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Coal Bed Methane as a

Future Energy Resource

17 Feb. 2012 (Fri.)
Lectured by Jeonghwan Lee, Prof.
DEPT. OF ENERGY & RESOURCES ENG.
CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY
CHONNAM NATIONAL
UNIVERSITY

Contents
1) Coal Bed Methane Play Concepts-The Basics
2) Uncertainty-What We Need to Assess
3) Addressing Uncertainty And Estimation of GIIP
4) Exploration Strategies
5) Reservoir Engineering-Pitfalls and Considerations
6) Economics and Environment
7) CBM Project in Nalaikh Coal Mine, Mongolia

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Chapter 1
Coal Bed Methane Play Concepts
The Basics

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What is CBM ?
CBM refers to methane adsorbed
into the solid matrix of coal, it is
sometimes referred to as coal
seam gas (CGS).
Predominantly methane (CH4)
- tasteless, odorless, colorless, non-toxic gas

It is the simplest alkane
compounds and the primary
constituent of natural gas.
Compared to conventional natural
gas, CBM has relatively few
impurities, predominantly CO2.
CBM is released from coal with a
reduction in production via
dewatering.
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Characteristics of CBM
Natural gas trapped into reservoir of coal bed


Classified to unconventional natural gas
Various gas mixture of Methane, Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen etc
95% of Methane and 1,000 Btu/ft³ of Calorific value
Source

Basin

Pocahontas No.3 Cent-appalachian
Pittsburgh
N. Appalachian
Kittanning

Lower Hartshorne
Arcoma
Mary Lee
Warrior
Natural Gas
--

CH4

C2+

H2

O2

Btu/scf

96.87
90.75
97.32
99.22
96.05
94.40

1.40
0.29
0.01
0.01
0.01
4.90

0.01
-

0.17
0.20
0.24
0.10
0.15
-

1,069
973
1,039
1,058
1,024
1,068

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Process of CBM utilization
Drill

Dewatered

Extracted

Piped

Compressed

Market

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Usages of CBM
As a gaseous fuel, it can be used for various usages
Fuel for Power
Generation

 Micro Gas Turbine, Gas Engine, Fuel Cells
 Combined Heat & Power Generation

Heating Source

 City Gas
 Boiler, Space Heating

Chemical
Source

 Methanol, DME
 Diesel, gasoline

One of the important Energy Source
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a steel-encased hole is drilled into the coal seam (100–1500 meters below ground) • As the pressure within the coal seam declines due to natural production or the pumping of water from the coalbed. both gas and 'produced water' come to the surface through tubing • Then the gas is sent to a compressor station and into natural gas pipelines Production scheme of gas and water for a typical coal-bed methane well.CBM Gas Reservoir CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CBM Extraction • To produce methane from coal beds. • To extract the gas. water must be drawn off first. CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY . lowering the pressure so methane can flow out of the coal and to the well bore.

large quantities of methane-rich gas are generated and stored within the coal on internal surfaces CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY . coalification .During coalification.CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .The evolution of coal is generally broken into two phases: peatification and coalification.

CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CBM Storage Mechanism CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .

Gas Storage Mechanism Two Approaches for Sorption Isotherm: • Equil. CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY . • When the reservoir is put into production. Equilibrium desorption V E    P g    V Pg L P  Pg L Non-equilibrium desorption  V   1 V r   V  P   E  g t     CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Adsorption Capacity • Adsorption capacity of coal is defined as the volume of gas adsorbed per unit mass of coal • The capacity to adsorb depends on the rank and quality of coal. It affects initial gas production rate. sorption (p dependent) • Non-equil sorption (p & t dependent) Sorption time: Time required for 63% of total sorbed gas to be released. This leads to a reduction of pressure enhancing desorption of gas from the matrix. • Most of the gas in coal beds is in the adsorbed form. It indicates how rapidly gas will be desorbed. water in the fracture spaces is pumped off first.

CBM Transport Mechanism CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Permeability of CBM Reservoirs • Permeability is key factor for CBM • Coal itself is a low permeability reservoir (The permeability of the coal matrix is negligible by comparison) • Almost all the permeability of a coal bed is usually considered to be due to fractures • Fractures in coal are in the form of cleats and joints • Joints are larger fractures through the coal that may cross lithological boundaries. • Coal cleats are of two types: butt cleats and face cleats are continuous and provide paths of higher permeability are non-continuous and end at face cleats CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .

CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Porosity of CBM Reservoirs • CBM has dual-porosity system.Dual-porosity nature: macropore and micropore • The porosity of coal bed reservoirs is usually very small. CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY . ranging from 0. . • CBM reservoirs are mostly shallow as the coal matrix does not have the strength to maintain porosity under the pressure of significant overburden thickness.1 to 10%.

Butt Cleat Face Cleat  The matrix (micropore):  Existing between the natural fracture network.DUAL-POROSITY SYSTEM IN COAL Dual-porosity nature: macropore and micropore The natural fracture network (macropore): Uniformly distributed and composed of face and butt cleat [10-3 cm] which are orthogonal to each other.  Its pore size is 5-10 angstrom[10-8 cm].  It is assumed that openings are not accessible to water and they contribute major portion of gas storage areas.  Thus. Permeability in the direction of face cleat is considerably larger than that in the direction of butt cleat.  The butt cleat is discontinuous and ends at the face cleat.  The face cleat is continuous throughout the reservoir and capable of draining large areas. MATRIX BLOCKS CONTAINING MICROPORES CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY . the anisotropic permeability nature.

CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Estimation of World -wide CBM Reserves World-wide • NG Reserves: 179.equivalent to LNG  North America: 27~125 TCM  South & Central America: 0.7 TCM  Former Soviet Union: 114~460 TCM  Africa: 0.53 X 1012m3 • Coal Reserves: about 25 Trillion tons • CBM reserves:166~692 X 1012m3 130 ~550 billion tons .4~0.8~1.9 TCM  Europe: 4.6 TCM  Asia Pacific: 18~96 TCM CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .6~7.

75 TCF (9% of gas production in US) Sanjuan basin and Warrior basin are the largest CBM production area CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CBM Production of Arkoma in US 26 CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .8 billion tons .86 TCF (5% of gas consumption for home use in US) ☞ 2004: 1.equivalent to LNG) CBM Production ☞ 1994: 0.8 Trillion tons CBM Reserves: 400 TCF (8.CBM Development in US Coal Reserves: 3.

Hedong basin Liaoning. Shanxi are widely developed ☞ CBM of 1.CBM Development in China Coal Reserves: 4.0 Trillion tons CBM Reserves: 1060~2800 TCF (23~61 Billion tons – equivalent to LNG) CBM Development ☞ 1996: 中聯煤層氣有限責任公司(established CUCBM) ☞ Puxin. Lianing and Jincheng.15 BCM is commercially used in China CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CBM Production in Shanxi and Liaoning Shanxi. Fuxin basin 28 CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .

7.93 Million tons /year.23 Billion tons (equivalent to LNG).based on the 2P CBM Production ☞ 2008: 2.CBM Utilization – Shanxi(Jinsheng Shanxi(Jinsheng))  Fuel for electric power (micro gas turbine. compact gas engine. heating)  Chemical material (methanol.80 Million tons scale is ongoing now in Gladstone and Queensland Curtis etc.542 tons/day (equivalent to LNG) LNG Plant construction plan of 8.7 Trillion tons CBM Reserves: 0. steam supply and power generation)  Fuel for CNG vehicle / heat supply (city gas.  Scale of gas market in eastern Austrilia is about 12 million tons/year  CBM : 25% supply of gas demand in eastern Australia CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY . DME) / Transportation by LNG Liquefaction CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CBM Development in Australia Coal Reserves: 1.

Overseas CBM Business of Korea (KOGAS) R&D Business for Green Energy in Mongolia Blue Energy and GLNG Investment for CBM Business CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Chapter 2 Uncertainty What We Need to Know CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .

CBM Evaluation CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .

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Measurement of Gas Content Volumetric Displacement Technique The desorbed gas that collects in a canister is periodically released into volumetric displacement apparatus and measured as a function of time. VL /2 CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Example calculation VL  28. and pressure (Q vs. LANGUMUIR SORPTION ISOTHERM on pti sor e D on pti sor d A Langmuir sorption Sorption isotherm curve can be incorporated by Langmuir’s sorption theory V E    P g    V Pg L P  Pg L VE: Amount of gas adsorbed at Pg VL : Volume constant (maximum amount of gas that can be adsorbed on solid surface) Maximum adsorptive capacity. the upper limit of adsorption as pressure approaches infinity PL: Pressure constant (ratio of desorption and adsorption rate constant) Pressure at which adsorbed gas is one-half the maximum. temperature.0) CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .0 psia VE  VL pg (100)  (28.29 scf / cf pg  p L (100)  (571.8)  4. p at T).8 scf / cf pg 100 psia pL  571.

Measurement of Gas Content CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .

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CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Chapter 3 Addressing Uncertainty And Estimation of GIIP CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .

Drilling and logging : Quantitative data acquisition really commences with the drilling of wells-petrophysical log analysis Coring : To Sample the coals directly for gas content. Field mapping : Fly-over. Seismic survey : Not commonly acquired to specifically target shallow coals. and literature based on mapping of the research permit area allow good overview of the structure and stratigraphy. work-over survey. CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .Procedure to address uncertainty Mining activity : The initial CBM potential of an area is almost exclusively based on historic or ongoing regional mining activity.

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Commitment and Fit-for-Purpose CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Chapter 4 Exploration Strategies Flexibility.

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CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Chapter 5 Reservoir Engineering Pitfalls and Considerations CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .

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Gas Idealized coalbed methane production Decline Stage Volume Gas Volume Dewatering Stable Stage Production Stage Idealized conventional gas production Gas Water Water Time Time CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Production .

water is produced in large volumes.Evaporation ponds .000 wells) • Disposal is commonly via 4 processes: . especially in the early stages of production.Injection of salt water slurry following reverse osmosis process CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY PRODUCTION WELL Well completion Welhead CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .The Concerns of Produced water • In a coal-bed methane well. as the amount of water in the coal decreases. and likely re-injection target formations . • Require estimates on water.Surface discharge . Wyoming River basin 70 MMbbl water a month (18.Re-injection of produced water . gas production increases.i.e. Total water in-place.

Chapter 6 Economics and Environmental Considerations CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .

Coal Mining License to be given by Local Government .Different System as per each state CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .Coal Mining and CBM may be different License .Coal Mining and CBM are different License .CBM Legal system is same to Oil & Gas Law USA .CBM License to be given by Central Government (Same to Oil & Gas Legal System) Australia .CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY License Issues China .Rights of CBM license is same to those of Oil & Gas India .

CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY Environmental Challenges • Production of coalbed methane is accompanied by  significant environmental challenges. but disposal of water is an  environmental concern. including  prevention of unintended loss of methane to the  atmosphere during underground mining. • Methane from coalbed reservoirs can be recovered  economically. sometimes  saline. that are unavoidably produced with the gas. and  disposal of large quantities of water.  CHONNAM NATIONAL UNIVERSITY .

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