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# Drilling and Completion Systems

## Module 5: Fluids Pressure Control

Specific Gravity
Hydrostatic Pressure Calculation
Class Activity: Hydrostatic Pressure
Examples
Pilot Testing Procedures
Class Activity: Pilot Testing Procedure
Example
Desired Viscosity
Weight or Density Control
Unit

## Lesson 1: Functions of Drilling Fluids

Lesson 1: Objectives
Functions of Drilling Fluids
Negative Functions of Drilling Mud
Physical Properties of Drilling Mud
Classification of Muds Based on Liquid
Phase
Pressurized Mud Balance
Marsh Funnel
Rotational Viscometer
Rotational-Viscometer Geometry
Assignment 5.1: Module 5 Self Study
Review
Assignment 5.1: Read Fundamentals of
Drilling Engineering pp. 87-98

## Lesson 3: Buoyancy and Hook Loads

Lesson 3: Objectives
Hook Loads
Buoyancy: Example of Archimedes Principle
Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation
Examples
Casing Loads
Safety Video 7 Handling Compressed Gas
Cylinders in the Laboratory

## Lesson 2: Drilling Fluid Properties

Lesson 2: Objectives

## Lesson 1: Functions of Drilling Fluids Learning Objectives

In this lesson we will:
Describe the essential functions a properly designed and maintained drilling fluid
performs during well construction
List the properties important to the function of removing cuttings of the drilling mud
Define how the control of oil, gas or water formation pressure is accomplished by a
hydrostatic pressure

## Define how gel helps reduce the power costs of cutting

Define how suspending solids is accomplished
Define how the deposit of cuttings in the mud pit or mud ditch is accomplished
List the negative functions of drilling mud
List the physical properties of drilling mud
List the classification of muds based on liquid phase

## Functions of Drilling Fluids

A properly designed and maintained drilling fluid performs essential functions
during well construction such as:
Transporting cuttings to the surface
Preventing well-control issues and wellbore stability
Minimizing formation damage
Cooling and lubricating the drillstring
Providing information about the formation

Remove Cuttings
Properties important to the function of removing cuttings of the drilling mud are:
Density = rho ()
Viscosity = mu ()
Annular Velocity = Va
Type of Flow, Size, Shape and Density of the Cuttings

## Suspension of the Cuttings and/or the Gelling Properties

Prevent Caving
This important property helps us by:
Controlling the hydrostatic head
Consolidating loose or clay type formations by surrounding the particles and holding
them in the fluid and gelled mud.
Controlling water intrusion prevents clays from swelling and sloughing into the hole,
mud cake and filtration properties.

Source: http://petroleumsupport.com/mechanical-sticking-mechanism-of-stuck-pipe/

## Controlling Oil, Gas and Water Formation Pressures

The control of oil gas or water formation pressure is accomplished by:
A hydrostatic pressure in this consideration we are worried about:
Loss circulation
Gas cut mud
The formations being drilled

Source: http://www.dcmudcleaningequipment.com/How-Does-Gas-Cut-Affect-MudDensity.html

## Cooling and Lubricating the Drillstring

Lubrication of the drill pipe, the hole wall, the casing and the mud pumps is
accomplished by:
The gel, due to clay content
Reducing the power cost to increase the drilling speed

Source:
https://www.rigzone.com/training/insight.asp?insight_id=291&c_id=24

Suspending Solids
Suspending of solids is accomplished by:
Gel strength thixotropic properties
The holding of cuttings when static
Returning to fluid state when circulation is restored

Source:
http://trenchlessonline.com/index/webapp-stories-action/id.2489/archive.yes/Issue.201304-01/title.gel-strengths-for-horizontal-vs.-vertical-drilling

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Deposit of Cuttings
The deposit of cuttings in the mud pit or mud ditch is accomplished by:
A careful balance between gel strength and viscosity
Considering velocities as an important factor
The use of the shale shaker and other separation devices at the surface

Source:
http://www.ptarmiganservices.com/news/bak
ken-solids-control-and-recycling/

Source:
http://indonesiabentonite.blogspot.com/2013/10/
bentonite-drilling-fluid.html

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## Negative Functions of Drilling Mud

Some of the negative functions - which we
dont want the drilling mud to do, are:
Deposit of thick mud cake (reduces the diameter
of hole; worsens swabbing and further caving)
Fluid loss, allowing a harmful amount of water
into the formation

Causes swelling;
Disintegration of the shales and clays;
And may reduce the permeability to
hydrocarbons (oil and gas).

Source:
http://servicepompa.blogspot.com/p/kendalakendala-teknis.html

Source:
http://inibumi.blogspot.com/2011/02/in
vasion-drilling-process.html

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## Physical Properties of Drilling Mud

Physical properties of drilling mud:
Density
Viscosity
Filtration properties such as water loss and mud cake
The yield point

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## Classification of Muds Based on Liquid Phase

Freshwater
Natural or Native
Nitrate
Phosphate
Organic colloidal
Alkaline (pH > 10)
Calcium
Lime
Gypsum

Saltwater
Saturated salt
Emulsion
Freshwater, oil in water emulsion
Saltwater, oil in water emulsion

Oil-based
Note: Muds are listed in order of expense from low to high

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## Pressurized Mud Balance

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Marsh Funnel

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Rotational Viscometer

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Viscometer, Rev/Min

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## Problem Solving Class Activity

In pairs, solve the following problem:
At 200 rev/min, what is the shear stress?

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Rotational-Viscometer Geometry

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Lesson 1 Wrap Up
What is still unclear?
What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we
move on?

Homework
Assignment 5.1: Module 5 Self Study Review
Assignment 5.1: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering pp. 87-98

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## Lesson 2: Drilling Fluid Properties Learning Objectives

In this lesson we will:
Calculate specific gravity
Calculate hydrostatic pressure
Demonstrate pilot testing procedures
Calculate weight or density control

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Specific Gravity
The ratio of the weight of a given volume of material to the weight of the same volume of
water (fresh),
or,

## Sp.Gr. of water = 1.0 = 1.0 gm/cm3

then,
If a fluid weight is 2.4 gm/cm3
Sp.Gr. = 2.4 gm/cm3 = 2.4
Density (); Mass per volume of a material in any units;
or,
= Mass.
Vol.
Common units used for drilling fluids,
gm/cm3 (or Sp.Gr.), lbm/gal, lbm/ft3, lbm/bbl
therefore,

= 1 gm/cm3
= 8.34 lbm/gal
= 62.4 lbm/ft3
= 350 lbm/bbl

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## Hydrostatic Pressure Calculation

Water
Force per unit area exerted by a vertical column of fluid,
or,
Common units, gmf/cm2, lbf/in2, or lbf/ft2.
Using a 1 foot container whose base is 1 ft2 (or 144 in2) and height is 1 ft filled
with water, the force exerted on the base will be 62.4 lbf,
therefore,
Pressure = P = Force/Area = 62.4 lbf = 62.4 lbf/ft2
1.0 ft2
or,
P = 62.4 lbf = 0.433 lbf/in2/ft = 0.433 psi/ft
144 in2
therefore,
Water = Sp.Gr. of 1.0 exerts a pressure of 0.433 psi/foot of vertical column.

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## Hydrostatic PressureOther Fluids

Other fluids;
Wt./ft3 = (62.4) (Sp.Gr.)
Then,
Pressure exerted = (62.4) (Sp.Gr.) lbf = lbf/in2/ft
144 in2
Or
lbf/in2/ft = (0.433) (Sp.Gr.)
Or

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## Class Activity: Hydrostatic Pressure Examples

Example #1:
What is the Sp.Gr. of a fluid whose density is 78 lbm/ft3?
Solution #1:
Sp.Gr. = 78 lbm/ft3
62.4 lbm/ft3

= 1.25

Example #2:
What is the density in lbm/gal of a fluid whose Sp.Gr. is 1.3?
Solution #2:
= (1.3) (8.34 lbm/gal) = 10.84 lbm/gal

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## Class Activity: Hydrostatic Pressure Examples (Cont.)

Example #3:
What is the density in lbm/bbl of a fluid whose density is 11.5 lb./gal 1.3?
Solution #3:
= (11.5 lbm/gal) (42 gal/bbl) = 483.0 lbm/bbl
Example #4:
What is the total weight of 10 bbl. of material whose Sp.Gr. is 4.3?
Solution #4:
Wt. = () (Vol.)
lbm = lbm (bbl) = (4.3) (350 lbm/bbl) (10 bbl) = 15,050 lbm.
bbl

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## Class Activity: Hydrostatic Pressure Examples (Cont.)

Example #5:
Calculate the density in all common units of a fluid if 3 ft3 of the fluid weighs 500 lbs.
Solution #5:
= 500 lbm = 166.7 lbm/ft3
3 ft3
= 166.7 lbm/ft3 = 22.3 lbm/gal
7.48 gal/ft3
= (166.7 lbm/ft3) (5.615 ft3/bbl) = 963.0 lbm/bbl
= (166.7 lbm) (454 gm/lbm) = 2.67 gm/cm3
(ft3) (28320 cm3/ft3)
or,
Sp.Gr. = 166.7 lbm/ft3
62.4 lbm/ft3

= 2.67

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## Class Activity: Hydrostatic Pressure Examples (Cont.)

Example # 6:
What pressure will a 9.4 lbm/gal mud exert at a depth of 3500 ft.?
Solution #6:
psi = (Sp.Gr.) (0.433) (height)
= ( 9.4 ) ( 0.433) (3500) = 1708 psi
8.34
(Note : Sp.Gr. = lbm/gal
8.34
and,
psi = (Sp.Gr.) (0.433) (h)
psi = lbm/gal (0.433) (h) = (lbm/gal) ( 0.433 ) (h)
8.34
8.34
psi = (lbm/gal) (0.052) (h)

Or,
psi = (9.4) (0.052) (3500) = 1711 psi
1 cubic foot contains 7.48 U.S. gallons; a fluid weighing 1 ppg would
weigh 7.48 pounds per cubic foot; The pressure exerted by one foot height of
fluid over the area of the base would be:7.48/144 in2=0.052 psi

Note:

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## Class Activity: Hydrostatic Pressure Examples (Cont.)

Example #7:
What density mud is required to exert a pressure of 3000 psi at a depth of 5000 ft.?
Solution:
=

psi

(0.052) (h)

3000

= 11.54 lbm/gal

(0.052) (5000)

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## Class Activity: Hydrostatic Pressure Examples (Cont.)

Example # 8:
Point A is at an elevation of 1200 ft. And Point B is 2 miles east at an elevation of
900 ft. A 2" pipe line is carrying water from A to B. What is the difference in
hydrostatic pressure?
Solution # 8:
psi = (Sp.Gr.) (0.433) (h), where h = vertical height
psi = (1.0) (0.433) (1200-900) = 130 psi.

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## Pilot Testing Procedures

Water weighs 1 gm per cm3 or 350 gms per 350 cm3 and 1 barrel of water
weighs 350 lbs, therefore adding 1 gm of material to a 350 gm sample is
equivalent to adding 1 lb of material to 350 lbs of the same sample,
Or,
1gm of material added to 350 cm3 of a sample is equivalent to adding 1 lb of
material to 1 bbl of the sample
Therefore, a lab barrel will be a 350 cm3 emulating a 350 lb actual barrel

Note: Often the density of a fluid is referred to as the weight of the fluid. Often the
industry and the public do not differentiate between mass and weight (weight is
actually mass X acceleration of gravity.)

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## Pilot Testing Procedures

Another way of looking at it:

Mass

Volume

## 350 pounds mass

Manipulations explain how many
pounds per barrel of additives needed
to change properties of the fluid
Experiments that are scaled down so
that adding X more pounds to existing
350 pounds is equivalent to adding X
more small units of mass to 350
existing small units of mass.
A small unit is a gram. Scale the
volume for the same proportion of
these units:1 gram is 1/454 of a pound

## Experiments that are scaled down so

that 1 blue barrel volume is equivalent
another volume for small units of
mass
New volume is 1/454 blue barrels,
accordingly:
158.9873 / 454 = 0.350 liters = 350
cubic centimeters

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## Pilot Testing Procedure (Cont.)

Pilot test procedure must be used to determine the amount of an additive
needed to obtain the desired results for viscosity, water loss, gel
strengths, etc.
.but it is not normally used to determine the amount of additive needed
to obtain the desired density.
The amount of additive to obtain the desired density can be calculated,
the amount of additive to control other mud properties cannot be
calculated.

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## Class Activity: Pilot Testing Procedure Example

Example # 9:
How many pounds of bentonite clay must be added to an original system whose
viscosity is 5 cP to raise the viscosity to 20 cP?
Solution # 9: Using a 350 cm3 sample of the original mud, the following
laboratory data were obtained:
Bentonite added, gms

Resulting viscosity, cP

12

18

16

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Plot gms of bentonite added to a 350 cm3 sample vs. Resulting viscosity in cP

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Desired Viscosity
The desired viscosity of 20 cP can be read from the curve as shown,
or,
12.5 gms of bentonite added to the original sample of 350 cm results in a
viscosity of 20 cP,
or,

30
25
20
15
10
5
0

10

15

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20

## Weight or Density Control

The following relationships are used to calculate mud weighting problems;

1. Mi + Ma = Mf
2. Vi + Va = Vf
and,

= M,
V

M = V

then,

3. i Vi + a Va = f Vf
where,
Mi = Initial mass
Ma = Added mass
Mf = Final mass

Vi = Initial volume
Va = Added volume
Vf = Final volume

i = Initial density
a = Added density
f = Final density

## (Note: The above relationships assume no chemical reactions)

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Unit
Any consistent units can be used in Equation 3, if the product of x V is the
same in each term,
or,
M = lbm
= Sp.Gr., lbm/gal, lbm/ft3 , or lbm/bbl
V = cm3, gal, ft3, or bbl

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## Class Activity: Unit Example # 10

What will be the resulting specific gravity if 0.1 bbl of clay is added to 10 bbl of
water?
Sp.G.rs; water = 1 and clay = 2.5

Solution #10:
Using Example 3) with = Sp.Gr. and V = bbl
Assume water = initial and clay = added
then,
Sp.Gr.i bbli + Sp.Gr.a bbla = Sp.Gr.f bblf
and,
i = 1.0
Vi = 10 bbl
a = 2.5
Va = 0.1 bbl
f = ?
Vf = (Vi + Va) = (10 + 0.1) = 10.1 bbl
then,
iVi
+ aVa
= fVf
(1.0) (10) + (2.5) (0.1) = f(10.1)
f = (10 + 0.25) = 1.01 Sp.Gr.
(10.1)

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## Class Activity: Unit Example # 11

What will be the resulting density in lbm/gal if 87.5 lbs of clay is added to 10 bbl of
water? Sp.Gr.s; water = 1.0 and clay = 2.5
Solution #11:
(Using Example 3) with = lbm/gal and V = bbl
Assume water = initial and clay = added
then,
lbm/gali Vi + lbm/gala Va = lbm/galf Vf
and,

## i = (Sp.Gr.) (8.34) = (1.0) (8.34) = 8.34 lbm/gal

a = (Sp.Gr.) (8.34) = (2.5) (8.34) = 20.85 lbm/gal
f = ?
Vi = 10 bbl
Va = Ma/a =
Ma
=
87.5 lbm
____ = 0.1bbl
(Sp.Gr.) (350 lbm/bbl) 2.5 (350 lbm/gal)
Vf = (Vi + Va) = (10 +0.1) = 10.1 bbl

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## Class Activity: Unit Example # 11 (Cont.)

Solution #11, continued:
then,
iVi

aVa

fVf

## (8.34) (10) + (20.85) (0.1) = f (10.1)

f = (83.4 + 2.085) = 8.46 lbm/gal
(10.1)
Note: Compare to Example #10, 8.46 = 1.01 Sp.Gr.
8.34

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## Class Activity: Unit Example # 12

How many lbs. of clay must be added to 6000 gals. of water to produce a final
density of 65 lbm/ft3? Sp.Gr.s; water = 1.0 and clay = 2.65

Solution #12:
Using Equation 3 where = lbm/ft3 and V = gals
Assume water = initial and clay = added
and,

i = 62.4 lbm/ft3
a = (Sp.Gr.) (62.4) = (2.65) (62.4) = 165.4 lbm/ft3
f = 65 lbm/ft3

Vi = 6000 gal
Va = Ma/a = ?
Vf = (Vi + Va) = (6000 + Va)
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then,
iVi

aVa

fVf

## (62.4) (6000) + (165.4) (Va) = (65) (6000+ Va)

(165.4 - 65) (Va) = (65 - 62.4) (6000)
Va = 155.4 gal
then,
Ma = aVa = (Sp.Gr.) (8.34) (155.4 gal) = (2.65) (8.34) (155.4)
Ma = 3,435 lbs.

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## Class Activity: Unit Example # 13

How many bbls of water must be added to an existing system of 400 bbls of
11.5 lbm/gal mud to reduce the density to 10.5 lbm/gal?

Solution #13:
Using Equation 3) where = lbm/gal and V = bbl
Assume 11.5 lbm/gal mud = initial and water = added
then,
i = 11.5 lbm/gal
a = 8.34 lbm/gal
f = 10.5 lbm/gal

Vi = 400 bbl
Va = ?
Vf = (Vi + Va) = (400 + Va)
46

then,
iVi

+ aVa

= f (Vi + Va)

## (11.5) (400) + (8.34) (Va) = (10.5) (400 + Va)

(8.34 - 10.5) (Va) = (10.5 - 11.5) (400)

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## Class Activity: Unit Example # 14

How many lbs. of barite must be added to a 300 bbl, 9.2 lbm/gal system to
control a formation pressure of 2550 psi at a depth of 5000 ft.?

Solution # 14:
Assume 9.2 lbm/gal = initial and barite = added
and,
i = 9.2 lbm/gal
a = (Sp.Gr.) (8.34) = (4.2) (8.34) = 35 lbm/gal
f =

Psi
(0.052) (h)

2550
(0.052) (5000)

Vi = 300 bbl
Va = Ma/ a = ?
Vf = (Vi + Va) = (300 + Va)
48

= 9.81 lbm/gal

then,
iVi + aVa = fVf

## (9.2) (300) + (35) (Va) = (9.81) (300 + Va)

(35 - 9.81) Va = (9.81 - 9.2) (300)
Va = 7.26 bbl
and,
Ma = aVa = (Sp.Gr.) (350) (Va) = (4.2) (350) (7.26) = 10,672 lbs.

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## Class Activity: Unit Example # 15

How many bbls of water and lbs of clay are needed to make 250 bbls of 9.5
lbm/gal mud? Sp.Gr.s; water = 1.0 and clay = 2.4.

Solution # 15:
Assume water = initial and clay = added
and,

i = 8.34 lbm/gal
a = (2.4) (8.34) = 20 lbm/gal
f = 9.5 lbm/gal

Vi = ?
Va = (Vf - Vi) = (250 -Vi)
Vf = 250 bbl

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## Solution #15, continued:

then,
iVi + aVa = fVf
(8.34) (Vi) + (20) (250 - Vi) = (9.5) (250)
(8.34 - 20) Vi = (9.5 - 20) (250)

## Vi = 225 bbls (water)

Va = (250 - Vi) = (250 - 225) = 25 bbls
Ma = aVa = (2.4) (350) (25) = 21,000 lbs (clay)

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## Class Activity: Unit Example # 16

Drilling at 4400 ft. with 9.15 lbm/gal mud. A pressure of 3000 psi is expected at
a depth of 5600 ft. Calculate the required mud treatment.

Solution # 16:
Use barite, Sp.Gr. = 4.3, as weighting material
Calculate treatment in bbl barite added per 1 bbl of initial system
Assume 9.15 lbm/gal mud = initial and barite = added
and,
i = 9.15 lbm/gal
a = (4.3) (8.34) = 35.86 lbm/gal
f =
3000
= 10.32 lbm/gal
(0.0519) (5600)
Vi = 1bbl
Va = ?
Vf = (Vi + Va) = (1 + Va)
52

then,
iVi + aVa = fVf

## (9.15) (1) + (35.86)Va = (10.32) (1+ Va)

(35.86 - 10.32) Va = (10.32 - 9.15) (1)
Va = 0.046 bbl
Ma = aVa = (4.3) (350) (0.046) = 69.23 lb/bbl
Note: When additives are added to increase or decrease mud density,
other mud properties must be checked to insure they are within operating
limits.

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Lesson 2 Wrap Up
What is still unclear?
What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we
move on?
Homework
Assignment 5.1: Module 5 Self Study Review
Assignment 5.2: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering pp. 98 - 119

54

55

## In this lesson we will:

List three methods of calculating hook load
Describe buoyancy as an example of the Archimedes Principle
Define basic hook loads

56

Hook Loads

## Three methods of calculating hook load

Displacement
Buoyancy Factor
Hydrostatic Pressure

57

## The basic hook loads which must be known are:

Weight of casing string, dead weight or suspended in fluid
Weight of drill string, dead weight or suspended in fluid
Weight of drill string less weight on the bit
Weight with pipe or tools stuck in the hole
Hole friction, pipe or tools in contact with the hole
Weight with applied pump pressures

58

## The net force of the fluid

on the cylinder is the
buoyant force FB

## Fup > Fdown because the pressure is

greater at the bottom. Hence the
fluid exerts a net upward force.

59

Archimedes Principle
Archimedes Principle
The buoyant force is equal
to the weight of the
displaced water

60

Buoyancy Factor
Mud Density, ppg

## Buoyancy Factor (BF) = (65.5 mud

density, ppg) 65.5

## Buoyancy Factor (BF) = (490 mud

density, lb/ft3) 490

Example:
Determine the buoyancy factor for a
13.0 ppg fluid:

Example:
Determine the buoyancy factor for a
97.24 lb/ft3 fluid

BF = 0.8015

BF = 0.8015

61

## How to Use the Buoyancy Factor

Buoyed Weight:
The air weight of drilling string x the buoyancy factor
= to actual weight in mud
For example, determine the string weight in 13.0 ppg mud. Air weight of
string is 350000 lbf.
The buoyancy factor for a 13.0 ppg fluid:
BF = (65.5 13.0) 65.5
BF = 0.8015
The buoyed weight of drill string in 13.0 ppg mud = 350 x 0.8015 =
280000 lbf.

62

## The Buoyant Force

The buoyant force can be expressed as:
a.

fluid

b.

## b. The buoyant force will be equal to the force of the hydrostatic

pressure acting over the exposed area at the bottom of the pipe

c.

## c. The buoyant force will be equal to the fraction of the dead

weight lost when suspended in a fluid as determined using the
Buoyancy Factor.

63

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation: Example # 1

Example #1:
Calculate the effective weight of 1000 ft. of 96.21 lb/ft, 6 in.
diameter solid steel rod suspended in water.
Solution:
Using (a) weight of displaced fluid:
Dead weight = (1000) (96.21) = 96210 lbf
Volume of displaced fluid = 0.7854 (6)2 (1000) = 196.35 ft3
144
Weight of displaced fluid = (196.3) (62.4) = 12.252 lbf
Effective weight = 96210 - 12252 = 83958 lbf.

64

## Using (b) - hydrostatic pressure;

Dead weight = (1000) (96.21) = 96210 lbf
Hydrostatic pressure = (62.4/144) (1000) = 433.3 psi
Area of exposed bottom = (0.7854) (6)2= 28.27 in2
Buoyant force = (433.3) (28.27) = 12249
Effective weight = 96210 - 12249 = 83961 lbf

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## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation: Example # 1 (Cont.)

Using (c) - Buoyancy factor:
Defined as the fraction of the dead weight that an object will weigh when
suspended in a fluid, or,
BF = m/ft3 in air - m/ft3 of fluid
m/ft3
BF = 490 lb/ft3 - 62.4 lb/ft3 = 0.8727
490 lb/ft3
Dead weight = (1000) (96.21) = 96210 lbf
then,
Effective weight = (Dead weight) (BF) = 96210 * 0.8727 = 83960 lbf

66

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation: Example # 2

What is the buoyancy factor for oil field steel when suspended
in (a) water and (b) 10 lb/gal mud?
Solution:
(a) Density of oil field steel = 490 lb/ft3
Density of water = 8.34 lb/gal = 62.4 lb/ft3
BF = 490 lb/ft3 - 62.4 lb/ft3 = 0.8727
490 lb/ft3
(b) BF = 490 lb/ft3 - (10 lb/gal) (7.48 gal/ft3) = 0.8473
490 lb/ft3

67

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation Example # 3

Calculate the weight indicator reading when 5000 ft. of 5 1/2 in. O.D.,
4.67 in. I.D. , 22.56 lb./ft/ (neglecting tool joints) drill pipe is suspended
open ended in a hole filled with 12 lb./gal. mud.
Solution 1:
> Using weight (wt.) = (5000) (22.56) = 112800 lbf.
Volume (Vol.) of displaced (displ.) fluid = 0.7854 (5.52 - 4.672) (5000) =
144
= 230.2 ft3
Wt. of displ. fluid = (230.2 ft3) (12 lb/gal) (7.48 gal/ft3) = 20663 lbf
W.I. = 112800 - 20663 = 92137 lbf

68

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation Example # 3

Calculate the weight indicator reading when 5000 ft. of 5 1/2 in. O.D., 4.67
in. I.D. , 22.56 lb./ft/ (neglecting tool joints) drill pipe is suspended open
ended in a hole filled with 12 lb./gal. mud.
Solution 2:
> Using hyd. pressure;
Dead wt. = 112800 lbf
Ph = (0.052) (12*5000) = 3120 psi
Exposed area = (3120) (6.63) = 20684 lbf -- =0.7854*(5.52 - 4.672)=
= 6.63 in2
Buoyant force =pressure*area= (3120) (6.63) = 20684 lbf
W.I. = 112800 - 20684 = 92116 lbf.

69

## > Using B.F.

Dead wt. = 112800 lbf
B.F. = 490 - (12) (7.48) = 0.8168
490
W.I. = (0.8168) (112800) = 92135 lbf
Note: (7.48) is gallons per cubic foot

70

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation: Example # 3 (Cont.)

Displacement Volume:
Since there are coupling on tubing, tool joints on drill pipe,
collars on casing, etc., the volume and weight of these
couplings must be considered. Oil field tubular goods are
described by the outside diameter, OD, in inches and
fractions of an inch and by the weight per foot, lb/ft.
(Note: This is not always true when describing oil well
tubing. Tubing is usually described as a nominal diameter
which is neither the inside or outside diameter of the tubing.
When given the nominal diameter of tubing, it is necessary
to refer to a handbook to determine the OD, ID, and lb/ft.)

71

## For the same outside diameter, an increase in the weight per

foot will decrease the inside diameter. The weight per foot
also includes the weight of the couplings as a distributed
weight.
Consider 4 ", 16.6 lb/ft, grade D drill pipe;
Wall thickness = 0.337" and ID = 3.826" (pipe body)
(Note: ID = OD -2 x wall thickness and that ID's are
expressed as inches and decimals of an inch)
The weight of this pipe is 16.6 lb/ft which is a distributed
weight including tool joints. Using 4 " OD, 3.826" ID, and
density of steel = 490 lbm/ft3, the weight per foot of the pipe
body is:
0.7854 (4.52 - 3.8262)(1)(490) = 15 lb/ft
144
72

## Therefore, to calculate the volume displaced by this pipe, the

weight per foot including connections must be used, or,
Displ. volume = weight per foot (length)
density
= lbm/ft (ft) = ft3
lbm/ft3
then, 16.6(1) = 0.0339 ft/ft displacement
490
This displacement volume must be used to calculate the
buoyant force when using the wt. of displaced fluid method.

73

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation: Example # 4

Calculate the W.I. reading when 3750' of 2" nominal tubing is suspended in a hole
filled with salt water (Sp.Gr. = 1.15).
Solution:
2" nom. tubing; OD = 2.375"
(H-40)

ID = 1.1995"

## lb/ft = 4.70 lb/ft

Dead wt. = (3750)(4.70) = 17625 lbf (includes couplings)
Displ. volume = 4.70((3750) = 35.97 ft3
490
Wt. of displ. fluid = (35.97) (1.15)(62.4) = 2581 lbf
W.I. = 17625 - 2581 = 15044 lbf
or, Dead wt. = 17625 lbf
B.F. = 490 - (1.15)(62.4) = .08536
490
W.I. = (0.8536)(17625) = 15045 lbf

74

Note: The
single quote
( ) means
foot and
double
quote ( )
means
inches.

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation: Example # 5

A drill string consists of 9,000' if 24.7 lb/ft drill pipe and 450' of
7", 109.68 lb/ft drill collars. Hole fluid = 10.5 lb/gal mud.
Calculate the weight indicator reading when reaching bottom
(hole and pipe full of mud).
Solution:
Dead wt. = (9000)(24.7) + (450)(109.68) = 271656 lbf
B.F. = 490 - (10.5)(7.48) = 0.8397
490
W.I. = (0.8397)(271656) = 228113 lbf

75

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation: Example # 5 (Cont.)

Bit Weight:
Optimum drilling conditions for a particular type formation are a
combination of penetration rate (feet drilled per time), weight on the bit
(lb.), rotation speed (RPM), bit wear (teeth or bearings), and efficient
removal of the cuttings (mud properties and circulation rate). The proper
combinations are based on manufacturer's recommendations,
experimental data, rules of thumb, and experience. Generally, hard
formations require high bit weights and low rotation speeds while soft
formations require low bit weights and high rotation speeds.
The weight on the bit should be applied by the drill collars.
(Note: Drill pipe should not used to put weight on the bit since torsional
properties of the drill pipe are greatly reduced when placed in
compression).
A general rule for determining the number of drill collars to be used is
that approximately 2/3 of the total length of collars should be used to put
weight on the bit.

76

## How many feet of 6 3/4", 108.0 lb/ft drill collars would be

needed to put 20000 lb. weight on the bit when drilling in 9.6
lb/gal mud?
Solution:
Effective wt./ft of drill collars suspended in mud;
B.F. = 490 - (9.6)(7.48) = 0.8535
490
Eff. wt./ft = (0.8535)(108.0) = 92.2 lb/ft
No. of feet = 20000 lbf
92.2 lb/ft

= 217'

77

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation: Example # 7

If there were 330' of drill collars and 8500' if 4 1/2", 20 lb/ft drill
pipe in Example # 6, what would be the weight indicator
reading while drilling?
Solution:
Total effective wt. of string = (B.F.)(dead wt.) =
(0.8535){(8500)(20) + (330)(108.0)} = 175514 lbf
W.I. = 175514 - 20000 = 155514 lbf

78

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation: Example # 8

Approximately how many drill collars (total) would be needed in Example
# 7? (1 drill collar = 30').
Solution:
217' needed for 20000 lbf bit weight
By general rule, this is 2/3 of total length
Total length = (217) /(2/3) = 325.5'
No. drill collars = 325.5/30 = 10.85, or use 11 drill collars (330')
Since the effective wt./ft. of drill pipe and drill collars is constant with a
constant mud density regardless of drilling depth, the change in total
effective weight (Weight indicator) will be due to additional drill pipe added
as depth increases.
In Example # 6, 217' of drill collars will be needed to put 20000 lbf on the
bit at any depth.

79

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation: Example # 9

What will be the increase in weight indicator reading when increasing drilling depth
to 9730' from Example # 8?
Solution:
Total effective wt. at (8500 +330) = 155514 lbf
Eff. wt./ft of drill pipe = (B.F.)(wt./ft.) = (0.8535)(20) = 17.07 lb/ft

## W.I. increase = increase in total eff. wt. =

(17.07)(9730 - 8830) = 15514 lbf
or,
W.I. = 155514 + 15,363 = 170887 lbf
(Note: W.I. reading increases 17.07 lbf for each foot of drill pipe added so long as
20000 lbf is on the bit.)

80

Casing Loads
Usually, the greatest load in the hoisting system will be casing loads (possible
exception is stuck pipe).
The weight per foot of casing is higher than most other strings.
Casing allows small clearances between the outside diameter of the casing and
the hole, therefore, additional loads due to friction may be added when the
casing is hoisted.
Frictional loads must be estimated and are usually between 10-25% of the total
effective weight (depending on hole condition).

81

## Casing Load: Example # 10

Calculate the weight indicator reading when hoisting 6,000' of 9 5/8", 43.5 lb/ft
casing if the estimated frictional load is 15%. Hole and pipe are filled with 10 lb./gal
mud.

Solution:
Dead wt. = (6000)(43.5) = 261000 lbf
Eff. wt. = (B.F.) (Dead wt.+)
= (490 - (10)(7.48))(261000) = (0.8473)(261000) = 221145 lbf
490
Total Eff. wt. = Pipe eff. wt. + friction load
= Pipe eff. wt. + (0.15)(Pipe eff. wt.)
W.I. = 1.15(Pipe eff. wt.) = 1.15(221145) = 254317 lbf

82

## Casing Load Example # 10 (Cont.)

Sometimes it is a practice to run casing in the hole empty (float valve closed) and
then fill the pipe with fluid after the casing is landed and before cementing. This
reduces the load on the hoisting system considerably while running in the hole.
The total effective weight of the string decreases due to the buoyant force being
increased. The string will displace a volume of fluid equal to the total volume of
the outside of the casing will be the volume of the casing collars, therefore, the
volume of displaced fluid will be,
Volume displaced by the total metal in the pipe (I.D. is flush or constant) or,
Volume displaced by the total metal in the pipe = Wt./ft(length) = ft3

490
Volume of the I.D. of the pipe = (.7854)(I.D.)2 = ft3
(144)

83

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation: Example # 11

Calculate the weight indicator reading when reaching landing depth of 8200' using 7",
29 lb/ft, (I.D. = 6.184") if the pipe is run empty. Hole fluid is 9.5 lb/gal mud.

Solution:
W.I. = Dead weight - buoyant force
Dead wt. = (8200)(29) = 237800 lbf
Volume of displ. fluid = {lb/ft + (.7854)(I.D.)2}( length)
490
144
= {29 + (.7854)(I.D.)2}} (8200)
490
144
= (0.268)(8200) = 2196 ft3

84

## Wt. of displ. fluid = (2196) (9.5)(7.48) = 156048 lbf

W.I. = 237800 - 156048 = 81752 lbf or,
Since additional volume occupied by the casing collars is small, using the O.D. of
the casing shows very small error , therefore, the casing O.D. is usually used to
calculate the displacement volume of casing.

85

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation: Example # 12

Calculate the W.I. reading in Example # 11 using the casing O.D. to determine the
displacement volume.

Solution:
Dead wt. = 237800 lbf
Volume of fluid displaced = (.7854)(7)2(8200) = 2191 ft3
144
Wt. of displ. fluid = (2191)(9.5)(7.48) = 155692 lbf
W.I. = 237800 - 155692 = 82108 lbf
(Note: Compare to Example #11)

86

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation Example # 13

Calculate the W.I. reading for Example #13 after the pipe is filled with mud.
Solution:
Dead wt. = 237800 lbf
W.I. = Eff. wt. = (B.F.)(dead wt.)
= {490 - (9.5)(7.48)} (237800) = (.08550) (237800) = 203319 lbf

490
(Note: Compare to Example #12)

87

Hook Loads
Often it is necessary to restring the hoisting system from that used during normal
drilling operations to that of a casing block system.
The casing block system uses more cables thru the traveling block to increase
the mechanical advantage, therefore, decreasing the load per line.

Note: Increasing the number of lines and sheave wheels increases friction
losses, but the decrease in load per line is greatly reduced.

88

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation: Example # 14

In Section-2, the hoisting system is 6 lines thru the traveling block. Using this
system, calculate the load in the fast line for Example #11. Assume 2% friction per
working line (average) and a 1 1/4" cable.

Solution:
FLL = HL
(No. of supporting lines)(ef)
HL = 254317 lbf
No. of supporting lines = 6
ef = 1 - (.02)(6) = 0.88
FLL = 254317
= 48166 lbf
(6)(0.88)
The recommended maximum load for a 1 1/4" cable is approximately
40000 lbf, therefore, the load imposed by the casing is in excess of the
recommended load.
89

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation: Example # 15

The system can be restrung to use 8 lines through the traveling block. Assuming
the same friction losses, calculate the load in the fast line.

Solution:
FLL = HL
No. of supporting lines (ef)
HL = 254317
No. of supporting lines = 8
ef = 1 - (0.2)(8) = 0.84
FLL = 254317 = 38291 lbf
(8)(0.84)
With this system, the fast line load is less than the maximum recommended
load.
90

## Hook LoadsStuck Pipe

When pipe is stuck in the hole, the depth at which it is stuck must be determined
before any recovery procedure can be used. The depth at which the string is
stuck, or Free Point, can be determined by measuring the stretch constants for
various sizes and weights of strings are given in handbooks.
Note: Stretch constants for 4 1/2", 16.6 lb/ft Grade D drill pipe is 9.722x10-8
in/ft/lb and for 7", 35 lb/ft, J-55 casing it is 4.545x10-8 in/ft/lb. Each foot of free
pipe will stretch this amount for each pound of tension.

91

## Hook Load and Buoyancy Calculation: Example # 16

Calculate the depth ( Free Point) at which 7000' (total) of 7", 35 lb/ft, J-55 casing is
stuck is at a stretch of 11.28" is measured under a tension of 48,000 lb above the
total effective weight of the string.
Solution:
Stretch constant = 4.545x10-8 in/ft.lb
Feet of free pipe =

11.28 in

= 5171 ft.

92

## Safety Video 7: Handling Compressed Gas Cylinders in the

Laboratory Learning Objectives
For this video, there are several important objectives:
Describe the various methods that are used to compress gases

List the hazards associated with compressed gases and compressed gas
cylinders
Demonstrate proper storage of compressed gas cylinders
Define the safe handling techniques that should be used when working
with compressed gas cylinders

Determine what types of fittings and connections are used for most
cylinders
Test for leaks within a compressed gas system

939

## Safety Video 7: Handling Compressed Gas Cylinders in the

Laboratory
The video covers the following topics:
Four major ways to compress gases

## Hazards of compressed gases

Proper storage procedures
Markings and labels
Handling cylinders safely
Connections and fittings
Leak detection

949

## Safety Video 7: Handling Compressed Gas Cylinders in the

Laboratory
Students, please watch Safety Video 7 Handling Compressed Gas Cylinders in the
Laboratory. Complete the assignment as homework. Safety video questions will also
be on the Module quizzes.
To open the video, hold the control key down and click the link embedded in the
assignment.
http://enterprise.coe.ttu.edu/LabSafety/Handling Compressed Gas Cylinders.wmv

95

## Safety Video 7: In Class Recap

1. The proper way to move a compressed gas cylinder is by using a hand

## truck, preferably a four-wheeled one?

a. True
b. False
2. Which of the following are ways to store pressurized gases?
a. Standard compression

b. As a liquid
c. Dissolved in a solvent

d. All
Allofofthe
theabove
above
d.
3. Pressure Relief Devices (PRDs) control the speed at which gas
comes out of the cylinder?
a. True
b. False
b. False

969

4.

## The purpose of a regulator is to decrease the delivery pressure of compressed gases to a

usable and safe level?
a. True
b. False

5. A good way to tell what type of gas in a cylinder is by the color the cylinder is
painted?
a. True
b. False
6. Cylinders that contain corrosive gases should not be stored for more than how
many months?
a. 3 months
b. 6
6 months
months
b.
c. 9 months
d. 12 months

979

## Safety Video 7: In Class Recap

7. Cylinders containing flammable gases and cylinders
containing oxidizers can be safely stored together?
a. True
b. False

989

Lesson 3 Wrap Up
What is still unclear?
What questions do you have about the topics we have discussed before we
move on?

Homework
Assignment 5.1: Module 5 Self Study Review
Assignment 5.3: Safety Video 7 Handling Compressed Gas Cylinders in the
Laboratory
Assignment 5.3: Read Fundamentals of Drilling Engineering pp. 119 - 133

99

Credits

Developer
Lloyd R. Heinze, Ph.D., Petroleum Engineering/Texas Tech University

Contributors:
Rui V. Sitoe, Ph.D., Department of Mechanical Engineering, UEM

100