it feasible and easy for us to carry out the work in a smooth and productive manner.9.

ME dissertation Mech. “Computer Simulation of Spark Ignition Engine Processes”. 1976. [8] Julian Happian-Smith. “An Introduction to Modern Vehicle Design”. Sweety. [16] Ruonan Sun. [5] Dr V. Dept. [12] Masaki Ohkubo. “Experimental and analytical investigations of multi-cylinder hydrogen fueled S. SAE 2004-010933. Vikas J. REFERENCES [1] Ms. Rick Thomas and Charles L. “Design and development of delayed entry valve for multi cylinder hydrogen fueled engine. Bharath. 2002. 2002. FSAE modeling report. [3] Mr. Patel. Heywood. Nainish U. Mr. Tata McGraw Hill. 1993. [9] Matthew Oswald. University Press. [11] Guido A Danieli. Suguru Fuse and Hiroshi Ebino. Shah. Ritsuharu Shimizu. “A practical burn rate analysis for use in engine development”. Rajeev Premi Mogha and Mr. [4] Dr V. 2004. Gray. 24 . Ganesan. Anudeep... Butterworth Heinmann Publication. Dept. University of Maryland. “An HCCI Engine: Power Plant for a Hybrid Vehicle”.. Mazda Motor Corporation.a new approach to control the backfire”. 2001. “Combustion Modeling”. [15] Hon Man Chenug. “Developed technologies of new rotary engines”. [13] Nathan Lee Moulton. [7] John B. SGU. heat transfer. “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals”. Thesis 2007. University Press. [2] Mr. MIT Thesis. Columbia University. “Computer Simulation of Compression Ignition Engine Processes”. “Performance measurement and simulation of a small internal combustion engine”. 2000. California institute of technology 1929. Mech. McGraw Hill Publication. “Internal Combustion Engines”. EPA. 1995. Mr. Ganesan. 2007.10. K. “The development of an engine with a higher compression ratio”. leakage and quenching compared with measured pressure time histories”. Seiji Tashima. V. Mr. [6] Dr V. [14] Ralph M Watson. SAE 2004-01-1790. SGU. “A performance model of a Wankel engine including the effects of burning rates. “Simulation of an internal combustion engine”.I engine”. Rakesh Kumar. Jr. Kashyap K. Ganesan. MIT thesis. Colorado State University. [10] CSU Engine web pages.

Front view of the engine illustrating main components.Front View of the engine illustrating the two stages of operation.11. Stage 1 Stage 2 FIGURE 2. FIGURES FIGURE 1. 25 . True Dimensions can be seen in FIGURE 14. True dimensions can be seen in the FIGURE 14.

Drawing of Casing FIGURE 4.FIGURE 3.3D view of Casing 26 .

3D view of the snitch 27 .Drawing of the snitch FIGURE 6.FIGURE 5.

Two snitches meshed together with Ratchet & Pawl mechanism inside each. The main output shaft runs through the centre of the snitch. 28 .FIGURE 7.A Snitch with bevel gear arrangement FIGURE 8.

FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10.Top view of the engine 29 .Front view of the Engine with casing.

3D View of Butterfly Engine 30 .FIGURE 11.

PVC Model Fabricated 31 .FIGURE 12.PVC Model Fabricated FIGURE 13.

All dimensions in cm. FIGURE 14.PV diagram of an Ideal Otto Cycle 32 .Engine Dimensions FIGURE15.

FIGURE 16.Flow area for a rotary valve 33 .Rotary Valve FIGURE 17.

Pressure and Ө Curve 34 .FIGURE 18.Pressure and Volume Curve FIGURE 19.