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Specific Gravity

Hydrostatic Pressure Calculation

Class Activity: Hydrostatic Pressure

Examples

Pilot Testing Procedures

Class Activity: Pilot Testing Procedure

Example

Desired Viscosity

Weight or Density Control

Unit

Lesson 1: Objectives

Functions of Drilling Fluids

Negative Functions of Drilling Mud

Physical Properties of Drilling Mud

Classification of Muds Based on Liquid

Phase

Pressurized Mud Balance

Marsh Funnel

Rotational Viscometer

Rotational-Viscometer Geometry

Assignment 5.1: Module 5 Self Study

Review

Assignment 5.1: Read Fundamentals of

Drilling Engineering pp. 87-98

Lesson 3: Objectives

Hook Loads

Buoyancy: Example of Archimedes Principle

Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation

Examples

Casing Loads

Safety Video 7 Handling Compressed Gas

Cylinders in the Laboratory

Lesson 2: Objectives

In this lesson we will:

Describe the essential functions a properly designed and maintained drilling fluid

performs during well construction

List the properties important to the function of removing cuttings of the drilling mud

Define how the control of oil, gas or water formation pressure is accomplished by a

hydrostatic pressure

Define how suspending solids is accomplished

Define how the deposit of cuttings in the mud pit or mud ditch is accomplished

List the negative functions of drilling mud

List the physical properties of drilling mud

List the classification of muds based on liquid phase

A properly designed and maintained drilling fluid performs essential functions

during well construction such as:

Transporting cuttings to the surface

Preventing well-control issues and wellbore stability

Minimizing formation damage

Cooling and lubricating the drillstring

Providing information about the formation

Remove Cuttings

Properties important to the function of removing cuttings of the drilling mud are:

Density = rho ()

Viscosity = mu ()

Annular Velocity = Va

Type of Flow, Size, Shape and Density of the Cuttings

Prevent Caving

This important property helps us by:

Controlling the hydrostatic head

Consolidating loose or clay type formations by surrounding the particles and holding

them in the fluid and gelled mud.

Controlling water intrusion prevents clays from swelling and sloughing into the hole,

mud cake and filtration properties.

Source: http://petroleumsupport.com/mechanical-sticking-mechanism-of-stuck-pipe/

The control of oil gas or water formation pressure is accomplished by:

A hydrostatic pressure in this consideration we are worried about:

Loss circulation

Gas cut mud

The formations being drilled

Source: http://www.dcmudcleaningequipment.com/How-Does-Gas-Cut-Affect-MudDensity.html

Lubrication of the drill pipe, the hole wall, the casing and the mud pumps is

accomplished by:

The gel, due to clay content

Reducing the power cost to increase the drilling speed

Source:

https://www.rigzone.com/training/insight.asp?insight_id=291&c_id=24

Suspending Solids

Suspending of solids is accomplished by:

Gel strength thixotropic properties

The holding of cuttings when static

Returning to fluid state when circulation is restored

Source:

http://trenchlessonline.com/index/webapp-stories-action/id.2489/archive.yes/Issue.201304-01/title.gel-strengths-for-horizontal-vs.-vertical-drilling

10

Deposit of Cuttings

The deposit of cuttings in the mud pit or mud ditch is accomplished by:

A careful balance between gel strength and viscosity

Considering velocities as an important factor

The use of the shale shaker and other separation devices at the surface

Source:

http://www.ptarmiganservices.com/news/bak

ken-solids-control-and-recycling/

Source:

http://indonesiabentonite.blogspot.com/2013/10/

bentonite-drilling-fluid.html

11

Some of the negative functions - which we

dont want the drilling mud to do, are:

Deposit of thick mud cake (reduces the diameter

of hole; worsens swabbing and further caving)

Fluid loss, allowing a harmful amount of water

into the formation

Causes swelling;

Disintegration of the shales and clays;

And may reduce the permeability to

hydrocarbons (oil and gas).

Source:

http://servicepompa.blogspot.com/p/kendalakendala-teknis.html

Source:

http://inibumi.blogspot.com/2011/02/in

vasion-drilling-process.html

12

Physical properties of drilling mud:

Density

Viscosity

Filtration properties such as water loss and mud cake

The yield point

13

Freshwater

Natural or Native

Nitrate

Phosphate

Organic colloidal

Alkaline (pH > 10)

Calcium

Lime

Gypsum

Saltwater

Saturated salt

Emulsion

Freshwater, oil in water emulsion

Saltwater, oil in water emulsion

Oil-based

Note: Muds are listed in order of expense from low to high

14

15

Marsh Funnel

16

Rotational Viscometer

17

Viscometer, Rev/Min

18

In pairs, solve the following problem:

At 200 rev/min, what is the shear stress?

19

Rotational-Viscometer Geometry

20

Lesson 1 Wrap Up

What is still unclear?

What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we

move on?

Homework

Assignment 5.1: Module 5 Self Study Review

Assignment 5.1: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering pp. 87-98

21

22

In this lesson we will:

Calculate specific gravity

Calculate hydrostatic pressure

Demonstrate pilot testing procedures

Calculate weight or density control

23

Specific Gravity

The ratio of the weight of a given volume of material to the weight of the same volume of

water (fresh),

or,

then,

If a fluid weight is 2.4 gm/cm3

Sp.Gr. = 2.4 gm/cm3 = 2.4

Density (); Mass per volume of a material in any units;

or,

= Mass.

Vol.

Common units used for drilling fluids,

gm/cm3 (or Sp.Gr.), lbm/gal, lbm/ft3, lbm/bbl

therefore,

= 1 gm/cm3

= 8.34 lbm/gal

= 62.4 lbm/ft3

= 350 lbm/bbl

24

Water

Force per unit area exerted by a vertical column of fluid,

or,

Common units, gmf/cm2, lbf/in2, or lbf/ft2.

Using a 1 foot container whose base is 1 ft2 (or 144 in2) and height is 1 ft filled

with water, the force exerted on the base will be 62.4 lbf,

therefore,

Pressure = P = Force/Area = 62.4 lbf = 62.4 lbf/ft2

1.0 ft2

or,

P = 62.4 lbf = 0.433 lbf/in2/ft = 0.433 psi/ft

144 in2

therefore,

Water = Sp.Gr. of 1.0 exerts a pressure of 0.433 psi/foot of vertical column.

25

26

Other fluids;

Wt./ft3 = (62.4) (Sp.Gr.)

Then,

Pressure exerted = (62.4) (Sp.Gr.) lbf = lbf/in2/ft

144 in2

Or

lbf/in2/ft = (0.433) (Sp.Gr.)

Or

27

Example #1:

What is the Sp.Gr. of a fluid whose density is 78 lbm/ft3?

Solution #1:

Sp.Gr. = 78 lbm/ft3

62.4 lbm/ft3

= 1.25

Example #2:

What is the density in lbm/gal of a fluid whose Sp.Gr. is 1.3?

Solution #2:

= (1.3) (8.34 lbm/gal) = 10.84 lbm/gal

28

Example #3:

What is the density in lbm/bbl of a fluid whose density is 11.5 lb./gal 1.3?

Solution #3:

= (11.5 lbm/gal) (42 gal/bbl) = 483.0 lbm/bbl

Example #4:

What is the total weight of 10 bbl. of material whose Sp.Gr. is 4.3?

Solution #4:

Wt. = () (Vol.)

lbm = lbm (bbl) = (4.3) (350 lbm/bbl) (10 bbl) = 15,050 lbm.

bbl

29

Example #5:

Calculate the density in all common units of a fluid if 3 ft3 of the fluid weighs 500 lbs.

Solution #5:

= 500 lbm = 166.7 lbm/ft3

3 ft3

= 166.7 lbm/ft3 = 22.3 lbm/gal

7.48 gal/ft3

= (166.7 lbm/ft3) (5.615 ft3/bbl) = 963.0 lbm/bbl

= (166.7 lbm) (454 gm/lbm) = 2.67 gm/cm3

(ft3) (28320 cm3/ft3)

or,

Sp.Gr. = 166.7 lbm/ft3

62.4 lbm/ft3

= 2.67

30

Example # 6:

What pressure will a 9.4 lbm/gal mud exert at a depth of 3500 ft.?

Solution #6:

psi = (Sp.Gr.) (0.433) (height)

= ( 9.4 ) ( 0.433) (3500) = 1708 psi

8.34

(Note : Sp.Gr. = lbm/gal

8.34

and,

psi = (Sp.Gr.) (0.433) (h)

psi = lbm/gal (0.433) (h) = (lbm/gal) ( 0.433 ) (h)

8.34

8.34

psi = (lbm/gal) (0.052) (h)

Or,

psi = (9.4) (0.052) (3500) = 1711 psi

1 cubic foot contains 7.48 U.S. gallons; a fluid weighing 1 ppg would

weigh 7.48 pounds per cubic foot; The pressure exerted by one foot height of

fluid over the area of the base would be:7.48/144 in2=0.052 psi

Note:

31

Example #7:

What density mud is required to exert a pressure of 3000 psi at a depth of 5000 ft.?

Solution:

=

psi

(0.052) (h)

3000

= 11.54 lbm/gal

(0.052) (5000)

32

Example # 8:

Point A is at an elevation of 1200 ft. And Point B is 2 miles east at an elevation of

900 ft. A 2" pipe line is carrying water from A to B. What is the difference in

hydrostatic pressure?

Solution # 8:

psi = (Sp.Gr.) (0.433) (h), where h = vertical height

psi = (1.0) (0.433) (1200-900) = 130 psi.

33

Water weighs 1 gm per cm3 or 350 gms per 350 cm3 and 1 barrel of water

weighs 350 lbs, therefore adding 1 gm of material to a 350 gm sample is

equivalent to adding 1 lb of material to 350 lbs of the same sample,

Or,

1gm of material added to 350 cm3 of a sample is equivalent to adding 1 lb of

material to 1 bbl of the sample

Therefore, a lab barrel will be a 350 cm3 emulating a 350 lb actual barrel

Note: Often the density of a fluid is referred to as the weight of the fluid. Often the

industry and the public do not differentiate between mass and weight (weight is

actually mass X acceleration of gravity.)

34

Another way of looking at it:

Mass

Volume

Manipulations explain how many

pounds per barrel of additives needed

to change properties of the fluid

Experiments that are scaled down so

that adding X more pounds to existing

350 pounds is equivalent to adding X

more small units of mass to 350

existing small units of mass.

A small unit is a gram. Scale the

volume for the same proportion of

these units:1 gram is 1/454 of a pound

that 1 blue barrel volume is equivalent

another volume for small units of

mass

New volume is 1/454 blue barrels,

accordingly:

158.9873 / 454 = 0.350 liters = 350

cubic centimeters

35

Pilot test procedure must be used to determine the amount of an additive

needed to obtain the desired results for viscosity, water loss, gel

strengths, etc.

.but it is not normally used to determine the amount of additive needed

to obtain the desired density.

The amount of additive to obtain the desired density can be calculated,

the amount of additive to control other mud properties cannot be

calculated.

36

Example # 9:

How many pounds of bentonite clay must be added to an original system whose

viscosity is 5 cP to raise the viscosity to 20 cP?

Solution # 9: Using a 350 cm3 sample of the original mud, the following

laboratory data were obtained:

Bentonite added, gms

Resulting viscosity, cP

12

18

16

28

Plot gms of bentonite added to a 350 cm3 sample vs. Resulting viscosity in cP

37

Desired Viscosity

The desired viscosity of 20 cP can be read from the curve as shown,

or,

12.5 gms of bentonite added to the original sample of 350 cm results in a

viscosity of 20 cP,

or,

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

10

15

38

20

The following relationships are used to calculate mud weighting problems;

1. Mi + Ma = Mf

2. Vi + Va = Vf

and,

= M,

V

M = V

then,

3. i Vi + a Va = f Vf

where,

Mi = Initial mass

Ma = Added mass

Mf = Final mass

Vi = Initial volume

Va = Added volume

Vf = Final volume

i = Initial density

a = Added density

f = Final density

39

Unit

Any consistent units can be used in Equation 3, if the product of x V is the

same in each term,

or,

M = lbm

= Sp.Gr., lbm/gal, lbm/ft3 , or lbm/bbl

V = cm3, gal, ft3, or bbl

40

What will be the resulting specific gravity if 0.1 bbl of clay is added to 10 bbl of

water?

Sp.G.rs; water = 1 and clay = 2.5

Solution #10:

Using Example 3) with = Sp.Gr. and V = bbl

Assume water = initial and clay = added

then,

Sp.Gr.i bbli + Sp.Gr.a bbla = Sp.Gr.f bblf

and,

i = 1.0

Vi = 10 bbl

a = 2.5

Va = 0.1 bbl

f = ?

Vf = (Vi + Va) = (10 + 0.1) = 10.1 bbl

then,

iVi

+ aVa

= fVf

(1.0) (10) + (2.5) (0.1) = f(10.1)

f = (10 + 0.25) = 1.01 Sp.Gr.

(10.1)

41

What will be the resulting density in lbm/gal if 87.5 lbs of clay is added to 10 bbl of

water? Sp.Gr.s; water = 1.0 and clay = 2.5

Solution #11:

(Using Example 3) with = lbm/gal and V = bbl

Assume water = initial and clay = added

then,

lbm/gali Vi + lbm/gala Va = lbm/galf Vf

and,

a = (Sp.Gr.) (8.34) = (2.5) (8.34) = 20.85 lbm/gal

f = ?

Vi = 10 bbl

Va = Ma/a =

Ma

=

87.5 lbm

____ = 0.1bbl

(Sp.Gr.) (350 lbm/bbl) 2.5 (350 lbm/gal)

Vf = (Vi + Va) = (10 +0.1) = 10.1 bbl

42

Solution #11, continued:

then,

iVi

aVa

fVf

f = (83.4 + 2.085) = 8.46 lbm/gal

(10.1)

Note: Compare to Example #10, 8.46 = 1.01 Sp.Gr.

8.34

43

How many lbs. of clay must be added to 6000 gals. of water to produce a final

density of 65 lbm/ft3? Sp.Gr.s; water = 1.0 and clay = 2.65

Solution #12:

Using Equation 3 where = lbm/ft3 and V = gals

Assume water = initial and clay = added

and,

i = 62.4 lbm/ft3

a = (Sp.Gr.) (62.4) = (2.65) (62.4) = 165.4 lbm/ft3

f = 65 lbm/ft3

Vi = 6000 gal

Va = Ma/a = ?

Vf = (Vi + Va) = (6000 + Va)

44

then,

iVi

aVa

fVf

(165.4 - 65) (Va) = (65 - 62.4) (6000)

Va = 155.4 gal

then,

Ma = aVa = (Sp.Gr.) (8.34) (155.4 gal) = (2.65) (8.34) (155.4)

Ma = 3,435 lbs.

45

How many bbls of water must be added to an existing system of 400 bbls of

11.5 lbm/gal mud to reduce the density to 10.5 lbm/gal?

Solution #13:

Using Equation 3) where = lbm/gal and V = bbl

Assume 11.5 lbm/gal mud = initial and water = added

then,

i = 11.5 lbm/gal

a = 8.34 lbm/gal

f = 10.5 lbm/gal

Vi = 400 bbl

Va = ?

Vf = (Vi + Va) = (400 + Va)

46

then,

iVi

+ aVa

= f (Vi + Va)

(8.34 - 10.5) (Va) = (10.5 - 11.5) (400)

47

How many lbs. of barite must be added to a 300 bbl, 9.2 lbm/gal system to

control a formation pressure of 2550 psi at a depth of 5000 ft.?

Solution # 14:

Assume 9.2 lbm/gal = initial and barite = added

and,

i = 9.2 lbm/gal

a = (Sp.Gr.) (8.34) = (4.2) (8.34) = 35 lbm/gal

f =

Psi

(0.052) (h)

2550

(0.052) (5000)

Vi = 300 bbl

Va = Ma/ a = ?

Vf = (Vi + Va) = (300 + Va)

48

= 9.81 lbm/gal

then,

iVi + aVa = fVf

(35 - 9.81) Va = (9.81 - 9.2) (300)

Va = 7.26 bbl

and,

Ma = aVa = (Sp.Gr.) (350) (Va) = (4.2) (350) (7.26) = 10,672 lbs.

49

How many bbls of water and lbs of clay are needed to make 250 bbls of 9.5

lbm/gal mud? Sp.Gr.s; water = 1.0 and clay = 2.4.

Solution # 15:

Assume water = initial and clay = added

and,

i = 8.34 lbm/gal

a = (2.4) (8.34) = 20 lbm/gal

f = 9.5 lbm/gal

Vi = ?

Va = (Vf - Vi) = (250 -Vi)

Vf = 250 bbl

50

then,

iVi + aVa = fVf

(8.34) (Vi) + (20) (250 - Vi) = (9.5) (250)

(8.34 - 20) Vi = (9.5 - 20) (250)

Va = (250 - Vi) = (250 - 225) = 25 bbls

Ma = aVa = (2.4) (350) (25) = 21,000 lbs (clay)

51

Drilling at 4400 ft. with 9.15 lbm/gal mud. A pressure of 3000 psi is expected at

a depth of 5600 ft. Calculate the required mud treatment.

Solution # 16:

Use barite, Sp.Gr. = 4.3, as weighting material

Calculate treatment in bbl barite added per 1 bbl of initial system

Assume 9.15 lbm/gal mud = initial and barite = added

and,

i = 9.15 lbm/gal

a = (4.3) (8.34) = 35.86 lbm/gal

f =

3000

= 10.32 lbm/gal

(0.0519) (5600)

Vi = 1bbl

Va = ?

Vf = (Vi + Va) = (1 + Va)

52

then,

iVi + aVa = fVf

(35.86 - 10.32) Va = (10.32 - 9.15) (1)

Va = 0.046 bbl

Ma = aVa = (4.3) (350) (0.046) = 69.23 lb/bbl

Note: When additives are added to increase or decrease mud density,

other mud properties must be checked to insure they are within operating

limits.

53

Lesson 2 Wrap Up

What is still unclear?

What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we

move on?

Homework

Assignment 5.1: Module 5 Self Study Review

Assignment 5.2: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering pp. 98 - 119

54

55

List three methods of calculating hook load

Describe buoyancy as an example of the Archimedes Principle

Define basic hook loads

56

Hook Loads

Displacement

Buoyancy Factor

Hydrostatic Pressure

57

Weight of casing string, dead weight or suspended in fluid

Weight of drill string, dead weight or suspended in fluid

Weight of drill string less weight on the bit

Weight with pipe or tools stuck in the hole

Hole friction, pipe or tools in contact with the hole

Weight with applied pump pressures

58

on the cylinder is the

buoyant force FB

greater at the bottom. Hence the

fluid exerts a net upward force.

59

Archimedes Principle

Archimedes Principle

The buoyant force is equal

to the weight of the

displaced water

60

Buoyancy Factor

Mud Density, ppg

density, ppg) 65.5

density, lb/ft3) 490

Example:

Determine the buoyancy factor for a

13.0 ppg fluid:

Example:

Determine the buoyancy factor for a

97.24 lb/ft3 fluid

BF = 0.8015

BF = 0.8015

61

Buoyed Weight:

The air weight of drilling string x the buoyancy factor

= to actual weight in mud

For example, determine the string weight in 13.0 ppg mud. Air weight of

string is 350000 lbf.

The buoyancy factor for a 13.0 ppg fluid:

BF = (65.5 13.0) 65.5

BF = 0.8015

The buoyed weight of drill string in 13.0 ppg mud = 350 x 0.8015 =

280000 lbf.

62

The buoyant force can be expressed as:

a.

fluid

b.

pressure acting over the exposed area at the bottom of the pipe

c.

weight lost when suspended in a fluid as determined using the

Buoyancy Factor.

63

Example #1:

Calculate the effective weight of 1000 ft. of 96.21 lb/ft, 6 in.

diameter solid steel rod suspended in water.

Solution:

Using (a) weight of displaced fluid:

Dead weight = (1000) (96.21) = 96210 lbf

Volume of displaced fluid = 0.7854 (6)2 (1000) = 196.35 ft3

144

Weight of displaced fluid = (196.3) (62.4) = 12.252 lbf

Effective weight = 96210 - 12252 = 83958 lbf.

64

Dead weight = (1000) (96.21) = 96210 lbf

Hydrostatic pressure = (62.4/144) (1000) = 433.3 psi

Area of exposed bottom = (0.7854) (6)2= 28.27 in2

Buoyant force = (433.3) (28.27) = 12249

Effective weight = 96210 - 12249 = 83961 lbf

65

Using (c) - Buoyancy factor:

Defined as the fraction of the dead weight that an object will weigh when

suspended in a fluid, or,

BF = m/ft3 in air - m/ft3 of fluid

m/ft3

BF = 490 lb/ft3 - 62.4 lb/ft3 = 0.8727

490 lb/ft3

Dead weight = (1000) (96.21) = 96210 lbf

then,

Effective weight = (Dead weight) (BF) = 96210 * 0.8727 = 83960 lbf

66

What is the buoyancy factor for oil field steel when suspended

in (a) water and (b) 10 lb/gal mud?

Solution:

(a) Density of oil field steel = 490 lb/ft3

Density of water = 8.34 lb/gal = 62.4 lb/ft3

BF = 490 lb/ft3 - 62.4 lb/ft3 = 0.8727

490 lb/ft3

(b) BF = 490 lb/ft3 - (10 lb/gal) (7.48 gal/ft3) = 0.8473

490 lb/ft3

67

Calculate the weight indicator reading when 5000 ft. of 5 1/2 in. O.D.,

4.67 in. I.D. , 22.56 lb./ft/ (neglecting tool joints) drill pipe is suspended

open ended in a hole filled with 12 lb./gal. mud.

Solution 1:

> Using weight (wt.) = (5000) (22.56) = 112800 lbf.

Volume (Vol.) of displaced (displ.) fluid = 0.7854 (5.52 - 4.672) (5000) =

144

= 230.2 ft3

Wt. of displ. fluid = (230.2 ft3) (12 lb/gal) (7.48 gal/ft3) = 20663 lbf

W.I. = 112800 - 20663 = 92137 lbf

68

Calculate the weight indicator reading when 5000 ft. of 5 1/2 in. O.D., 4.67

in. I.D. , 22.56 lb./ft/ (neglecting tool joints) drill pipe is suspended open

ended in a hole filled with 12 lb./gal. mud.

Solution 2:

> Using hyd. pressure;

Dead wt. = 112800 lbf

Ph = (0.052) (12*5000) = 3120 psi

Exposed area = (3120) (6.63) = 20684 lbf -- =0.7854*(5.52 - 4.672)=

= 6.63 in2

Buoyant force =pressure*area= (3120) (6.63) = 20684 lbf

W.I. = 112800 - 20684 = 92116 lbf.

69

Dead wt. = 112800 lbf

B.F. = 490 - (12) (7.48) = 0.8168

490

W.I. = (0.8168) (112800) = 92135 lbf

Note: (7.48) is gallons per cubic foot

70

Displacement Volume:

Since there are coupling on tubing, tool joints on drill pipe,

collars on casing, etc., the volume and weight of these

couplings must be considered. Oil field tubular goods are

described by the outside diameter, OD, in inches and

fractions of an inch and by the weight per foot, lb/ft.

(Note: This is not always true when describing oil well

tubing. Tubing is usually described as a nominal diameter

which is neither the inside or outside diameter of the tubing.

When given the nominal diameter of tubing, it is necessary

to refer to a handbook to determine the OD, ID, and lb/ft.)

71

foot will decrease the inside diameter. The weight per foot

also includes the weight of the couplings as a distributed

weight.

Consider 4 ", 16.6 lb/ft, grade D drill pipe;

Wall thickness = 0.337" and ID = 3.826" (pipe body)

(Note: ID = OD -2 x wall thickness and that ID's are

expressed as inches and decimals of an inch)

The weight of this pipe is 16.6 lb/ft which is a distributed

weight including tool joints. Using 4 " OD, 3.826" ID, and

density of steel = 490 lbm/ft3, the weight per foot of the pipe

body is:

0.7854 (4.52 - 3.8262)(1)(490) = 15 lb/ft

144

72

weight per foot including connections must be used, or,

Displ. volume = weight per foot (length)

density

= lbm/ft (ft) = ft3

lbm/ft3

then, 16.6(1) = 0.0339 ft/ft displacement

490

This displacement volume must be used to calculate the

buoyant force when using the wt. of displaced fluid method.

73

Calculate the W.I. reading when 3750' of 2" nominal tubing is suspended in a hole

filled with salt water (Sp.Gr. = 1.15).

Solution:

2" nom. tubing; OD = 2.375"

(H-40)

ID = 1.1995"

Dead wt. = (3750)(4.70) = 17625 lbf (includes couplings)

Displ. volume = 4.70((3750) = 35.97 ft3

490

Wt. of displ. fluid = (35.97) (1.15)(62.4) = 2581 lbf

W.I. = 17625 - 2581 = 15044 lbf

or, Dead wt. = 17625 lbf

B.F. = 490 - (1.15)(62.4) = .08536

490

W.I. = (0.8536)(17625) = 15045 lbf

74

Note: The

single quote

( ) means

foot and

double

quote ( )

means

inches.

A drill string consists of 9,000' if 24.7 lb/ft drill pipe and 450' of

7", 109.68 lb/ft drill collars. Hole fluid = 10.5 lb/gal mud.

Calculate the weight indicator reading when reaching bottom

(hole and pipe full of mud).

Solution:

Dead wt. = (9000)(24.7) + (450)(109.68) = 271656 lbf

B.F. = 490 - (10.5)(7.48) = 0.8397

490

W.I. = (0.8397)(271656) = 228113 lbf

75

Bit Weight:

Optimum drilling conditions for a particular type formation are a

combination of penetration rate (feet drilled per time), weight on the bit

(lb.), rotation speed (RPM), bit wear (teeth or bearings), and efficient

removal of the cuttings (mud properties and circulation rate). The proper

combinations are based on manufacturer's recommendations,

experimental data, rules of thumb, and experience. Generally, hard

formations require high bit weights and low rotation speeds while soft

formations require low bit weights and high rotation speeds.

The weight on the bit should be applied by the drill collars.

(Note: Drill pipe should not used to put weight on the bit since torsional

properties of the drill pipe are greatly reduced when placed in

compression).

A general rule for determining the number of drill collars to be used is

that approximately 2/3 of the total length of collars should be used to put

weight on the bit.

76

needed to put 20000 lb. weight on the bit when drilling in 9.6

lb/gal mud?

Solution:

Effective wt./ft of drill collars suspended in mud;

B.F. = 490 - (9.6)(7.48) = 0.8535

490

Eff. wt./ft = (0.8535)(108.0) = 92.2 lb/ft

No. of feet = 20000 lbf

92.2 lb/ft

= 217'

77

If there were 330' of drill collars and 8500' if 4 1/2", 20 lb/ft drill

pipe in Example # 6, what would be the weight indicator

reading while drilling?

Solution:

Total effective wt. of string = (B.F.)(dead wt.) =

(0.8535){(8500)(20) + (330)(108.0)} = 175514 lbf

W.I. = 175514 - 20000 = 155514 lbf

78

Approximately how many drill collars (total) would be needed in Example

# 7? (1 drill collar = 30').

Solution:

217' needed for 20000 lbf bit weight

By general rule, this is 2/3 of total length

Total length = (217) /(2/3) = 325.5'

No. drill collars = 325.5/30 = 10.85, or use 11 drill collars (330')

Since the effective wt./ft. of drill pipe and drill collars is constant with a

constant mud density regardless of drilling depth, the change in total

effective weight (Weight indicator) will be due to additional drill pipe added

as depth increases.

In Example # 6, 217' of drill collars will be needed to put 20000 lbf on the

bit at any depth.

79

What will be the increase in weight indicator reading when increasing drilling depth

to 9730' from Example # 8?

Solution:

Total effective wt. at (8500 +330) = 155514 lbf

Eff. wt./ft of drill pipe = (B.F.)(wt./ft.) = (0.8535)(20) = 17.07 lb/ft

(17.07)(9730 - 8830) = 15514 lbf

or,

W.I. = 155514 + 15,363 = 170887 lbf

(Note: W.I. reading increases 17.07 lbf for each foot of drill pipe added so long as

20000 lbf is on the bit.)

80

Casing Loads

Usually, the greatest load in the hoisting system will be casing loads (possible

exception is stuck pipe).

The weight per foot of casing is higher than most other strings.

Casing allows small clearances between the outside diameter of the casing and

the hole, therefore, additional loads due to friction may be added when the

casing is hoisted.

Frictional loads must be estimated and are usually between 10-25% of the total

effective weight (depending on hole condition).

81

Calculate the weight indicator reading when hoisting 6,000' of 9 5/8", 43.5 lb/ft

casing if the estimated frictional load is 15%. Hole and pipe are filled with 10 lb./gal

mud.

Solution:

Dead wt. = (6000)(43.5) = 261000 lbf

Eff. wt. = (B.F.) (Dead wt.+)

= (490 - (10)(7.48))(261000) = (0.8473)(261000) = 221145 lbf

490

Total Eff. wt. = Pipe eff. wt. + friction load

= Pipe eff. wt. + (0.15)(Pipe eff. wt.)

W.I. = 1.15(Pipe eff. wt.) = 1.15(221145) = 254317 lbf

82

Sometimes it is a practice to run casing in the hole empty (float valve closed) and

then fill the pipe with fluid after the casing is landed and before cementing. This

reduces the load on the hoisting system considerably while running in the hole.

The total effective weight of the string decreases due to the buoyant force being

increased. The string will displace a volume of fluid equal to the total volume of

the outside of the casing will be the volume of the casing collars, therefore, the

volume of displaced fluid will be,

Volume displaced by the total metal in the pipe (I.D. is flush or constant) or,

Volume displaced by the total metal in the pipe = Wt./ft(length) = ft3

490

Volume of the I.D. of the pipe = (.7854)(I.D.)2 = ft3

(144)

83

Calculate the weight indicator reading when reaching landing depth of 8200' using 7",

29 lb/ft, (I.D. = 6.184") if the pipe is run empty. Hole fluid is 9.5 lb/gal mud.

Solution:

W.I. = Dead weight - buoyant force

Dead wt. = (8200)(29) = 237800 lbf

Volume of displ. fluid = {lb/ft + (.7854)(I.D.)2}( length)

490

144

= {29 + (.7854)(I.D.)2}} (8200)

490

144

= (0.268)(8200) = 2196 ft3

84

W.I. = 237800 - 156048 = 81752 lbf or,

Since additional volume occupied by the casing collars is small, using the O.D. of

the casing shows very small error , therefore, the casing O.D. is usually used to

calculate the displacement volume of casing.

85

Calculate the W.I. reading in Example # 11 using the casing O.D. to determine the

displacement volume.

Solution:

Dead wt. = 237800 lbf

Volume of fluid displaced = (.7854)(7)2(8200) = 2191 ft3

144

Wt. of displ. fluid = (2191)(9.5)(7.48) = 155692 lbf

W.I. = 237800 - 155692 = 82108 lbf

(Note: Compare to Example #11)

86

Calculate the W.I. reading for Example #13 after the pipe is filled with mud.

Solution:

Dead wt. = 237800 lbf

W.I. = Eff. wt. = (B.F.)(dead wt.)

= {490 - (9.5)(7.48)} (237800) = (.08550) (237800) = 203319 lbf

490

(Note: Compare to Example #12)

87

Hook Loads

Often it is necessary to restring the hoisting system from that used during normal

drilling operations to that of a casing block system.

The casing block system uses more cables thru the traveling block to increase

the mechanical advantage, therefore, decreasing the load per line.

Note: Increasing the number of lines and sheave wheels increases friction

losses, but the decrease in load per line is greatly reduced.

88

In Section-2, the hoisting system is 6 lines thru the traveling block. Using this

system, calculate the load in the fast line for Example #11. Assume 2% friction per

working line (average) and a 1 1/4" cable.

Solution:

FLL = HL

(No. of supporting lines)(ef)

HL = 254317 lbf

No. of supporting lines = 6

ef = 1 - (.02)(6) = 0.88

FLL = 254317

= 48166 lbf

(6)(0.88)

The recommended maximum load for a 1 1/4" cable is approximately

40000 lbf, therefore, the load imposed by the casing is in excess of the

recommended load.

89

The system can be restrung to use 8 lines through the traveling block. Assuming

the same friction losses, calculate the load in the fast line.

Solution:

FLL = HL

No. of supporting lines (ef)

HL = 254317

No. of supporting lines = 8

ef = 1 - (0.2)(8) = 0.84

FLL = 254317 = 38291 lbf

(8)(0.84)

With this system, the fast line load is less than the maximum recommended

load.

90

When pipe is stuck in the hole, the depth at which it is stuck must be determined

before any recovery procedure can be used. The depth at which the string is

stuck, or Free Point, can be determined by measuring the stretch constants for

various sizes and weights of strings are given in handbooks.

Note: Stretch constants for 4 1/2", 16.6 lb/ft Grade D drill pipe is 9.722x10-8

in/ft/lb and for 7", 35 lb/ft, J-55 casing it is 4.545x10-8 in/ft/lb. Each foot of free

pipe will stretch this amount for each pound of tension.

91

Calculate the depth ( Free Point) at which 7000' (total) of 7", 35 lb/ft, J-55 casing is

stuck is at a stretch of 11.28" is measured under a tension of 48,000 lb above the

total effective weight of the string.

Solution:

Stretch constant = 4.545x10-8 in/ft.lb

Feet of free pipe =

11.28 in

= 5171 ft.

92

Laboratory Learning Objectives

For this video, there are several important objectives:

Describe the various methods that are used to compress gases

List the hazards associated with compressed gases and compressed gas

cylinders

Demonstrate proper storage of compressed gas cylinders

Define the safe handling techniques that should be used when working

with compressed gas cylinders

Determine what types of fittings and connections are used for most

cylinders

Test for leaks within a compressed gas system

939

Laboratory

The video covers the following topics:

Four major ways to compress gases

Proper storage procedures

Markings and labels

Handling cylinders safely

Connections and fittings

Leak detection

949

Laboratory

Students, please watch Safety Video 7 Handling Compressed Gas Cylinders in the

Laboratory. Complete the assignment as homework. Safety video questions will also

be on the Module quizzes.

To open the video, hold the control key down and click the link embedded in the

assignment.

http://enterprise.coe.ttu.edu/LabSafety/Handling Compressed Gas Cylinders.wmv

95

1. The proper way to move a compressed gas cylinder is by using a hand

a. True

b. False

2. Which of the following are ways to store pressurized gases?

a. Standard compression

b. As a liquid

c. Dissolved in a solvent

d. All

Allofofthe

theabove

above

d.

3. Pressure Relief Devices (PRDs) control the speed at which gas

comes out of the cylinder?

a. True

b. False

b. False

969

4.

usable and safe level?

a. True

b. False

5. A good way to tell what type of gas in a cylinder is by the color the cylinder is

painted?

a. True

b. False

6. Cylinders that contain corrosive gases should not be stored for more than how

many months?

a. 3 months

b. 6

6 months

months

b.

c. 9 months

d. 12 months

979

7. Cylinders containing flammable gases and cylinders

containing oxidizers can be safely stored together?

a. True

b. False

989

Lesson 3 Wrap Up

What is still unclear?

What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we

move on?

Homework

Assignment 5.1: Module 5 Self Study Review

Assignment 5.3: Safety Video 7 Handling Compressed Gas Cylinders in the

Laboratory

Assignment 5.3: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering pp. 119 - 133

99

Credits

Developer

Lloyd R. Heinze, Ph.D., Petroleum Engineering/Texas Tech University

Contributors:

Rui V. Sitoe, Ph.D., Department of Mechanical Engineering, UEM

100

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